WorldWideScience

Sample records for insulating thin films

  1. Bulk saturable absorption in topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Radha Krishna; Ambast, Deepak K. S.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Pal, Bipul; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-07-01

    We present nonlinear optical absorption properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films of topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 on a quartz substrate, using an open aperture z-scan technique. We observed saturable absorption with a low saturation intensity in as deposited thin films. Past results from the literature are inconclusive in establishing whether the saturable absorption in TI is coming from surface states or the bulk. Specifically designed experiments with magnetically doped TI samples allow us to attribute the saturable absorption characteristic of TI to the bulk states. Detailed experimental procedures and possible explanation of observed results have been discussed.

  2. Quantum transport in magnetic topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Zhao, An; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2013-10-04

    The experimental observation of the long-sought quantum anomalous Hall effect was recently reported in magnetically doped topological insulator thin films [Chang et al., Science 340, 167 (2013)]. An intriguing observation is a rapid decrease from the quantized plateau in the Hall conductance, accompanied by a peak in the longitudinal conductance as a function of the gate voltage. Here, we present a quantum transport theory with an effective model for magnetic topological insulator thin films. The good agreement between theory and experiment reveals that the measured transport originates from a topologically nontrivial conduction band which, near its band edge, has concentrated Berry curvature and a local maximum in group velocity. The indispensable roles of the broken structure inversion and particle-hole symmetries are also revealed. The results are instructive for future experiments and transport studies based on first-principles calculations.

  3. Characterizing the structure of topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardella, Anthony; Kandala, Abhinav; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We describe the characterization of structural defects that occur during molecular beam epitaxy of topological insulator thin films on commonly used substrates. Twinned domains are ubiquitous but can be reduced by growth on smooth InP (111)A substrates, depending on details of the oxide desorption. Even with a low density of twins, the lattice mismatch between (Bi, Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InP can cause tilts in the film with respect to the substrate. We also briefly discuss transport in simultaneously top and back electrically gated devices using SrTiO{sub 3} and the use of capping layers to protect topological insulator films from oxidation and exposure.

  4. Characterizing the structure of topological insulator thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richardella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of structural defects that occur during molecular beam epitaxy of topological insulator thin films on commonly used substrates. Twinned domains are ubiquitous but can be reduced by growth on smooth InP (111A substrates, depending on details of the oxide desorption. Even with a low density of twins, the lattice mismatch between (Bi, Sb2Te3 and InP can cause tilts in the film with respect to the substrate. We also briefly discuss transport in simultaneously top and back electrically gated devices using SrTiO3 and the use of capping layers to protect topological insulator films from oxidation and exposure.

  5. Superconductivity of very thin films: The superconductor–insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Nelson, J.; Goldman, A.M., E-mail: goldman@physics.umn.edu

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • This manuscript reviews work on the superconductor–insulator transitions of investigated in metallic film, cuprates and metallic interfaces. • Superconductor–insulator transitions are examples of quantum phase transitions. • The systems discussed serve as model systems for behaviors found in more complex systems of contemporary interest. • The concept of a quantum phase transition is an important paradigm in condensed matter physics. • The review also includes discussions of open issues. - Abstract: The study of thin superconducting films has been an important component of the science of superconductivity for more than six decades. It played a major role in the development of currently accepted views of the macroscopic and microscopic nature of the superconducting state. In recent years the focus of research in the field has shifted to the study of ultrathin films and surface and interface layers. This has permitted the exploration of one of the important topics of condensed matter physics, the superconductor–insulator transition. This review will discuss this phenomenon as realized in the study of metallic films, cuprates, and metallic interfaces. These are in effect model systems for behaviors that may be found in more complex systems of contemporary interest.

  6. Terahertz transport dynamics in the metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y. Y.; Su, F. H.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, L.; Pan, S. S.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, H.; Dai, J. M.; Li, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of thermally-induced metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film on Si substrate grown by reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that the THz absorption and optical conductivity of the thin films are temperature-dependent, and the THz amplitude modulation can reach as high as 74.7%. The complex THz optical conductivity in the metallic state of the V2O3 thin films can be well-fitted by the Drude-Smith model, which offer the insight into the electron transport dynamic during the metal-insulator transition of the thin film.

  7. Photoexcitation dynamics in thin films of insulated molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M. H.; Frampton, M. J.; Anderson, H. L.; Herz, L. M.

    2006-12-01

    A study is presented on how encapsulation of conjugated polymer chains affects the motion of photoexcitations and the formation of interchain aggregates in solid films. It is shown that threading of a poly(diphenylene vinylene) backbone inside insulating cyclodextrins (rotaxination) and/or complexation of the chains with poly(ethylene oxide) are effective means of preventing the diffusion of excitons to nonradiative defect sites. Ultrafast time-resolved photoluminescence data reveal that excitation transfer between encapsulated chains is still possible and, for the case of rotaxination, is likely to be facilitated through close packing of end groups belonging to adjacent chains.

  8. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E. P.; Sharma, Neha; Harimohan, V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality thin films of the insulating ferromagnet EuS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qi I., E-mail: qiyang@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zhao, Jinfeng; Risbud, Subhash H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fried, Alexander D. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Marshall, Ann F. [Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, Aharon [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    High-quality thin films of the ferromagnetic insulator europium(II) sulfide (EuS) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and Si (100) substrates. A single orientation was obtained with the [100] planes parallel to the substrates, with atomic-scale smoothness indicates a near-ideal surface topography. The films exhibit uniform ferromagnetism below 15.9 K, with a substantial component of the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the films. Optimization of the growth condition also yielded truly insulating films with immeasurably large resistance. This combination of magnetic and electric properties opens the gate for future devices that require a true ferromagnetic insulator.

  10. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Weidong, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Lijun; Ozaki, Toshinori; Gu, Genda; Li, Qiang, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF{sub 2} crystalline substrates, respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  11. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  12. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  13. Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2015-08-25

    The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.

  14. Metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO3 thin film: A structural, electrical and optical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tao; Qi, Zeming; Wang, Yuyin; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mei; Hu, Chuansheng

    2017-03-01

    NdNiO3 thin film has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 (001) single crystalline substrate. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurement shows a sharp metal-insulator transition in such thin film. The phase transition temperature can be tuned from 90 K to 121 K by changing the thickness of thin film. The structure evolution during phase transition is studied by Raman spectroscopy. Optical conductivity reveals that the variation carrier density in the process of phase transition. The results of structural, electrical and optical studies provide useful insights to understand the mechanism of metal-insulator transition of NdNiO3 thin film.

  15. Investigation of the magnetic properties of insulating thin films using the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehlberger, A., E-mail: kehlberg@uni-mainz.de; Jakob, G.; Kläui, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Onbasli, M. C.; Kim, D. H.; Ross, C. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is used as a detector for the magnetic properties and switching characteristics of magnetic thin insulating films. We use a 300 nm and a 20 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG, Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and afterwards coated by platinum for the detection of the thermally excited magnons by the inverse spin Hall effect. The inverse spin Hall signals reveal a magnetic uniaxial anisotropy along the direction of the platinum stripe in the thicker film. For the thin film we find a more isotropic behavior, which is complementarily observed using the magnetoresistance occurring at the platinum/YIG interface. We explain our results on the basis of x-ray diffraction data, which reveal a miscut of the substrate and film surface and an expansion of the YIG lattice. Both findings favor a growth-induced magnetic anisotropy that we observe.

  16. Magnetotransport Methods to Probe Surface States of Topological Insulator Thin Films and Topological Insulator/Ferromagnet (TI/FM) Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj

    confirmed by the cos(theta) dependence of field titled MR measurements on the Bi2Se3 thin films. No switching in the AMR or hysteresis behavior in the MR was observed in control experiments performed on non TI materials with superconducting electrodes and metal electrodes on Bi2Se3 TI films. The growth and characterization of Bi2Se3/Bi 2Se3/La0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM), a topological insulator/ferromagnet heterostructure is discussed in the last part of the thesis. We have grown Bi2Se3/Bi2Se 3/La0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM) heterostructures by the method of pulsed laser deposition. Bi2Se3/La 0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (LSMO) is a strong ferromagnetic material with Tc ˜ 350 K and Bi2Se3 is the most studied topological insulator. XRD and phi scan measurements of Bi2Se3/La 0.70Sr0.30MnO3 (TI/FM) heterostructure showed that epitaxial thin films of Bi2Se3 were grown on the LSMO template. Strong in-plane magnetization was confirmed by magnetometry measurements of the Bi2Se3/LSMO heterostructure. Magnetotransport measurements showed a distorted weak anti-localization effect with hysteretic behavior due to interface induced ferromagnetism in the Bi2Se 3 TI films.

  17. Simulation of Proton Beam Effects in Thin Insulating Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinko Timotijevic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of exposing several insulators, commonly used for various purposes in integrated circuits, to beams of protons have been investigated. Materials considered include silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, aluminium nitride, alumina, and polycarbonate (Lexan. The passage of proton beams through ultrathin layers of these materials has been modeled by Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport. Parameters that have been varied in simulations include proton energy and insulating layer thickness. Materials are compared according to both ionizing and nonionizing effects produced by the passage of protons.

  18. Deposition and characterization of amorphous aluminum nitride thin films for a gate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H.; Akiyama, R. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Kanazawa, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Kuroda, S., E-mail: kuroda@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba,1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Harayama, I. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Nagashima, K. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Sekiba, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8573 (Japan); Tandem Accelerator Complex, Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8577 (Japan); Ashizawa, Y.; Tsukamoto, A.; Nakagawa, K. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, 274-8501 (Japan); Ota, N. [Tsukuba Nano-Tech Human Resource Development Program, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN) fabricated by reactive deposition were characterized in order to examine the electrical insulation properties suitable for a gate insulator. For a series of AlN films deposited with a variation of the amount of Al flux at a fixed N flux, compositional and chemical analyses were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Combined with the result of current-voltage (I-V) measurement, it is found that the insulation properties are correlated with the compositional ratio between Al and N estimated by the ERDA measurement; a good electrical insulation with a minimal leak current of the order of 10{sup -9} A/cm{sup 2} at a high electric field 1 MV/cm is achieved in the film of nearly stoichiometric compositional ratio of Al/N, in which the dominance of the Al-N bonding state is confirmed in the XPS measurement. On the other hand, the incorporation of oxygen, probably caused by the surface oxidization due to the exposure to the air, has little effect on the electrical properties. - Highlights: • AlN thin films deposited by reactive deposition were characterized for gate insulator. • A good electrical insulation was achieved at nearly stoichiometric composition. • The effects of oxygen incorporation and Al-N bonding state were also investigated. • A minimum leak current density as low as 10{sup -9}A/cm{sup 2} at 1MV/cm was achieved.

  19. Organic Thin-Film Transistors Based on Vapor-Deposition Polymerized Gate Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, S. W.; Lee, D. H.; Koo, J. R.; Kim, J. H.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated by using organic gate insulators using a vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) process. We found that electrical output characteristics in our organic thin-film transistors using a staggered-inverted top-contact structure show a saturated slope in the saturation region and a subthreshold nonlinearity in the triode region. The field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and on-off current ratio of OTFTs using 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride[ODPA]-4,4'-oxydianiline[ODA] and 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride[6FDA]-[ODA] as gate insulators with a thickness of 0.45 μm were about 0.13-0.5 cm2/Vs, -7 V, and 104, respectively. To form polyimide as a gate insulator, the VDP process was also introduced instead of a spin-coating process, in which a polyimide film was codeposited by the high-vacuum thermal evaporation of ODPA and ODA, 6FDA and ODA, and cured at 150°C for 1 h followed by 200°C for 1 h after codeposition. To explain the differences in the electrical characteristics caused by the insulators, the morphology of pentacene on the polyimide from ODPA-ODA was compared with that from 6FDA-ODA, respectively.

  20. Gate-tunable transport properties of in situ capped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper; Stehno, Martin P.; Myoren, Hiroaki; Neumann, Viola A.; Koster, Gertjan; Brinkman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Combining of the ability to prepare high-quality, intrinsic Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films of low carrier density with in situ protective capping, a pronounced, gate-tunable change in transport properties of Bi2Te3 thin films is demonstrated. Using a back gate, the carrier density is tuned

  1. Fluxons in thin-film superconductor-insulator superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Bodin, P.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    films; in the limit of ultrathin superconductor films it may give a model for describing fluxon motion in layered high-Tc superconductors. Numerical examples of current versus voltage curves to be expected in such an experiment are presented. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American...... Institute of Physics....

  2. Superconductor-insulator quantum phase transition in disordered FeSe thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R; Zaitsev, A G; Fuchs, D; V Löhneysen, H

    2012-06-22

    The evolution of two-dimensional electronic transport with increasing disorder in epitaxial FeSe thin films is studied. Disorder is generated by reducing the film thickness. The extreme sensitivity of the films to disorder results in a superconductor-insulator transition. The finite-size scaling analysis in the critical regime based on the Bose-glass model strongly supports the idea of a continuous quantum phase transition. The obtained value for the critical-exponent product of approximately 7/3 suggests that the transition is governed by quantum percolation. Finite-size scaling with the same critical-exponent product is also substantiated when the superconductor-insulator transition is tuned with an applied magnetic field.

  3. Leakage Current Simulation of Insulating Thin Film Irradiated by a Nonpenetrating Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Qin; CAO Meng

    2012-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam. For the formation of leakage current, electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation. In the equilibrium state, the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy. It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density, and with the decreasing electron mobility, in which the film thickness has a greater influence. Validated by some existing experiments, the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.%We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam.For the formation of leakage current,electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation.In the equilibrium state,the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy.It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density,and with the decreasing electron mobility,in which the film thickness has a greater influence.Validated by some existing experiments,the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.

  4. Applications of Cubic MgZnO Thin Films in Metal-Insulator-Silicon Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jun; WU Hui-Zhen; LAO Yan-Feng; QIU Dong-Jiang; CHEN Nai-Bo; XU Tian-Ning

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cubic Mgo.55Zno.45O thin film alloys have been deposited on Si substrates at low growth temperature. The topography of the cross section of the epitaxial film by scanning electronic microscope demonstrates good mor phology and high interfacial quality. The high (001) orientation and wide band-gap (Eg > 5.5 eV) of the cubic Mgo.55Zno.45 O thin films accord with the guidelines for metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) device applications. Using the cubic ternary thin films as insulators, MIS structures have been fabricated. The capacitance-voltage measurements show the flat band voltage shift VFB of11.8 V and mobile ion density Dmc of 5.57 × 1010 cm-2 for the MIS structure. Leakage current density as low as ~ 10-7 A/cm2 is obtained at E = 700 kV/cm by the currentvoltage measurements. These unique structural and electrical properties of the fabricated MIS devices indicate that cubic MgZnO materials could become a new candidate for high-κ dielectrics used in silicon integrated circuit technologies.

  5. Comparative study of Weyl semimetal and topological/Chern insulators: Thin-film point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukinori; Onishi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Koji; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Imura, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Regarding three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators and semimetals as a stack of constituent two-dimensional (2D) topological (or sometimes nontopological) systems is a useful viewpoint. Here, we perform a comparative study of the paradigmatic 3D topological phases: Weyl semimetal (WSM), strong and weak topological insulators (STI/WTI), and Chern insulator (CI). By calculating the Z and Z2 indices for the thin films of such 3D topological phases, we follow dimensional evolution of topological properties from 2D to 3D. It is shown that the counterparts of STI and WTI in the time-reversal symmetry broken CI system are, respectively, WSM and CI phases. The number ND of helical Dirac cones emergent on the surface of a topological insulator is shown to be identical to the number NW of the pairs of Weyl cones in the corresponding WSM phase: ND=NW . To test the robustness of this scenario against disorder, we have studied the transport property of disordered WSM thin films, taking into account both the bulk and surface contributions.

  6. Stable metal-insulator transition in epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sieu D., E-mail: sdha@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Otaki, Miho; Jaramillo, R.; Podpirka, Adrian; Ramanathan, Shriram [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Samarium nickelate (SmNiO{sub 3}) is a correlated oxide that exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) above room temperature and is of interest for advanced electronics and optoelectronics. However, studies on SmNiO{sub 3} thin films have been limited to date, in part due to well-known difficulties in stabilizing the Ni{sup 3+} valence state during growth, which are manifested in non-reproducible electrical characteristics. In this work, we show that stable epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films can be grown by rf magnetron sputtering without extreme post-deposition annealing conditions using relatively high growth pressure (>200 mTorr). At low growth pressure, SmNiO{sub 3} is insulating and undergoes an irreversible MIT at {approx}430 K. As pressure is increased, films become metallic across a large temperature range from 100 to 420 K. At high pressure, films are insulating again but with a reversible and stable MIT at {approx}400 K. Phase transition properties can be continuously tuned by control of the sputtering pressure. - Graphical Abstract: X-ray diffraction (left) and resistivity-temperature characteristics (right) of sputtered SmNiO{sub 3} thin films as a function of sputtering pressure. As sputtering pressure increases, the out-of-plane lattice constant of SmNiO{sub 3} decreases, consistent with enhanced oxygen concentration. Concordantly, the electrical properties are strongly modified, and a reversible metal-insulator phase transition is observed at {approx}400 K in the film grown at high pressure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable SmNiO{sub 3} films grown by rf sputtering without extreme annealing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sputtering pressures needed to fully stabilize SmNiO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible metal-insulator transition observed at {approx}400 K, similar to bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical properties strongly modifiable by varying sputtering pressure.

  7. Ordered Growth of Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Thin Films on Dielectric Amorphous SiO2 by MBE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to the strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous surface, the formation of other ph...

  8. A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Sheng-Dong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2009-01-01

    A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices is proposed, and a formula of silicon critical electric field is derived as a function of silicon film thickness by solving a 2D Poisson equation from an effective ionization rate, with a threshold energy taken into account for electron multiplying. Unlike a conventional silicon critical electric field that is constant and independent of silicon film thickness, the proposed silicon critical electric field increases sharply with silicon film thickness decreasing especially in the case of thin films, and can come to 141 V/μm at a film thickness of 0.1 μm which is much larger than the normal value of about 30 V/μm. From the proposed formula of silicon critical electric field, the expressions of dielectric layer electric field and vertical breakdown voltage (VB,V) are obtained. Based on the model, an ultra thin film can be used to enhance dielectric layer electric field and so increase vertical breakdown voltage for SOI devices because of its high silicon critical electric field, and with a dielectric layer thickness of 2 μm the vertical breakdown voltages reach 852 and 300V for the silicon film thicknesses of 0.1 and 5μm, respectively. In addition, a relation between dielectric layer thickness and silicon film thickness is obtained, indicating a minimum vertical breakdown voltage that should be avoided when an SOI device is designed. 2D simulated results and some experimental results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  9. Electric field-induced superconducting transition of insulating FeSe thin film at 35 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Kota; Sato, Hikaru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-04-12

    It is thought that strong electron correlation in an insulating parent phase would enhance a critical temperature (Tc) of superconductivity in a doped phase via enhancement of the binding energy of a Cooper pair as known in high-Tc cuprates. To induce a superconductor transition in an insulating phase, injection of a high density of carriers is needed (e.g., by impurity doping). An electric double-layer transistor (EDLT) with an ionic liquid gate insulator enables such a field-induced transition to be investigated and is expected to result in a high Tc because it is free from deterioration in structure and carrier transport that are in general caused by conventional carrier doping (e.g., chemical substitution). Here, for insulating epitaxial thin films (∼10 nm thick) of FeSe, we report a high Tc of 35 K, which is 4× higher than that of bulk FeSe, using an EDLT under application of a gate bias of +5.5 V. Hall effect measurements under the gate bias suggest that highly accumulated electron carrier in the channel, whose area density is estimated to be 1.4 × 10(15) cm(-2) (the average volume density of 1.7 × 10(21) cm(-3)), is the origin of the high-Tc superconductivity. This result demonstrates that EDLTs are useful tools to explore the ultimate Tc for insulating parent materials.

  10. Quantum Size Effects in Transport Properties of Bi2Te3 Topological Insulator Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Budnik, A. V.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Meriuts, A. V.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Bi2Te3 compound and Bi2Te3-based solid solutions have attracted much attention as promising thermoelectric materials for refrigerating devices. The possibility of enhancing the thermoelectric efficiency in low-dimensional structures has stimulated studies of Bi2Te3 thin films. Now, interest in studying the transport properties of Bi2Te3 has grown sharply due to the observation of special properties characteristic of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators in Bi2Te3. One of the possible manifestations of quantum size effects in two-dimensional structures is an oscillatory behavior of the dependences of transport properties on film thickness, d. The goal of this work is to summarize our earlier experimental results on the d-dependences of transport properties of Bi2Te3 thin films obtained by thermal evaporation in a vacuum on glass substrates, and to present our new results of theoretical calculations of the oscillations periods within the framework of the model of an infinitely deep potential well, which takes into account the dependence of the Fermi energy on d and the contribution of all energy subbands below the Fermi level to the conductivity. On the basis of the data obtained, some general regularities and specificity of the quantum size effects manifestation in 3D topological insulators are established.

  11. Spin Seebeck effect in insulating epitaxial γ-Fe2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cavero, P.; Lucas, I.; Anadón, A.; Ramos, R.; Niizeki, T.; Aguirre, M. H.; Algarabel, P. A.; Uchida, K.; Ibarra, M. R.; Saitoh, E.; Morellón, L.

    2017-02-01

    We report the fabrication of high crystal quality epitaxial thin films of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), a classic ferrimagnetic insulating iron oxide. Spin Seebeck effect (SSE) measurements in γ-Fe2O3/Pt bilayers as a function of sample preparation conditions and temperature yield a SSE coefficient of 0.5(1) μV/K at room temperature. Dependence on temperature allows us to estimate the magnon diffusion length in maghemite to be in the range of tens of nanometers, in good agreement with that of conducting iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4), establishing the relevance of spin currents of magnonic origin in magnetic iron oxides.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy of three dimensional topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin; 郭欣

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) Bi_2 Se_3 thin films on different substrates is presented. The substrates experimented include InP(111)A, GaAs(111)A, InP(001) and GaAs(001). Multiple characterization techniques are employed to investigate the film’s structural, morphological and electrical properties. To facilitate growth of high quality epitaxial Bi_2 Se_3, thermal treatment of the substrate surfaceturnsout to be crucial for b...

  13. Electric-field induced spin accumulation in the Landau level states of topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-08-01

    A topological insulator (TI) thin film differs from the more typically studied thick TI system in that the former has both a top and a bottom surface where the states localized at both surfaces can couple to one other across the finite thickness. An out-of-plane magnetic field leads to the formation of discrete Landau level states in the system, whereas an in-plane magnetization breaks the angular momentum symmetry of the system. In this work, we study the spin accumulation induced by the application of an in-plane electric field to the TI thin film system where the Landau level states and inter-surface coupling are simultaneously present. We show, via Kubo formula calculations, that the in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to the magnetization due to the electric field vanishes for a TI thin film with symmetric top and bottom surfaces. A finite in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetization emerges upon applying either a differential magnetization coupling or a potential difference between the two film surfaces. This spin accumulation results from the breaking of the antisymmetry of the spin accumulation around the k-space equal-energy contours.

  14. Magnetic Insulator Thin Films and Induced Magneto-Transport Effect at Normal Metal / Magnetic Insulator Interface

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of spintronics with magnetic insulators (MI) has attracted extensive attention in both research and application interests. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a ferrimagnetic insulator which is called the spin Seebeck insulator, for its supports of pure spin currents generation. Non-magnetic metals (NM) with strong spin-orbit interaction (e.g. Pd, Pt), are used as either spin current generator or detector based on the spin Hall effect (SHE) or the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The ...

  15. Microstructural and Electrical Properties of ZrO2 Thin Films Prepared on silicon on Insulator with Thin Top silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章宁琳; 宋志棠; 沈勤我; 林成鲁

    2003-01-01

    Amorphous zirconia thin films were deposited directly on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates with thin top silicon by ultra-high vacuum electron beam evaporation. Spreading resistance profile and scanning transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) were used to detect the interface quality and microstructure, revealing that the interface between the zirconium oxide films and top silicon was abrupt and clear. The films kept to be amorphous up to the rapid thermal temperature of 700°C for 300s, but arriving at 700°C an unknown interfacial product appeared,which was probably ZrSixOy. High frequency capacitance-voltage (C- V) characteristics at 1 MHz performed on metal-oxide-SOI structure revealed that this interfacial product exhibited good electrical properties of zirconia thin films. When the annealing temperature increased from 600°C to 700°C, flat voltage VFB changed from -2.451 to -1.741 eV, showing the improvement in the quality of the films. The cumulative region capacitance decreased from 3.058 × 10-11F to 3.012 × 10-11F, indicating increasing equivalent oxide thickness, which is in agreement with the result of high-resolution cross-sectional TEM.

  16. Evaluation of nanocomposite gate insulators for flexible organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Ii; Hwang, Byeong Ung; Seol, Young Gug; Kim, Tae Woong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-11-01

    To develop physically flexible electronics, high performance and mechanical stability of component materials and devices are required. For a flexible display, a backplane with flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) must be developed. Gate insulating materials with excellent electrical and mechanical properties are highly important to the development of flexible TFTs. We investigated nanocomposite gate dielectrics composed of polyimide (PI) because of their superior thermal stability, as well as different inorganic HfO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles with high dielectric constants. Nanocomposite gate dielectrics of HfO2 nanoparticles and PI lowered leakage current density and increased the relative dielectric constant compared to PI solely because of a high degree of dispersion. Pentacene TFTs with HfO2 nanocomposite gate insulators also showed higher field-effect mobility (μ), smaller subthreshold swing, and an enhanced on/off current ratio (I(on/off)) compared to those of the PI gate dielectric. In addition, mechanical cyclic bending tests involving bending cycles of 2 x 10(5) time sat a bending radius of 5 mm showed improvement in electrical stability of nanocomposite gate insulators with a change in leakage current density of nanocomposite gate insulators below 30%.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect sensors based on magnetic element doped topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Jiles, David

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is recently discovered in magnetic element doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption highly efficient spintronics and electronics. This discovery broaden the family of Hall effect (HE) sensors. In this work, both HE and AHE sensor based on Mn and Cr doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will be systematically studied. The influence of Mn concentration on sensitivity of MnxBi2-xTe3 HE sensors will be discussed. The Hall sensitivity increase 8 times caused by quantum AHE will be reported. AHE senor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will also be studied and compared with Mn doped Bi2Te3 AHE sensor. The influence of thickness on sensitivity of CrxBi2-xTe3 AHE sensors will be discussed. Ultrahigh Hall sensitivity is obtained in Cr doped Bi2Te3. The largest Hall sensitivity can reach 2620 Ω/T in sensor which is almost twice higher than that of the normal semiconductor HE sensor. Our work indicates that magnetic element doped topological insulator with AHE are good candidates for ultra-sensitive Hall effect sensors.

  18. Organic thin film transistors with a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulator layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiang; Liu Hui

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer structured gate dielectric for an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO2 gate insulator.The SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering.Compared with the same thickness of a SiO2 insulation layer device,the SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer is an effective method of fabricating OTFT with improved electric characteristics and decreased leakage current.Electrical parameters such as carrier mobility by field effect measurement have been calculated.The performances of different insulating layer devices have been studied,and the results demonstrate that when the insulation layer thickness increases,the off-state current decreases.

  19. Granular superconductivity in metallic and insulating nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, B L; Zhang, G; Vanacken, J; Moshchalkov, V V [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200-D, 3000-Leuven (Belgium); Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Wagner, P, E-mail: bramleo@hotmail.co [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    The low-temperature electrical transport properties of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (b-NCD) thin films have been found to be strongly affected by the system's granularity. The important differences between the high and low-temperature behaviour are caused by the inhomogeneous nucleation of superconductivity in the samples. In this paper we will discuss the experimental data obtained on several b-NCD thin films, which were studied by either varying their thickness or boron concentration. It will be shown that the low-temperature properties are influenced by the b-NCD grain boundaries as well as by the appearance of an intrinsic granularity inside these granules. Moreover, superconducting effects have been found to be present even in insulating b-NCD films and are responsible for the negative magnetoresistance regime observed at low temperatures. On the other hand, the low-temperature electrical transport properties of b-NCD films show important similarities with those observed for granular superconductors.

  20. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry analysis of iron-containing Bi2Se3 topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Diez, V.; Eddrief, M.; Vickridge, I.

    2016-03-01

    Fe-containing Bi2Se3 topological insulators (TI) thin films have been grown to investigate the intricate interplay between topological order and the incorporation of ferromagnetic atoms. Here we present the quantitative characterisation of the Bi2Se3 thin films with up to 16 at% Fe incorporated during the growth process on GaAs (1 1 1) substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. We report the elemental composition and depth profiles of the Bi2Se3:Fe films obtained using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and their formed crystalline phase obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Resistance of the TI to beam-induced damage was investigated by channelling RBS. Using the elemental composition from RBS and the thickness from XRD measurements the Fe-free film density was deduced. For Fe-containing samples, the diffraction reveals the formation of two distinct crystalline phases, as well as their intergrowth pattern, in which the basal planes of Bi2Se3 coexist with an additional Fe-Se phase. This intergrown composite, with chemical compatibility of the Fe-Se phase with the crystalline Bi2Se3 structure, preserves the intrinsic topological surface states of the TI component despite the inhomogeneous distribution of the constituent phases. RBS analysis gives the stoichiometry of the Bi2Se3, and Bi2Se3:Fe samples (estimated between 0 and 16 at% Fe) and gives insights into the composition of FeSex phases present.

  1. Ferroelectric domain inversion and its stability in lithium niobate thin film on insulator with different thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Bai, Yu-hang; Cui, Guo-xin; Li, Chen; Qiu, Xiang-biao; Geng, De-qiang; Wu, Di; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-07-01

    Ferroelectric domain inversion and its effect on the stability of lithium niobate thin films on insulator (LNOI) are experimentally characterized. Two sets of specimens with different thicknesses varying from submicron to microns are selected. For micron thick samples (˜28 μm), domain structures are achieved by pulsed electric field poling with electrodes patterned via photolithography. No domain structure deterioration has been observed for a month as inspected using polarizing optical microscopy and etching. As for submicron (540 nm) films, large-area domain inversion is realized by scanning a biased conductive tip in a piezoelectric force microscope. A graphic processing method is taken to evaluate the domain retention. A domain life time of 25.0 h is obtained and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our study gives a direct reference for domain structure-related applications of LNOI, including guiding wave nonlinear frequency conversion, nonlinear wavefront tailoring, electro-optic modulation, and piezoelectric devices.

  2. Electric-field tuning of the surface band structure of topological insulator Sb2Te3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ha, Jeonghoon; Levy, Niv; Kuk, Young; Stroscio, Joseph

    2013-08-02

    We measured the response of the surface state spectrum of epitaxial Sb(2)Te(3) thin films to applied gate electric fields by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The gate dependent shift of the Fermi level and the screening effect from bulk carriers vary as a function of film thickness. We observed a gap opening at the Dirac point for films thinner than four quintuple layers, due to the coupling of the top and bottom surfaces. Moreover, the top surface state band gap of the three quintuple layer films was found to be tunable by a back gate, indicating the possibility of observing a topological phase transition in this system. Our results are well explained by an effective model of 3D topological insulator thin films with structure inversion asymmetry, indicating that three quintuple layer Sb(2)Te(3) films are topologically nontrivial and belong to the quantum spin Hall insulator class.

  3. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a thermal heat transfer model of flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI is proposed, and the equivalent thermal conductivity coefficients of flexible thin-film solar cell and Nomex honeycomb are calculated based on the environment test and the temperature profile of flexible thin-film solar cell versus each layer of MLI. Finally, FLUENT is used for modeling and simulation analysis on the flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which validate the correctness of the proposed heat transfer model of MLI. In some way, our study can provide helpful support for further engineering applications of flexible thin-film solar cell.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  5. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  6. Improved Performance of Organic Thin Film Transistor with an Inorganic Oxide/Polymer Double-Layer Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-Hua; DONG Gui-Fang; WANG Li-Duo; QIU Yong

    2007-01-01

    We employ the Ta2O5/PVP (poly-4-vinylphenol) double-layer gate insulator to improve the performance of pentacene thin-film transistors. It is found that the double-layer insulator has low leakage current, smooth surface and considerably high capacitance. Compared to Ta2O5 insulator layers, the device with the Ta2O5/PVP double-layer insulator exhibits an enhancement of the Reid-effect mobility from 0.21 to 0.54 cm2 /Vs, and the decreasing threshold voltage from 4.38V to -2.5 V. The results suggest that the Ta2O5/PVP double-layer insulator is a potential gate insulator for fabricating OTFTs with good electrical performance.

  7. Ordered growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on dielectric amorphous SiO2 by MBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Joo, Kisu; Kim, Youngwook; Yoon, Sang-Moon; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Jun Sung; Yoon, Euijoon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yong Seung

    2013-11-07

    Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous surface, the formation of other phases at the interface is suppressed by Se passivation. Structural characterizations reveal that Bi2Se3 films are grown along the [001] direction with a good periodicity by the van der Waals epitaxy mechanism. A weak anti-localization effect of Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 shows a modulated electrical property by the gating response. Our approach for ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on an amorphous dielectric surface presents considerable advantages for TI-junctions with amorphous insulator or dielectric thin films.

  8. Spin Seebeck effect in insulating epitaxial γ−Fe2O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Cavero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of high crystal quality epitaxial thin films of maghemite (γ−Fe2O3, a classic ferrimagnetic insulating iron oxide. Spin Seebeck effect (SSE measurements in γ−Fe2O3/Pt bilayers as a function of sample preparation conditions and temperature yield a SSE coefficient of 0.5(1 μV/K at room temperature. Dependence on temperature allows us to estimate the magnon diffusion length in maghemite to be in the range of tens of nanometers, in good agreement with that of conducting iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4, establishing the relevance of spin currents of magnonic origin in magnetic iron oxides.

  9. Confined states and spin polarization on a topological insulator thin film modulated by an electric potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi-Man; Shao Huai-Hua; Zhou Xiao-Ying; Zhou Guang-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We study the electronic structure and spin polarization of the surface states of a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film modulated by an electrical potential well.By routinely solving the low-energy surface Dirac equation for the system,we demonstrate that confined surface states exist,in which the electron density is almost localized inside the well and exponentially decayed outside in real space,and that their subband dispersions are quasilinear with respect to the propagating wavevector.Interestingly,the top and bottom surface confined states with the same density distribution have opposite spin polarizations due to the hybridization between the two surfaces.Along with the mathematical analysis,we provide an intuitive,topological understanding of the effect.

  10. Chiral magnetic conductivity and surface states of Weyl semimetals in topological insulator ultra-thin film multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2016-06-15

    We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, [Formula: see text], and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for [Formula: see text], the tunneling parameter [Formula: see text] changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.

  11. Chiral magnetic conductivity and surface states of Weyl semimetals in topological insulator ultra-thin film multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, {{t}\\bot} , and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for {{t}\\text{S}},{{t}\\text{D}}>0 , the tunneling parameter {{t}\\bot} changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.

  12. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyani, T.; Shekhada, K. G.; Savaliya, C. R.; Markna, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    The RNiO3 (R is rare earth) perovskites are famous for their metal to insulator transition (MIT). The temperature can be transformed and depends on the nature of the rare earth. The MIT in thin films and heterostructures of RNiO3 propose the chance to control the MIT as a function of thickness via strain using different substrates. We have reported the electrical transport properties of NdNiO3/NdGaO3, and NNO/NGO/STO structures. These structures were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The temperature of the MIT changes from 155K to 195 K. The electrical resistivity of the heterostructures undergoes MIT, depending on the thickness and deposition conditions. Thickness and deposition temperature were found to have a great impact on the electrical transport properties. The shift in TMI changes with thickness and it larger for thinner NdNiO3. The MIT of NNO thin films is responsive to strain and its partial relaxation creates an inhomogeneous strain field that broadens the MIT. This study may be potentially applicable to Mott transistor devices.

  13. Effect of the Rashba splitting on the RKKY interaction in topological-insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiranzaei, Mahroo; Cheraghchi, Hosein; Parhizgar, Fariborz

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the effect of Rashba splitting on the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in a topological-insulator (TI) thin film both at finite and zero chemical potential. We show that the spin susceptibility of the TI thin film depends strongly on the direction of the distance vector between impurities. In addition to the well-known Heisenberg-, Ising-, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moria (DM)-like terms reported before in TIs, we find another term in the off-diagonal part of the spin-susceptibility tensor which is symmetric in contrast to the DM term. Furthermore, we show how one can tune the RKKY interaction by using electric field applied perpendicularly to the surface plane of the TI, where in the presence of such a field the RKKY interaction can be enhanced drastically for small chemical doping. We present our results for two different situations, namely intersurface pairing of magnetic impurities as well as intrasurface pairing. The behavior of these two situations is completely different, which we describe by mapping the density of states of each surface on the band dispersion.

  14. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  15. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi2Te3 epitaxial thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Swanson, Jesse; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, L H

    2014-10-21

    Topological insulators represent a novel state of matter with surface charge carriers having a massless Dirac dispersion and locked helical spin polarization. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet their execution has been hampered by the extrinsic conductivity associated with the unavoidable presence of defects in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 bulk single crystals, as well as impurities on their surfaces. Here we present the preparation of Bi2Te3 thin films that are insulating in the bulk and the four-point probe measurement of the conductivity of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean. The total amount of charge carriers in the experiment is of the order of 10(12) cm(-2) only, and mobilities up to 4,600 cm(2)/Vs have been observed. These values are achieved by carrying out the preparation, structural characterization, angle-resolved and X-ray photoemission analysis, and temperature-dependent four-point probe conductivity measurement all in situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. This experimental approach opens the way to prepare devices that can exploit the intrinsic topological properties of the Dirac surface states.

  16. Enhanced thermoelectric performance in thin films of three-dimensional topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T H

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices have been attracting increasing attention because of their ability to convert heat directly to electricity. To date, improving the TE figure of merit remains the key challenge. The advent of the topological insulator and the emerging nanotechnology open a new way to design high-performance TE devices. In this paper, we investigate the TE transport properties of the Bi2Se3 thin film by the first-principle calculations and the Boltzmann transport theory. By comparing our calculations with the earlier experimental data, we demonstrate that, for the Bi2Se3 film of thickness larger than six quintuple layers, the relaxation time of the topological surface states in the bulk gap is about hundreds of femtoseconds, which is about two orders larger than that of the bulk states. Such a large relaxation-time difference causes the ratio of the electrical conductance to the thermal conductance much larger than the value predicted by the Wiedemann-Franz law, as well as the large magnitude of Seeb...

  17. Effect of Electric Field and Polarity on Light Emission in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Structure Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwaki, Jun-ichi; Kozawaguchi, Haruki; Tsujiyama, Bunjiro

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the emission intensities and spectra with applied electric fields in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structure thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices have been investigated using devices with stacked emitting layer structures, such as ITO/ZnS: Mn/ZnS: Tb/Sm2O3/Al. In MIS-TFEL devices, the emission distribution in the direction of the ZnS film thickness is nonhomogeneous. In particular, the emission intensity in the region near the ZnS-insulator interface increases with increasing applied voltage more than in the other region in the ZnS layer, when electrons exciting emission centers are accelerated from the insulator side. On the other hand, the emission is homogeneous at the opposite polarity. It is found that the emission color for stacked emitting layer MIS-TFEL devices can be modulated by changing the applied voltage.

  18. Metal-insulator transition in Mg-doped SrRuO{sub 3} thin films prepared by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandles, D A; Yazdanian, Mohammad Mehdi; Razavi, F S [Department of Physics, Brock University, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada)

    2006-01-07

    Thin films of magnesium doped SrRuO{sub 3} (Mg-SRO) have been successfully prepared by laser ablation on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates. The stoichiometry, structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the films depend on the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) and oxygen pressure (P{sub O{sub 2}}) during deposition. All Mg-SRO films are ferromagnetic, but the transport properties and remanent moments vary with T{sub s} and P{sub O{sub 2}}. Metallic films are produced for T{sub s} {>=} 700 deg. C whereas insulating films can be produced with T{sub s} = 500 deg. C with P{sub O{sub 2}}{>=}27 Pa. A correlation between lattice parameter, stoichiometry and transport properties has been discovered: the larger lattice parameter correlates with the decreased Ru content and more insulating samples. Insulating samples prepared at T{sub s} = 500 deg. C and P{sub O{sub 2}}{>=}27 Pa have stoichiometry close to the SrMg{sub 0.15}Ru{sub 0.85}O{sub 3} and are ferromagnetic Anderson insulators with transport properties consistent with variable range hopping.

  19. Quantum spin Hall insulators in centrosymmetric thin films composed from topologically trivial BiTeI trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, I. A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thinnest film with an inverted gap large enough for practical applications is a centrosymmetric sextuple layer built out of two inversely stacked non-centrosymmetric BiTeI trilayers. This nontrivial sextuple layer turns out to be the structure element of an artificially designed strong three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te2I2. We reveal general principles of how a topological insulator can be composed from the structure elements of the BiTeX family (X = I, Br, Cl), which opens new perspectives towards engineering of topological phases.

  20. Quantum spin Hall insulators in centrosymmetric thin films composed from topologically trivial BiTeI trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, I. A.; Eremeev, S. V.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling. The thinnest film with an inverted gap large enough for practical applications is a centrosymmetric sextuple layer built out of two inversely stacked non-centrosymmetric BiTeI trilayers. This nontrivial sextuple layer turns out to be the structure element of an artificially designed strong three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Te2I2. We reveal general principles of how a topological insulator can be composed from the structure elements of the BiTeX family (X = I, Br, Cl), which opens new perspectives towards engineering of topological phases. PMID:28252656

  1. Artificial semiconductor/insulator superlattice channel structure for high-performance oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Senthil, Karuppanan; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2013-01-01

    High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the fundamental building blocks in realizing the potential applications of the next-generation displays. Atomically controlled superlattice structures are expected to induce advanced electric and optical performance due to two-dimensional electron gas system, resulting in high-electron mobility transistors. Here, we have utilized a semiconductor/insulator superlattice channel structure comprising of ZnO/Al2O3 layers to realize high-performance TFTs. The TFT with ZnO (5 nm)/Al2O3 (3.6 nm) superlattice channel structure exhibited high field effect mobility of 27.8 cm(2)/Vs, and threshold voltage shift of only < 0.5 V under positive/negative gate bias stress test during 2 hours. These properties showed extremely improved TFT performance, compared to ZnO TFTs. The enhanced field effect mobility and stability obtained for the superlattice TFT devices were explained on the basis of layer-by-layer growth mode, improved crystalline nature of the channel layers, and passivation effect of Al2O3 layers.

  2. Investigation of AlN Thin Films as Buried Insulator in SOI Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Self-heating effects in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices limit the applicability of SOI materials in electronics in cases where high power dissipation is expected. AlN film as a potential candidate for buried insulator material in SOI-structures is investigated. Ion-beam-enhanced deposition (IBED) is used to manufacture large area AlN films. SIMS measurements indicate the formation of AlN films. The characterization of the films reveals that the quality of the films strongly depends on the evaporation rate of Al. For the film with high quality deposited at 0.05nm/s, it has higher component of N, excellent dielectric property and a smoother surface with roughness RMS value of 0.13nm, and can be bonded directly at room temperature by the smart-cut process. SOI structure with the AlN film as buried insulator has formed successfully for the first time, which is confirmed by XTEM micrograph.

  3. Metal insulator transition with ferrimagnetic order in epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Stern, Ilan; Zhou, Xiaolan; Hu, Jin; Ho Kim, Dae

    2012-01-01

    We have grown epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4 on single crystalline MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Magnetization measurement revealed hysteresis loops consistent with the reported ferrimagnetic order. The electrical transport exhibits a metallic behavior with the lowest resistivity of 0.8 mΩ cm and a metal insulator transition around the Néel temperature. The systematic variation in the properties of the films grown at different growth temperatures indicates a close relationship between the magnetic order and electrical transport.

  4. Selective area growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, Jörn; Weyrich, Christian; Lanius, Martin; Schall, Melissa; Neumann, Elmar; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic bulk behavior of topological insulators (TI) is a key issue for their employment in future device applications. State of the art TIs predominantly suffer from large bulk charge carrier concentrations that mask their extraordinary surface states. In this paper we present the selective area growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 TI thin films on prestructured Si(111) Si on insulator (SOI) substrates, paving the way to high quality TI nanostructures in which access to surface states is enhanced. Therefore high quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited by means of solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and subsequently investigated by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). To investigate the transport properties of the selectively grown thin films, magnetotransport measurements were performed at low temperatures. Nucleation in the SiO2 valleys next to the prepatterned Si(111) mesa structures was not observed. The structural and morphological qualities of crystals deposited on untreated Si(111) SOI wafers are completely preserved by employing the selective area growth on prepatterned substrates. The transport characteristics of the selectively-grown TI systems are comparable to those of the analogous postpatterned films.

  5. Structural and electrical properties of SrTiO3 thin films as insulator of metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jian-Hua; Meng Xiang-Jian; Lin Tie; Liu Shi-Jian; Zhang Xiao-Dong; Sun Jing-Lan; Chu Jun-Hao

    2005-01-01

    SrTiO3 (STO) thin films were deposited on p-Si(100) substrates at various substrate temperatures from 300℃to 700℃ by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Their structure and electrical properties were investigated. It was found that the transition from amorphous phase to polycrystalline phase occurred at the substrate temperatures 300-400℃. Their crystallinity became better when the substrate temperatures further increased. The dielectric and leakage current measurements were carried out by using the Si/STO/Pt metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures at roon temperature. It was found that the fixed charge density decreased and both the interface trap density and the dielectric constant increased when the substrate temperatures were increased. The leakage current mechanisms for STO MIS structures with STO films prepared at 700℃ followed the space charge limited current (SCLC)under the low applied electric field and the Poole-Frenkel emission under the high one. In addition, the resistivity for films prepared at 700℃ was higher than 1011Ω.cm under the voltage lower than 10V (corresponding to the electric field of 1.54×103kV.cm-1). It suggested that the STO films prepared at 700℃ were suitable for acting as the insulator of metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structures.

  6. Electrical Characteristics of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin-Film Transistors with Polyamide-6/Polytetrafluoroethylene Gate Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-Yang; XU Shi-Ai; MA Dong-Ge

    2007-01-01

    Polyamide-6(PA 6)/polytetrafluoroethylene is studied as a potential gate dielectric for flexible organic thin film transistors.The salne method used for the formation of organic semiconductor and gate dielectric films greatly simplifies the fabrication process of devices.The fabricated transistors show good electrical characteristics.Ambipolar behaviour is observed even when the device is operated in air.

  7. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-02-20

    The superconductor-insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films.

  8. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor–insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-02-01

    The superconductor–insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films.

  9. Scaling analysis of field-tuned superconductor–insulator transition in two-dimensional tantalum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungyu; Shin, Junghyun; Kim, Eunseong

    2017-01-01

    The superconductor–insulator (SI) transition in two-dimensional Ta thin films is investigated by controlling both film thickness and magnetic field. An intriguing metallic phase appears between a superconducting and an insulating phase within a range of film thickness and magnetic field. The temperature and electric field scaling analyses are performed to investigate the nature of the SI transition in the thickness-tuned metallic and superconducting samples. The critical exponents product of νz obtained from the temperature scaling analysis is found to be approximately 0.67 in the entire range of film thickness. On the other hand, an apparent discrepancy is measured in the product of ν(z + 1) by the electric filed analysis. The product values are found to be about 1.37 for the superconducting films and about 1.86 for the metallic films respectively. We find that the discrepancy is the direct consequence of electron heating that introduces additional dissipation channels in the metallic Ta films. PMID:28218296

  10. Metal-insulator transition with ferrimagnetic order in epitaxial thin films of spinel NiCo2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Stern, Ilan; Zhou, Xiaolan; Hu, Jin; Spinu, Leonard; Kim, Dae Ho; Talbayev, Diyar

    2014-03-01

    Spinel NiCo2O4 is attractive for various technological applications but is less studied partly because of the unavailability of NiCo2O4 single crystal or epitaxial thin film. We have grown high-quality crystalline epitaxial NiCo2O4 thin films on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates. The systematic investigation of the films grown at various temperatures reveals a strong correlation between the structural, magnetic, and electrical transport properties. The low-temperature grown films show metallic behavior with strong ferrimagnetic ordering while the high temperature grown films are insulating with suppressed magnetic order. In addition, these films show excellent transport and magnetic properties down to 2 unit-cell thickness. Our study of temperature- and growth-condition dependent optical conductivity provides further insight in the carrier transport of these films. We observed coherent band-like transport in both low- and high temperature grown films, whereas only thermally activated hopping conductivity was reported in previous studies. The confirmation of coherent band like transport provides a basis for further improving NiCo2O4 for the application as transparent conducting oxide.

  11. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshio; Kawa, Haruna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Yoshiki, Jun [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kumei, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oi, Fumio [Konishi Chemical IND. Co., LTD., 3-4-77 Kozaika, Wakayama 641-0007 (Japan); Yamakado, Hideo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Fukuda, Hisashi [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kimura, Keiichi, E-mail: kkimura@center.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol-gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol-gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Low voltage copper phthalocyanine organic thin film transistors with a polymer layer as the gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueqiang, Liu; Weihong, Bi; Tong, Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Low voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were created using polymethyl-methacrylate-co g-lyciclyl-methacrylate (PMMA-GMA) as the gate dielectric. The OTFTs performed acceptably at supply voltages of about 10 V. From a densely packed copolymer brush, a leakage current as low as 2 × 10-8 A/cm2 was obtained. From the measured capacitance—insulator frequency characteristics, a dielectric constant in the range 3.9-5.0 was obtained. By controlling the thickness of the gate dielectric, the threshold voltage was reduced from -3.5 to -2.0 V. The copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic thin film transistor could be operated at low voltage and 1.2 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s) mobility.

  13. Long-ranged interactions in thin TiN films at the superconductor-insulator transition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeldner, Klaus; Strunk, Christoph [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Baturina, Tatyana [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    We measured IV-characteristics and magnetoresistance of square TiN-films in the vicinity of the disorder-tuned superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) for different sizes (5 μm to 240 μm). While the films are superconducting at zero magnetic field, at finite fields a SIT occurs. The resistance shows thermally activated behaviour on both sides of the SIT. Deep in the superconducting regime the activation energy grows linear with the sample size as expected for a size-independent critical current density. Closer to the SIT the activation energy becomes clearly size independent. On the insulating side the magnetoresistance maximum and the activation energy both grow logarithmically with sample size which is consistent with a size-limited charge BKT (Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless) scenario. In order to test for the presence of long-ranged interactions in our films, we investigate the influence of a topgate. It is expected to screen the possible long-ranged interactions as the distance of the film to the gate is much shorter than the electrostatic screening length deduced from the size-dependent activation energy.

  14. Spin-orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; Demann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J. S.; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B.; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C.; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-09-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field.

  15. Spin–orbit torque-assisted switching in magnetic insulator thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chang, Houchen; Kalitsov, Alan; Zhang, Wei; Csaba, Gyorgy; Li, Wei; Richardson, Daniel; DeMann, August; Rimal, Gaurab; Dey, Himadri; Jiang, J. S.; Porod, Wolfgang; Field, Stuart B.; Tang, Jinke; Marconi, Mario C.; Hoffmann, Axel; Mryasov, Oleg; Wu, Mingzhong

    2016-01-01

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin–orbit coupling, it produces a torque on and thereby switches the magnetization in a neighbouring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin–orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. Here we report the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems. The experiments used a Pt/BaFe12O19 bilayer where the BaFe12O19 layer exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. As a charge current is passed through the Pt film, it produces a SOT that can control the up and down states of the remnant magnetization in the BaFe12O19 film when the film is magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field. It can reduce or increase the switching field of the BaFe12O19 film by as much as about 500 Oe when the film is switched with an out-of-plane field. PMID:27581060

  16. Study of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S. E. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Hesjedal, T., E-mail: Thorsten.Hesjedal@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Harris, J. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μ{sub B}/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

  17. Topological insulator thin films of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with controlled electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang; Zhu, Xie-Gang; Li, Yao-Yi; Wen, Jing; Chen, Xi; Jia, Jin-Feng [State Key Lab of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai B. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Zhang, Tong; He, Ke; Wang, Li-Li; Ma, Xu-Cun [Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xue, Qi-Kun [State Key Lab of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-07-12

    Topological insulator thin films of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with controlled electronic structure can be grown by regulating the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth kinetics without any extrinsic doping. N- to p-type conversion results from the change in the concentrations of Te{sub Bi} donors and Bi{sub Te} acceptors. This represents a step toward controlling topological surface states, with potential applications in devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Substrate bias effects on collector resistance in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors on thin film silicon-on-insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiao-Bo; Zhang He-Ming; Hu Hui-Yong; Qu Jiang-Tao

    2011-01-01

    An analytical expression for the collector resistance of a novel vertical SiGe heteroj unction bipolar transistor (HBT)on thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is obtained with the substrate bias effects being considered. The resistance is found to decrease slowly and then quickly and to have kinks with the increase of the substrate-collector bias, which is quite different from that of a conventional bulk HBT. The model is consistent with the simulation result and the reported data and is useful to the frequency characteristic design of 0.13 μm millimeter-wave SiGe SOI BiCMOS devices.

  19. Magnetic flux disorder and superconductor-insulator transition in nanohole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    We study the superconductor-insulator transition in nanohole ultrathin films in a transverse magnetic field by numerical simulation of a Josephson-junction array model. Geometrical disorder due to the random location of nanoholes in the film corresponds to random flux in the array model. Monte Carlo simulation in the path-integral representation is used to determine the critical behavior and the universal resistivity at the transition as a function of disorder and average number of flux quanta per cell, fo. The resistivity increases with disorder for noninteger fo while it decreases for integer fo, and reaches a common constant value in a vortex-glass regime above a critical value of the flux disorder Dfc. The estimate of Dfc and the resistivity increase for noninteger fo are consistent with recent experiments on ultrathin superconducting films with positional disordered nanoholes.

  20. Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, Bernd M.; Thoman, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of a thin VO2 film in the terahertz frequency range in the vicinity of the semiconductor-metal phase transition. Phase-sensitive broadband spectroscopy in the frequency region below the phonon bands of VO2 gives insight into the conductive properties...

  1. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  2. Experimental Analysis of Weak Anti-localization in Topological Insulator Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Namrata; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Moon, Jisoo; Oh, Seongshik

    2015-03-01

    The weak anti-localization (WAL) effect, seen as a sharp cusp in resistance vs magnetic field at small fields, is quantified by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) formalism that yields information about the effective number of 2D conducting channels in terms of the parameter A. In thin-film Bi2Se3, A has a typical value of 1, even if the ideal value is 2 that occurs if top and bottom surfaces are decoupled. We show that this is due to bulk being metallic. On depleting the bulk carriers, the value of A increases to 2, though only if the film is thick enough. In the ultra-thin regime, films with high mobility. In case of highly disordered films with poor carrier mobilities, the value of A can change from 1 to 0 as the film thickness is reduced, even if the Fermi level is away from Dirac gap. We provide a coherent picture of how A evolves depending on disorder, bulk properties and film thickness.

  3. Nonlinear optical observation of coherent acoustic Dirac plasmons in thin-film topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2016-09-01

    Low-energy collective electronic excitations exhibiting sound-like linear dispersion have been intensively studied both experimentally and theoretically for a long time. However, coherent acoustic plasmon modes appearing in time-domain measurements are rarely observed due to Landau damping by the single-particle continua. Here we report on the observation of coherent acoustic Dirac plasmon (CADP) modes excited in indirectly (electrostatically) opposite-surface coupled films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Using transient second-harmonic generation, a technique capable of independently monitoring the in-plane and out-of-plane electron dynamics in the films, the GHz-range oscillations were observed without corresponding oscillations in the transient reflectivity. These oscillations were assigned to the transverse magnetic and transverse electric guided CADP modes induced by the evanescent guided Lamb acoustic waves and remained Landau undamped due to fermion tunnelling between the opposite-surface Dirac states.

  4. Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in organic thin film transistors fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen Mandal; Monica Katiyar

    2013-08-01

    Fabrication of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrates is a challenge, because of its low softening temperature, high roughness and flexible nature. Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering processing of dielectric layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), characterization of dielectric property, pentacene film morphology and OTFT characterization. Here, we present the processing and performance of three organic dielectrics, poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), as a gate layer in pentacene-based organic thin film transistor on PET substrate. We have used thermogravimetric analysis of organic dielectric solution to determine annealing temperature for spin-coated films of these dielectrics. Comparison of the leakage currents for the three dielectrics shows PVA exhibiting lowest leakage (in the voltage range of −30 to +30 V). This is partly because solvent is completely eliminated in the case of PVA as observed by differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA). We propose that DTGA can be a useful tool to optimize processing of dielectric layers. From organic thin film transistor point of view, crystal structure, morphology and surface roughness of pentacene film on all the dielectric layers were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).We observe pyramidal pentacene on PVPh whereas commonly observed dendritic pentacene on PMMA and PVA surface. Pentacene morphology development is discussed in terms of surface roughness, surface energy and molecular nature of the dielectric layer.

  5. Scaling Laws for Thin Films near the Superconducting-to-Insulating Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We propose a Lagrangian function, which combines Landau-Ginzburg term and Chern-Simons term, for describing the competition between disorder and superconductivity. To describe the normal-to-superconducting transition in the thin superconducting films, we apply Wilson’s renormalization group methods into this Lagrangian function. Finally, we obtain a scaling law between critical temperature (Tc), film thickness (d), sheet resistance of the film at the normal state (Rs), and number density of the electrons at the normal state (N). Such a scaling law is in agreement with recent experimental investigations [Ivry, Y. et al., Physical Review B 90, 214515 (2014)]. Our finding may have potential benefits for improving transition temperature Tc.

  6. Metal-oxide assisted surface treatment of polyimide gate insulators for high-performance organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohee; Ha, Taewook; Yoo, Sungmi; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jong Chan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Yun Ho

    2017-06-14

    We developed a facile method for treating polyimide-based organic gate insulator (OGI) surfaces with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by introducing metal-oxide interlayers, called the metal-oxide assisted SAM treatment (MAST). To create sites for surface modification with SAM materials on polyimide-based OGI (KPI) surfaces, the metal-oxide interlayer, here amorphous alumina (α-Al2O3), was deposited on the KPI gate insulator using spin-coating via a rapid sol-gel reaction, providing an excellent template for the formation of a high-quality SAM with phosphonic acid anchor groups. The SAM of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) was successfully treated by spin-coating onto the α-Al2O3-deposited KPI film. After the surface treatment by ODPA/α-Al2O3, the surface energy of the KPI thin film was remarkably decreased and the molecular compatibility of the film with an organic semiconductor (OSC), 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-C10), was increased. Ph-BTBT-C10 molecules were uniformly deposited on the treated gate insulator surface and grown with high crystallinity, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The mobility of Ph-BTBT-C10 thin-film transistors (TFTs) was approximately doubled, from 0.56 ± 0.05 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 1.26 ± 0.06 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), after the surface treatment. The surface treatment of α-Al2O3 and ODPA significantly decreased the threshold voltage from -21.2 V to -8.3 V by reducing the trap sites in the OGI and improving the interfacial properties with the OSC. We suggest that the MAST method for OGIs can be applied to various OGI materials lacking reactive sites using SAMs. It may provide a new platform for the surface treatment of OGIs, similar to that of conventional SiO2 gate insulators.

  7. Theory of STM junctions for π-conjugated molecules on thin insulating films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Sandra; Donarini, Andrea; Grifoni, Milena

    2012-05-01

    A microscopic theory of the transport in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) setup is introduced for π-conjugated molecules on insulating films, based on the density matrix formalism. A key role is played in the theory by the energy dependent tunneling rates which account for the coupling of the molecule to the tip and to the substrate. In particular, we analyze how the geometrical differences between the localized tip and extended substrate are encoded in the tunneling rate and influence the transport characteristics. Finally, using benzene as an example of a planar, rotationally symmetric molecule, we calculate the STM current-voltage characteristics and current maps and analyze them in terms of few relevant angular momentum channels.

  8. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-05-04

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect.

  9. Role of laser energy density on growth of highly oriented topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Saha, B.; Saha, D.; Ganguly, S.

    2016-05-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are very promising in the field of nanoelectronics due to their exotic properties. Bismuth Selenide, a 3D Topological insulator is considered as reference TI owing to its simple band structure and large bandgap. However, the presence of unintentional doping, which masks the metallic surface states, is still a major concern. In this work, we report the effect of laser energy density on the growth of highly oriented and stoichiometric thin films of Bi2Se3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy confirms the c-axis orientation and good crystallinity of films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows the increase in average grain size and rms roughness (from 3.1 nm to 5.1 nm) with the decrease in laser energy density. Compositional study by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurement is found to be in agreement with AFM results. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirm the desired stoichiometry of the samples.

  10. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-05-01

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect.

  11. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Klitzing, Regine V; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-03-27

    The formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is investigated using a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor which is sensitive to variations of the surface potential. The buildup of the PEMs at the silicon oxide surface of the device can be observed in real time as defined potential shifts. The influence of polymer charge density is studied using the strong polyanion poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, combined with the statistical copolymer poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride-stat-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide), P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA), at various degrees of charge (DC). The multilayer formation stops after a few deposition steps for a DC below 75%. We show that the threshold of surface charge compensation corresponds to the threshold of multilayer formation. However, no reversion of the preceding surface charge was observed. Screening of polyelectrolyte charges by mobile ions within the polymer film leads to a decrease of the potential shifts with the number of layers deposited. This decrease is much slower for PEMs consisting of P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA) and PSS as compared to PEMs consisting of poly(allylamine-hydrochloride), PAH, and PSS. From this, significant differences in the dielectric constants of the polyelectrolyte films and in the concentration of mobile ions within the films can be derived.

  12. Low-temperature processable inherently photosensitive polyimide as a gate insulator for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Seungmoon; Son, Hyunsam; Choi, Kil-Yeong; Yi, Mi Hye; Hong, Sung Kwon

    2005-03-01

    We have fabricated organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on polyethersulfone substrate using low-temperature processable, inherently photosensitive polyimide as the gate insulator and pentacene as the active material. The polyimide was prepared through two-step reaction. The polyimide precursor, poly(amic acid), was prepared from a dianhydride and aromatic diamine through a polycondensation reaction, and subsequently converted to its corresponding polyimide by a chemical imidization. Photolithographic properties of the polyimide are investigated. The pattern resolution of the cured polyimide was about 50μm. The pentacene OTFTs with the patterned polyimide were obtained with a carrier mobility of 0.1cm2/Vs and ION/IOFF of 5×105. The OTFT characteristics are discussed in more detail with respect to the electrical properties of the photosensitive polyimide thin film. This low-temperature photopatternable polyimide paves the way for the easy and low-cost fabrication of OTFT arrays without expensive and complicated photolithography and dry etching processes.

  13. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wen; Peng Jun-Biao; Yang Kai-Xia; Lan Lin-Feng; Niu Qiao-Li; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below-3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8 × 10-4 cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  14. Localized superconductivity in the quantum-critical region of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition in TiN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturina, T I; Mironov, A Yu; Vinokur, V M; Baklanov, M R; Strunk, C

    2007-12-21

    We investigate low-temperature transport properties of thin TiN superconducting films in the vicinity of the disorder-driven superconductor-insulator transition. In a zero magnetic field, we find an extremely sharp separation between superconducting and insulating phases, evidencing a direct superconductor-insulator transition without an intermediate metallic phase. At moderate temperatures, in the insulating films we reveal thermally activated conductivity with the magnetic field-dependent activation energy. At very low temperatures, we observe a zero-conductivity state, which is destroyed at some depinning threshold voltage V{T}. These findings indicate the formation of a distinct collective state of the localized Cooper pairs in the critical region at both sides of the transition.

  15. Tuning the metal-insulator transition via epitaxial strain and Co doping in NdNiO3 thin films grown by polymer-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dan; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Shiming; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Jiyin; Li, Yang; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The epitaxial NdNi1-xCoxO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) thin films on (001) LaAlO3 and (001) SrTiO3 substrates were grown by a simple polymer-assisted deposition technique. The co-function of the epitaxial strain and Co doping on the metal-insulator transition in perovskite nickelate NdNiO3 thin films is investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the as-prepared thin films exhibit good crystallinity and heteroepitaxy. The temperature dependent resistivities of the thin films indicate that both the epitaxial strain and Co doping lower the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature, which can be treated as a way to tune the MI transition. Furthermore, under the investigated Co-doping levels, the MI transition temperature (TMI) shifts to low temperatures with Co content increasing under both compressive and tensile strain, and the more distinction is in the former situation. When x is increased up to 0.10, the insulating phase is completely suppressed under the compressive strain. With the strain increases from compression to tension, the resistivities are enhanced both in the metal and insulating regions. However, the Co-doping effect on the resistivity shows a more complex situation. As Co content x increases from zero to 0.10, the resistivities are reduced both in the metal and insulating regions under the tensile strain, whereas they are enhanced in the high-temperature metal region under the compressive strain. Based on the temperature dependent resistivity in the metal regions, it is suggested that the electron-phonon coupling in the films becomes weaker with the increase of both the strain and Co-doping.

  16. Tuning the metal-insulator transition via epitaxial strain and Co doping in NdNiO{sub 3} thin films grown by polymer-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Dan; Shi, Lei, E-mail: shil@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, Shiming; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Jiyin; Li, Yang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Yang [Instrumental Analysis Center, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-01-21

    The epitaxial NdNi{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) thin films on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates were grown by a simple polymer-assisted deposition technique. The co-function of the epitaxial strain and Co doping on the metal-insulator transition in perovskite nickelate NdNiO{sub 3} thin films is investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the as-prepared thin films exhibit good crystallinity and heteroepitaxy. The temperature dependent resistivities of the thin films indicate that both the epitaxial strain and Co doping lower the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature, which can be treated as a way to tune the MI transition. Furthermore, under the investigated Co-doping levels, the MI transition temperature (T{sub MI}) shifts to low temperatures with Co content increasing under both compressive and tensile strain, and the more distinction is in the former situation. When x is increased up to 0.10, the insulating phase is completely suppressed under the compressive strain. With the strain increases from compression to tension, the resistivities are enhanced both in the metal and insulating regions. However, the Co-doping effect on the resistivity shows a more complex situation. As Co content x increases from zero to 0.10, the resistivities are reduced both in the metal and insulating regions under the tensile strain, whereas they are enhanced in the high-temperature metal region under the compressive strain. Based on the temperature dependent resistivity in the metal regions, it is suggested that the electron-phonon coupling in the films becomes weaker with the increase of both the strain and Co-doping.

  17. Thin film three-dimensional topological insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors: A candidate for sub-10 nm devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhavan, N. D., E-mail: nima.dehdashti@uwa.edu.au; Jolley, G.; Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2014-08-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TI) are a new state of quantum matter in which surface states reside in the bulk insulating energy bandgap and are protected by time-reversal symmetry. It is possible to create an energy bandgap as a consequence of the interaction between the conduction band and valence band surface states from the opposite surfaces of a TI thin film, and the width of the bandgap can be controlled by the thin film thickness. The formation of an energy bandgap raises the possibility of thin-film TI-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs). In this paper, we explore the performance of MOSFETs based on thin film 3D-TI structures by employing quantum ballistic transport simulations using the effective continuous Hamiltonian with fitting parameters extracted from ab-initio calculations. We demonstrate that thin film transistors based on a 3D-TI structure provide similar electrical characteristics compared to a Si-MOSFET for gate lengths down to 10 nm. Thus, such a device can be a potential candidate to replace Si-based MOSFETs in the sub-10 nm regime.

  18. Non-ohmic behavior of metal-insulator granular thin films in low-field regime (eΔV ≪ kBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, M. A. S.; Canto, B.; Mesquita, F.; Hinrichs, R.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pereira, L. G.

    2016-10-01

    Non-ohmic behavior is not expected in metal-insulator granular systems in a low-field regime. There is no model to explain this behavior, even though it has been reported in several metal-insulator granular thin films (Fe-Al2O3, Co-Al2O3, and Ti-SiO2). In this paper, we show additional experimental results of Fe-SiO2 granular films and propose an explanation for the electrical properties of all above mentioned systems, based on Mott variable range hopping. The experimental results show that the localization length increases and the electrical resistance decreases with the increase of electrical potential or current. The non-ohmic behavior of the resistance and the increase of the localization length with increasing current are explained by the activation of new pathways for electrons in granular thin films that contain variable grain sizes and/or have different distances between grains.

  19. High performance thin film transistor (flex-TFT) with textured nanostructure ZnO film channel fabricated by exploiting electric double layer gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rishi Ram; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a flexible thin film transistor (flex-TFT) fabricated on a commonly available polyimide (Kapton®) tape with a channel of highly textured nanocrystalline ZnO film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The flex-TFT with an electric double layer (EDL) gate insulator shows a low threshold for operation (Vth ≤ 1 V), an ON/OFF ratio reaching ≈107 and a subthreshold swing ≈75 mV/dec. The superior performance is enabled by a high saturation mobility (μs ≈ 70 cm2/V s) of the highly textured nanocrystalline channel. The low Vth arises from large charge density (≈1014/cm2) induced into the channel by EDL gate insulator. The large charge density induced by the EDL gate dielectric also enhances the Hall mobility in the film and brings down the sheet resistance by nearly 2 orders, which leads to large ON/OFF ratio. The flex-TFT operation can be sustained with reproducibility when the TFT is bent down to a radius of curvature ≈2 cm.

  20. Improving the performance of organic thin film transistors formed on a vacuum flash-evaporated acrylate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Z., E-mail: ziqian.ding@materials.ox.ac.uk; Abbas, G. A.; Assender, H. E. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Morrison, J. J.; Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Yeates, S. G. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Taylor, D. M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-02

    A systematic investigation has been undertaken, in which thin polymer buffer layers with different ester content have been spin-coated onto a flash-evaporated, cross-linked diacrylate gate-insulator to form bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors. The highest device mobilities, ∼0.65 cm{sup 2}/V s and ∼1.00 cm{sup 2}/V s for pentacene and dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT), respectively, were only observed for a combination of large-grain (∼1–2 μm) semiconductor morphology coupled with a non-polar dielectric surface. No correlation was found between semiconductor grain size and dielectric surface chemistry. The threshold voltage of pentacene devices shifted from −10 V to −25 V with decreasing surface ester content, but remained close to 0 V for DNTT.

  1. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Dy-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Baker, A. A.; Harrison, S. E.; Kummer, K.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic doping of topological insulators (TIs) is crucial for unlocking novel quantum phenomena, paving the way for spintronics applications. Recently, we have shown that doping with rare earth ions introduces large magnetic moments and allows for high doping concentrations without the loss of crystal quality, however no long range magnetic order was observed. In Dy-doped Bi2Te3 we found a band gap opening above a critical doping concentration, despite the paramagnetic bulk behavior. Here, we present a surface-sensitive x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study of an in situ cleaved film in the cleanest possible environment. The Dy M4,5 absorption spectra measured with circularly polarized x-rays are fitted using multiplet calculations to obtain the effective magnetic moment. Arrott-Noakes plots, measured by the Dy M5 XMCD as a function of field at low temperatures, give a negative transition temperature. The evaporation of a ferromagnetic Co thin film did not introduce ferromagnetic ordering of the Dy dopants either; instead a lowering of the transition temperature was observed, pointing towards an antiferromagnetic ordering scenario. This result shows that there is a competition between the magnetic exchange interaction and the Zeeman interaction. The latter favors the Co and Dy magnetic moments to be both aligned along the direction of the applied magnetic field, while the exchange interaction is minimized if the Dy and Co atoms are antiferromagnetically coupled, as in zero applied field.

  2. Poly(4-vinylphenol gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  3. The Theoretical Investigation and Analysis of High-Performance ZnO Double-Gate Double-Layer Insulator Thin-Film Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai-Xia; HU Rong; YANG Yin-Tang

    2012-01-01

    A novel structure of a ZnO thin-film transistor with a double-gate and double-layer insulator is proposed to improve device performance.Compared with the conventional ZnO thin-film transistor structure,the novel thinfilm transistor has a higher on-state current,steeper sub-threshold characteristics and a lower threshold voltage,owing to the double-gate and high-k dielectric.Based on two-dimensional simulation,the potential channel distribution and the reasons for the improvement in performance are investigated.%A novei structure of a ZnO thin-film transistor with a double-gate and double-layer insulator is proposed to improve device performance. Compared with the conventional ZnO thin-Rim transistor structure, the novel thin-Sim transistor has a higher on-state current, steeper sub-threshold characteristics and a lower threshold voltage, owing to the double-gate and high-k dielectric. Based on two-dimensional simulation, the potential channel distribution and the reasons for the improvement in performance are investigated.

  4. Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy study of Kondo insulating thin film SmB6: evidence for an emergent surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Yong, Jie; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard; Averitt, Richard

    We utilize terahertz time domain spectroscopy to investigate thin films of the heavy fermion compound SmB6, a prototype Kondo insulator. Temperature dependent terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements reveal a rapid decrease in the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate at ~T* =20 K, well below the hybridization gap onset temperature (100 K). Moreover, a low-temperature conductivity plateau (below 20K) indicates the emergence of a surface state with an effective electron mass of 0.1me. Conductivity dynamics following optical excitation are also measured and interpreted using Rothwarf-Taylor (R-T) phenomenology, yielding a hybridization gap energy of 17 meV. However, R-T modeling of the conductivity dynamics reveals a deviation from the expected thermally excited quasiparticle density at temperatures below 20K, indicative of another channel opening up in the low energy electrodynamics. Taken together, these results suggest the onset of a surface state well below the crossover temperature (100K) after long-range coherence of the f-electron Kondo lattice is established. JZ and RDA acknowledge support from DOE - Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER46643, under which the THz measurements and data analysis were performed. JY, IT and RLG acknowledge support from ONR N00014-13-1-0635 and NSF DMR 1410665.

  5. Variable-range hopping conduction and metal-insulator transition in amorphous RexSi1-x thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisunov, K. G.; Vinzelberg, H.; Arushanov, E.; Schumann, J.

    2011-09-01

    Resistivity, ρ(T), of the amorphous RexSi1-x thin films with x = 0.285-0.351 is investigated in the interval of T ~ 300-0.03 K. At x = 0.285-0.324 the activated behavior of ρ(T) is governed by the Mott and the Shklovskii-Efros variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms in different temperature intervals and the three-dimensional regime of the hopping. Between x = 0.328 and 0.351 the activationless dependence of ρ(T) takes place. The critical behavior of the characteristic VRH temperatures and of the Coulomb gap, Δ, pertinent to proximity to the metal-insulator transition at the critical value of xc ≈ 0.327, is observed. The analysis of the critical behavior of Δ yields directly the critical exponent of the dielectric permittivity, η = 2.1 ± 0.2, in agreement with the theoretical prediction, η = 2. On the other hand, the values of the critical exponent of the correlation length ν ~ 0.8-1.1 close to the expected value of unity can be obtained from the analysis of the critical behavior of the VRH characteristic temperatures under an additional assumption of a strong underbarrier scattering of hopping charge carriers in conditions, when the concentration of scattering centers considerably exceeds the concentration of sites involved in the hopping.

  6. Positive charge trapping phenomenon in n-channel thin-film transistors with amorphous alumina gate insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daus, Alwin; Vogt, Christian; Münzenrieder, Niko; Petti, Luisa; Knobelspies, Stefan; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Luisier, Mathieu; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the charge trapping behavior in InGaZnO4 (IGZO) thin-film transistors with amorphous Al2O3 (alumina) gate insulators. For thicknesses ≤10 nm, we observe a positive charge generation at intrinsic defects inside the Al2O3, which is initiated by quantum-mechanical tunneling of electrons from the semiconductor through the Al2O3 layer. Consequently, the drain current shows a counter-clockwise hysteresis. Furthermore, the de-trapping through resonant tunneling causes a drastic subthreshold swing reduction. We report a minimum value of 19 mV/dec at room temperature, which is far below the fundamental limit of standard field-effect transistors. Additionally, we study the thickness dependence for Al2O3 layers with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 nm. The comparison of two different gate metals shows an enhanced tunneling current and an enhanced positive charge generation for Cu compared to Cr.

  7. Label-free electrical determination of trypsin activity by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Serr, Andreas; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-10-08

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based thin film resistor is employed for the label-free determination of enzymatic activity. We demonstrate that enzymes, which cleave biological polyelectrolyte substrates, can be detected by the sensor. As an application, we consider the serine endopeptidase trypsin, which cleaves poly-L-lysine (PLL). We show that PLL adsorbs quasi-irreversibly to the sensor and is digested by trypsin directly at the sensor surface. The created PLL fragments are released into the bulk solution due to kinetic reasons. This results in a measurable change of the surface potential allowing for the determination of trypsin concentrations down to 50 ng mL(-1). Chymotrypsin is a similar endopeptidase with a different specificity, which cleaves PLL with a lower efficiency as compared to trypsin. The activity of trypsin is analyzed quantitatively employing a kinetic model for enzyme-catalyzed surface reactions. Moreover, we have demonstrated the specific inactivation of trypsin by a serine protease inhibitor, which covalently binds to the active site of the enzyme.

  8. New type of quantum spin Hall insulators in hydrogenated PbSn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2017-01-01

    The realization of a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator working at high temperature is of both scientific and technical interest since it supports spin-polarized and dssipationless edge states. Based on first-principle calculations, we predicted that the two-dimensional (2D) binary compound of lead and tin (PbSn) in a buckled honeycomb framework can be tuned into a topological insulator with huge a band gap and structural stability via hydrogenation or growth on special substrates. This heavy-element-based structure is sufficiently ductile to survive the 18 ps molecular dynamics (MD) annealing to 400 K, and the band gap opened by strong spin-orbital-coupling (SOC) is as large as 0.7 eV. These characteristics indicate that hydrogenated PbSn (H-PbSn) is an excellent platform for QSH realization at high temperature. PMID:28218297

  9. A thin polymer insulator for Josephson tunneling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    The use of an organic monolayer formed from a vapor as an insulating barrier for thin film Josephson junctions is considered, and the effect of an organic monolayer on the transition temperature of a thin film superconductor is investigated. Also analyzed are the geometric factors which influence Josephson junctions and Josephson junction interferometers.

  10. Origins of enhanced thermoelectric power factor in topologically insulating Bi{sub 0.64}Sb{sub 1.36}Te{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chi, Hang; Walrath, J. C.; Chang, A. S.; Stoica, Vladimir A.; Endicott, Lynn; Uher, Ctirad, E-mail: cuher@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Tang, Xinfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    In this research, we report the enhanced thermoelectric power factor in topologically insulating thin films of Bi{sub 0.64}Sb{sub 1.36}Te{sub 3} with a thickness of 6–200 nm. Measurements of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and electronic transport show that the Fermi level lies close to the valence band edge, and that the topological surface state (TSS) is electron dominated. We find that the Seebeck coefficient of the 6 nm and 15 nm thick films is dominated by the valence band, while the TSS chiefly contributes to the electrical conductivity. In contrast, the electronic transport of the reference 200 nm thick film behaves similar to bulk thermoelectric materials with low carrier concentration, implying the effect of the TSS on the electronic transport is merely prominent in the thin region. The conductivity of the 6 nm and 15 nm thick film is obviously higher than that in the 200 nm thick film owing to the highly mobile TSS conduction channel. As a consequence of the enhanced electrical conductivity and the suppressed bipolar effect in transport properties for the 6 nm thick film, an impressive power factor of about 2.0 mW m{sup −1} K{sup −2} is achieved at room temperature for this film. Further investigations of the electronic transport properties of TSS and interactions between TSS and the bulk band might result in a further improved thermoelectric power factor in topologically insulating Bi{sub 0.64}Sb{sub 1.36}Te{sub 3} thin films.

  11. Stability of low-carrier-density topological-insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films and effect of capping layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, Maryam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Moon, Jisoo; Oh, Seongshik, E-mail: ohsean@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Wu, Liang; Armitage, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Institute for Quantum Matter, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Although over the past number of years there have been many advances in the materials aspects of topological insulators (TIs), one of the ongoing challenges with these materials is the protection of them against aging. In particular, the recent development of low-carrier-density bulk-insulating Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films and their sensitivity to air demands reliable capping layers to stabilize their electronic properties. Here, we study the stability of the low-carrier-density Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films in air with and without various capping layers using DC and THz probes. Without any capping layers, the carrier density increases by ∼150% over a week and by ∼280% over 9 months. In situ-deposited Se and ex situ-deposited poly(methyl methacrylate) suppress the aging effect to ∼27% and ∼88%, respectively, over 9 months. The combination of effective capping layers and low-carrier-density TI films will open up new opportunities in topological insulators.

  12. Vortices and quasiparticles near the superconductor-insulator transition in thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitski, Victor M; Refael, G; Fisher, Matthew P A; Senthil, T

    2005-08-12

    We study the low temperature behavior of an amorphous superconducting film driven normal by a perpendicular magnetic-field (B). For this purpose we introduce a new two-fluid formulation consisting of fermionized field-induced vortices and electrically neutralized Bogoliubov quasiparticles (spinons) interacting via a long-ranged statistical interaction. This approach allows us to access a novel non-Fermi-liquid phase, which naturally interpolates between the low B superconductor and the high B normal metal. We discuss the properties of the resulting "vortex metal" phase.

  13. Topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe thin films on SrTiO3 (001 with tunable Fermi levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report a systematic study of topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe (0 < x < 1 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(001. Two domains of PbxSn1-xTe thin films with intersecting angle of α ≈ 45° were confirmed by reflection high energy diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES. ARPES study of PbxSn1-xTe thin films demonstrated that the Fermi level of PbTe could be tuned by altering the temperature of substrate whereas SnTe cannot. An M-shaped valance band structure was observed only in SnTe but PbTe is in a topological trivial state with a large gap. In addition, co-evaporation of SnTe and PbTe results in an equivalent variation of Pb concentration as well as the Fermi level of PbxSn1-xTe thin films.

  14. Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmouss

    2003-01-01

    the optical absorption are consistent with the film color changes. Finally, the optical and electrochromic properties of the films prepared by this method are compared with those of our sputtered films already studied and with other works.

  15. Magnetic thin-film insulator with ultra-low spin wave damping for coherent nanomagnonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiming; Kelly, O d'Allivy; Cros, V; Bernard, R; Bortolotti, P; Anane, A; Brandl, F; Huber, R; Stasinopoulos, I; Grundler, D

    2014-10-30

    Wave control in the solid state has opened new avenues in modern information technology. Surface-acoustic-wave-based devices are found as mass market products in 100 millions of cellular phones. Spin waves (magnons) would offer a boost in today's data handling and security implementations, i.e., image processing and speech recognition. However, nanomagnonic devices realized so far suffer from the relatively short damping length in the metallic ferromagnets amounting to a few 10 micrometers typically. Here we demonstrate that nm-thick YIG films overcome the damping chasm. Using a conventional coplanar waveguide we excite a large series of short-wavelength spin waves (SWs). From the data we estimate a macroscopic of damping length of about 600 micrometers. The intrinsic damping parameter suggests even a record value about 1 mm allowing for magnonics-based nanotechnology with ultra-low damping. In addition, SWs at large wave vector are found to exhibit the non-reciprocal properties relevant for new concepts in nanoscale SW-based logics. We expect our results to provide the basis for coherent data processing with SWs at GHz rates and in large arrays of cellular magnetic arrays, thereby boosting the envisioned image processing and speech recognition.

  16. Electrical Conduction Mechanisms in Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) Structure with TiO x N y Thin Films Deposited with Different O/N Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Juliano; Grigorov, Korneli G.; Moraes, Rodrigo S.; Guerino, Marciel; Da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro S.; Massi, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the current-voltage characteristics of titanium oxynitride thin films were measured and the charge carrier transport mechanisms established as a function of film composition. The films were deposited by magnetron sputtering, where the oxygen/nitrogen ratio was varied via a pulsing technique to enable the achievement of desired concentrations. Thus, the obtained films showed metallic titanium nitrate (TiN) or semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) character and were used to fabricate metal-insulator-metal structures. An ohmic conduction mechanism was identified in the films with higher nitrogen incorporation or presenting TiN-rich phase. Decrease in the nitrogen content resulted in films with TiO2-rich phase. In this case, Poole-Frenkel and space-charge-limited current conduction mechanisms were observed. The dielectric constants were calculated from the high-frequency capacitance-voltage dependences, with a reduction from 10 to 3 being observed due to the stoichiometric changes and probable incorporation of defects into the film structure. Finally, the film composition and structural characteristics of the films were revealed by Rutherford backscattering and x-ray diffraction techniques, respectively.

  17. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.

  18. Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced Metal-insulator transition in VO$_2$ thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Radue, E; Kittiwatanakul, S; Lu, J; Wolf, S A; Rossi, E; Lukaszew, R A; Novikova, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the differences in the dynamics of the ultrafast photo-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) of two VO$_2$ thin films deposited on different substrates, TiO$_2$ and Al$_2$O$_3$, and in particular the temperature dependence of the threshold laser fluence values required to induce various MIT stages in a wide range of sample temperatures (150 K - 320 K). We identified that, although the general pattern of MIT evolution was similar for the two samples, there were several differences. Most notably, the threshold values of laser fluence required to reach the transition to a fully metallic phase in the VO$_2$ film on the TiO$_2$ substrate were nearly constant in the range of temperatures considered, whereas the VO$_2$/Al$_2$O$_3$ sample showed clear temperature dependence. Our analysis qualitatively connects such behavior to the structural differences in the two VO$_2$ films.

  19. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3/LaAlO3 thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoliang Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition (MIT in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3 (SNNO thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001-LaAlO3 substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The TMI of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 109 A•m−2 to 4.9 × 109 A•m−2. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  20. Current-voltage characteristics with several threshold currents in insulating low-doped La1-xSrxMnO3 (x=0.10) thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Kun; FENG Jiafeng; HE Meng; L(U) Huibin; JIN Kuijuan; ZHOU Yueliang; YANG Guozhen3

    2008-01-01

    The current-induced resistive switching behavior in the micron-scale pillars of low-doped La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 thin films using laser molecular-beam epitaxy was reported. It was demonstrated that the current-voltage curves at 120 K showed hysteresis with several threshold currents corresponding to the switching in resistance to metastable low resistance states, and finally, four closed loops were formed. A mode was proposed, which was based on the low-temperature canted antiferromagnetism ordering for a lightly doped insulating regime.

  1. Inkjet printing of TIPS-PEN on soluble polymer insulating films: a route to high-performance thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Anthony, J.E.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to inkjet print high-performance organic transistors by printing the organic semiconductor ink on a thin, continuous, and solvent-absorbing layer of insulating material. The ink spreading is effectively controlled by local dissolution of the layer, and during drying the charac

  2. Improvement in performance of solution-processed indium-zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistors by UV/O3 treatment on zirconium oxide gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Bukke Ravindra; Avis, Christophe; Delwar Hossain Chowdhury, Md; Kim, Taehun; Lin, Tengda; Jang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    We studied solution-processed amorphous indium-zinc-tin oxide (a-IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with spin-coated zirconium oxide (ZrOx) as the gate insulator. The ZrOx gate insulator was used without and with UV/O3 treatment. The TFTs with an untreated ZrOx gate dielectric showed a saturation mobility (μsat) of 0.91 ± 0.29 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.28 ± 0.36 V, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 199 ± 37.17 mV/dec, and a current ratio (ION/IOFF) of ˜107. The TFTs with a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator exhibited μsat of 2.65 ± 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1, Vth of 0.44 ± 0.35 V, SS of 133 ± 24.81 mV/dec, and ION/IOFF of ˜108. Hysteresis was 0.32 V in the untreated TFTs and was eliminated by UV/O3 treatment. Also, the leakage current decreased significantly when the IZTO TFT was coated onto a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator.

  3. Size induced metal-insulator transition in nanostructured niobium thin films: intra-granular and inter-granular contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sangita [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Genc, Arda [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Raychaudhuri, Pratap [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Fraser, Hamish L [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ayyub, Pushan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2006-05-17

    With a reduction in the average grain size in nanostructured films of elemental Nb, we observe a systematic crossover from metallic to weakly insulating behaviour. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the insulating phase clearly indicates the existence of two distinct activation energies corresponding to inter-granular and intra-granular mechanisms of transport. While the high temperature behaviour is dominated by grain boundary scattering of the conduction electrons, the effect of discretization of energy levels due to quantum confinement shows up at low temperatures. We show that the energy barrier at the grain boundary is proportional to the width of the largely disordered inter-granular region, which increases with a decrease in the grain size. For a metal-insulator transition to occur in nano-Nb due to the opening up of an energy gap at the grain boundary, the critical grain size is {approx}8 nm and the corresponding grain boundary width is {approx}1.1 nm.

  4. Size-dependent metal-insulator transition in platinum-dispersed silicon dioxide thin film: A candidate for future non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Albert B. K.

    Non-volatile random access memories (NVRAM) are promising data storage and processing devices. Various NVRAM, such as FeRAM and MRAM, have been studied in the past. But resistance switching random access memory (RRAM) has demonstrated the most potential for replacing flash memory in use today. In this dissertation, a novel RRAM material design that relies upon an electronic transition, rather than a phase change (as in chalcogenide Ovonic RRAM) or a structural change (such in oxide and halide filamentary RRAM), is investigated. Since the design is not limited to a single material but applicable to general combinations of metals and insulators, the goal of this study is to use a model material to delineate the intrinsic features of the electronic metal/insulator transition in random systems and to demonstrate their relevance to reliable memory storage and retrieval. We fabricated amorphous SiO2 thin films embedded with randomly dispersed Pt atoms. Macroscopically, this random material exhibits a percolation transition in electric conductivity similar to the one found in various insulator/metal granular materials. However, at Pt concentrations well below the bulk percolation limit, a distinct insulator to metal transition occurs in the thickness direction as the film thickness falls below electron's "diffusion" distance, which is the tunneling distance at 0K. The thickness-triggered metal- to-insulator transition (MIT) can be similarly triggered by other conditions: (a) a changing Pt concentration (a concentration-triggered MIT), (b) a changing voltage/polarity (voltage-triggered MIT), and (c) an UV irradiation (photon-triggered MIT). The resistance switching characteristics of this random material were further investigated in several device configurations under various test conditions. These include: materials for the top and bottom electrodes, fast pulsing, impedance spectroscopy, static stressing, retention, fatigue and temperature from 10K to 448K. The SiO2-Pt

  5. Metal-Insulator Phase Transition in thin VO2 films: A Look from the Far Infrared Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, B. M.; Thoman, A.

    Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to investigate theoptical properties of laser-ablated VO2 films in the vicinity of the MI transition in the 0.1-2 THz frequency range. At frequencies below the phonon resonances of the material wecan obtain a clean spectroscopic signature of the carrier dynamics......Vanadium dioxide (VO2) displays a well-known metal-insulator (MI) transition at atemperature of 68oC. The MI transition in VO2 has been studied extensively by a widerange of optical, electrical, structural, and magnetic measurements. In spite of this there isstill some controversy about the nature...... of the phase transition. Mid-IR studies1 indicatethat a model based on growth of metallic domains accounts for the phase transitionwhereas other studies2 argue that a homogeneous increase of the carrier concentration isresponsible for the change in properties across the phase transition.In this study we use...

  6. Effective Contact Potential of Thin Film Metal-Insulator Nanostructures and Its Role in Self-Powered Nanofilm X-ray Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Davide; Ada, Earl; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2017-03-29

    We studied the effective contact potential difference (ECPD) of thin film nanostructures and its role in self-powered X-ray sensors, which use the high-energy current detection scheme. We compared the response to kilovoltage X-rays of several nanostructures made of disparate combinations of conductors (Al, Cu, Ta, ITO) and oxides (SiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3). We measured current-voltage curves in parallel-plate configuration separated by an air gap and determined three characteristic parameters: current at zero voltage bias I0, the voltage offset for zero current ECPD, and saturation current Isat. We found that the metals' ECPD values measured with our technique were higher than the CPD values measured with photoelectron spectroscopy in situ, i.e., no air contact. These differences are related to natural oxidization and to the presence of photo-/Auger-electron current leaking from the high-Z toward the low-Z electrode, as suggested by additional experiments carried out in vacuum. Further, the deposition of the 40-500 nm oxide layer on the surface of metallic substrates strongly affects their contact potential. This technique exploits ionization and charge carrier transport in both solid insulators and in air, and it opens the possibility of measuring the ECPD between metals separated by a solid insulator in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. Additionally, we demonstrated that certain configurations of MIM structures are suitable for X-ray detection in self-powered mode.

  7. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  8. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  9. High performance top-gated indium–zinc–oxide thin film transistors with in-situ formed HfO{sub 2} gate insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang, E-mail: yang_song@brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Zaslavsky, A. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); School of Engineering, Brown University, 184 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Paine, D.C. [School of Engineering, Brown University, 184 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report on top-gated indium–zinc–oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with an in-situ formed HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric insulator. Building on our previous demonstration of high-performance IZO TFTs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric, we now report on a one-step process, in which Hf is evaporated onto the 20 nm thick IZO channel, forming a partially oxidized HfO{sub x} layer, without any additional insulator in-between. After annealing in air at 300 °C, the in-situ reaction between partially oxidized Hf and IZO forms a high quality HfO{sub 2} gate insulator with a low interface trapped charge density N{sub TC} ~ 2.3 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} and acceptably low gate leakage < 3 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at gate voltage V{sub G} = 1 V. The annealed TFTs with gate length L{sub G} = 50 μm have high mobility ~ 95 cm{sup 2}/V ∙ s (determined via the Y-function technique), high on/off ratio ~ 10{sup 7}, near-zero threshold voltage V{sub T} = − 0.02 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.062 V/decade, near the theoretical limit. The on-current of our proof-of-concept TFTs is relatively low, but can be improved by reducing L{sub G}, indicating that high-performance top-gated HfO{sub 2}-isolated IZO TFTs can be fabricated using a single-step in-situ dielectric formation approach. - Highlights: • High-performance indium–zinc–oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). • Single-step in-situ dielectric formation approach simplifies fabrication process. • During anneal, reaction between HfO{sub x} and IZO channel forms a high quality HfO{sub 2} layer. • Gate insulator HfO{sub 2} shows low interface trapped charge and small gate leakage. • TFTs have high mobility, near-zero threshold voltage, and a low subthreshold swing.

  10. Low-frequency noise in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors with an inverse staggered structure and an SiO2 gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Chul; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2014-05-01

    We report the low-frequency noise (LFN) behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors with an inverse staggered structure and an SiO2 gate insulator. The normalized noise power spectral density depended on channel length, L, with the form 1/L2, and on the gate bias voltage, VG, and threshold voltage, VTH, with the form 1/(VG - VTH)β where 1.5 < β < 2.1. In addition, the scattering constant α was less than 105 Ω. These results suggest that the contact resistance has a significant role in the LFN behavior and the charge-carrier density fluctuation is the dominant origin of LFN.

  11. Thin-film morphology of inkjet-printed single-droplet organic transistors using polarized Raman spectroscopy: effect of blending TIPS-pentacene with insulating polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David T; Kjellander, B K Charlotte; Smaal, Wiljan T T; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Combe, Craig; McCulloch, Iain; Wilson, Richard; Burroughes, Jeremy H; Bradley, Donal D C; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2011-12-27

    We report thin-film morphology studies of inkjet-printed single-droplet organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) using angle-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy. We show this to be an effective technique to determine the degree of molecular order as well as to spatially resolve the orientation of the conjugated backbones of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-Pentacene) molecules. The addition of an insulating polymer, polystyrene (PS), does not disrupt the π-π stacking of the TIPS-Pentacene molecules. Blending in fact improves the uniformity of the molecular morphology and the active layer coverage within the device and reduces the variation in molecular orientation between polycrystalline domains. For OTFT performance, blending enhances the saturation mobility from 0.22 ± 0.05 cm(2)/(V·s) (TIPS-Pentacene) to 0.72 ± 0.17 cm(2)/(V·s) (TIPS-Pentacene:PS) in addition to improving the quality of the interface between TIPS-Pentacene and the gate dielectric in the channel, resulting in threshold voltages of ∼0 V and steep subthreshold slopes.

  12. Antiferromagnetic and xy ferro-orbital order in insulating SrRuO3 thin films with SrO termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autieri, C

    2016-10-26

    By means of first-principles calculations we study the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of SrRuO3 surface for the SrO termination. We find that the RuO6 octahedra and the structure of the SrO layers at the surface are strongly modified as well as the Ru-O-Ru bond angles. We find in the thin films a d xy ferro-orbital order. The d xy orbital becomes the lowest in energy as in other quasitwodimensional ruthenates. Such structural rearrangement, together with a band reduction, leads to a modification of the magnetic properties. We compare the Jahn-Teller effect between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. We show that an insulating G-type antiferromagnetic phase takes place in SrRuO3 thin films, substituting the metallic phase experimentally found in every bulk Sr-ruthenates. The single layer SrRuO3 presents many similarities with the Ca2RuO4 low temperature phase, these similarities disappear with a larger number of layers. A study of the ground state of the as function of the number of layers is presented, the competition between bandwidth and Coulomb repulsion determines the ground state. We propose the disorder as responsible for the exchange bias effect observed.

  13. Temperature and electric field induced metal-insulator transition in atomic layer deposited VO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadjer, Marko J.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Downey, Brian P.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Meyer, David J.; Eddy, Charles R.; Kub, Fritz J.

    2017-10-01

    Amorphous vanadium oxide (VO2) films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were crystallized with an ex situ anneal at 660-670 °C for 1-2 h under a low oxygen pressure (10-4 to 10-5 Torr). Under these conditions the crystalline VO2 phase was maintained, while formation of the V2O5 phase was suppressed. Electrical transition from the insulator to the metallic phase was observed in the 37-60 °C range, with an ROFF/RON ratio of up to about 750 and ΔTC ≅ 7-10 °C. Lateral electric field applied across two-terminal device structures induced a reversible phase change, with a room temperature transition field of about 25 kV/cm in the VO2 sample processed with the 2 h long O2 anneal. Both the width and slope of the field induced MIT I-V hysteresis were dependent upon the VO2 crystalline quality.

  14. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  15. Sodium beta-alumina thin films as gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ben-Lang; Chen Chao; Li Yan-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li; Liu Xing-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Sodium beta-alumina (SBA) is deposited on AlGaN/GaN by using a co-deposition process with sodium and Al2O3 as the precursors.The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum reveals that the deposited thin film is amorphous.The binding energy and composition of the deposited thin film,obtained from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)measurement,are consistent with those of SBA.The dielectric constant of the SBA thin film is about 50.Each of the capacitance-voltage characteristics obtained at five different frequencies shows a high-quality interface between SBA and A1GaN.The interface trap density of metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MISHEMT)is measured to be (3.5~9.5)× 1010 cm-2.eV-1 by the conductance method.The fixed charge density of SBA dielectric is on the order of 2.7x1012 cm-2.Compared with the AlGaN/GaN metal semiconductor hetcrostructure high-electron-mobility transistor (MESHEMT),the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT usually has a threshold voltage that shifts negatively.However,the threshold voltage of the AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT using SBA as the gate dielectric shifts positively from -5.5 V to-3.5 V.From XPS results,the surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF) of AlGaN is found to decrease from 2.56 eV to 2.25 eV after the SBA thin film deposition.The possible reasons why the threshold voltage of AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT with the SBA gate dielectric shifts positively are the influence of SBA on surface valence-band maximum (VBM-EF),the reduction of interface traps and the effects of sodium ions,and/or the fixed charges in SBA on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG).

  16. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  17. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  18. Environmentally stable flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors using zirconium-silicate and hafnium-silicate thin film composite materials as gate dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Chu, Min-Ching; Wu, Chung-Shu; Ravipati, Srikanth; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2011-08-01

    Fully flexible metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors fabricated on 25 microm thin polyimide (PI) substrates via the surface sol-gel process using 10-nm-thick zirconium-silicate (ZrSixOy) and hafnium-silicate (HfSimOn) films as gate dielectrics. The surface morphology of the ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films were investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed that continuous and crack-free surface growth had occurred on the PI. Both the films treated with oxygen (O2) plasma and annealing (ca. 250 degrees C) consisted of amorphous phase; confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at high resolution to examine the chemical composition of the films subjected to various treatment conditions. The shift of the XPS peaks towards higher binding energy revealed the O2 plasma-pretreatment followed by annealing was the most effective process to the surface oxidation at relatively low-temperature, for further passivate the grease traps and making dielectric films thermally stable. The ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films in sandwich-like MIM configuration on the PI substrates exhibited the low leakage current densities of 7.1 x 10(-9) and 8.4 x 10(-9) A/cm2 at applied electric field of 10 MV/cm and maximum capacitance densities of 7.5 and 5.3 fF/microm2 at 1 MHz, respectively. In addition, the ZrSixOy and HfSimOn films in MIM capacitors showed the estimated dielectric constants of 8.2 and 6.0, respectively. Prior to use of flexible MIM capacitors in advanced flexible electronic devices; the reliability test was studied by applying day-dependent leakage current density measurements up to 30 days. These films of silicate-surfactant mesostructured materials have special interest to be used as gate dielectrics in future for flexible metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  19. Design of periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguide back structures for the enhancement of light absorption in thin-film solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Gai-Ge; Jiang Jian-Li; Xian Feng-Lin; Qiang Hai-Xia; Wu Hong; Li Xiang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    To increase the absorption in a thin layer of absorbing material (amorphous silicon,arSi),a light trapping design is presented. The designed structure incorporates periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguides to enhance the optical path length of light within the solar cells. The new design can result in broadband optical absorption enhancement not only for transverse magnetic (TM)-polarized light,but also for transverse electric (TE)-polarized light. No plasmonic modes can be excited in TE-polarization,but because of the coupling into the a.Si planar waveguide guiding modes and the diffraction of light by the bottom periodic structures into higher diffraction orders,the total absorption in the active region is also increased. The results from rigorous coupled wave analysis show that the overall optical absorption in the active layer can be greatly enhanced by up to 40%. The designed structures presented in this paper can be integrated with back contact technology to potentially produce high-efficiency thin-film solar cell devices.

  20. Magnetotransport study of (Sb1-xBix)2Te3 thin films on mica substrate for ideal topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Cajetan I.; Jiles, David C.

    2016-05-01

    We deposited high quality (Sb1-xBix)2Te3 on mica substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated their magnetotransport properties. It is found that the average surface roughness of thin films is lower than 2 nm. Moreover, a local maxima on the sheet resistance is obtained with x = 0.043, indicating a minimization of bulk conductivity at this composition. For (Sb0.957Bi0.043)2Te3, weak antilocalization with coefficient of -0.43 is observed, confirming the existence of 2D surface states. Moreover Shubnikov-de Hass oscillation behavior occurs under high magnetic field. The 2D carrier density is then determined as 0.81 × 1016 m-2, which is lower than that of most TIs reported previously, indicating that (Sb0.957Bi0.043)2Te3 is close to ideal TI composition of which the Dirac point and Fermi surface cross within the bulk bandgap. Our results thus demonstrate the best estimated composition for ideal TI is close to (Sb0.957Bi0.043)2Te3 and will be helpful for designing TI-based devices.

  1. Theory of Strain-Controlled Magnetotransport and Stabilization of the Ferromagnetic Insulating Phase in Manganite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anamitra; Cole, William S.; Woodward, Patrick; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2013-04-01

    We show that applying strain on half-doped manganites makes it possible to tune the system to the proximity of a metal-insulator transition and thereby generate a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) response. This phase competition not only allows control of CMR in ferromagnetic metallic manganites but can be used to generate CMR response in otherwise robust insulators at half-doping. Further, from our realistic microscopic model of strain and magnetotransport calculations within the Kubo formalism, we demonstrate a striking result of strain engineering that, under tensile strain, a ferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator, previously inaccessible to experiments, becomes stable.

  2. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  3. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  4. Thin-film morphology of inkjet-printed single-droplet organic transistors using polarized Raman spectroscopy: effect of blending TIPS-pentacene with insulating polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, D.T.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Combe, C.; McCulloch, I.; Wilson, R.; Burroughes, J.H.; Bradley, D.D.C.; Kim, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report thin-film morphology studies of inkjet-printed single-droplet organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) using angle-dependent polarized Raman spectroscopy. We show this to be an effective technique to determine the degree of molecular order as well as to spatially resolve the orientation of th

  5. The metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide: A view at bulk and surface contributions for thin films and the effect of annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W.; West, K. G.; Lu, J. W.; Pei, Y.; Wolf, S. A.; Reinke, P.; Sun, Y.

    2009-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is investigated as potential oxide barrier in spin switches, and in order to incorporate VO2 layers in complex multilayer devices, it is necessary to understand the relation between bulk and surface/interface properties. Highly oriented VO2 thin films were grown on (0001) sapphire single crystal substrates with reactive bias target ion beam deposition. In the analysis of the VO2 films, bulk-sensitive methods [x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transport measurements] and surface sensitive techniques [photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy] were employed. The samples were subjected to heating cycles with annealing temperatures of up to 425 and 525K. Prior to annealing the VO2 films exhibit the transition from the monoclinic to the tetragonal phase with the concurrent change in conductivity by more than a factor of 103 and their phase purity is confirmed by XRD. Annealing to 425K and thus cycling across the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature has no impact on the bulk properties of the VO2 film but the surface undergoes irreversible electronic changes. The observation of the valence band with PES during the annealing illustrates that the surface adopts a partially metallic character, which is retained after cooling. Annealing to a higher temperature (525K ) triggers a modification of the bulk, which is evidenced by a considerable reduction in the MIT characteristics, and a degradation in crystallite morphology. The local measurement of the conductivity with scanning tunneling spectroscopy shows the transition of the surface from predominantly semiconducting surface prior to annealing to a surface with an overwhelming contribution from metallic sections afterward. The spatial distribution of metallic regions cannot be linked in a unique manner to the crystallite size or location within the crystallites. The onset of oxygen depletion at the surface is held responsible for this behavior. The onset of bulk

  6. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI) thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions) as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the m...

  7. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  8. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  9. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  10. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  11. First-principles prediction of a giant-gap quantum spin Hall insulator in Pb thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Li, Ping; Li, Feng; Wang, Pei-Ji; Zhang, Run-Wu

    2016-11-23

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect is promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to the robust gapless states inside the insulating bulk gap. However, QSH insulators currently suffer from requiring extremely high vacuums or low temperatures. Here, using first-principles calculations, we predict cyanogen-decorated plumbene (PbCN) to be a new QSH phase, with a large gap of 0.92 eV, that is robust and tunable under external strain. The band topology mainly stems from s-pxy band inversion related to the lattice symmetry, while the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of the Pb atoms only opens a large gap. When halogen atoms are incorporated into PbCN, the resulting inversion-asymmetric PbFx(CN)1-x can host the QSH effect, accompanied by the presence of a sizable Rashba spin splitting at the top of the valence band. Furthermore, the Te(111)-terminated BaTe surface is proposed to be an ideal substrate for experimental realization of these monolayers, without destroying their nontrivial topology. These findings provide an ideal platform to enrich topological quantum phenomena and expand the potential applications in high-temperature spintronics.

  12. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  13. Anomalous photoelectric effect of a polycrystalline topological insulator film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Yao, Jiandong; Shao, Jianmei; Li, Hai; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2014-07-29

    A topological insulator represents a new state of quantum matter that possesses an insulating bulk band gap as well as a spin-momentum-locked Dirac cone on the surface that is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Photon-dressed surface states and light-induced surface photocurrents have been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report experimental observations of an anomalous photoelectric effect in thin films of Bi2Te3, a polycrystalline topological insulator. Under illumination with non-polarised light, transport measurements reveal that the resistance of the topological surface states suddenly increases when the polycrystalline film is illuminated. The resistance variation is positively dependent on the light intensity but has no relation to the applied electric field; this finding can be attributed to the gap opening of the surface Dirac cone. This observation of an anomalous photoelectric effect in polycrystalline topological insulators offers exciting opportunities for the creation of photodetectors with an unusually broad spectral range. Moreover, polycrystalline topological insulator films provide an attractive material platform for exploring the nature and practical application of topological insulators.

  14. Thin film superfluid optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Christopher G; McAuslan, David L; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Excitations in superfluid helium represent attractive mechanical degrees of freedom for cavity optomechanics schemes. Here we numerically and analytically investigate the properties of optomechanical resonators formed by thin films of superfluid $^4$He covering micrometer-scale whispering gallery mode cavities. We predict that through proper optimization of the interaction between film and optical field, large optomechanical coupling rates $g_0>2\\pi \\times 100$ kHz and single photon cooperativities $C_0>10$ are achievable. Our analytical model reveals the unconventional behaviour of these thin films, such as thicker and heavier films exhibiting smaller effective mass and larger zero point motion. The optomechanical system outlined here provides access to unusual regimes such as $g_0>\\Omega_M$ and opens the prospect of laser cooling a liquid into its quantum ground state.

  15. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  16. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  17. Photo-induced insulator-metal transition in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Effect of thickness dependent structural and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovaara, Tomi; Huhtinen, Hannu; Majumdar, Sayani; Paturi, Petriina

    2016-09-01

    We report photo-induced colossal magnetoresistive insulator-metal transition (IMT) in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films under much reduced applied magnetic field. The colossal effect was studied as a function of film thickness and thus with variable structural properties. Thorough structural, magnetic and magnetotransport characterization under light shows that the highest effect on the transition field can be obtained in the thinnest film (38 nm). However, due to the substrate induced strain of this film the required magnetic field for IMT is quite high. The best crystalline properties of the 110 nm film lead to the lowest IMT field under light and 109% change in resistance at 10 K. With increasing thickness, the film properties start to move more toward the bulk material and, hence, IMT is no more observed under the applied field of 9 T. Our results indicate that for obtaining large photo-induced CMR, the best epitaxial quality of thin films is essential.

  18. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  19. Thin films for material engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  20. Absence of a proximity effect for a thin-films of a Bi2Se3 topological insulator grown on top of a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) cuprate superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T; Pletikosić, I; Weber, A P; Sadowski, J T; Gu, G D; Caruso, A N; Sinkovic, B; Valla, T

    2014-08-08

    Proximity-induced superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator represents a new avenue for observing zero-energy Majorana fermions inside vortex cores. Relatively small gaps and low transition temperatures of conventional s-wave superconductors put hard constraints on these experiments. Significantly larger gaps and higher transition temperatures in cuprate superconductors might be an attractive alternative to considerably relax these constraints, but it is not clear whether the proximity effect would be effective in heterostructures involving cuprates and topological insulators. Here, we present angle-resolved photoemission studies of thin Bi(2)Se(3) films grown in situ on optimally doped Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+δ) substrates that show the absence of proximity-induced gaps on the surfaces of Bi(2)Se(3) films as thin as a 1.5 quintuple layer. These results suggest that the superconducting proximity effect between a cuprate superconductor and a topological insulator is strongly suppressed, likely due to a very short coherence length along the c axis, incompatible crystal and pairing symmetries at the interface, small size of the topological surface state's Fermi surface, and adverse effects of a strong spin-orbit coupling in the topological material.

  1. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  2. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  3. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  4. Zapping thin film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo-Tosic, N.; Kuper, F.G.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    It was expected that hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors (alpha-Si:H TFTs) behave similarly to crystalline silicon transistors under electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress. It will be disproved in this paper. This knowledge is necessary in the design of the transistors used in a ESD

  5. Carrier tuning the metal-insulator transition of epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin film on Nb doped SrTiO3 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Zhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO thin films were deposited on (001SrTiO3(STO and n-type doped Nb:SrTiO3(NSTO single crystal substrates respectively. The metal to insulator transition temperature(TMI of LSMO film on NSTO is lower than that on STO, and the TMI of LSMO can be tuned by changing the applied current in the LSMO/NSTO p-n junction. Such behaviors were considered to be related to the carrier concentration redistribution in LSMO film caused by the change of depletion layer thickness in p-n junction which depends greatly on the applied electric field. The phenomenon could be used to configure artificial devices and exploring the underlying physics.

  6. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  7. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  8. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  9. Carbon Superatom Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canning, A. [Cray Research, PSE, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Canning, A.; Galli, G. [Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), IN-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report on quantum molecular dynamics simulations of C{sub 28} deposition on a semiconducting surface. Our results show that under certain deposition conditions C{sub 28} {close_quote}s act as building blocks on a nanometer scale to form a thin film of nearly defect-free molecules. The C{sub 28} {close_quote}s behave as carbon superatoms, with the majority of them being threefold or fourfold coordinated, similar to carbon atoms in amorphous systems. The microscopic structure of the deposited film supports recent suggestions about the stability of a new form of carbon, the hyperdiamond solid. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  11. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  12. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  13. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  14. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  15. Atomically flat interface between a single-terminated LaAlO3 substrate and SrTiO3 thin film is insulating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface termination of (100-oriented LaAlO3 (LAO single crystals was examined by atomic force microscopy and optimized to produce a single-terminated atomically flat surface by annealing. Then the atomically flat STO film was achieved on a single-terminated LAO substrate, which is expected to be similar to the n-type interface of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG, i.e., (LaO-(TiO2. Particularly, that can serve as a mirror structure for the typical 2DEG heterostructure to further clarify the origin of 2DEG. This newly developed interface was determined to be highly insulating. Additionally, this study demonstrates an approach to achieve atomically flat film growth based on LAO substrates.

  16. Investigation on Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The preparation, current status and trends are investigated for silicon thin film solar cells. The advantages and disadvantages of amorphous silicon thin film, polycrystalline silicon thin film and mono-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells are compared. The future development trends are pointed out. It is found that polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells will be more promising for application with great potential.

  17. Nonlinear optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  18. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  19. Robust Mechanical Properties of Electrically Insulative Alumina Films by Supersonic Aerosol Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Cha, You-Hong; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Young; Park, Jieun; Lee, Dongyun; James, Scott C.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-08-01

    Electrically insulating alumina films were fabricated on steel substrates using supersonic aerosol deposition and their hardness and scratchability were measured. Alumina particles (0.4-μm diameter) were supersonically sprayed inside a low-pressure chamber using between 1 and 20 nozzle passes. These alumina particles were annealed between 300 and 800 K to determine the temperature's effect on film crystal size (37-41 nm). Smoother surface morphology and increased electrical resistance of the thin films were observed as their thicknesses grew by increasing the number of passes. Resistances of up to 10,000 MΩ demonstrate robust electrical insulation. Significant hardness was measured (1232 hv or 13.33 GPa), but the alumina films could be peeled off with normal loads of 36 and 47 N for films deposited on stainless steel and SKD11 substrates, respectively. High insulation and hardness confirm that these alumina films would make excellent electrical insulators.

  20. First Thin Film Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The constant evolution of the satellite market is asking for better technical performances and reliability for a reduced cost. Solar array is in front line of this challenge. This can be achieved by present technologies progressive improvement in cost reduction or by technological breakthrough. To reach an effective End Of Live performance100 W/kg of solar array is not so easy, even if you suppose that the mass of everything is nothing! Thin film cells are potential candidate to contribute to this challenge with certain confidence level and consequent development plan validation and qualification on ground and flight. Based on a strong flight heritage in flexible Solar Array design, the work has allowed in these last years, to pave the way on road map of thin film technologies . This is encouraged by ESA on many technological contracts put in concurrent engineering. CISG was selected cell and their strategy of design, contributions and results will be presented. Trade-off results and Design to Cost solutions will discussed. Main technical drivers, system design constraints, market access, key technologies needed will be detailed in this paper and the resulting road-map and development plan will be presented.

  1. High Field Electrical Conduction in Pre-Formed Al-ZnS-Al Thin Films in Metal-Insulator-Metal Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Y. Nadee; Nadeem Iqbal; M. F. Wasiq; A. U. Khosa

    2007-01-01

    The high field electrical conduction mechanism for the widely used ZnS thin films in the microelectronic industry is investigated. Experimental data on the dc conduction as a function of the applied bias for the Al-ZnS-Al devices is carefully compared with the theoretical equations given by Schottky and Poole-Frenkel. The results yield the value of the coefficient of the barrier lowering compatible with the Schottky theory rather than the Poole-Frenkel theory, which are also in agreement with the results reported earlier by Maskawa [Phys. Rev. Lett.24(1970) 1175

  2. Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These cathodes are electrochemically...active. We have also determined that thin film anodes of Li4Ti5O12 can be prepared by spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These anodes are also

  3. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  4. Transferring MBE-grown topological insulator films to arbitrary substrates and metal-insulator transition via Dirac gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Namrata; Cho, Myung Rae; Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Horibe, Yoichi; Chen, Jing; Wu, Weida; Park, Yun Daniel; Oh, Seongshik

    2014-03-12

    Mechanical exfoliation of bulk crystals has been widely used to obtain thin topological insulator (TI) flakes for device fabrication. However, such a process produces only microsized flakes that are highly irregular in shape and thickness. In this work, we developed a process to transfer the entire area of TI Bi2Se3 thin films grown epitaxially on Al2O3 and SiO2 to arbitrary substrates, maintaining their pristine morphology and crystallinity. Transport measurements show that these transferred films have lower carrier concentrations and comparable or higher mobilities than before the transfer. Furthermore, using this process we demonstrated a clear metal-insulator transition in an ultrathin Bi2Se3 film by gate-tuning its Fermi level into the hybridization gap formed at the Dirac point. The ability to transfer large area TI films to any substrate will facilitate fabrication of TI heterostructure devices, which will help explore exotic phenomena such as Majorana fermions and topological magnetoelectricity.

  5. Low temperature Hall effect in bismuth chalcogenides thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Gabdullin, A. A.; Prudkogliad, V. A.; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides are the most studied 3D topological insulators. As a rule, at low temperatures thin films of these materials demonstrate positive magnetoresistance due to weak antilocalization. Weak antilocalization should lead to resistivity decrease at low temperatures; in experiments, however, resistivity grows as temperature decreases. From transport measurements for several thin films (with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using purely phenomenologi...

  6. Spinodal dewetting of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Puri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Stable thin liquid films are of various scientific and technological applications, e.g., in optical coating, painting technologies, coating thin wires and fibers, lubricants, adhesives, etc. However, the instabilities in a thin film may lead to rupture, hole formation, and other morphological changes which amplify the nonuniformity in the thin film [1]. This morphological evolution in an unstable thin film is generally known as `dewetting' [2]. There have recently been a number of theoretical and experimental studies on dewetting in thin films [3-6]. The process of `spinodal dewetting' comes into the category of a general class of phenomena, spinodal decomposition [7]. The pattern formation taking place during dewetting can also be of great importance in nanotechnology, e.g., for preparing quantum dots [8], nanorings [9], etc. We numerically solve the nonlinear two-dimensional thin film equation [2] for a thin liquid film subjected to the long range van der Waals attraction and short range Born repulsion. The simulation results for the temporal evolution of domains and height profile along diagonal direction of the lattice show the `hills and valleys' short of structures which is the typical morphology obtained during the spinodal dewetting [10]. We obtain the dynamical correlation function and structure factor showing the existence of a characteristic length scale in the system at late time. We give the scaling arguments for the length scale of the drops to be proportional to t1/3 which is in agreement with our numerical results for the domain growth.

  7. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  8. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa P. Ginley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the majority of TI films and bulk crystals exhibit significant bulk conductivity, which obscures these states. In addition, many TI films have a high defect density. This review will discuss progress in reducing the bulk conductivity while increasing the crystal quality. We will describe in detail how growth parameters, substrate choice, and growth technique influence the resulting TI film properties for binary and ternary TIs. We then give an overview of progress in the growth of TI heterostructures. We close by discussing the bright future for TI film growth by MBE.

  9. A versatile platform for magnetostriction measurements in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernpeintner, M.; Holländer, R. B.; Seitner, M. J.; Weig, E. M.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Huebl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile nanomechanical sensing platform for the investigation of magnetostriction in thin films. It is based on a doubly clamped silicon nitride nanobeam resonator covered with a thin magnetostrictive film. Changing the magnetization direction within the film plane by an applied magnetic field generates a magnetoelastic stress and thus changes the resonance frequency of the nanobeam. A measurement of the resulting resonance frequency shift, e.g., by optical interferometry, allows to quantitatively determine the magnetostriction constants of the thin film. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we determine the magnetostriction constants of a 10 nm thick polycrystalline cobalt film, showing very good agreement with literature values. The presented technique aims, in particular, for the precise measurement of magnetostriction in a variety of (conducting and insulating) thin films, which can be deposited by, e.g., electron beam deposition, thermal evaporation, or sputtering.

  10. Optical response and activity of ultrathin films of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgar, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Ali G.; Asgari, Reza

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the optical properties of ultrathin film of a topological insulator in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. We show that due to the combination of the overlap between the surface states of the two layers and the magnetic field, the optical conductivity can show strong anisotropy. This leads to the effective optical activity of the ultrathin film by influencing the circularly polarized incident light. Intriguingly, for a range of magnetic fields, the reflected and transmitted lights exhibit elliptic character. Even for certain values almost linear polarizations are obtained, indicating that the thin film can act as a polaroid in reflection. All these features are discussed in the context of the time-reversal symmetry breaking as one of the key ingredients for the optical activity.

  11. Surface plasmon polaritons in topological insulator nano-films and superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshko, Yury; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Menon, Vinod; Khanikaev, Alexander; Trevino, Jacob

    2016-04-04

    We investigate the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in thin films of topological insulators. Cases of single films and multilayered stacks are analyzed. The materials considered are second generation three dimensional topological insulators Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3. Dispersion relations and propagation lengths of SPPs are estimated numerically, taking into account the variation of bulk dielectric functions of topological insulators, as well as substrate, using the Drude-Lorentz model. The key factors affecting propagation length are identified and experimental modifications for tuning the dispersion relations are proposed. The apparent discrepancy between the experimental data and previously considered theory is resolved.

  12. Spin accumulation in disordered topological insulator ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Ho, Cong Son; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-08-01

    Topological insulator (TI) ultrathin films differ from the more commonly studied semi-infinite bulk TIs in that the former possess both top and bottom surfaces where the surface states localized at different surfaces can couple to one another across the finite thickness of the film. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization, the TI thin films display two distinct phases depending on which of the inter-surface coupling or the magnetization is stronger. In this work, we consider a Bi2Se3 TI thin film system with an in-plane magnetization and numerically calculate the resulting spin accumulation on both surfaces of the film due to an in-plane electric field to linear order. We describe a numerical scheme for performing the Kubo formula calculation in which we include impurity scattering and vertex corrections. We find that the sums of the spin accumulation over the two surfaces in the in-plane direction perpendicular to the magnetization and in the out of plane direction are antisymmetric in Fermi energy around the charge neutrality point and are non-vanishing only when the symmetry between the top and bottom TI surfaces is broken. The impurity scattering, in general, diminishes the magnitude of the spin accumulation.

  13. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with t

  14. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with t

  15. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  16. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.

    1980-06-01

    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  17. Thin Film Deposition Techniques (PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeiss, E.

    The most interesting materials for spin electronic devices are thin films of magnetic transition metals and magnetic perovskites, mainly the doped La-manganites [1] as well as several oxides and metals for passivating and contacting the magnetic films. The most suitable methods for the preparation of such films are the physical vapor deposition methods (PVD). Therefore this report will be restricted to these deposition methods.

  18. Magnetotransport study of (Sb1−xBix2Te3 thin films on mica substrate for ideal topological insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We deposited high quality (Sb1−xBix2Te3 on mica substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated their magnetotransport properties. It is found that the average surface roughness of thin films is lower than 2 nm. Moreover, a local maxima on the sheet resistance is obtained with x = 0.043, indicating a minimization of bulk conductivity at this composition. For (Sb0.957Bi0.0432Te3, weak antilocalization with coefficient of -0.43 is observed, confirming the existence of 2D surface states. Moreover Shubnikov-de Hass oscillation behavior occurs under high magnetic field. The 2D carrier density is then determined as 0.81 × 1016 m−2, which is lower than that of most TIs reported previously, indicating that (Sb0.957Bi0.0432Te3 is close to ideal TI composition of which the Dirac point and Fermi surface cross within the bulk bandgap. Our results thus demonstrate the best estimated composition for ideal TI is close to (Sb0.957Bi0.0432Te3 and will be helpful for designing TI-based devices.

  19. Thin film growth of a topological crystal insulator SnTe on the CdTe (111) surface by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Tomonari; Ohtaki, Yusuke; Akiyama, Ryota; Kuroda, Shinji

    2016-11-01

    We report molecular beam epitaxial growth of a SnTe (111) layer on a CdTe template, fabricated by depositing it on a GaAs (111)A substrate, instead of BaF2 which has been conventionally used as a substrate. By optimizing temperatures for the growth of both SnTe and CdTe layers and the SnTe growth rate, we could obtain SnTe layers of the single phase grown only in the (111) orientation and of much improved surface morphology from the viewpoint of the extension and the flatness of flat regions, compared to the layers grown on BaF2. In this optimal growth condition, we have also achieved a low hole density of the order of 1017 cm-3 at 4 K, the lowest value ever reported for SnTe thin films without additional doping. In the magnetoresistance measurement on this optimized SnTe layer, we observe characteristic negative magneto-conductance which is attributed to the weak antilocalization effect of the two-dimensional transport in the topological surface state.

  20. Thin NbN film structures on SOI for SNSPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' in, Konstantin; Kurz, Stephan; Henrich, Dagmar; Hofherr, Matthias; Siegel, Michael [IMS, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Semenov, Alexei; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm [DLR, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors (SNSPD) made from ultra-thin NbN films on sapphire demonstrate almost 100% intrinsic detection efficiency (DE). However the system DE values is less than 10% mostly limited by a very low absorptance of NbN films thinner than 5 nm. Integration of SNSPD in Si photonic circuit is a promising way to overcome this problem. We present results on optimization of technology of thin NbN film nanostructures on SOI (Silicon on Insulator) substrate used in Si photonics technology. Superconducting and normal state properties of these structures important for SNSPD development are presented and discussed.

  1. Visualization of latent fingerprints using Prussian blue thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Qin; Mei-Qin Zhang; Yang Zhang; Yu Zhu; Shou-Liang Liu; Wen-Jin Wu; Xue-Ji Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Herein,a facile and effective approach was proposed for visualizing latent fingerprints (LFPs) on two kinds of conductive surfaces by spatially selective electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue (PB) thin films.This strategy exploited the fingerprint residue as an insulating mask and the PB thin films were only generated on the bare surface including the valleys between the papillary ridges,which produced a negative image of LFPs with high resolution up to the third level information.The surface morphology of PB films was characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).This enhancement technique showed promising performance in selected materials of practical interest.

  2. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Corrosion Beneath Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-19

    galvanic cell is created on a sensitive surface using alternating layers of anodic and cathodic materials such as steel and copper, which are electrically isolated by an insulation matrix. The surface is then cooled to below the dew point of the surrounding environment to cause condensation on the thin film. The galvanic current between the anodic and cathodic materials is then monitored for the first indication of environmental penetration through the film, i.e.,

  3. Birefringent non-polarizing thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongji; HONG Ruijin; HE Hongbo; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 2×2 characteristic matrices of uniaxially anisotropic thin film for extraordinary and ordinary wave are deduced at oblique incidence. Furthermore, the reflectance and transmittance of thin films are calculated separately for two polarizations, which provide a new concept for designing non-polarizing thin films at oblique incidence. Besides, using the multilayer birefringent thin films, non-polarizing designs, such as beam splitter thin film at single wavelength, edge filter and antireflection thin film over visible spectral region are obtained at oblique incidence.

  4. Drying of thin colloidal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  5. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  6. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  7. Thin films under chemical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V. I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with the light-collecting surface. In this context, the relationships 45 < alpha < 135 degrees and 45 < beta < 135 degrees apply. The invention also relates to a panel provided with a plurality of such t...

  9. Thin-film solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, J.W.; V. I. Kuznetsov

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with the light-collecting surface. In this context, the relationships 45 < alpha < 135 degrees and 45 < beta < 135 degrees apply. The invention also relates to a panel provided with a plurality of such t...

  10. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al2O3, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) was 0 V even after a PBS time (tstress) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (VG) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔVth value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔVth values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (NT) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher NT resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of NT near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  11. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    1928), and later by Coper, Frommer and Zocher (1931), followed. From that time, when thin film technology was in its early stages of evolution, we...personal communication (1983). Cau, Marcel, Comtes Rendues 186, 1293 (1928). Coper, H. K., Frommer , L., and Zocher, H., Ztschr. Elektrochem. 37, 571

  12. Ferroelectric Thin Film Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-10

    less. The film temper- ature is monitored by thermocouple sensors. Process gases pass through the chamber during the process. An advantage of RTP is the...semiconductor InSe ,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 86, pp. 5687–5691, November 1999. 37. R. Mollers and R. Memming Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., vol. 76, 1972. 38. M

  13. Low-temperature Hall effect in bismuth chalcogenides thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Gabdullin, A. A.; Prudkogliad, V. A.; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bismuth chalcogenides are the most studied 3D topological insulators. As a rule, at low temperatures, thin films of these materials demonstrate positive magnetoresistance due to weak antilocalization. Weak antilocalization should lead to resistivity decrease at low temperatures; in experiments, however, resistivity grows as temperature decreases. From transport measurements for several thin films (with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using a purely phenomenological approach, with no microscopic theory, we show that the low-temperature growth of the resistivity is accompanied by growth of the Hall coefficient, in agreement with the diffusive electron-electron interaction correction mechanism. Our data reasonably explain the low-temperature resistivity upturn.

  14. Thin film module development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, T.

    1985-01-01

    The design of ARCO Solar, Inc.'s Genesis G100 photovoltaic module was driven by several criteria, including environmental stability (both electrical and mechanical), consumer aesthetics, low materials costs, and manufacturing ease. The module circuitry is designed as a 12 volt battery charger, using monolithic patterning techniques on a glass superstrate. This patterning and interconnect method proves amenable to high volume, low cost production throughput, and the use of glass serves the dual role of handling ease and availability. The mechanical design of the module centers on environmental stability. Packaging of the glass superstrate circuit must provide good resistance to thermal and humidity exposure along with hi-pot insulation and hailstone impact resistance. The options considered are given. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is chosen as the pottant material for its excellent weatherability.

  15. Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2010-01-01

    Morphology and performance are conjointed attributes of metamaterials, of which sculptured thin films (STFs) are examples. STFs are assemblies of nanowires that can be fabricated from many different materials, typically via physical vapor deposition onto rotating substrates. The curvilinear--nanowire morphology of STFs is determined by the substrate motions during fabrication. The optical properties, especially, can be tailored by varying the morphology of STFs. In many cases prototype devices have been fabricated for various optical, thermal, chemical, and biological applications.

  16. Emergent topological phenomena in thin films of pyrochlore iridates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-20

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  17. Magnetic and electric properties of C-Co thin films prepared by vaccum arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tembre, A.; Clin, M.; Picot, J.-C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Dellis, J.-L., E-mail: jean-luc.dellis@u-picardie.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Henocque, J. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Bouzerar, R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Systemes Complexes, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Djellab, K. [Plate-forme de Microscopie Electronique, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Cobalt doped carbon thin films have been deposited by pulsed anodic electric arc technique. > The films are composed of well-crystallized cobalt layers and complex graphitic microstructure. > An insulating to a metallic state transition at 60 K is observed. > The magnetic susceptibility measurements show anomalous behaviour around 60 K. - Abstract: Cobalt doped carbon thin films have been deposited by a pulsed anodic electric arc technique. The films were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electric measurements under dc magnetic fields, and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements within a temperature range 15-300 K. An insulating to a metallic state transition at a critical temperature around 60 K was observed.

  18. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  19. Effects of heat treatment process on thin film alloy resistance and its stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继承; 彭银桥

    2003-01-01

    Alloy thin film for advanced pressure sensors was manufactured by means of ion-beam sputtering SiO2 insulation film and NiCr thin film on the 17-4PH stainless steel elastic substrate. The thin film resistance was respectively heat-treated by four processes. The effects on stability of thin film alloy resistance were investigated, and paramaters of heat treatment that make thin film resistance stable were obtained. The experimental result indicates that the most stable thin film resistance can be obtained when it is heat-treated under protection of SiO2 and N2 at 673 K for 1 h, and then kept at 473 K for 24 h. Pressure sensor chips of high precision for harsh environments can be manufactured by this process.

  20. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  1. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  2. Tuning the Dirac cone of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films by substitutional nonmagnetic atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenliang; Zhang, Zhen [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Peng, Xiangyang, E-mail: xiangyang_peng@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Based on first‐principles calculations, it is found that the Dirac cone of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film, which is buried in the bulk valence bands, can be tuned by the substitutional nonmagnetic atoms. It is found that substituting the Bi layer at the two ends of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films with group III atoms Al, Ga, In and Tl, which have lower electronegativity than Bi atoms, can lead to an isolated Dirac cone with the Dirac point shifted into the bulk band gap and located on the Fermi level. Substituting the more electronegative Se, S and O atoms for Te atoms at the top and bottom layers of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film, only the most electronegative O atoms give rise to a nearly ideal Dirac cone. The charge distribution of the resulting isolated Dirac point state is concentrated at the Te layers facing the van der Waals layers and vanishes in the middle of the quintuple layers.

  3. Improvement of electron mobility in La:BaSnO3 thin films by insertion of an atomically flat insulating (Sr,BaSnO3 buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Shiogai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One perovskite oxide, ASnO3 (A = Sr, Ba, is a candidate for use as a transparent conductive oxide with high electron mobility in single crystalline form. However, the electron mobility of films grown on SrTiO3 substrates does not reach the bulk value, probably because of dislocation scattering that originates from the large lattice mismatch. This study investigates the effect of insertion of bilayer BaSnO3 / (Sr,BaSnO3 for buffering this large lattice mismatch between La:BaSnO3 and SrTiO3 substrate. The insertion of 200-nm-thick BaSnO3 on (Sr,BaSnO3 bilayer buffer structures reduces the number of dislocations and improves surface smoothness of the films after annealing as proved respectively by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A systematic investigation of BaSnO3 buffer layer thickness dependence on Hall mobility of the electron transport in La:BaSnO3 shows that the highest obtained value of mobility is 78 cm2V−1s−1 because of its fewer dislocations. High electron mobility films based on perovskite BaSnO3 can provide a good platform for transparent-conducting-oxide electronic devices and for creation of fascinating perovskite heterostructures.

  4. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol, E-mail: shkp@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: kyungcc@kaist.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Hee Ko, E-mail: shkp@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: kyungcc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Material Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) was 0 V even after a PBS time (t{sub stress}) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (V{sub G}) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔV{sub th} value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔV{sub th} values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (N{sub T}) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher N{sub T} resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of N{sub T} near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  5. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriälä, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene ( PHT), fullerene ( C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine ( CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 × 10 3 Ω m and 3 × 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 × 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 × 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  6. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Chukharev, Vladimir, E-mail: Vladimir.Chukharev@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lemmetyinen, Helge [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 {mu}m), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C{sub 60}), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C{sub 60} and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10{sup 3} {Omega} m and 3 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10{sup 8} {Omega} m in dark to 3.1 x 10{sup 6} {Omega} m under the light.

  7. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  8. Selective epitaxial growth for YBCO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, C.A.J.; Smilde, H.-J.H.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rogalla, H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel selective epitaxial growth (SEG) technique for (YBCO) thin films is presented. The method involves the deposition of a thin (about 10 nm) metal layer, in the desired pattern, on a substrate before the deposition of the superconducting thin film. During growth the metal reacts with the YBCO,

  9. Transport properties of topological insulators films and nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Ma Zheng; Zhao Yan-Fei; Meenakshi Singh; Wang Jian

    2013-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed the rapid developments in the study and understanding of topological insulators.In this review,after a brief summary of the history of topological insulators,we focus on the recent progress made in transport experiments on topological insulator films and nanowires.Some quantum phenomena,including the weak antilocalization,the Aharonov-Bohm effect,and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations,observed in these nanostructures are described.In addition,the electronic transport evidence of the superconducting proximity effect as well as an anomalous resistance enhancement in topological insulator/superconductor hybrid structures is included.

  10. Space Charge Distribution Measurement in Insulation Film with Thickness of Several Tens μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Akihiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    Since electronic equipment is required to be smaller and lighter, an insulating material for such equipment is consequently required to be thinner. However, under a certain DC voltage, the electric field in it becomes relatively higher according to the insulating material becomes thinner. Therefore, the insulating performance under high electric field must be important in such thin films. On the other hand, it is said that a space charge accumulation in them under DC high electric field is important because sometimes an electrical breakdown occurs in them due to an enhancement of electric field induced by the accumulated space charge. To investigate the characteristics of the space charge accumulation in them, PEA (Pulsed Electroacoustic) method is usually used. However, a spatial resolution of ordinary PEA system is not enough to observe the space charge distribution in thin films with thickness of several tens μm. Therefore, a new measurement system with high positional resolution is developed by making a thin piezo-electric film that is used as a sensor for PEA system. The obtained resolution of the developed system is 4 μm, and it is used for a typical measurement in LDPE film with thickness of 40 μm.

  11. Thickness effects of SiO xN y interlayer inserted between BaTiO 3 insulating layer and ZnS:Mn phosphor layer in thin film electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hahn, T. S.; Oh, M. H.; Yoon, K. H.

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the effects of a SiO xN y interlayer on a thin film electroluminescent device, inserted between an amorphous BaTiO 3 thin film and a ZnS:Mn phosphor layer. The effects on the thin film electroluminescent device was studied as a function of the thickness of the interlayer. We found that the introduction of the interlayer affected the growth behavior of the phosphor layer. With increasing thickness of the interlayer, the average grain size and the crystallinity of the phosphor layer was improved. The turn-on voltage of the electroluminescent device increased, and the saturation brightness slightly decreased with increasing interlayer thickness. In the case of the TFELD without the interlayer, Poole-Frenkel conduction was observed in the low dc field region, the devices with the interlayer exhibited effective electron tunneling from interface traps. The efficiency of the devices increased with increasing interlayer thickness.

  12. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  13. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  14. Exotic thin films made from cobalt ferrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lisfi, A.; Williams, C.M.; Johnson, A.; Chang, P.; Corcoran, H.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Morgan, W.; Soohoo, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Epitaxial CoFe2O4 thin films have been grown by PLD on (100) MgO substrate. Two types of spin-reorientation have been observed in such films upon annealing or increasing the film-thickness. In the as-deposited layers and at low thickness the easy axis is confined to the normal to the film plane

  15. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  16. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O' Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  17. Thermally grown thin nitride films as a gate dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, H C; Hwang, T K; Lee, K R

    1998-01-01

    High-quality very thin films ( <=6 nm) of silicon nitride were thermally grown in ammonia atmosphere with an IR (Infrared) gold image furnace. As-grown nitride film was analyzed using AES(Auger Emission Spectroscopy). Using MIS (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor) devices, the growth rate was calculated using CV (Capacitance-Voltage) measurements and various electrical characteristics were obtained using CV, IV (Current-Voltage), trapping, time-dependent breakdown, high-field stress, constant current injection stress and dielectric breakdown techniques. These characteristics showed that very thin thermal silicon nitride films can be used as gate dielectrics for future highly scaled-down ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integrated) devices, especially for EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM)'s.

  18. Ellipsometric Studies on Silver Telluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandiaraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver telluride thin films of thickness between 45 nm and 145 nm were thermally evaporated on well cleaned glass substrates at high vacuum better than 10 – 5 mbar. Silver telluride thin films are polycrystalline with monoclinic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffractogram studies. AFM and SEM images of these films are also recorded. The phase ratio and amplitude ratio of these films were recorded in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 700 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry and analysed to determine its optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric functions. High absorption coefficient determined from the analysis of recorded spectra indicates the presence of direct band transition. The optical band gap of silver telluride thin films is thickness dependent and proportional to square of reciprocal of thickness. The dependence of optical band gap of silver telluride thin films on film thickness has been explained through quantum size effect.

  19. Electrodeposited polymer encapsulated nickel sulphide thin films: frequency switching material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sumanta, E-mail: sumantajana85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mukherjee, Nillohit [Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and Sensor Systems, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Chakraborty, Biswajit [Department of Chemistry, Vivekananda Mahavidyalay, Burdwan 713103, WB (India); Mitra, Bibhas Chandra [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mondal, Anup, E-mail: anupmondal2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone encapsulated NiS thin films were synthesized electrochemically. The light induced frequency switching study of the synthesized material was carried out and it was observed that the films performed well as a switching device under 1 Sun illumination. This pulse generation within an insulating polymer encapsulated semicondctor matrix (PVP NiS) might be due to surface covering which leads to reduction of recombination process. Highlights: • PVP-NiS thin films were electrochemically synthesized. • Encapsulation of PVP causes surface modification of NiS by reducing surface states. • The synthesized thin films were used as frequency switching material which generates ~ 50 Hz frequency under 1 Sun irradiation. Abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) encapsulated nickel sulfide (NiS) thin films have been synthesized electrochemically from aqueous solution of hydrated nickel chloride (NiCl₂, 6H₂O), thioacetamide (CH₃C(S) NH₂) (TAA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Surface modification of nickel sulfide (NiS) thin films was achieved by this polymer encapsulation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-radiation (EDAX) techniques were used for the characterization of thin films. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the formation of polymer encapsulated semiconductor. Frequency switching generation study shows that the encapsulated material could be used as a frequency switching device that generates a frequency ~ 50 Hz under 1 Sun illumination. Encapsulation with PVP causes surface modification that reduces the surface states and barrier height. As a result, the width of the depletion region decreases. So the number of electron-hole pairs increases. Consequently, the number of excitons and exciton related emission increases and this leads to reduction of recombination process and shows photo induced

  20. Spin Coated Nano Scale PMMA Films for Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, B. Chandar; Sathish, S.; Sengoden, R.

    Nano scale poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) films are prepared by spin coating the solution of PMMA on to p-Si substrate. The thickness of the films coated is measured by Ellipsometry. The SA-XRD spectrum of the as grown and annealed films indicated the amorphous nature. The SEM analysis revealed no pinholes, pits and dendritic features on the surface. Both as grown and annealed films indicated smooth surface and amorphous structure. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) behaviour of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with Al/PMMA/p-Si has been studied. The C-V behaviour carried out for various frequencies (f) ranging from 20 kHz to 1 MHz and for a bias voltage range of -20 V to +20 V. Both as grown and annealed films showed a small flat band voltage (VFB) shift towards the negative voltage. The small shift in the VFB observed may be due to charge traps and de-traps. The obtained C-V behaviour for as grown and annealed films indicated that as grown PMMA nano scale thin films do not have many defects such as voids and inhomogeneity etc. The observed C-V behavior, a very low shift in the flat band voltage (VFB 0); reasonably higher dielectric constant values; thermal stability up to 2800C; amorphous and smooth surface implies that nano scale thin PMMA film coated by spin coating could be used as an efficient dielectric layer in field effect organic thin film transistors (OTFTs).

  1. Raman spectroscopy of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James Shaw

    Raman spectroscopy was used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate structural and compositional information on a variety of samples. Raman was used on the unique La 2NiMnO6 mixed double perovskite which is a member of the LaMnO3 family of perovskites and has multiferroic properties. Raman was also used on nanodiamond films as well as some boron-doped carbon compounds. Finally, Raman was used to identify metal-dendrimer bonds that have previously been overlooked. Vibrational modes for La2NiMnO6 were ascribed by comparing spectra with that for LaMnO3 bulk and thin film spectra. The two most prominent modes were labeled as an asymmetric stretch (A g) centered around 535 cm-1 and a symmetric stretch (B g) centered around 678 cm. The heteroepitaxial quality of La2NiMnO 6 films on SrTiO3 (100) and LaAlO3 (100) substrates were examined using the Raman microscope by way of depth profile experiments and by varying the thickness of the films. It was found that thin films (10 nm) had much greater strain on the LaAlO3 substrate than on the SrTiO3 substrate by examining the shifts of the Ag and the Bg modes from their bulk positions. Changes in the unit cell owing to the presence of oxygen defects were also monitored using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the Ag and Bg modes shifted between samples formed with different oxygen partial pressures. These shifts could be correlated to changes in the symmetry of the manganese centers due to oxygen defects. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structural and compositional characteristics of carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond coated cutting tools were examined using the Raman Microscope. Impact, abrasion, and depth profile experiments indicated that delamination was the primary cause of film failure in these systems. Boron doped material of interest as catalyst supports were also examined. Monitoring of the G-mode and intensities of the D- and G-modes indicated that

  2. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  3. Fabrication of AlN thin films on different substrates at ambient temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, W X; Wu, P H; Yang, S Z; Ji, Z M

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is very useful as a barrier in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) device or as an insulating layer in many other applications. At ambient temperature, we deposit AlN thin films onto different substrates (such as MgO, LaAlO sub 3 and Si) by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and pure Al target. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and PHI-scan patterns show that the films grown on MgO substrates are excellent epitaxial films with (101) orientation of a hexagonal lattice. A possible structure of the interface between the film and the substrate is suggested and discussed.

  4. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  5. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  6. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  7. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, D E; Shelford, L R; Wadley, P; Holý, V; Wang, M; Hindmarch, A T; van der Laan, G; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Cavill, S A; Rushforth, A W

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications.

  8. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Rajamani, R; Stelson, K A; Cui, T

    2006-07-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based optically transparent and electrically conductive thin films are fabricated on plastic substrates in this study. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are chemically treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid before being dispersed in aqueous surfactant-contained solutions. SWNT thin films are prepared from the stable SWNT solutions using wet coating techniques. The 100 nm thick SWNT thin film exhibits a surface resistivity of 6 kohms/square nanometer with an average transmittance of 88% on the visible light range, which is three times better than the films prepared from the high purity as-received SWNTs.

  9. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  10. Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films via femtosecond laser processing of amorphous VO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charipar, N.A.; Kim, H.; Charipar, K.M.; Mathews, S.A.; Pique, A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC (United States); Breckenfeld, E. [National Research Council Fellow at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Femtosecond laser processing of pulsed laser-deposited amorphous vanadium oxide thin films was investigated. Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films were achieved by femtosecond laser processing in air at room temperature. The electrical transport properties, crystal structure, surface morphology, and optical properties were characterized. The laser-processed films exhibited a metal-insulator phase transition characteristic of VO{sub 2}, thus presenting a pathway for the growth of crystalline vanadium dioxide films on low-temperature substrates. (orig.)

  11. Quantum magnetotransport properties of ultrathin topological insulator films

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-30

    We study the quantum magnetotransport in ultrathin topological insulator films in an external magnetic field considering hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the film. We investigate the two possible mechanisms for splitting of Landau levels, Zeeman and hybridization effects, and show that their interplay leads to minima in the collisional and Hall conductivities with a metal-to-insulator phase transition at the charge neutrality point. Hall plateaus arise at unusual multiples of e2/h . Evidence of a quantum phase transition for the zeroth and splitting of the higher Landau levels is found from the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the transport.

  12. Deposition of thin insulation layers from the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, R.; Hagedorn, H.; Kammermaier, J.; Kobale, M.; Packonik, H.; Ristow, D.; Seebacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The continuous deposition of thin organic dielectric films on metallized carrier foils by glow discharge in monomeric gases is described. Depending on the applied monomers, the films had a dissipation factor of .001 to .003 (1 kHz), a relative permittivity of 2.3 to 2.5 and a resistivity of about 10 to the 17th power omega cm. Additionally, they proved to have a high mechanical homogeneity. Self-healing rolled capacitors with a very high capacitance per volume and of consistently high quality were fabricated from the metallized carrier foils covered with the dielectric film.

  13. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F. Hu; H. Shen; Z.Y. Liu; L.S. Wen

    2003-01-01

    Poly-crystalline silicon thin film has big potential of reducing the cost of solar cells.In this paper the preparation of thin film is introduced, and then the morphology of poly-crystalline thin film is discussed. On the film we developed poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells with efficiency up to 6. 05% without anti-reflection coating.

  14. Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Thin Crystal Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The formulas for atomic displacements and Hamiltonian of a thin crystal film in phonon occupation number representation are obtained with the aid of Green's function theory. On the basis of these results, the formulas for thermal expansion coefficients of the thin crystal film are derived with the perturbation theory, and the numerical calculations are carried out. The results show that the thinner films have larger thermal expansion coefficients.

  15. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  16. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  17. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  18. Thermo-Insulating Moulding Sand for thin Walled Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholewa M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper the selection of the composition and determination of main properties of novel moulding sand was described. The mail goal was to create moulding sand characterized by high thermal insulating properties in relations with low specific weight. This type of moulding sand will find application in thin walled castings with complex geometry, in particular for cores of the skeleton castings. In this work the results of the compressive strength, permeability and friability was presented. It was noted that aluminosilicate microspheres are suitable as moulding sand matrix. Influence of the polyglicol addition on quality and properties of the moulding sand was described. The use of the aluminosilicate microspheres allowed to obtain the moulding sand characterized by high insulation rate, low specific weight and good mechanical properties.

  19. Metal-insulator transition in films of doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Reich, K V; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Fu, Han; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Shklovskii, B I

    2016-03-01

    To fully deploy the potential of semiconductor nanocrystal films as low-cost electronic materials, a better understanding of the amount of dopants required to make their conductivity metallic is needed. In bulk semiconductors, the critical concentration of electrons at the metal-insulator transition is described by the Mott criterion. Here, we theoretically derive the critical concentration nc for films of heavily doped nanocrystals devoid of ligands at their surface and in direct contact with each other. In the accompanying experiments, we investigate the conduction mechanism in films of phosphorus-doped, ligand-free silicon nanocrystals. At the largest electron concentration achieved in our samples, which is half the predicted nc, we find that the localization length of hopping electrons is close to three times the nanocrystals diameter, indicating that the film approaches the metal-insulator transition.

  20. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Gupta; Mukul Gupta; Thomas Gutberlet

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature. The film prepared with only Ar gas shows reflections corresponding to the permalloy phase in X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The addition of nitrogen during sputtering results in broadening of the peaks in XRD pattern, which finally leads to an amorphous phase. The - loop for the sample prepared with only Ar gas is matching well with the values obtained for the permalloy. For the samples prepared with increased nitrogen partial pressure the magnetic moment decreased rapidly and the values of coercivity increased. The polarized neutron reflectivity measurements (PNR) were performed in the sample prepared with only Ar gas and with nitrogen partial pressure of 5 and 10%. It was found that the spin-up and spin-down reflectivities show exactly similar reflectivity for the sample prepared with Ar gas alone, while PNR measurements on 5 and 10% sample show splitting in the spin-up and spin-down reflectivity.

  1. Quantum transport in the surface states of epitaxial Bi(111) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Wu, Lin; Gong, Xinxin; Xiao, Shunhao; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Although bulk Bi is a prototypical semimetal with a topologically trivial electronic band structure, we show by various quantum transport measurements that epitaxial Bi(111) thin films have unexpected and nontrivial properties. Not only the top and the bottom but also the side surfaces of epitaxial Bi(111) thin films are always robustly metallic while the interior has already become insulating. We identify the coupling between the top and the bottom surface states that drives the two originally independent surface conducting channels into a single connected one. The properties of Bi(111) thin films realized could lead to promising applications in spintronics.

  2. Micromotors using magnetostrictive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan; Barillot, Francois; Betz, Jochen; MacKay, Ken; Givord, Dominique; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    This study deals with a micromotor based on the use of magnetostrictive thin films. This motor belongs to the category of the Standing Wave Ultrasonic Motors. The active part of the motor is the rotor, which is a 100 micrometers thick ring vibrating in a flexural mode. Teeth (300 micrometers high) are placed on special positions of the rotor and produce an oblique motion which can induce the relative motion of any object in contact with them. The magnetic excitation field is radial and uses the transverse coupling of the 4 micrometers thick magnetostrictive film. The film, deposited by sputtering on the ring, consists of layers of different rare-earth/iron alloys and was developed during a European Brite-Euram project. The finite element technique was used in order to design a prototype of the motor and to optimize the active rotor and the energizer coil. The prototype we built delivered a speed of 30 turns per minute with a torque of 2 (mu) N.m (without prestress applied on the rotor). Our experimental results show that the performance of this motor could easily be increased by a factor of 5. The main advantage of this motor is the fact that it is remotely powered and controlled. The excitation coil, which provides both power and control, can be placed away from the active rotor. Moreover, the rotor is completely wireless and is not connected to its support or to any other part. It is interesting to note that it would not be possible to build this type of motor using piezoelectric technology. Medical applications of magnetostrictive micromotors could be found for internal microdistributors of medication (the coil staying outside the body). Other applications include remote control micropositioning, micropositioning of optical components, and for the actuation of systems such as valves, electrical switches, and relays.

  3. TiO2 thin film photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jiaguo

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films strongly depends on the preparing methods and post-treatment conditions, since they have a decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of TiO2 thin films.Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the influence of the preparation process and post-treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity and surface microstructures of the films. This review deals with the preparation of TiO2 thin film photocatalysts by wet-chemical methods (such as sol-gel, reverse micellar and liquid phase deposition) and the comparison of various preparation methods as well as their advantage and disadvantage. Furthermore, it is discussed that the advancement of photocatalytic activity, super-hydrophilicity and bactericidal activity of TiO2 thin film photocatalyst in recent years.

  4. Interfacial Effects on Pentablock Ionomer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Osti, Naresh; Shrestha, Umesh; Perahia, Dvora; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2011-03-01

    The interfacial behavior of multi block copolymer thin films results from a delicate balance between inherent phase segregation due to incompatibility of the blocks and the interactions of the individual blocks with the interfaces. Here in we report a study of thin films of ABCBA penta block copolymers, anionically synthesized, comprising of centered randomly sulfonated polystyrene block to which rubbery poly-ethylenebutalene is connected, terminated by blocks of poly-t-butylstyrene, kindly provided by Kraton. AFM and neutron reflectometry studies have shown that the surface structure of pristine films depends on film thickness and ranges from trapped micelles to thin layered films. Annealing above Tg for the styrene block results in rearrangements into relatively featureless air interface. Neutron reflectivity studies have shown that annealed films forms layers whose plane are parallel to the solid substrate with the bulky block at the air interface and the ionic block at the solid interface.

  5. Plasmonic modes in thin films: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePolitano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP.Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaes.

  6. Magnesium diboride thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a binary compound superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of ˜40 K. MgB2 has two conduction bands: a two-dimensional sigma band and a three-dimensional pi band with weak interband scattering. The two gap superconductivity in MgB2 gives rise to many interesting physical properties not possible in other superconductors. The relatively high Tc combined with phonon mediated superconductivity and relatively long coherence length makes MgB2 promising for electronics applications like rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logics and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). The high current density and record-high upper critical field in pure or alloyed MgB2 are also attractive to a variety of high field applications including cryogen-free Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems. MgB2 may also be used in RF cavity coatings due to its low surface resistance and in photo detection due to its fast photoresponse coupled with relatively high Tc. High quality epitaxial thin films are produced by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The HPCVD MgB2 thin films have the highest Tc and lowest resistivity with sharp transition of all MgB2 materials reported. The HPCVD MgB2 material is free of dendritic flux jumps due to its low resistivity. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of HPCVD MgB2 films can be ˜1 nm when ˜1% of nitrogen is added to the hydrogen carrier gas during the growth. The stability of MgB2 films in water is studied; it is found that degradation can be prevented by a thin (10 nm) MgO layer deposited on the film surface. The Tc is enhanced by tensile strain due to the Volmer-Weber growth mode and the mismatches between MgB2 and the substrate in the lattice constants and the coefficients of thermal expansion. High quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor Josephson tunnel junctions were made with various barrier formation techniques. The junction critical current

  7. Anisotropic Heisenberg model in thin film geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the phase diagrams and magnetization behavior of the Heisenberg thin film has been investigated with effective field formulation in a two spin cluster using the decoupling approximation. Phase diagrams and magnetization behaviors have been obtained for several different cases, by grouping the systems in accordance with, whether the surfaces/interior of the film has anisotropic exchange interaction or not. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of the anisotropic Heisenberg model on the thin film obtained • Dependence of the critical properties on the film thickness obtained • Effect of the anisotropy on the magnetic properties obtained.

  8. Insect thin films as solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, B D; Miaoulis, L N

    1994-10-01

    A numerical method for simulation of microscale radiation effects in insect thin-film structures is described. Accounting for solar beam and diffuse radiation, the model calculates the reflectivity and emissivity of such structures. A case study examines microscale radiation effects in butterfuly wings, and results reveal a new function of these multilayer thin films: thermal regulation. For film thicknesses of the order of 0.10 µm, solar absorption levels vary by as much as 25% with small changes in film thickness; for certain existing structures, absorption levels reach 96%., This is attributed to the spectral distribution of the reflected radiation, which consists of a singular reflectance peak within the solar spectrum.

  9. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, T. P., E-mail: tambauh@gmail.com; Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Física, Vitória/ES 29075-910 (Brazil); Pessoa, M. S. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, São Mateus/ES 29932-540 (Brazil)

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  10. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  11. Manganese ferrite thin films Part II: Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    Some properties of evaporated manganese ferrite thin films are investigated, e.g. resistivity, magnetization reversal, Curie temperature, Faraday rotation and optical absorption. The properties are partly related to the partial oxygen pressure present during a preceding annealing process.

  12. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2012-01-01

    ...% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules...

  13. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  14. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  15. High temperature polymer dielectric film-wire insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairus, John G.

    1994-01-01

    The highlights of the program are outlined including two major accomplishments. TRW identified and demonstrated the potential of two aromatic/heterocyclic polymers to have an outstanding and superior combination of electrical, thermal, and chemical resistance properties versus state-of-the-art Kapton for spacecraft and/or aircraft dielectric insulation applications. (Supporting data is provided in tables.) Feasibility was demonstrated for supporting/enabling technologies such as ceramic coatings, continuous film casting, and conductor wire wrapping, which are designed to accelerate qualification and deployment of the new wire insulation materials for USAF systems applications during the mid- to late-1990's.

  16. RAPID COMMUNICATION: ? thin film bilayers grown by pulsed laser ablation deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Palmer, S. B.; McK Paul, D.; Lees, M. R.

    1996-09-01

    We have grown superconducting thin films of 0022-3727/29/9/044/img2 (Y-123) on 0022-3727/29/9/044/img3 (PCMO) buffer layers and PCMO overlayers on Y-123 thin films using pulsed laser ablation deposition. For both sets of films below 50 K, the Y-123 layer is superconducting and the zero-field cooled PCMO layer is insulating. The application of a magnetic field of 8 T results in an insulator - metal transition in the PCMO layer. This field-induced conducting state is stable in zero magnetic field at low temperature. The PCMO layer can be returned to an insulating state by annealing above 100 K. This opens the way for the construction of devices incorporating these oxide materials in which the electronic properties of key components such as the substrate or the barrier layer can be switched in a controlled way by the application of a magnetic field.

  17. Thin solid-lubricant films in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. W.

    Low-friction films of thickness as low as 1 micron, created through sputter-deposition of low shear strength materials, are required in spacecraft applications requiring low power dissipation, such as cryogenic devices, and low torque noise, such as precision-pointing mechanisms. Due to their thinness, these coatings can be applied to high precision-machined tribological components without compromising their functional accuracy. Attention is here given to the cases of thin solid films for ball bearings, gears, and journal bearings.

  18. Studies in thin film flows

    CERN Document Server

    McKinley, I S

    2000-01-01

    the general case of non-zero capillary number numerically. Using the lubrication approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations we investigate the evolution and stability of a thin film of incompressible Newtonian fluid on a planar substrate subjected to a jet of air blowing normally to the substrate. For the simple model of the air jet we adopt, the initially axisymmetric problems we study are identical to those of a drop spreading on a turntable rotating at constant angular velocity (the simplest model for spin coating). We consider both drops without a dry patch (referred to as 'non-annular') and drops with a dry patch at their centre (referred to as 'annular'). First, both symmetric two-dimensional and axisymmetric three-dimensional drops are considered in the quasi-static limit of small capillary number. The evolution of both non-annular and annular drops and the stability of equilibrium solutions to small perturbations with zero wavenumber are determined. Using a specially developed finite-difference code...

  19. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  20. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  2. Critical thickness for ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw Wang, X.; Poccia, N.; Leusink, D. P.; Paudel, Tura R.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Li, C. J.; Lv, W. M.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, Ariando; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2014-03-01

    The interplay between exchange interactions, interfacial charges, and confinement effects controls the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of complex oxide thin films. Here we report the emergence of ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates beyond a critical thickness. LaMnO3 (001) films are deposited by a pulsed laser deposition technique with thicknesses varying from 1 unit cell to 24 unit cells. The position dependent local magnetization is then mapped with micrometer resolution using scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy. We find that the magnetic ground state switches from non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic within a change of one unit cell above the critical thickness of 5 unit cells with characteristic domain size of about 20 μm. Further increase of film thickness up to 24 unit cells leads to reduction of the domain size to about 10 μm. The critical thickness is qualitatively explained in terms of the charge transfer in polar LaMnO3 (001) thin films based on results of additional experimental data, density-functional calculations, and the electrostatic modeling.

  3. Twin domain imaging in topological insulator Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 epitaxial thin films by scanning X-ray nanobeam microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcuba, Petr; Veselý, Jozef; Lesnik, Andreas; Bauer, Guenther; Springholz, Gunther; Holý, Václav

    2017-01-01

    The twin distribution in topological insulators Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 was imaged by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy (SXRM). The crystal orientation at the surface, determined by EBSD, is correlated with the surface topography, which shows triangular pyramidal features with edges oriented in two different orientations rotated in the surface plane by 60°. The bulk crystal orientation is mapped out using SXRM by measuring the diffracted X-ray intensity of an asymmetric Bragg peak using a nano-focused X-ray beam scanned over the sample. By comparing bulk- and surface-sensitive measurements of the same area, buried twin domains not visible on the surface are identified. The lateral twin domain size is found to increase with the film thickness.

  4. Photophysical properties of Alq3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, A.; Płóciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Łukasiak, Z.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    This work contains investigation results of the photophysical properties of aluminum (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) thin films. The Alq3 thin films were successfully fabricated by Physical Vapor Deposition technique. The films were grown on transparent: (quartz and glass) and semiconductor (n-type silica) substrates kept at room temperature during the deposition process. Selected films were annealed after fabrication in ambient atmosphere for 12 h at the temperature equal to 100 °C and 150 °C. Morphology of the films was investigated by AFM technique. Photophysical properties were characterized via photoluminescence, transmission, second and third harmonic generation measurements. The thin films exhibit high structural quality regardless of the annealing process, but the stability of the film can be improved by using an appropriate temperature during the annealing process. Photoluminescence of Alq3 films obtained in air were efficient and stable. The measurements of transmission, SHG and THG spectra allowed us to determine optical constant of the films. We find that the photophysical properties were strictly connected with the morphology and the annealing process significantly changes the structural properties of the films.

  5. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  6. Thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Brendel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to the physics of silicon solar cells focuses on thin cells, while reviewing and discussing the current status of the important technology. An analysis of the spectral quantum efficiency of thin solar cells is given as well as a full set of analytical models. This is the first comprehensive treatment of light trapping techniques for the enhancement of the optical absorption in thin silicon films.

  7. A thin-film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Popma, Theo J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  8. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  9. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  10. NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Oksana [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France)], E-mail: okrupka@mail.ru; El-ghayoury, Abdelkrim [University d' Angers, UFR Sciences, Laboratoire CIMMA UMR CNRS 6200, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France); Rau, Ileana; Sahraoui, Bouchta [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France); Grote, James G. [Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 3005 Hobson Way, Dayton, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Kajzar, Francois [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France)

    2008-10-31

    In this paper we investigate the third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin deposited thin films of DNA-based complexes using the optical third harmonic generation (THG) technique at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. We found that the third-order susceptibility, {chi}{sup (3)}(- 3{omega};{omega},{omega},{omega}), of DNA-based films was about one order of magnitude larger than that of our reference, a pure silica slab. In thin films doped with 5% of the chromophore disperse red 1 (DR1), a two order of magnitude larger value of {chi}{sup (3)}(- 3{omega};{omega},{omega},{omega}) was observed.

  11. Silicon-based thin-film transistors with a high stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stannowski, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) are widely applied as pixel-addressing devices in large-area electronics, such as active-matrix liquid-crystal displays (AMLCDs) or sensor arrays. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) are generally used as the semiconductor and the insul

  12. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood.

  13. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  14. Magnetoelectric thin film composites with interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorra, A.; Jahns, R.; Teliban, I.; Gugat, J. L.; Gerken, M.; Knöchel, R.; Quandt, E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites on silicon cantilevers are fabricated using Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.45)O3 (PZT) films with interdigital transducer electrodes on the top side and FeCoSiB amorphous magnetostrictive thin films on the backside. These composites without any direct interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phase are superior to conventional plate capacitor-type thin film ME composites. A limit of detection of 2.6 pT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance is determined which corresponds to an improvement of a factor of approximately 2.8 compared to the best plate type sensor using AlN as the piezoelectric phase and even a factor of approximately 4 for a PZT plate capacitor.

  15. Study of the Thin Film Pulse Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-yuan; SHI Yu; WEN Qi-ye

    2005-01-01

    A new thin film pulse transformer for using in ISND and model systems is fabricated by a mask sputtering process. This novel pulse transformer consists of four I-shaped CoZrRe nanometer crystal magnetic-film cores and a Cu thin film coil, deposited on the micro-crystal glass substrate directly. The thickness of thin film core is between 1 and 3 μm, and the area is between 4mm×6 mm and 12mm×6 mm. The coils provide a relatively high induce of 0.8 μm and can be well operated in a frequency range of 0.001~20 MHz.

  16. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  17. Nanostructured thin films for icephobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammed, Saleema

    Icing on surfaces such as cables or high voltage insulators often leads to severe safety issues such as power outages in cold winter conditions. Conventional methods used to avoid such icing problems include mechanical deicing where the ice is scraped or broken and chemical deicing where deicers such as ethylene glycol are used. These methods have their own disadvantages of being destructive, expensive and time consuming. A better approach would be to prevent ice from forming in the first place by producing coating materials that are icephobic. Superhydrophobic surfaces, which demonstrate high water-repellency due to the negligible contact area of water with those surfaces, are also expected to minimize the contact area of ice. A low dielectric constant surface is also expected to reduce the adhesion of ice due to the screening of mirror charges, thereby eliminating one of the strongest interaction forces---the electrostatic forces of attraction at the ice-surface interface. In the present research work, both concepts were studied by producing superhydrophobic nanorough low-epsilon dielectric surfaces on aluminum or alumina substrates. Superhydrophobic properties were achieved on surfaces of aluminum or alumina by creating a certain nanoroughness using chemical methods followed by a low surface energy coating of rf-sputtered Teflon or fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-17) providing a water contact angle greater than 160°. The same behavior is reported even when the nanorough substrates were coated with dielectric thin films of ZnO (lower epsilon) or TiO 2, (higher epsilon). It is found that the superhydrophobic nanorough low surface energy surfaces are also icephobic and the presence of a low dielectric constant surface coating of Teflon (lowest epsilon; epsilon = 2) allows a considerable reduction of the ice adhesion strength even on non-nanotextured surfaces where ice would stick. The superhydrophobic nanorough low-epsilon surfaces also demonstrate morphological and

  18. Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiy.lysenko@upr.edu; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Aparicio, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico-Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732 (United States); Sepúlveda, Nelson [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.

  19. MOF thin films: existing and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhah, O; Liu, J; Fischer, R A; Wöll, Ch

    2011-02-01

    The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

  20. Influence of the vacuum interface on the charge distribution in V 2 O 3 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-09-22

    The electronic structure of V2O3 thin films is studied by means of the augmented spherical wave method as based on density functional theory and the local density approximation. We establish that the effects of charge redistribution, induced by the vacuum interface, in such films are restricted to a very narrow surface layer of ≈15 Å thickness. As a consequence, charge redistribution can be ruled out as a source of the extraordinary thickness dependence of the metal–insulator transition observed in V2O3 thin films of ~100–1000 Å thickness.

  1. Synthesis and ionic liquid gating of hexagonal WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Phillip M., E-mail: philwu@stanford.edu, E-mail: beasley@stanford.edu; Munakata, Ko; Hammond, R. H.; Geballe, T. H.; Beasley, M. R., E-mail: philwu@stanford.edu, E-mail: beasley@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ishii, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2015-01-26

    Via thin film deposition techniques, the meta-stable in bulk crystal hexagonal phase of tungsten oxide (hex-WO{sub 3}) is stabilized as a thin film. The hex-WO{sub 3} structure is potentially promising for numerous applications and is related to the structure for superconducting compounds found in WO{sub 3}. Utilizing ionic liquid gating, carriers were electrostatically induced in the films and an insulator-to-metal transition is observed. These results show that ionic liquid gating is a viable technique to alter the electrical transport properties of WO{sub 3}.

  2. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: Bouznit80@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  3. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  4. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  5. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; Dasgupta, Sunando

    2017-03-01

    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields.

  6. Optical Constants of Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyakalyani, P.; Pandiaraman, M.; Pannir, P.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Soundararajan, N.

    2008-04-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is II-VI direct band gap semiconductor compound with potential application in Solar Energy conversion process. CdTe thin film of thickness 220 mn was prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a high vacuum better than 10-5 m.bar on well cleaned glass substrates of dimensions (l cm×3 cm). The transmittance spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the prepared CdTc thin film was recorded using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 900 nm. These spectral data were analyzed and the optical band and optical constants of CdTe Thin film have been determined by adopting suitable relations. The optical band gap of CdTe thin film is found to be 1.56 eV and this value is also agreeing with the published works of CdTe thin film prepared by various techniques. The absorption coefficient (α) has been higher than 106 cm-1. The Refractive index (n) and the Extinction Coefficient (k) are found to be varying from 3.0 to 4.0 and 0.1 Cm-1 to 0.5 Cm-1 respectively by varying the energy from l.0 eV to 4.0 eV. These results are also compared with the literature.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Somnath; McKnight, Steven H.; Sengupta, Louise C.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that in bulk ceramic form, the barium to strontium ratio in barium strontium titanium oxide (Ba1- xSrxTiO3, BSTO) affects the voltage tunability and electronic dissipation factor in an inverse fashion; increasing the strontium content reduces the dissipation factor at the expense of lower voltage tunability. However, the oxide composites of BSTO developed at the Army Research Laboratory still maintain low electronic loss factors for all compositions examined. The intent of this study is to determine whether such effects can be observed in the thin film form of the oxide composites. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method has been used to deposit the thin films. The different compositions of the compound (with 1 wt% of the oxide additive) chosen were: Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3, Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3. The electronic properties investigated in this study were the dielectric constant and the voltage tunability. The morphology of the thin films were examined using the atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was also utilized for optical characterization of the thin films. The electronic and optical properties of the thin films and the bulk ceramics were compared. The results of these investigations are discussed.

  8. Electrical bistable characteristics of poly (phenylene sulfide) thin film deposited by thermal evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO XiaoChun; DONG GuiFang; QIU Yong

    2007-01-01

    Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) is a well-known organic insulator. However, the PPS thin film, deposited by thermal evaporation in vacuum, showed electrical bistable characteristics. The structure of the PPS thin-film device was glass/ITO/PPS (300 nm)/Au. The thin film can be converted to a high conductance state by applying a pulse of 80 V (5 s), and brought back to a low conductance state by applying a pulse of 100 V (5 s). This kind of thin film is potential for active layer of a memory device. The critical voltage of the device is about 40 V, while the read-out voltage is 5 V. We tentatively ascribe the bistable phenomenon to the charge transfer from S to C atoms in the PPS molecule chains.

  9. Photoluminescence Study of Copper Selenide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.

    2011-10-01

    Thin films of Copper Selenide of composition of composition Cu7Se4 with thickness 350 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 498 K±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting material. The deposited film is characterized structurally using X-ray Diffraction. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density; number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are evaluated. Photoluminescence of the film is analyzed at room temperature using Fluoro Max-3 Spectrofluorometer.

  10. Thin film calorimetry of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Salamon, William

    2000-03-01

    Polystryene and polymethylmethacrylate films for thicknesses ranging from 50nm to 500nm using a direct calorimetric technique (Lai et al, App. Phys. Lett. 67, p9(1995)). Samples were deposited on Ni foils(2-2.5um) and placed in a high vacuum oven. Calibrated heat pulses were input to the polymer films by current pulses to the Ni substrate and temperature changes were determined from the change in Ni resistance. Pulses producing temperature jumps of 3-8K were used and signal averaging over pulses reduced noise levels enough to identify glass transitions down to 50nm. Molecular weight dependence of thick films Tg was used as a temperature calibration.

  11. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  12. Solution-Processed Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films for Alternative Gate Dielectric Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Peng, Haiyan; Venkatesh, Shishir; Wu, Wei; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, V A L

    2016-11-16

    Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical characterizations, respectively. Ultrasmooth, amorphous, and hydrophilic REO films with thickness around 10 nm have been obtained through a combined spin-coating and postannealing method. The compositional analysis results reveal the formation of RE hydrocarbonates on the surface and silicates at the interface of REOs films annealed on Si substrate. The dielectric properties of REO films are investigated by characterizing capacitors with a Si/Ln2O3/Au (Ln = La, Gd, and Er) structure. The observed low leakage current densities and large areal capacitances indicate these REO films can be employed as alternative gate dielectrics in transistors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a series of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on such sol-gel derived REO films to demonstrate their application in electronics. The optimization of REOs dielectrics in transistors through further surface modification has also been studied. The current study provides a simple solution process approach to fabricate varieties of REOs insulating films, and the results reveal their promising applications as alternative gate dielectrics in thin-film transistors.

  13. Optimization of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 thin films for multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, R.G.; Chew, N.G.; Satchell, J.S.; Goodyear, S.W.; Edwards, J.A.; Blenkinsop, S.E. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (United Kingdom))

    1991-03-01

    This paper studies the in situ growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films using e-beam coevaporation. The growth conditions for smooth YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films with high T{sub c} and J{sub c} have been established. Superconductor-insulator and SIS structures have been grown using Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an epitaxial insulator, and preliminary vertical transport measurements in patterned structures are reported.

  14. Influence of Parasitic Capacitance on Output Voltage for Series-Connected Thin-Film Piezoelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Kanda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Series-connected thin film piezoelectric elements can generate large output voltages. The output voltage ideally is proportional to the number of connections. However, parasitic capacitances formed by the insulation layers and derived from peripheral circuitry degrade the output voltage. Conventional circuit models are not suitable for predicting the influence of the parasitic capacitance. Therefore we proposed the simplest model of piezoelectric elements to perform simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE circuit simulations. The effects of the parasitic capacitances on the thin-film Pb(Zr, TiO3, (PZT elements connected in series on a SiO2 insulator are demonstrated. The results reveal the negative effect on the output voltage caused by the parasitic capacitances of the insulation layers. The design guidelines for the devices using series-connected piezoelectric elements are explained.

  15. Evidence of Microscopic Phase Segregation in CMR thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Atif; Anlage, Steven

    2003-03-01

    We have used a Near Field Scanning Microwave Microscope (NFMM) to study local sheet resistance (Rx) contrast in 100nm thick La_0.67Ca_0.33MnO3 thin films. These films show a transition from charge-ordered insulating or paramagnetic insulating to a ferro-magnetic metallic state at a transition temperature Tc ( 250K for the film we studied). No Magnetic Field is applied when performing the experiment. We used our NFMM to study this sample above and below the Tc. Probe/sample distance control is achieved by employing a Scanning Tunneling Microscope feedback. Scanning is done in constant tunnel current mode, and microwave data is collected simultaneously. Several models (transmission line model and lumped element model) of microwave microscope are used to extract the Rx from the data of frequency shift and Quality factor versus position. The Rx images show evidence of the phase transition: we find that the sheet resistance distribution is broader for the data below Tc. Upon closer examination, we see evidence of inhomogeneous conductivity on the scale of 2.5nm below Tc. Discussion of these results and their modeling will be presented. [1] Atif Imtiaz and Steven M. Anlage, "A novel STM-assisted microwave microscope with capacitance and loss imaging capability", Ultramicroscopy (in press); cond-mat/0203540.

  16. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 °C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 °C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 °C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 °C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 °C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 °C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 °C.

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  18. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  19. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  20. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  1. Multifractal characteristics of titanium nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţălu Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a multi-scale microstructural characterization of three-dimensional (3-D micro-textured surface of titanium nitride (TiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in correlation with substrate temperature variation. Topographical characterization of the surfaces, obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, was realized by an innovative multifractal method which may be applied for AFM data. The surface micromorphology demonstrates that the multifractal geometry of TiN thin films can be characterized at nanometer scale by the generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α. Furthermore, to improve the 3-D surface characterization according with ISO 25178-2:2012, the most relevant 3-D surface roughness parameters were calculated. To quantify the 3-D nanostructure surface of TiN thin films a multifractal approach was developed and validated, which can be used for the characterization of topographical changes due to the substrate temperature variation.

  2. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  3. Magnetotransport in Thin Films and Heterostructures of Topological Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Badih Assaf

    Topological insulators are semiconducting materials that host spin-momentum locked surface Dirac Fermions. These massless surface states occur as a result of a symmetry-protected band crossing. The effective mass of surface electrons can be tuned by breaking that symmetry. Such materials are thus attractive for technological applications as they allow one to manipulate the charge, spin and effective mass of electrons in devices. The surface states are, however, difficult to access and manipulate using conventional electrical probes, as the underlying bulk is not usually insulating. In this thesis, we have studied electrical transport in two prototypical topological systems, Bi2Te2Se---belonging to the class of Z2 topological insulators, and SnTe---a topological crystalline insulator. We also looked at how the breaking of crystalline symmetry by proximity to a ferromagnet alters the transport in SnTe. We grew Bi2Te2Se thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(111) and studied the magnetoresistance (MR), which was found to exhibit weak antilocalization (WAL) at low fields and linear MR at high fields. By proposing a model that accounts for both WAL and the linear MR simultaneously, we were able to separate the MR contribution of topological surface-states from that of Rashba spin-orbit split bulk states. In SnTe thin films, also grown by MBE on BaF2(001) and Si(001), we demonstrated that film crystallinity, morphology, carrier density and mobility all improve with increasing growth temperature. By studying WAL in different films, it was found that valley coupling reduced the measured number of WAL channels. This is a direct consequence of the degenerate surface bands of SnTe. Changes in the shape of the bulk Fermi surface were also seen to influence the measured number of WAL channels. Proximity-induced magnetism was observed in a SnTe-EuS heterostructure though the anomalous Hall effect. The observation of an isotropic hysteretic MR was shown to be evidence

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Langmuir-Blodgett Film and Its Use in Metal-Insulator-Metal Tunnel Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K; Goswami, D Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2016-08-23

    Metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes have great potential for use in infrared detection and energy harvesting applications. The quantum based tunneling mechanism of electrons in MIM (metal-insulator-metal) or MIIM (metal-insulator-insulator-metal) diodes can facilitate rectification at THz frequencies. In this study, the required nanometer thin insulating layer (I) in the MIM diode structure was fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The zinc stearate LB film was deposited on Au/Cr coated quartz, FTO, and silicon substrates, and then heat treated by varying the temperature from 100 to 550 °C to obtain nanometer thin ZnO layers. The thin films were characterized by XRD, AFM, FTIR, and cyclic voltammetry methods. The final MIM structure was fabricated by depositing chromium/nickel over the ZnO on Au/Cr film. The current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode showed that the conduction mechanism is electron tunneling through the thin insulating layer. The sensitivity of the diodes was as high as 32 V(-1). The diode resistance was ∼80 Ω (at a bias voltage of 0.78 V), and the rectification ratio at that bias point was about 12 (for a voltage swing of ±200 mV). The diode response exhibited significant nonlinearity and high asymmetry at the bias point, very desirable diode performance parameters for IR detection applications.

  5. Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

    2012-03-30

    Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

  6. Capillary instabilities in thin films. I. Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Safran, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    A stability theory is presented which describes the conditions under which thin films rupture. It is found that holes in the film will either grow or shrink, depending on whether their initial radius is larger or smaller than a critical value. If the holes grow large enough, they impinge to form islands; the size of which are determined by the surface energies. The formation of grooves where the grain boundary meets the free surface is a potential source of holes which can lead to film rupture. Equilibrium grain boundary groove depths are calculated for finite grain sizes. Comparison of groove depth and film thickness yields microstructural conditions for film rupture. In addition, pits which form at grain boundary vertices, where three grains meet, are another source of film instability.

  7. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weszka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic devices.Findings: The method used allow for pure pristine polymer thin films to be prtepared without any unintentional doping taking place during prepoaration methods. This is a method based on polycondensation process, where polymer chain developing is running directly due to chemical reaction between molecules of bifunctional monomers. The method applied to prepare thin films of polyazomethines takes advantage of monomer transporting by mreans of neutral transport agent as pure argon is.Research limitations/implications: The main disadvantage of alternately conjugated polymers seems to be quite low mobility of charge carrier that is expected to be a consequence of their backbone being built up of sp2 hybridized carbon and nitrogen atoms. Varying technological conditions towards increasing reagents mass transport to the substrate is expected to give such polyazomethine thin films organization that phenylene rin stacking can result in special π electron systems rather than linear ones as it is the case.Originality/value: Our results supply with original possibilities which can be useful in ooking for good polymer materials for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. These results have been gained on polyazomethine thin films but their being isoelectronic counterpart to widely used poly p-phenylene vinylene may be very convenient to develop high efficiency polymer solar cells

  8. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido y Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: jomazo@fisica.udea.edu.co; Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido y Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2006-10-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent {nu}=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed.

  9. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  10. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  11. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  12. Optimisation of superconducting thin films by TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bals, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Leca, V.; Salluzzo, M.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is used to study the initial growth of different REBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films. In DyBa2Cu3O7−δ ultra-thin films, deposited on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3, two different types of interface arrangements occur: bulk–SrO–TiO2–BaO–CuO–BaO–CuO2–Dy–CuO2–BaO–bulk and bulk–SrO–TiO2–

  13. Advances in thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadasa, I M

    2012-01-01

    This book concentrates on the latest developments in our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. It extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multilayer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible, and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combines

  14. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  15. Environmentally stable sputter-deposited thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.J.

    1978-03-01

    Accelerated corrosion data are presented for the titanium-silver and chrome-gold thin film metallization systems presently used at Sandia Laboratories. Improvements in corrosion, hence reliability, as a result of interposing a thin intermediate layer of either platinum or palladium are shown. Potentiometric measurements showing the alteration of corrosion potential with the use of palladium for the titanium-silver system are also presented.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of thin Bi2Se3 films on Al2O3 (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Phillip; Keenan, Cameron; Urazhdin, Sergei; Lederman, David

    2011-07-01

    The structural and electronic properties of thin Bi2Se3 films grown on Al2O3 (110) by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. The epitaxial films grow in the Frank-van der Merwe mode and are c-axis oriented. They exhibit the highest crystallinity, the lowest carrier concentration, and optimal stoichiometry at a substrate temperature of 200 °C determined by the balance between surface kinetics and desorption of Se. The crystallinity of the films improves with increasing Se/Bi flux ratio. Our results enable studies of thin topological insulator films on inert, non-conducting substrates that allow optical access to both film surfaces.

  17. Electrical analysis of niobium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graça, M.P.F., E-mail: mpfg@ua.pt [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Saraiva, M. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Freire, F.N.A. [Mechanics Engineering Department, Ceará Federal University, Fortaleza (Brazil); Valente, M.A.; Costa, L.C. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-06-30

    In this work, a series of niobium oxide thin films was deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The total pressure of Ar/O{sub 2} was kept constant at 1 Pa, while the O{sub 2} partial pressure was varied up to 0.2 Pa. The depositions were performed in a grounded and non-intentionally heated substrate, resulting in as-deposited amorphous thin films. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the absence of crystallinity. Dielectric measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz–110 MHz) and temperature (100 K–360 K) were performed. The dielectric constant for the film samples with thickness (d) lower than 650 nm decreases with the decrease of d. The same behaviour was observed for the conductivity. These results show a dependence of the dielectric permittivity with the thin film thickness. The electrical behaviour was also related with the oxygen partial pressure, whose increment promotes an increase of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry units. - Highlights: • Niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • XRD showed a phase change with the increase of the P(O{sub 2}). • Raman showed that increasing P(O{sub 2}), Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} amorphous increases. • Conductivity tends to decrease with the increase of P(O{sub 2}). • Dielectric analysis indicates the inexistence of preferential grow direction.

  18. Influence of lattice distortion on phase transition properties of polycrystalline VO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiegui; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yufen; Yu, Yonghao

    2016-08-01

    In this work, high power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to control the lattice distortion in polycrystalline VO2 thin film. SEM images revealed that all the VO2 thin films had crystallite sizes of below 20 nm, and similar configurations. UV-vis-near IR transmittance spectra measured at different temperatures showed that most of the as-deposited films had a typical metal-insulator transition. Four-point probe resistivity results showed that the transition temperature of the films varied from 54.5 to 32 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the as-deposited films revealed that most were polycrystalline monoclinic VO2. The XRD results also confirmed that the lattice distortions in the as-deposited films were different, and the transition temperature decreased with the difference between the interplanar spacing of the as-deposited thin film and standard rutile VO2. Furthermore, a room temperature rutile VO2 thin film was successfully synthesized when this difference was small enough. Additionally, XRD patterns measured at varied temperatures revealed that the phase transition process of the polycrystalline VO2 thin film was a coordinative deformation between grains with different orientations. The main structural change during the phase transition was a gradual shift in interplanar spacing with temperature.

  19. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  20. Transport properties of nanoperforated Nb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trezza, M., E-mail: trezza@sa.infn.i [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi I-84081 (Italy); Cirillo, C. [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) I-84081 (Italy); Prischepa, S.L. [State University of Informatics and RadioElectronics, P. Brovka Street 6, Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Attanasio, C. [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi I-84081 (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    Porous silicon, obtained by electrochemical etching, has been used as a substrate for the growth of nanoperforated Nb thin films. The films, deposited by UHV magnetron sputtering, inherited from the Si substrates their structure, made of holes of 10 nm diameter and of 20 and 40 nm spacing, which provide an artificial pinning lattice. Commensurability effects between the Abrikosov vortex lattice and the artificial array of holes were investigated by transport measurements.

  1. Silver buffer layers for YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Center for Technol. Education Holon

    1999-09-01

    A simple economical conventional vacuum system was used for evaporation of YBCO thin films on as-deposited unbuffered Ag layers on MgO substrates. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out in low oxygen partial pressure at a relative low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using dc four probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (orig.)

  2. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  3. Surface evolution of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite thin films at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, D., E-mail: dnewby@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kuyyalil, J.; Laverock, J. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Ludwig, K.F. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Yu, Y.; Davis, J. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Gopalan, S.; Pal, U.B.; Basu, S. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, 110 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Smith, K.E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 St. Mary' s Street, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); School of Chemical Sciences and The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-08-31

    The ultra-high vacuum surface preparation of heteroepitaxial lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite thin films has been studied using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Specifically, the effect of annealing the films at low temperatures in low partial pressures of oxygen and argon has been investigated. We find that atmospheric surface carbon contamination of the films can be removed in select anneal temperature regimes in argon, but remains bound to the surface with oxygen annealing at any temperature. Irrespective of the gas used, an insulating phase transition occurs near 300 °C due to strontium segregation at the surface. The surface develops more insulating character if annealed with oxygen. Different species are proposed to be responsible for the discrepancy in insulating character.

  4. Preparation of silica thin films by novel wet process and study of their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sang-Hyeok; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Cha-Won; Yoon, Duck-Ki; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films have gained considerable attention because of their various industrial applications. For example, SiO2 thin films are used in superhydrophilic self-cleaning surface glass, UV protection films, anti-reflection coatings, and insulating materials. Recently, many processes such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and spin coating have been widely applied to prepare thin films of functionally graded materials. However, these processes suffer from several engineering problems. For example, a special apparatus is required for the deposition of films, and conventional wet processes are not suitable for coating the surfaces of substrates with a large surface area and complex morphology. In this study, we investigated the film morphology and optical properties of SiO2 films prepared by a novel technique, namely, liquid phase deposition (LPD). Images of the SiO2 films were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to study the surface morphology of these films: these images indicate that films deposited with different reaction times were uniform and dense and were composed of pure silica. Optical properties such as refractive index and transmittance were estimated by UV-vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. SiO2 films with porous structures at the nanometer scale (100-250 nm) were successfully produced by LPD. The deposited film had excellent transmittance in the visible wavelength region.

  5. YBCO thin films in ac and dc films

    CERN Document Server

    Shahzada, S

    2001-01-01

    We report studies on the dc magnetization of YBCO thin films in simultaneously applied dc and ac fields. The effect of the ac fields is to decrease the irreversible magnetization drastically leading to complete collapse of the hysteresis loops for relatively small ac fields (250e). The magnitude of the decrease depends on the component of the ac field parallel to the c-axis. The decrease is non-linear with ac amplitude and is explained in the framework of the critical state response of ultra thin films in perpendicular geometry. The ac fields increase the relaxation rapidly at short times while the long time response appears unaffected. (author)

  6. Workshop on thin film thermal conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Albert; Balzaretti, Naira M.; Guenther, Arthur H.

    1998-04-01

    On a subject of considerable import to the laser-induced damage community, a two day workshop on the topic, Thin Film Thermal Conductivity Measurement was held as part of the 13th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties at the University of Colorado in Boulder CO, June 25 and 26, 1997. The Workshop consisted of 4 sessions of 17 oral presentations and two discussion sessions. Two related subjects of interest were covered; 1) methods and problems associated with measuring thermal conductivity ((kappa) ) of thin films, and 2) measuring and (kappa) of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. On the subject of thin film (kappa) measurement, several recently developed imaginative techniques were reviewed. However, several authors disagreed on how much (kappa) in a film differs from (kappa) in a bulk material of the same nominal composition. A subject of controversy was the definition of an interface. In the first discussion session, several questions were addressed, a principal one being, how do we know that the values of (kappa) we obtain are correct and is there a role for standards in thin film (kappa) measurement. The second discussion session was devoted to a round-robin interlaboratory comparison of (kappa) measurements on a set of CVD diamond specimens and several other specimens of lower thermal conductivity. Large interlaboratory differences obtained in an earlier round robin had been attributed to specimen inhomogeneity. Unfortunately, large differences were also observed in the second round robin even though the specimens were more homogenous. There was good consistency among the DC measurements, however, the AC measurements showed much greater variability. There was positive feedback from most of the attenders regarding the Workshop with nearly all respondents recommending another Workshop in three or fewer years. There was general recognition that thin film thermal conductivity measurements are important for predicting the resistance of optical coating

  7. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Gupta, Mukul, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Phase, D. M., E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Reddy, V. R., E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Gupta, Ajay, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore,-452001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  9. Epitaxy of layered semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim Otsmane, L.; Emery, J. Y.; Jouanne, M.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    Epilayers of InSe on InSe(00.1) and GaSe(00.1) have been grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Raman spectroscopy was used for a characterization of the structure and crystallinity in InSe/InSe(00.1) (homoepitaxy) and InSe/GaSe(00.1) (heteroepitaxy). The Raman spectra of the InSe thin films are identical to those of polytype γ-InSe. An activation of the E(LO) mode at 211 cm -1 is observed in these films here. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is also used to investigate surfaces of these films.

  10. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  11. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  12. Quantum capacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in a magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-02-12

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum magnetocapacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in an external magnetic field. The study is undertaken to investigate the interplay of the Zeeman interaction with the hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the thin film. Determining the density of states, we find that the electron-hole symmetry is broken when the Zeeman and hybridization energies are varied relative to each other. This leads to a change in the character of the magnetocapacitance at the charge neutrality point. We further show that in the presence of both Zeeman interaction and hybridization the magnetocapacitance exhibits beating at low and splitting of the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations at high perpendicular magnetic field. In addition, we address the crossover from perpendicular to parallel magnetic field and find consistency with recent experimental data.

  13. Ternary compound thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A group of ternary compound semiconductor (I-III-VI2) thin films for future applications in photovoltaic devices is proposed. The consideration of these materials (CuInSe2, CuInTe2 and especially CuInS2) for long range device development is emphasized. Much of the activity to date has been concerned with the growth and properties of CuInX2 films. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses, Hall mobility and coefficient, resistivity and carrier concentration variations with substrate and film temperature as well as grain size data have been determined. Both p- and n-type films of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 have been produced. Single and double source deposition techniques have been utilized. Some data have been recorded for annealed films.

  14. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations and on conductivity measurements, a novel sensing mechanism based on protonic conduction within the surface layers adsorbed onto the hydrotungstite film is proposed.

  15. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Chiara [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jacobs, Karin [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Seemann, Ralf [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Blossey, Ralf [Centre for Bioinformatics, Saarland University, PO Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Becker, Juergen [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Gruen, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2003-01-15

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  16. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  17. Amorphous silicon for thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Rudolf Emmanuel Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has considerable potential as a semiconducting material for large-area photoelectric and photovoltaic applications. Moreover, a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFT’s) are very well suited as switching devices in addressable liquid crystal display panels and addres

  18. Electrostatic Discharge Effects in Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo, Natasa

    2002-01-01

    Although amorphous silicon thin film transistors (α-Si:H TFT’s) have a very low electron mobility and pronounced instabilities of their electrical characteristics, they are still very useful and they have found their place in the semiconductors industry, as they possess some very good properties: th

  19. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  20. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  1. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials

  2. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials scie

  3. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and prem

  4. Polarization Fatigue in Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; K.H.WONG; 吴文彬

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue problem in ferroelectric thin films is investigated based on the switched charge per unit area versus switching cycles. The temperature, dielectric permittivity, voltage bias, frequency and defect valence dependent switching polarization properties are calculated quantitatively with an extended Dawber-Scott model. The results are in agreement with the recent experiments.

  5. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic inst

  6. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  7. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  8. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance char

  9. Bauschinger effect in unpassivated freestanding thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishvan, S.S.; Nicola, L.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) discrete dislocation plasticity simulations are carried out to investigate the Bauschinger effect (BE) in freestanding thin films. The BE in plastic flow of polycrystalline materials is generally understood to be caused by inhomogeneous deformation during loading, leading to res

  10. Quasifree Mg–H thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldi, A.; Palmisano, V.; Gonzalez-Silveira, M.; Pivak, Y.; Slaman, M.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption in Pd-capped Mg films are strongly dependent on the magnesium thickness. In the present work, we suppress such dependency by inserting a thin Ti layer between Mg and Pd. By means of optical measurements, we show that the surface energy contribution to the de

  11. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Shu, Longlong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  12. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  13. Resistance contact thin-film resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirin V. G.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical model of the calculation of the contact resistance of the thin-film resistor is Offered. The Explored dependency of the contact resistance from wedge of the pickling. The Considered influence adhesive layer on warm-up stability of the resistor. They Are Received formulas of the calculation systematic and casual inaccuracy contributed by contact resistance.

  14. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  15. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A; Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; Vainchtein, David; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growin

  16. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  17. Potentiostatic Deposition and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was employed to deposit cuprous oxide Cu2O thin films. In this work, Cu2O thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conducting glass as a substrate by potentiostatic deposition of cupric acetate. The effect of deposition time on the morphologies, crystalline, and optical quality of Cu2O thin films was investigated.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic nanostructured thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Zhi-Qiang; Yutaka Abe; Jiang Dong-Hua; Lin Hai; Yoshitake Yamazakia; Wu Chen-Xu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have compared the magnetic properties between nanostructured thin films and two-dimensional crystalline solids. The dependence of nanostructured properties on the interaction between particles that constitute the nanostructured thin films is also studied. The result shows that the parameters in the interaction potential have an important effect on the properties of nanostructured thin films at the transition temperatures.

  19. Practical design and production of optical thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Willey, Ronald R

    2002-01-01

    Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics and the Use of Graphical Methods in Thin Film Design Estimating What Can Be Done Before Designing Fourier Viewpoint of Optical Coatings Typical Equipment for Optical Coating Production Materials and Process Know-How Process Development Monitoring and Control of Thin Film Growth Appendix: Metallic and Semiconductor Material Graphs Author IndexSubject Index

  20. Growth induced magnetic anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, F.

    1998-07-20

    The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and Ni-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials. A brief summary of work done in each area is given.

  1. Nonlocal thin films in calculations of the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Svetovoy, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than th

  2. Sigma-pi molecular dielectric multilayers for low-voltage organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2005-03-29

    Very thin (2.3-5.5 nm) self-assembled organic dielectric multilayers have been integrated into organic thin-film transistor structures to achieve sub-1-V operating characteristics. These new dielectrics are fabricated by means of layer-by-layer solution phase deposition of molecular silicon precursors, resulting in smooth, nanostructurally well defined, strongly adherent, thermally stable, virtually pinhole-free, organosiloxane thin films having exceptionally large electrical capacitances (up to approximately 2,500 nF.cm(-2)), excellent insulating properties (leakage current densities as low as 10(-9) A.cm(-2)), and single-layer dielectric constant (k)of approximately 16. These 3D self-assembled multilayers enable organic thin-film transistor function at very low source-drain, gate, and threshold voltages (organic semiconductors.

  3. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    the increase in ionized impurity scattering.       Figure 1.48: Resistivity versus %Ga [125]  ZnO:Ga films were also  deposited  by  spray   pyrolysis ...Ilican  [137]  deposited   In‐doped  ZnO  thin  films  onto  glass  substrates  by  the  spray   pyrolysis   method at 350 oC substrate temperature. The...structure  of  ZnO  presented  the  following  findings:     The Polycrystalline ZnO  thin  films were  deposited  on a glass  substrate by a  spray

  4. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  5. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  6. Barrier Formation on a YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Film Using CF4 Plasma Fluorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿巴斯; 康琳; 许伟伟; 杨森祖; 吴培亨

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the surface structure and composition ofa YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film modified by CF4 plasma fluorination. In addition to the absorption of hydrocarbons, chemical reactions of the YBCO surface take place during CF4 plasma treatment. Various x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data are reported and discussed. The existence of a thin barrier is confirmed, which homogeneously covers the edge of the base YBCO film in our interface engineering Josephson junction. Measurements of Auger electron spectroscopic data and the resistance versus temperature indicate that the barrier is a controllable-insulating layer.

  7. Phonons in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shang-Fen; Cheng, Wei

    2010-03-01

    Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are topological insulators with interesting surface properties that have attracted great research attention in recent years. In this research, phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of states of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 thin films with five atomic-layers are calculated by Medea-VASP program, and thermal dynamic functions are also analyzed. Phonon results of these two thin films are compared with each other and are also compared with available bulk measurements. Symmetry broken is found in the Brillouin zone center phonon modes.

  8. Colossal magnetoresistance and phase separation in manganite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M. K.; Agarwal, V.; Kaur, A.; Singh, H. K.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, polycrystalline Sm0.55Sr0.45MnO3 thin films were prepared on LSAT (001) single crystal substrates by ultrasonic nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction θ-2θ scan reveals that these films (i) have very good crystallinity, (ii) are oriented along out-of-plane c-direction, and (iii) are under small tensile strain. The impact of oxygen vacancy results into (i) higher value of paramagnetic insulator (PMI) to ferromagnetic metal (FMM) transition temperature, i.e., TC/TIM, (ii) sharper PMI-FMM transition, (iii) higher value of magnetization and magnetic saturation moment, and (iv) higher value of magnetoresistance (˜99%). We suggest here that oxygen vacancy favors FMM phase while oxygen vacancy annihilation leads to antiferromagnetic-charge ordered insulator (AFM-COI) phase. The observed results have been explained in context of phase separation (PS) caused by different fractions of the competing FMM and AFM-COI phases.

  9. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  10. Thin blend films of cellulose and polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. To further expand the potential applications of cellulose materials, their alloying with synthetic polymers has been investigated. In this study, thin films of cotton linter cellulose (CLC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blends with various compositions spanning the entire range from neat CLC to neat PAN were spun cast on silicon wafers from common solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. The morphologies of thin films were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Morphologies of as-cast films are highly sensitive to the film preparation conditions; they vary from featureless smooth films to self-organized ordered nano-patterns to hierarchical structures spanning over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. By selectively removing the PAN-rich phase, the structures of blend films were studied to gain insights in their very high stability in hot water, acid and salt solutions.

  11. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.

  12. Improvement in interfacial characteristics of low-voltage carbon nanotube thin-film transistors with solution-processed boron nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jun-Young; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for high performance single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (SWCNT-TFTs) with low-voltage operation. The use of BN thin films between solution-processed high-k dielectric layers improved the interfacial characteristics of metal-insulator-metal devices, thereby reducing the current density by three orders of magnitude. We also investigated the origin of improved device performance in SWCNT-TFTs by employing solution-processed BN thin films as an encapsulation layer. The BN encapsulation layer improves the electrical characteristics of SWCNT-TFTs, which includes the device key metrics of linear field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, and threshold voltage as well as the long-term stability against the aging effect in air. Such improvements can be achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states with charge carriers. We believe that this work can open up a promising route to demonstrate the potential of solution-processed BN thin films on nanoelectronics.

  13. Thin Film Electrochemical Power Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Anion Intercalating Polymer Cathode", proceedings of symposium on Lithium Batteries, The Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, Florida. K. Naoi, W.H...of symposium on Lithium Batteries, The Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, Florida. M. Lien and W.H. Smyrl, "An Impedance Study of Polyvinylferrocene...Films", in Transient Techniques in Corrosion Science and Engineering, eds. W.H. Smyrl, et al., Electrochemical Society , 1989. K, Naoi, M.M. Lien and

  14. Dynamic strain in metallic vs insulating manganite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, Martina Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Schultz, Ludwig; Doerr, Kathrin [IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a ferro- and piezoelectric substrate, PMN-PT(001) (PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.72}(PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.28}, allows us to biaxially compress as grown epitaxial films by as much as 0.2%. This reversible dynamic strain process gives a unique insight into the effect of strain on perovskite oxides, eliminating effects such as varying oxygen concentration, which may occur when several substrates with different lattice mismatch are used. We have prepared PLCMO (Pr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films on PMN-PT substrates for a range of x values. Around x=0.6, the system exhibits a transition from an insulating to a metallic ground state. We have recorded changes in magnetic moment and transition temperature upon varying x, and compared the effects of dynamic strain on transport behaviour in the metallic and insulating ground states.

  15. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  16. Periodic oxidation for fabricating titanium oxynitride thin films via atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, Shinya, E-mail: shinya.iwashita@tel.com; Aoyama, Shintaro; Nasu, Masayuki; Shimomura, Kouji; Noro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Toshio; Akasaka, Yasushi [SPE Core Technology Development Department, Tokyo Electron Yamanashi Ltd., 50 Mitsuzawa, Hosaka-cho, 407-0192 Nirasaki (Japan); Miyashita, Kohei [Leading Edge Process Development Center, Tokyo Electron Ltd., 650 Mitsuzawa, Hosaka-cho, 407-0192 Nirasaki (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    This paper demonstrates thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) combined with periodic oxidation for synthesizing titanium oxynitride (TiON) thin films. The process used a typical ALD reactor for the synthesis of titanium nitride (TiN) films wherein oxygen was supplied periodically between the ALD-TiN cycles. The great advantage of the process proposed here was that it allowed the TiN films to be oxidized efficiently. Also, a uniform depth profile of the oxygen concentration in the films could be obtained by tuning the oxidation conditions, allowing the process to produce a wide variety of TiON films. The resistivity measurement is a convenient method to confirm the reproducibility of metal film fabrication but may not be applicable for TiON films depending upon the oxidation condition because the films can easily turn into insulators when subjected to periodic oxidation. Therefore, an alternative reproducibility confirmation method was required. In this study, spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to monitor the variation of TiON films and was able to detect changes in film structures such as conductor–insulator transitions in the TiON films.

  17. Perovskite Oxide Thin Film Growth, Characterization, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Andrew

    Studies into a class of materials known as complex oxides have evoked a great deal of interest due to their unique magnetic, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. In particular, materials with the ABO3 perovskite structure have highly tunable properties because of the high stability of the structure, which allows for large scale doping and strain. This also allows for a large selection of A and B cations and valences, which can further modify the material's electronic structure. Additionally, deposition of these materials as thin films and superlattices through techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) results in novel properties due to the reduced dimensionality of the material. The novel properties of perovskite oxide heterostructures can be traced to a several sources, including chemical intermixing, strain and defect formation, and electronic reconstruction. The correlations between microstructure and physical properties must be investigated by examining the physical and electronic structure of perovskites in order to understand this class of materials. Some perovskites can undergo phase changes due to temperature, electrical fields, and magnetic fields. In this work we investigated Nd0.5Sr 0.5MnO3 (NSMO), which undergoes a first order magnetic and electronic transition at T=158K in bulk form. Above this temperature NSMO is a ferromagnetic metal, but transitions into an antiferromagnetic insulator as the temperature is decreased. This rapid transition has interesting potential in memory devices. However, when NSMO is deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) or (001)-oriented (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr 2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) substrates, this transition is lost. It has been reported in the literature that depositing NSMO on (110)-oriented STO allows for the transition to reemerge due to the partial epitaxial growth, where the NSMO film is strained along the [001] surface axis and partially relaxed along the [11¯0] surface axis. This allows the NSMO film enough

  18. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  19. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  20. When are thin films of metals metallic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E. W.; Dowben, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    There is an increasing body of experimental information suggesting that very thin films of materials, normally considered to be metals, exhibit behavior characteristic of a nonmetal. In almost all cases, there is a nonmetal-to-metal transition as a function of film density or thickness, frequently accompanied by a structural transition. Amazingly, this behavior seems to occur for metal films on metal substrates, as well as for metals on semiconductors. The identification of this phenomena and the subsequent explanation has been slow in developing, due to the inability to directly measure the conductivity of a submonolayer film. This paper will discuss the evidence accumulated from variety of spectroscopic experimental techniques for three systems: a Mott-Hubbard transition, a Peierls-like distortion, and a Wilson transition.

  1. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  2. Cathodoluminescence degradation of PLD thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Dejene, F. B.; Dolo, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities of Y2SiO5:Ce3+, Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor thin films that were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated for possible application in low voltage field emission displays (FEDs) and other infrastructure applications. Several process parameters (background gas, laser fluence, base pressure, substrate temperature, etc.) were changed during the deposition of the thin films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and particle size of the different films. The layers consist of agglomerated nanoparticle structures. Samples with good light emission were selected for the electron degradation studies. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and CL spectroscopy were used to monitor changes in the surface chemical composition and luminous efficiency of the thin films. AES and CL spectroscopy were done with 2 keV energy electrons. Measurements were done at 1×10-6 Torr oxygen pressure. The formation of different oxide layers during electron bombardment was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New non-luminescent layers that formed during electron bombardment were responsible for the degradation in light intensity. The adventitious C was removed from the surface in all three cases as volatile gas species, which is consistent with the electron stimulated surface chemical reaction (ESSCR) model. For Y2SiO5:Ce3+ a luminescent SiO2 layer formed during the electron bombardment. Gd2O3 and SrO thin films formed on the surfaces of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+, respectively, due to ESSCRs.

  3. Thin Films for Coating Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Mukhopadhyay; P.Joshi; R.V.Pulikollu

    2005-01-01

    For nano-structured solids (those with one or more dimensions in the 1-100 nm range), attempts of surface modification can pose significant and new challenges. In traditional materials, the surface coating could be several hundreds nanometers in thickness, or even microns and millimeters. In a nano-structured material, such as particle or nanofibers, the coating thickness has to be substantially smaller than the bulk dimensions (100 nm or less), yet be durable and effective. In this paper, some aspects of effective nanometer scale coatings have been discussed. These films have been deposited by a non-line of sight (plasma)techniques; and therefore, they are capable of modifying nanofibers, near net shape cellular foams, and other high porosity materials. Two types of coatings will be focused upon: (a) those that make the surface inert and (b) those designed to enhance surface reactivity and bonding. The former has been achieved by forming 1-2 nm layer of -CF2- (and/or CF3) groups on the surface, and the latter by creating a nanolayer of SiO2-type compound. Nucleation and growth studies of the plasma-generated film indicate that they start forming as 2-3 nm high islands that grow laterally, and eventually completely cover the surface with 2-3nm film. Contact angle measurements indicate that these nano-coatings are fully functional even before they have achieved complete coverage of 2-3 nm. They should therefore be applicable to nano-structural solids.This is corroborated by application of these films on vapor grown nanofibers of carbon, and on graphitic foams. Coated and uncoated materials are infiltrated with epoxy matrix to form composites and their microstructure, as well as mechanical behaviors are compared. The results show that the nano-oxide coating can significantly enhance bond formation between carbon and organic phases, thereby enhancing wettability,dispersion, and composite behavior. The fluorocarbon coating, as expected, reduces bond formation, and

  4. Ions Bombardment in Thin Films and Surface Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许沭华; 任兆杏

    2003-01-01

    Ions bombardment is very important in thin films and surface processing. The ionenergy and ion flux are two important parameters in ion bombardment. The ion current densitymainly dependent on the plasma density gives the number of energetic ions bombarding thesubstrate. The self-bias voltage in plasma sheath accelerates plasma ions towards the substrate.RF discharge can increase plasma density and RF bias can also provide the insulator substrate witha plasma sheath. In order to choose and control ion energy, ion density, the angle of incidence,and ion species, ion beam sources are used. New types of electrodeless ion sources (RF, MW,ECR-MW) have been introduced in detail. In the last, the effects of ion bombardment on thinfilms and surface processing are presented.

  5. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  6. Mathematical framework for multi-frequency identification of thin insulating and small conductive inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Habib; Seo, Jin Keun; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-10-01

    We are aiming to identify the thin insulating inhomogeneities and small conductive inhomogeneities inside an electrically conducting medium by using multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography. The thin insulating inhomogeneities are considered in the form of a tubular neighborhood of a curve and small conductive inhomogeneities are regarded as circular disks. Taking advantage of the frequency dependent behavior of insulating objects, we give a rigorous derivation of the potential along thin insulating objects at various frequencies. Asymptotic formula is given to analyze relationship between inhomogeneities and boundary potential at different frequencies. In numerical simulations, spectroscopic images are provided to visualize the reconstructed admittivity at various frequencies. For the view of both kinds of inhomogeneities, an integrated reconstructed image based on principal component analysis is provided. Phantom experiments are performed by using Swisstom EIT-Pioneer Set.

  7. Study on Preparation of High-k Organic-Inorganic Thin Film for Organic-Inorganic Thin Film Transistor Gate Dielectric Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Hsi; Liu, Chao-Te; Lee, Ying-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    A simple solution-based deposition technique combined with spin-coating is a plausible way to prepare ultra-thin organic-inorganic nanocomposite films. In this study, we describe the spin-coating deposition of a colloidal nanoparticle suspension to obtain an ultra-thin organic-inorganic composite film as a gate insulator for organic thin film transistor (O-TFT) application. To obtain a homogenous organic-inorganic composite film, well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in γ-butyrolactone and polyimide are important; therefore, several dispersants were assessed on the basis of the measurement of the rheological behavior of slurries. The thickness of the organic-inorganic composite film is mainly determined by the speed of spin-coating and viscosity of slurries. An approximately 4000-Å-thick nanocomposite film with homogeneous distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in polyimide and low roughness was obtained after curing at 200 °C, resulting in a low leakage current density of the nano-composite film, when less than 2 vol % TiO2 nanoparticles were well dispersed in polyimide slurry. The dielectric constant of the organic-inorganic nanocomposite increases with increasing TiO2 content in polyimide, being situated in the range between 4 and 5.

  8. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  9. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof

    2012-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  10. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  11. Thin film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, Shirley S.; Ang, S. T.; Mantravadi, M. K.

    1987-08-01

    Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells of the inverted configuration were prepared by the deposition of p-type CdTe films onto CdS/SnO2:F/glass substrates using CVD or close-spaced sublimation (CSS) techniques based on the procedures of Chu et al. (1983) and Nicholl (1963), respectively. The deposition rates of p-CdTe films deposited by CSS were higher than those deposited by the CVD technique (4-5 min were sufficient), and the efficiencies higher than 10 percent were obtained. However, the resistivity of films prepared by CSS was not as readily controlled as that of the CVD films. The simplest technique to reduce the resistivity of the CSS p-CdTe films was to incorporate a dopant, such as As or Sb, into the reaction mixture during the preparation of the source material. The films with resistivities in the range of 500-1000 ohm cm were deposited in this manner.

  12. Magnetic Thin Films of Inorganic Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-02-01

    Molecule-based magnets have been fascinating materials because of the potential applications in information storage, electronic and spintronic devices. However, such applications would require arraying the active materials on a substrate or interfacing with other components. Here, we focus on fabricating multi-functional magnetic films using inorganic nanosheets as a building block. The thin films could be prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett, LB, technique or the layer-by-layer, LbL, method, which are representative wet-processings for film preparation. As the magnetic LB film, we chose semiconductive titania nanosheets and magnetic Prussian Blue. Upon band gap excitation of titania nanosheets, electron injection into Prussian Blue was achieved with scavenging interlayer water molecules, leading to photoreduction to Prussian White. As the magnetic LbL film, we chose magnetic layered double hydroxide, LDH, nanosheets and non-magnetic smectite nanosheets. In powdered LDH, a coercivity increased with expanding the interlayer spacing. On the other hand, despite the larger interlayer spacing for the LbL film, a coercivity was less than that of the comparative powdered LDH. It is indicated LDH nanosheets are integrated in an anisotropic manner in the LbL films.

  13. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...... is that the experimentally inaccessible out-of-plane material properties are determined by fitting the model predictions to the measured nonlinear behavior of the film. Creep tests, uniaxial tension tests, and biaxial bubble tests are used to determine the material parameters. The model has been validated experimentally...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILM AND DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Chen; H. Shen

    2005-01-01

    Photoelectrochromic device is a combination of dye-sensitized solar cells and electrochromic WO3 layers. Ectrochroelmic WO3 layer and TiO2 layer had been prepared by the sol-gel process, then be assembled to pohotoelectrochromic device. The effects of heating temperature on photoelectrochromic were investigated. The results showed that thin films prepared by dip-coating and spin-coating had good film quality and the device made by the method mentioned in the paper had good photoelectrochromie properties.

  15. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pergolesi, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used to probe the effect of strain on the oxygen ion migration in oxide materials. For the purpose of these investigations a good lattice matching between the film and the substrate is required to promote the ordered film growth. Moreover, the substrate should be a good electrical insulator at high temperature to allow a reliable electrical characterization of the deposited film. Here we report the fabrication of an epitaxial heterostructure made with a double buffer layer of BaZrO3 and SrTiO3 grown on MgO substrates that fulfills both requirements. Based on such template platform, highly ordered (001) epitaxially oriented thin films of 15% Sm-doped CeO2 and 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 are grown. Bulk conductivities as well as activation energies are measured for both materials, confirming the success of the approach. The reported insulating template platform promises potential application also for the electrical characterization of other novel electrolyte materials that still need a thorough understanding of their ionic conductivity.

  16. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  17. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  18. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chengliang, E-mail: cllu@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom, E-mail: cllu@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Tian, Yufeng [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  19. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Using Lithium Niobate Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-06-01

    We present a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) using a lithium niobate thin film, as one of the triboelectric pairs which was grown on a silicon substrate by laser molecule beam epitaxy (LMBE). The designed TENG has the advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, small size (1.1*1.0*0.15 cm3). An open-circuit voltage of 136 V and a short-circuit current of 8.40 μA have been achieved. The maximum output power is 307.5μW under the load resistance of 10MΩ. This is the first time to use lithium niobate thin film as one of the friction pair, which may make it possible to expand the application of triboelectric nanogenerator to optical field.

  20. Thin Films of Polypyrrole on Particulate Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    C H R I S T O P H E R V E T T E R , X I A O N I N G Q I , S U B R A M A N Y A M V . K A S I S O M A Y A J U L A , A N D Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...layer 3 Why Polypyrrole /Flake? Polypyrrole  Poor mechanical properties  Poor adhesion  Solubility issues  Continuous layer needed 4 Polypyrrole Coated

  1. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  2. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. (ed.)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting next-generation'' options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called government/industry partnerships'') that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  3. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased.

  5. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

  6. Incoherent and Laser Photodeposition on Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    mixing system. Both a carbon dioxide and dry chemical fire extinguisher were on hand in case a fire was initiated by the compounds. The dimethvlzinc was...summarizes three months of experimental effort devoted toward the production of thin films by the photodissociation of organometallic molecules containing the...that the threshold wavelength for the photodissociation of both Zn- 0 and Se- (CH3 )2 was approximately 2420A. Consequently, these laser photodeposition

  7. Quantized Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films were prepared by asymmetric rectangular pulse electrodeposition in organic solution at 110°C. STM image shows a porous network morphology constructed by interconnected spherical CdTe crystallites with a mean diameter of 4.2 nm. A pronounced size quantization was indicated in the action and absorption spectra. Potentials dependence dual conductive behavior was revealed in the photocurrent-potential (I-V) curves.

  8. Surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; M.M. Szindler; M. Chwastek-Ogierman; BRUMA M.; P. Jarka; Tomiczek, B.

    2011-01-01

    urpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyse the surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles. Design/methodology/approach: SSix different polymers which belong to the group of polyoxadiazoles were dissolved in the solvent NMP. Each of these polymer was deposited on a glass substrate and a spin coating method was applied with a spin speed of 1000, 2000 and 3000 rev/min. Changes in surface topography and roughness were observed. An atomic force microscope AFM Park System has been used....

  9. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  10. Topological phase transitions in thin films by tuning multivalley boundary-state couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Dirac boundary states on opposite boundaries can overlap and interact owing to finite size effect. We propose that in a thin film system with symmetry-unrelated valleys, valley-contrasting couplings between Dirac boundary states can be exploited to design various two-dimensional topological quantum phases. Our first-principles calculations demonstrate the mechanism in tin telluride slab and nanoribbon array, respectively, by top-down and bottom-up material designs. Both two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator and quantum spin Hall insulator emerge in the same material system, which offers highly tunable quantum transport of edge channels with a set of quantized conductances.

  11. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.; Moghaddam, Saeed; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2014-08-01

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO2 thin films approximately 10 nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO2 thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  12. Scanning Probe Microscopy on heterogeneous CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The conductive atomic force microscopy provided a local characterization of the dielectric heterogeneities in CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO thin films deposited by MOCVD on IrO2 bottom electrode. In particular, both techniques have been employed to clarify the role of the inter- and sub-granular features in terms of conductive and insulating regions. The microstructure and the dielectric properties of CCTO thin films have been studied and the evidence of internal barriers in CCTO thin films has been provided. The role of internal barriers and the possible explanation for the extrinsic origin of the giant dielectric response in CCTO has been evaluated.

  13. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu, E-mail: nishida@ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Takmeel, Qanit; Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27696-7907 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films approximately 10 nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO{sub 2} thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  14. Epitaxial strain induced atomic ordering in stoichiometric LaCoO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Kwon, Ji-Hwan; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Sawatzky, George A.; Hinkov, Vladimir; Kim, Miyoung; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial strain imposed in complex transition metal oxide thin films is recognized as an effective tool for identifying and controlling emergent physical phenomena. Stoichiometric LaCoO3 is particularly interesting, since the thin film form of the material exhibits a robust macroscopic ferromagnetic ordering, while the bulk form of the material is a zero spin, nonmagnetic insulator. In this work, we show that the ferromagnetic ordering observed in LaCoO3 thin films is related to a lattice modulation in the atomic scale, originating from the epitaxial strain. The possibility of oxygen vacancies have been carefully ruled out using various macroscopic and microscopic spectroscopic techniques, and an unconventional strain relaxation behavior identified by strip-like lattice modulation pattern was responsible for the non-zero spin ground state of Co3+ ions. We further note that the unconventional strain relaxation did not involve any uncontrolled misfit dislocations.

  15. Design and characterization of thin film microcoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBounty, Chris; Shakouri, Ali; Bowers, John E.

    2001-04-01

    Thin film coolers can provide large cooling power densities compared to bulk thermoelectrics due to the close spacing of hot and cold junctions. Important parameters in the design of such coolers are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulator (ANSYS) is used to model self-consistently thermal and electrical properties of a complete device structure. The dominant three-dimensional thermal and electrical spreading resistances acquired from the 3D simulation are also used in a one-dimensional model (MATLAB) to obtain faster, less rigorous results. Heat conduction, Joule heating, thermoelectric and thermionic cooling are included in these models as well as nonideal effects such as contact resistance, finite thermal resistance of the substrate and the heat sink, and heat generation in the wire bonds. Simulations exhibit good agreement with experimental results from InGaAsP-based thin film thermionic emission coolers which have demonstrated maximum cooling of 1.15 °C at room temperature. With the nonideal effects minimized, simulations predict that single stage thin film coolers can provide up to 20-30 °C degrees centigrade cooling with cooling power densities of several 1000 W/cm2.

  16. Titanium diffusion in gold thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, William E. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Gregori, Giuliano, E-mail: g.gregori@fkf.mpg.d [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Mates, Thomas [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, diffusion phenomena in titanium/gold (Ti/Au) thin films occurring at temperatures ranging between 200 and 400 {sup o}C are investigated. The motivation is twofold: the first objective is to characterize Ti diffusion into Au layer as an effect of different heat-treatments. The second goal is to prove that the implementation of a thin titanium nitride (TiN) layer between Ti and Au can remarkably reduce Ti diffusion. It is observed that Ti atoms can fully diffuse through polycrystalline Au thin films (260 nm thick) already at temperatures as a low as 250 {sup o}C. Starting from secondary ion mass spectroscopy data, the overall diffusion activation energy {Delta}E = 0.66 eV and the corresponding pre-exponential factor D{sub 0} = 5 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s are determined. As for the grain boundary diffusivity, both the activation energy range 0.54 < {Delta}E{sub gb} < 0.66 eV and the pre-exponential factor s{sub 0}D{sub gb0} = 1.14 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s are obtained. Finally, it is observed that the insertion of a thin TiN layer (40 nm) between gold and titanium acts as an effective diffusion barrier up to 400 {sup o}C.

  17. Thermally induced crystallization in NbO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaming; Norris, Kate J.; Gibson, Gary; Zhao, Dongxue; Samuels, Katy; Zhang, Minxian Max; Yang, J. Joshua; Park, Joonsuk; Sinclair, Robert; Jeon, Yoocharn; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-09-01

    Niobium dioxide can exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices, which has recently attracted significant interest for its potential applications as a highly non-linear selector element in emerging nonvolatile memory (NVM) and as a locally-active element in neuromorphic circuits. In order to further understand the processing of this material system, we studied the effect of thermal annealing on a 15 nm thick NbO2 thin film sandwiched inside a nanoscale MIM device and compared it with 180 nm thick blanket NbOx (x = 2 and 2.5) films deposited on a silicon dioxide surface as references. A systematic transmission electron microscope (TEM) study revealed a similar structural transition from amorphous to a distorted rutile structure in both cases, with a transition temperature of 700 °C for the NbO2 inside the MIM device and a slightly higher transition temperature of 750 °C for the reference NbO2 film. Quantitative composition analysis from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed the stoichiometry of the nominal 15 nm NbO2 layer in the as-fabricated MIM device deviated from the target 1:2 ratio because of an interaction with the electrode materials, which was more prominent at elevated annealing temperature.

  18. Thermally induced crystallization in NbO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaming; Norris, Kate J.; Gibson, Gary; Zhao, Dongxue; Samuels, Katy; Zhang, Minxian Max; Yang, J. Joshua; Park, Joonsuk; Sinclair, Robert; Jeon, Yoocharn; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Niobium dioxide can exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices, which has recently attracted significant interest for its potential applications as a highly non-linear selector element in emerging nonvolatile memory (NVM) and as a locally-active element in neuromorphic circuits. In order to further understand the processing of this material system, we studied the effect of thermal annealing on a 15 nm thick NbO2 thin film sandwiched inside a nanoscale MIM device and compared it with 180 nm thick blanket NbOx (x = 2 and 2.5) films deposited on a silicon dioxide surface as references. A systematic transmission electron microscope (TEM) study revealed a similar structural transition from amorphous to a distorted rutile structure in both cases, with a transition temperature of 700 °C for the NbO2 inside the MIM device and a slightly higher transition temperature of 750 °C for the reference NbO2 film. Quantitative composition analysis from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed the stoichiometry of the nominal 15 nm NbO2 layer in the as-fabricated MIM device deviated from the target 1:2 ratio because of an interaction with the electrode materials, which was more prominent at elevated annealing temperature. PMID:27682633

  19. High Performance Infrared Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers and Their Applications to Thin-film Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2016-04-07

    Plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (PMAs) have attracted considerable attention for developing various sensing devices. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize PMAs of different geometrical shapes operating in mid-infrared frequencies, and explore the applications of the PMAs as sensor for thin films. The PMAs, consisting of metal-insulator-metal stacks with patterned gold nanostructured surfaces (resonators), demonstrated high absorption efficiency (87 to 98 %) of electromagnetic waves in the infrared regime. The position and efficiency of resonance absorption are dependent on the shape of the resonators. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength of PMAs was sensitive to the thin film coated on the surface of the PMAs, which was tested using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as the film. With increase of the Al2O3 thickness, the position of resonance absorption shifted to longer wavelengths. The dependence of the resonant wavelength on thin film thickness makes PMAs a suitable candidate as a sensor for thin films. Using this sensing strategy, PMAs have potential as a new method for thin film detection and in situ monitoring of surface reactions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  20. Spin-glass-like behaviour and positive magnetoresistance in oxygen deficient La2/3Ca1/3MnO3-δ thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fu-Chang; Chen Wei-Ran; Gong Wei-Zhi; Xu Bo; Qiu Xiang-Gang; Zhao Bai-Ru

    2004-01-01

    The magnetism and magnetoresistance (MR) in a series of oxygen-deficient La2/3Ca1/3MnO3_δ (LCMO) thin films have been investigated. Compared with the films with stoichiometric oxygen concentration, the oxygen-deficient LCMO thin films show a spin-glass-like behaviour at low temperatures, and a positive MR effect above the metal-insulator transition temperature. The mechanism of such unusual phenomena is discussed.

  1. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei

    A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.

  2. Thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R. (Toledo Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to develop to vacuum-based growth techniques for CdTe thin-film solar cells: (1) laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD) and (2) radio-frequency (rf) sputtering. The LDPVD process was successfully used to deposit thin films of CdS, CdTe, and CdCl{sub 2}, as well as related alloys and doped semiconductor materials. The laser-driven deposition process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and, thus, complete solar cell structures were fabricated on SnO{sub 2}-coated glass using LDPVD. The rf sputtering process for film growth became operational, and progress was made in implementing it. Time was also devoted to enhancing or implementing a variety of film characterization systems and device testing facilities. A new system for transient spectroscopy on the ablation plume provided important new information on the physical mechanisms of LDPVD. The measurements show that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a fraction that is highly excited internally ({ge} 6 eV), and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater. 19 refs.

  3. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  4. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  5. Optical properties of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarova, Stefka N.; Sultanova, Nina G.; Petrova, Tzveta; Dragostinova, Violeta; Nikolov, Ivan

    2009-10-01

    In this report three types of optical polymer thin films deposited on glass substrates are investigated. Transmission spectra of the polymer samples are obtained in the range from 400 nm to 1500 nm. A laser microrefractometer has been used to measure the refractive indices of the examined materials at 406, 656, 910 and 1320 nm. Dispersion properties of the polymer films are analyzed on the base of the Cauchy-Schott's and Sellmeier`s approximations. Dispersion coefficients are calculated and dispersion charts in the visible and near infrared spectral regions are presented and compared. Abbe numbers of mean and partial dispersion of the polymer films are obtained. Calculation of refractive indices at many laser emission wavelengths in the considered spectral range is accomplished.

  6. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  7. Inorganic and Organic Solution-Processed Thin Film Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2017-01-01

    Thin films and thin film devices have a ubiquitous presence in numerous conventional and emerging tech-nologies. This is because of the recent advances in nanotechnology, the development of functional and smart materials, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, and the employment of unique prop-erties of thin films and ultrathin films, such as high surface area, controlled nanostructure for effective charge transfer, and special physical and chemical properties, to develop new thin film devices. This paper is therefore intended to provide a concise critical review and research directions on most thin film devices, including thin film transistors, data storage memory, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, thermoelectric devices, smart materials, sensors, and actuators. The thin film devices may consist of organic, inorganic, and composite thin layers, and share similar functionality, properties, and fabrication routes. Therefore, due to the multidisciplinary nature of thin film devices, knowledge and advances already made in one area may be applicable to other similar areas. Owing to the importance of developing low-cost, scalable, and vacuum-free fabrication routes, this paper focuses on thin film devices that may be processed and deposited from solution.

  8. Epitaxial growth and electronic structure of oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira, E-mail: chikamatsu@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yamada, Keisuke; Onozuka, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shigematsu, Kei [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Oxyhydride SrVO{sub 2}H epitaxial thin films were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via topotactic hydridation of oxide SrVO{sub 3} films using CaH{sub 2}. Structural and composition analyses suggested that the SrVO{sub 2}H film possessed one-dimensionally ordered V-H{sup −}-V bonds along the out-of-plane direction. The synthesis temperature could be lowered by reducing the film thickness, and the SrVO{sub 2}H film was reversible to SrVO{sub 3} by oxidation through annealing in air. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed the V{sup 3+} valence state in the SrVO{sub 2}H film, indicating that the hydrogen existed as hydride. Furthermore, the electronic density of states was highly suppressed at the Fermi energy, consistent with the prediction that tetragonal distortion induces metal to insulation transition.

  9. Sub-nanometer control of the interlayer spacing in thin films of intercalated rodlike conjugated molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jörn-Oliver; Salzmann, Ingo; Opitz, Ricarda; Duhm, Steffen; Nickel, Bert; Rabe, Jürgen P; Koch, Norbert

    2007-12-27

    Organic molecular beam co-deposition of rodlike conjugated molecules with an alkylated analogue resulted in thin film structures with layers of alternating semiconducting (conjugated molecular parts) and insulating (alkyl parts) character. By varying the alkylated molecule ratio, we could adjust the distance between conjugated layers with sub-nanometer precision, exploiting the mechanical flexibility of the alkyl chains. Furthermore, due to mutual molecular intercalation, mixed layers containing two conjugated moieties with vastly different electronic properties could be fabricated.

  10. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-02-21

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  11. Growth of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ on alkaline earth flouride substrates and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Foote, M. C.; Hunt, B. D.; Barner, J. B.

    1993-03-01

    The growth and characterization of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) thin films grown by laser ablation on MgF 2 (100), CaF 2 (100), SrF 2 (100), and BaF 2 (100) substrates, and on CaF 2 and BaF 2 thin films on LaAlO 3 (100) substrates, are described. High quality superconducting YBCO films could be grown directly only on the BaF 2 substrates and thin films. YBCO films grown directly on MgF 2 or CaF 2 substrates were insulating and showed clear signs of interdiffusion and reaction, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Superconducting YBCO films could be grown on SrF 2 and CaF 2 substrates and thin films only with an yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layer and/or with a low YBCO growth temperature, while YBCO grown on MgF 2 yielded insulating films for all growth conditions investigated. The highest quality YBCO films were obtained on BaF 2 substrates ( Tc=87.6 K, ΔTc=0.3 K). These results are discussed in terms of the thermodynamic stability of possible reaction products and the temperature dependence of the ionic mobilities.

  12. A New Method of Fabricating NASICON Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WNGLing; SUNJialin; 等

    1998-01-01

    Nasicon thin films of 15 μm thick on YSZ sub-strates were prepared by means of solid state reaction at 1230℃ for 10 hours,Stuctural characteriza-tion of the films were performed by XRD ,SEM and EDX,A new tyype of CO2 gas sensor with Nasicon thin film as solid electrolyte was developed.

  13. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  14. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  15. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  16. Modeling and fabrication of a planar thin film airflow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Richard J.; Tanner, Philip G.; Thiel, David V.

    2001-11-01

    A thin film airflow transducer based on the hot wire anemometer principle was designed using current MEMS modelling & simulation software. Flow sensors are commonly implemented with thermal isolation of the sensor from the bulk substrate mass using methods such as reverse side etching or sacrificial layers, however this paper will present a sensor relying on thermal insulation only. This insulation may be provided by layers of material exhibiting relatively poor thermal conduction characteristics such as silicon dioxide or polyimide, giving rise to a number of advantages such as removing the process of reverse side etching. Limiting fabrication to use of simple processes such as photolithography and sputtering/evaporative deposition also simplifies this design and assists in greatly increasing the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes and materials. A combination of both theoretical computer modelling and physical fabrication and testing has been the approach to this research. Preliminary testing of this design has demonstrated small yet measurable temperature gradients across the device surface during steady state operation. The novel approach to this device is the investigation of pulsed operation, effectively a transient analysis that allows the thermal conduction effects of the bulk mass to be significantly reduced, leading to a significant increase of both efficiency and response time. Electro-thermo-mechanical and computational fluid dynamic analysis of the structure successfully model the thermal conduction, radiation and forced convection effects of the device during and after ohmic heating of the sensor's heating element.

  17. Resistance switching in epitaxial SrCoO{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambunan, Octolia T.; Parwanta, Kadek J.; Acharya, Susant K.; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk, E-mail: cu-jung@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Bae Ho [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, Department of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Physics and Division of Energy System Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung Rae; Park, Yun Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Subwavelength Optics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Seok [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyunwoo; Lee, Suyoun [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seul Ji; Kang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Cheol Seong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-11

    We observed bipolar switching behavior from an epitaxial strontium cobaltite film grown on a SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate. The crystal structure of strontium cobaltite has been known to undergo topotactic phase transformation between two distinct phases: insulating brownmillerite (SrCoO{sub 2.5}) and conducting perovskite (SrCoO{sub 3−δ}) depending on the oxygen content. The current–voltage characteristics of the strontium cobaltite film showed that it could have a reversible insulator-to-metal transition triggered by electrical bias voltage. We propose that the resistance switching in the SrCoO{sub x} thin film could be related to the topotactic phase transformation and the peculiar structure of SrCoO{sub 2.5}.

  18. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  19. Reduced growth temperature of Bi6FeCoTi3O18 thin films by conductive bottom layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yu; Huang, Haoliang; Meng, Dechao; Cui, Zhangzhang; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2016-11-01

    The Aurivillius layered oxide homologous series attract wide interests due to their room temperature multiferroic properties. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such layered oxide epitaxial thin films has been a major challenge owing to the occurrence of growth defects and narrow growth temperature window. To obtain high quality epitaxial Bi6FeCoTi3O18 (BFCTO) thin films, the effects of insulating and conductive bottom layers were studied by laser molecular beam epitaxy. We found that the optimal deposition temperature for growth on conductive bottom layers is more than 90 °C lower than that on insulating bottom layers, which indicates the interface between BFCTO and conductive bottom layers has smaller interfacial energy than the interface between BFCTO and insulating bottom layers. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the optimized BFCTO thin films on insulating substrate and conductive bottom layers were studied. This study is important to control the growth of complex layered oxide thin films and exploit the applications for future room temperature multiferroic devices.

  20. Intrinsic instability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoni, Arif; Hu, Han; Sun, Liyong; Sun, Ying

    2016-11-01

    The instability of a thin liquid film on nanostructures is not well understood but is important in liquid-vapor two-phase heat transfer (e.g., thin film evaporation and boiling), lubrication, and nanomanufacturing. In thin film evaporation, the comparison between the non-evaporating film thickness and the critical film breakup thickness determines the stability of the film: the film becomes unstable when the critical film breakup thickness is larger than the non-evaporating film thickness. In this study, a closed-form model is developed to predict the critical breakup thickness of a thin liquid film on 2D periodic nanostructures based on minimization of system free energy in the limit of a liquid monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water thin films on square nanostructures of varying depth and wettability and the simulations agree with the model predictions. The results show that the critical film breakup thickness increases with the nanostructure depth and the surface wettability. The model developed here enables the prediction of the minimum film thickness for stable thin film evaporation on a given nanostructure.

  1. Cerium Dioxide Thin Films Using Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium dioxide (CeO2 thin films with varying Ce concentrations (0.1 to 0.9 M, metal basis were deposited on soda-lime-silica glass substrates using spin coating. It was found that all films exhibited the cubic fluorite structure after annealing at 500°C for 5 h. The laser Raman microspectroscopy and GAXRD analyses revealed that increasing concentrations of Ce resulted in an increase in the degree of crystallinity. FIB and FESEM images confirmed the laser Raman and GAXRD analyses results owing to the predicted increase in film thickness with increasing Ce concentration. However, porosity and shrinkage (drying cracking of the films also increased significantly with increasing Ce concentrations. UV-VIS spectrophotometry data showed that the transmission of the films decreased with increasing Ce concentrations due to the increasing crack formation. Furthermore, a red shift was observed with increasing Ce concentrations, which resulted in a decrease in the optical indirect band gap.

  2. Electroless plating of thin gold films directly onto silicon nitride thin films and into micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Julie C; Karawdeniya, Buddini Iroshika; Bandara, Y M Nuwan D Y; Velleco, Brian D; Masterson, Caitlin M; Dwyer, Jason R

    2014-07-23

    A method to directly electrolessly plate silicon-rich silicon nitride with thin gold films was developed and characterized. Films with thicknesses plating free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membranes, and we successfully plated the interior walls of micropore arrays in 200 nm thick silicon nitride membranes. The method is thus amenable to coating planar, curved, and line-of-sight-obscured silicon nitride surfaces.

  3. Gadolinium thin films as benchmark for magneto-caloric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Lars; Bartke, Marianne; Teichert, Niclas; Schleicher, Benjamin; Fähler, Sebastian; Hütten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    We report on the preparation of Gadolinium thin films by means of sputter deposition on Silicon Oxide wafers. A series of samples with different buffer layers and various substrate temperatures has been produced. The film on an amorphous Tantalum buffer deposited at 773 K shows the highest increase of magnetization during the phase transition at the Curie temperature. Further detailed analysis of the magnetic properties has been conducted by VSM.

  4. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  5. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  6. Thin-liquid-film evaporation at contact line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao WANG; Zhenai PAN; Zhao CHEN

    2009-01-01

    When a liquid wets a solid wall, the extended meniscus near the contact line may be divided into three regions: a nonevaporating region, where the liquid is adsorbed on the wall; a transition region or thin-film region, where effects of long-range molecular forces (disjoining pressure) are felt; and an intrinsic meniscus region, where capillary forces dominate. The thin liquid film, with thickness from nanometers up to micrometers, covering the transition region and part of intrinsic meniscus, is gaining interest due to its high heat transfer rates. In this paper, a review was made of the researches on thin-liquid-film evaporation. The major characteristics of thin film, thin-film modeling based on continuum theory, simulations based on molecular dynamics, and thin-film profile and temperature measurements were summarized.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail: kega@physx.u-szeged.hu; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Nogradi, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Szeged, H-6720, Szeged, Koranyi fasor 10-11 (Hungary)

    2005-07-15

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 x 10{sup -3} Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified 'protein cube' method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  8. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1986-08-01

    The major objective of this work was to demonstrate CdTe devices grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a total area greater than 1 cm2 and photovoltic efficiencies of at least 13%. During the period covered, various processing steps were investigated for the preparation of thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells of the inverted configuration. Glass coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide was used as the substrate. Thin-film heterojunction solar cells were prepared by depositing p-CdTe films on substrates using CVD and close-spaced sublimation (CSS). Cells prepared from CSS CdTe usually have a higher conversion efficiency than those prepared from CVD CdTe, presumably due to the chemical interaction between CdS and CdTe at the interface during the CVD process. The best cell, about 1.2 sq cm in area, had an AM 1.5 (global) efficiency of 10.5%, and further improvements are expected by optimizing the process parameters.

  9. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  10. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  11. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  12. Influence of the vacuum interface on the charge distribution in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwingenschloegl, U [KAUST, PCSE Division, PO Box 55455, Jeddah 21534 (Saudi Arabia); Fresard, R [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR CNRS-ENSICAEN(ISMRA) 6508, and IRMA, FR3095, Caen (France); Eyert, V [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute for Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)], E-mail: eyert@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2009-09-15

    The electronic structure of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is studied by means of the augmented spherical wave method as based on density functional theory and the local density approximation. We establish that the effects of charge redistribution, induced by the vacuum interface, in such films are restricted to a very narrow surface layer of {approx}15 A thickness. As a consequence, charge redistribution can be ruled out as a source of the extraordinary thickness dependence of the metal-insulator transition observed in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films of {approx}100-1000 A thickness.

  13. Spontaneous dehydrogenation of methanol over defect-free MgO(100) thin film deposited on molybdenum

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Zhenjun

    2016-01-01

    The dehydrogenation reaction of methanol on metal supported MgO(100) films has been studied by employing periodic density functional calculations. As far as we know, the dehydrogenation of single methanol molecule over inert oxide insulators such as MgO has never been realized before without the introduction of defects and low coordinated atoms. By depositing the very thin oxide films on Mo substrate we have successfully obtained the dissociative state of methanol. The dehydrogenation reaction is energetically exothermic and nearly barrierless. The metal supported thin oxide films studied here provide a versatile approach to enhance the activity and properties of oxides.

  14. 3D Field Simulation of Magnetic Thin Film Inductor

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIWARA, Toshiyasu; CHOI, Kyung-Ku; SATO, SHIGEKI

    2006-01-01

    The 3D magnetic field simulations with FEM (finite element method) have been performed to predictand understand the performance of Magnetic Thin Film Inductor (MTFl). Inductor structures of planar electroplated Cu spiralcoil, which are sandwiched and underlaid with magnetic thin films, are considered as the simulation models. The inductance increment of 300% compared to air-core inductor was predicted when the sandwiched 5μm thickness magnetic thin film with relative permeability of 600 was a...

  15. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2008-02-15

    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  16. Crystal structure of fiber structured pentacene thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis presents a technique based on the grazing incidence crystal truncation rod (GI-CTR) X-ray diffraction method used to solve the crystal structure of substrate induced fiber structured organic thin films. The crystal structures of pentacene thin films grown on technologically relevant gate dielectric substrates are reported. It is widely recognized, that the intrinsic charge transport properties in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) depend strongly on the crystal structur...

  17. Transport and Magnetism in Bulk and Thin Film Strontium Titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Palak

    high pressure oxygen RF sputtering from a ceramic target is similarly capable of growth of high-quality, precisely stoichiometric thin films of SrTiO3. By employing homoepitaxy on SrTiO3(001) substrates, it is shown that optimization of deposition temperature (above 750 °C), oxygen pressure (above 2.5 mBar) and deposition rate (below 1.5 A/min) leads to films that are indistinguishable from the substrate via grazing incidence and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The importance of pre-annealing of substrates in oxygen above 900 °C and polishing the target prior to deposition, to obtain bulk-like lattice parameters and eliminate interfacial scattering contrast, is reiterated. Detailed transport measurements were also performed on reduced films grown on LaAlO3(001) and LSAT(001) substrates. The films were found to be semiconducting with mobilities at least an order lower than bulk. Detection and quantification of trace impurities was carried out using PIXE, and the possible causes of low mobility and semiconducting transport characteristics are discussed. Despite the rapid recent progress in thin film deposition techniques, controlled dopant incorporation and attainment of high mobility in thin films of SrTiO3 remain problematic. The last part of the thesis (Chapter 5) discusses the use of analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy to study the local atomic and electronic structure of Nb-doped SrTiO 3 both in ideally substitutionally-doped bulk single crystals, and epitaxial thin films. The films are deposited under conditions that would yield highly stoichiometric undoped SrTiO3, as discussed in the previous chapter, but are nevertheless insulating. The Nb incorporation in such films was found to be highly inhomogeneous on nanoscopic length-scales, with large quantities of what is deduced to be interstitial Nb. Electron energy loss spectroscopy reveals changes in the electronic density of states in Nb-doped SrTiO3 films compared to undoped SrTiO3, but without a

  18. Localization-driven metal-insulator transition in epitaxial hole-doped Nd1-x Sr x NiO3 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Chang, Lei; Yin, Xinmao; Rusydi, Andrivo; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Liang; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Advances in thin film growth technologies make it possible to obtain ultra-thin perovskite oxide films and open the window for controlling novel electronic phases for use in functional nanoscale electronics, such as switches and sensors. Here, we study the thickness-dependent transport characteristics of high-quality ultrathin Nd0.9Sr0.1NiO3 (Sr-NNO) films, which were grown on LaAlO3 (0 0 1) single-crystal substrates by using pulsed laser deposition method. Thick Sr-NNO films (25 unit cells) exhibit metallic behavior with the electrical resistivity following the T  n (n  system, while a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) is observed with films of less than 15 unit cells. The transition temperature increases with reducing film thickness, until the insulating characteristic is observed even at room temperature. The emergence of the insulator ground state can be attributed to weak localization driven MIT expected by considering Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit. Furthermore, the magneto-transport study of Sr-NNO ultrathin films also confirms that the observed MIT is due to the disorder-induced localization rather than the electron-electron interactions.

  19. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of the Insulator-Metal Transition in Crystalline V2O5 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Manil; Kim, Sok Won

    2017-10-01

    The electrical and thermal properties with respect to the crystallization in V2O5 thin films were investigated by measuring the resistance at different temperatures and applied voltages. The changes in the crystal structure of the films at different temperatures were also explored using Raman measurements. The thermal diffusivity of the crystalline V2O5 film was measured by the nanosecond thermoreflectance method. The microstructures of amorphous and crystalline V2O5 were observed by SEM and XRD measurements. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra revealed that a structural phase transition does not occur in the crystalline film. The resistance measurements of an amorphous film indicated semiconducting behavior, whereas the resistance of the crystalline film revealed a substantial change near 250 {°}C, and Ohmic behavior was observed above 380 {°}C. This result was due to the metal-insulator transition induced by lattice distortion in the crystalline film, for which Tc was 260 {°}C. Tc of the film decreased from 260 {°}C to 230 {°}C with increasing applied voltage from 0 V to 10 V. Furthermore, the thermal diffusivity of the crystalline film was 1.67× 10^{-7} m2\\cdot s^{-1} according to the nanosecond thermoreflectance measurements.

  20. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  1. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  2. Investigation of high-k yttrium copper titanate thin films as alternative gate dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazia Monteduro, Anna; Ameer, Zoobia; Rizzato, Silvia; Martino, Maurizio; Caricato, Anna Paola; Tasco, Vittorianna; Chaitanya Lekshmi, Indira; Hazarika, Abhijit; Choudhury, Debraj; Sarma, D. D.; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Nearly amorphous high-k yttrium copper titanate thin films deposited by laser ablation were investigated in both metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions in order to assess the potentialities of this material as a gate oxide. The trend of dielectric parameters with film deposition shows a wide tunability for the dielectric constant and AC conductivity, with a remarkably high dielectric constant value of up to 95 for the thick films and conductivity as low as 6  ×  10-10 S cm-1 for the thin films deposited at high oxygen pressure. The AC conductivity analysis points out a decrease in the conductivity, indicating the formation of a blocking interface layer, probably due to partial oxidation of the thin films during cool-down in an oxygen atmosphere. Topography and surface potential characterizations highlight differences in the thin film microstructure as a function of the deposition conditions; these differences seem to affect their electrical properties.

  3. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  4. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  5. Design and Simulation of the Thin Film Pulse Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-yuan; SHI Yu; WEN Qi-ye

    2005-01-01

    A new thin film pulse transformer for using in ISND and ADSL systems has been designed based on a domain wall pinning model, the parameters of nano-magnetic thin film such as permeability and coercivity can be calculated. The main properties of the thin film transformer including the size,parallel inductance, Q value and turn ratio have been simulated and optimized. Simulation results show that the thin film transformer can be fairly operated in a frequency range of 0. 001~20 MHz.

  6. Non-local thin films in Casimir force calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, R

    2005-01-01

    he Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than the mean free path for electrons, the difference between local and nonlocal calculations of the Casimir force is of the order of a few tenths of a percent. Thus the local description of thin metallic films is adequate within the current experimental precision and range of separations.

  7. Crystalline thin films: The electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) view

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique is selected as one of the methods to prepare thin films for various applications, including electrocatalytic materials and compound....

  8. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  9. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  10. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  11. Improving the Performance of a Semitransparent BIPV by Using High-Reflectivity Heat Insulation Film

    OpenAIRE

    Huei-Mei Liu; Chin-Huai Young; Der-Juinn Horng; Yih-Chearng Shiue; Shin-Ku Lee

    2016-01-01

    Currently, standard semitransparent photovoltaic (PV) modules can largely replace architectural glass installed in the windows, skylights, and facade of a building. Their main features are power generation and transparency, as well as possessing a heat insulating effect. Through heat insulation solar glass (HISG) encapsulation technology, this study improved the structure of a typical semitransparent PV module and explored the use of three types of high-reflectivity heat insulation films to f...

  12. Analysis on mechanism of thin film lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chaohui; LUO Jianbin; HUANG Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    It is an important concern to explore the properties and principles of lubrication at nano or molecularscale. For a long time, measurement apparatus for filmthickness of thin film lubrication (TFL) at nano scale havebeen devised on the basis of superthin interferometry technique. Many experiments were carried out to study the lubrication principles of TFL by taking advantages of aforementioned techniques, in an attempt to unveil the mechanism of TFL. Comprehensive experiments were conducted to explore the distinctive characteristics of TFL. Results show that TFL is a distinctive lubrication state other than any known lubrication ones, and serves as a bridge between elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and boundary lubrication (BL). Two main influence factors of TFL are the solid surface effects and the molecular properties of the lubricant, whose combination effects result in alignment of liquid molecules near the solid surfaces and subsequently lubrication with ordered film emerged. Results of theoretical analysis considering microstructure are consistent with experimental outcomes, thus validating the proposed mechanism.

  13. Electron impinging on metallic thin film targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouabah, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, ICPMB (FR CNRS 2843), Institut de Physique, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Metz Cedex 3 (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Systemes Electroniques, Centre Universitaire de Bordj-Bou-Arreridj, El-Anasser, 34265 Bordj-Bou-Arreridj (Algeria); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: N_Bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, P.O.Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia); Champion, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, ICPMB (FR CNRS 2843), Institut de Physique, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-03-15

    Based on the Vicanek and Urbassek theory [M. Vicanek, H.M. Urbassek, Phys. Rev. B 44 (1991) 7234] combined to a home-made Monte Carlo simulation, the present work deals with backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths and stopping profiles for 1-4 keV electrons normally incident impinging on Al and Cu thin film targets. The cross-sections used to describe the electron transport are calculated via the appropriate analytical expression given by Jablonski [A. Jablonski, Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 16470] whose new improved version has been recently given [Z. Rouabah, N. Bouarissa, C. Champion, N. Bouaouadja, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 (2009) 6217]. The behavior of the backscattering coefficient, mean penetration depth and stopping profiles versus the metallic film thickness at the nanometric scale and beyond is here analyzed and discussed.

  14. Electrical Resistance Tomography of Conductive Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Cultrera, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) technique is applied to the measurement of sheet conductance maps of both uniform and patterned conductive thin films. Images of the sheet conductance spatial distribution, and local conductivity values are obtained. Test samples are tin oxide films on glass substrates, with electrical contacts on the sample boundary, some samples are deliberately patterned in order to induce null conductivity zones of known geometry while others contain higher conductivity inclusions. Four-terminal resistance measurements among the contacts are performed with a scanning setup. The ERT reconstruction is performed by a numerical algorithm based on the total variation regularization and the L-curve method. ERT correctly images the sheet conductance spatial distribution of the samples. The reconstructed conductance values are in good quantitative agreement with independent measurements performed with the van der Pauw and the four-point probe methods.

  15. Separation Efficiency of Thin-film Evaporators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Billet

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of contaminants and useful substances from liquid wastes, the purification of production effluents and the separation of thermally instable mixtures are some of the multivarious applications of thin-film distillors in many processes of the chemical and allied industries and of the food industries. In a study carried out in pilot plants with distillation test systems there was found a good agreement between the experimental separation results and those obtained by computing with a theorectical model; the latter is based on the assumption of phase equilibrium between the vapour formed on an infinitely small element of area in a liquid film of any given concentric periphery of the vertically arranged evaporator. These tests were perfomed under various phase loads.

  16. Performance Comparison of Thin and Thick Film Microstrip Rejection Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Mandhare, M. M.; S.A. Gangal; M. S. Setty; Karekar, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    A performance comparison of microstripline circuits using thin and thick film techniques has been studied, in which a Microstrip rejection filter, in the X-band of microwaves, is used as test circuit. A thick film technique is capable of giving good adhesive films with comparable d.c. sheet resistivity, but other parameters such as open area (porosity), particle size, and edge definition are inferior to thin-film microstrip filters. Despite this drawback, the average value of transmission, tr...

  17. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  18. Robust, Thin Optical Films for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be extremely sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, extreme temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.

  19. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-10

    j,k tinteger; freq comp % array CO..203 of integer; A, phase ~carg : array CC. .2CJ of realI begin woriteln(’enter numfourierpts’);N readln(num fourier...Thesis DTIG SELECTfE: rmas do~amaat hau s appvildlttb tol a.l e... . . .o fix paut reloc~e and 9010) Is . < " ,,.’. 5’ , , "" "’’"°"" % Is ViifmyI lr...URIP) grants. 2. THIN FILM FACILITY A 1983 DoD University Research Instrumentation Program Grant to ISU was used for construction of the first phase