Topological Invariants and Ground-State Wave functions of Topological Insulators on a Torus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We define topological invariants in terms of the ground-state wave functions on a torus. This approach leads to precisely defined formulas for the Hall conductance in four dimensions and the topological magnetoelectric θ term in three dimensions, and their generalizations in higher dimensions. They are valid in the presence of arbitrary many-body interactions and disorder. These topological invariants systematically generalize the two-dimensional Niu-Thouless-Wu formula and will be useful in numerical calculations of disordered topological insulators and strongly correlated topological insulators, especially fractional topological insulators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Guangming; Yu Lu
2000-04-01
The ground-state phase diagram of a half-filled anisotropic Kondo lattice model is calculated within a mean-field theory. For small transverse exchange coupling J perpendicular perpendicular c1 , the ground state shows an antiferromagnetic long-range order with finite staggered magnetizations of both localized spins and conduction electrons. When J perpendicular > J perpendicular c2 , the long-range order is destroyed and the system is in a disordered Kondo singlet state with a hybridization gap. Both ground states can describe the low-temperature phases of Kondo insulating compounds. Between these two distinct phases, there may be a coexistent regime as a result of the balance between local Kondo screening and magnetic interactions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanaka, Masanori; Honjo, Shinsuke; Kohmoto, Mahito
1996-01-01
We investigate one-dimensional strongly correlated electron models which have the resonating-valence-bond state as the exact ground state. The correlation functions are evaluated exactly using the transfer matrix method for the geometric representations of the valence-bond states. In this method, we only treat matrices with small dimensions. This enables us to give analytical results. It is shown that the correlation functions decay exponentially with distance. The result suggests that there is a finite excitation gap, and that the ground state is insulating. Since the corresponding noninteracting systems may be insulating or metallic, we can say that the gap originates from strong correlation. The persistent currents of the present models are also investigated and found to be exactly vanishing
An Innovative Use of Renewable Ground Heat for Insulation in Low Exergy Building Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hansjürg Leibundgut
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Ground heat is a renewable resource that is readily available for buildings in cool climates, but its relatively low temperature requires the use of a heat pump to extract it for heating. We developed a system that uses low temperature ground heat directly in a building wall to reduce transmission heat losses. The Active Low Exergy Geothermal Insulation Systems (ALEGIS minimizes exergy demand and maximizes the use of renewable geothermal heat from the ground. A fluid is pumped into a small pipe network in an external layer of a wall construction that is linked to a ground heat source. This decouples the building from the outside temperature, therefore eliminating large peak demands and reducing the primary energy demand. Our steady-state analysis shows that at a design temperature of −10 °C the 6 cm thick active insulation system has equivalent performance to 11 cm of passive insulation. Our comparison of heating performance of a building with our active insulation system versus a building with static insulation of the same thickness shows a 15% reduction in annual electricity demand, and thus exergy input. We present an overview of the operation and analysis of our low exergy concept and its modeled performance.
Peculiar ferromagnetic insulator state in the low-hole-doped manganites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algarabel, P.A.; Teresa, J.M. de; Blasco, J.; Ibarra, M.R.; Kapusta, Cz.; Sikora, M.; Zajac, D.; Riedi, P.C.; Ritter, C.
2003-01-01
In this work we show the very different nature of the ferromagnetic state of the low-hole-doped manganites with respect to other manganites showing colossal magnetoresistance. High-field measurements definitively prove the coexistence of ferromagnetic-metallic and ferromagnetic-insulating regions even when the sample is magnetically saturated, with the ground state being inhomogeneous. We have investigated La 0.9 Ca 0.1 MnO 3 as a prototype compound. A wide characterization by means of magnetic and magnetotransport measurements, neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance has allowed us to establish that the ground state is based on the existence of disordered nanometric double-exchange metallic clusters that coexist with long-range superexchange-based ferromagnetic insulating regions. Under high magnetic field the system reaches magnetization saturation by aligning the magnetic clusters and the insulating matrix, but even if they grow in size, they do not reach the percolation limit
Ground state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in rare earth nickelates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, Thorsten; Bisogni, Valentina; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir [Research Department Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Catalano, Sara; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Zubko, Pavlo; Triscone, Jean-Marc [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Green, Robert J.; Balandeh, Shadi; Sawatzky, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)
2015-07-01
Perovskite rare-earth (Re) nickelates ReNiO{sub 3} continue to attract a lot of interest owing to their intriguing properties like a sharp metal to insulator transition (MIT), unusual magnetic order and expected superconductivity in specifically tuned super-lattices. Full understanding of these materials, however, is hampered by the difficulties in describing their electronic ground state (GS). From X-ray absorption (XAS) at the Ni 2p{sub 3/2} edge of thin films of NdNiO{sub 3} and corresponding RIXS maps vs. incident and transferred photon energies we reveal that the electronic GS configuration of NdNiO{sub 3} is composed of delocalized and localized components. Our study conveys that a Ni 3d{sup 8}-like configuration with holes at oxygen takes on the leading role in the GS and the MIT of ReNiO{sub 3} as proposed by recent model theories.
(ajst) effects of ground insulation and greenhouse
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NORBERT OPIYO AKECH
and quality of biogas generation from dairy cattle dung. The effects ... Therefore ground insulation of plastic biogas digester under greenhouse conditions significantly enhances ..... The low values obtained did not suggest failure of the system ...
Thermodynamic Ground States of Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunkel, F.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Heinen, R. A.
2017-01-01
The formation mechanism of 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at heterointerfaces between nominally insulating oxides is addressed with a thermodynamical approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the thermodynamic ground states of various 2DEG systems directly probed in high temperature...
The influence of nonlocal hybridization on ground-state properties of the Falicov-Kimball model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farkasovsky, Pavol
2005-01-01
The density matrix renormalization group is used to examine effects of nonlocal hybridization on ground-state properties of the Falicov-Kimball model (FKM) in one dimension. Special attention is devoted to the problem of hybridization-induced insulator-metal transition. It is shown that the picture of insulator-metal transitions found for the FKM with nonlocal hybridization strongly differs from one found for the FKM without hybridization (as well as with local hybridization). The effect of nonlocal hybridization is so strong that it can induce the insulator-metal transition, even in the half-filled band case where the ground states of the FKM without hybridization are insulating for all finite Coulomb interactions. Outside the half-filled band case the metal-insulator transition driven by pressure is found for finite values of nonlocal hybridization
A quantized microwave quadrupole insulator with topologically protected corner states
Peterson, Christopher W.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Bahl, Gaurav
2018-03-01
The theory of electric polarization in crystals defines the dipole moment of an insulator in terms of a Berry phase (geometric phase) associated with its electronic ground state. This concept not only solves the long-standing puzzle of how to calculate dipole moments in crystals, but also explains topological band structures in insulators and superconductors, including the quantum anomalous Hall insulator and the quantum spin Hall insulator, as well as quantized adiabatic pumping processes. A recent theoretical study has extended the Berry phase framework to also account for higher electric multipole moments, revealing the existence of higher-order topological phases that have not previously been observed. Here we demonstrate experimentally a member of this predicted class of materials—a quantized quadrupole topological insulator—produced using a gigahertz-frequency reconfigurable microwave circuit. We confirm the non-trivial topological phase using spectroscopic measurements and by identifying corner states that result from the bulk topology. In addition, we test the critical prediction that these corner states are protected by the topology of the bulk, and are not due to surface artefacts, by deforming the edges of the crystal lattice from the topological to the trivial regime. Our results provide conclusive evidence of a unique form of robustness against disorder and deformation, which is characteristic of higher-order topological insulators.
Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice
Timirgazin, M. A.; Igoshev, P. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu
2016-12-01
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals {{t}\\prime}/t . In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most {{t}\\prime}/t . The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on {{t}\\prime}/t . The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.
Modelling of Edge Insulation Depending on Boundary Conditions for the Ground Level
Stolarska, Agata; Strzałkowski, Jarosław
2017-10-01
The article presents results of CFD software aided simulations of a thermal bridge, existing at the wall-slab on ground connection. Calculations were made for different variants of the edge insulation location. Schemes without any edge insulation, with some vertical insulation, horizontal, diagonal, and diagonal combined with insulation used as formwork under the slab on ground were analysed. Each variant was differentiated with boundary conditions for the ground. Vertical borders of the model in the ground, as well as the lower border were described in the first solution as adiabatic, while in the second case, a variable temperature value, depending on the ground depth, was set. For comparison, additional calculations were conducted for non-stationary conditions, in which the initial temperature of the ground was set to the average annual temperature of air. The calculations were based on the location of Szczecin, for which the outside air temperature was set to -16.0°C. Results obtained from the simulation were then used to determine the thermal bridge parameters, in particular, thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance. The effect of the set of boundary conditions is clearly seen. In general, for all the five variants, lower values of heat fluxes and linear thermal transmittances were obtained, when variable temperature in the ground was assumed. From the point of view of energy balance, it is more favourable to use the values of ψg obtained when the ground temperature is taken into account. The data breakdown shows that application of the actual temperature distribution in the ground to a model has a strong effect on distribution of the 0.0°C isotherm. The adiabatic model indicates that the ground under the slab freezes, while the model, which takes into account the temperature of the ground, shows that the ground under the floor has positive temperatures and the 0.0°C isotherm reaches only the edge of the outer wall. Moreover, the
Ground-fault protection of insulated high-voltage power networks in mines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudelko, H
1976-09-01
Safety of power networks is discussed in underground black coal mines in Poland. Safety in mines with a long service life was compared with safety in mines constructed since 1950. Power networks and systems protecting against electric ground-faults in the 2 mine groups are comparatively evaluated. Systems for protection against electric ground-faults in mine high-voltage networks with an insulated star point of the transformer are characterized. Fluctuations of resistance of electrical insulation under conditions of changing load are analyzed. The results of analyses are given in 14 diagrams. Recommendations for design of systems protecting against electric ground-faults in 6 kV mine power systems are made. 7 references.
Effects of ground insulation and greenhouse microenvironment on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A study was conducted at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya to establish the potential of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific objectives were to evaluate the effects of greenhouse and ground insulation on the rate and quality of biogas generation. A greenhouse ...
Design of Chern insulating phases in honeycomb lattices
Pickett, Warren E.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Pentcheva, Rossitza
2018-06-01
The search for robust examples of the magnetic version of topological insulators, referred to as quantum anomalous Hall insulators or simply Chern insulators, so far lacks success. Our groups have explored two distinct possibilities based on multiorbital 3d oxide honeycomb lattices. Each has a Chern insulating phase near the ground state, but materials parameters were not appropriate to produce a viable Chern insulator. Further exploration of one of these classes, by substituting open shell 3d with 4d and 5d counterparts, has led to realistic prediction of Chern insulating ground states. Here we recount the design process, discussing the many energy scales that are active in participating (or resisting) the desired Chern insulator phase.
The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, M J; Horenstein, M N
2008-01-01
The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.
Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...
Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter
2009-01-01
We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (1) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (2) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (3) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fulfill certain relations. The scheme is first employed to construct exact ground state for the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field. These ground states are found to exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior, which can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density. Detailed proofs of the uniqueness of the ground states are presented. By the same technique exact ground states are constructed for triangle Hubbard chains and a one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with nearest-neighbor hybridization. They permit direct comparison with results obtained by variational techniques for f-electron ferromagnetism due to a flat band in CeRh 3 B 2 . (author)
Standard Test Methods for Insulation Integrity and Ground Path Continuity of Photovoltaic Modules
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2000-01-01
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for (1) testing for current leakage between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components while a user-specified voltage is applied and (2) for testing for possible module insulation breakdown (dielectric voltage withstand test). 1.2 A procedure is described for measuring the insulation resistance between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components (insulation resistance test). 1.3 A procedure is provided for verifying that electrical continuity exists between the exposed external conductive surfaces of the module, such as the frame, structural members, or edge closures, and its grounding point (ground path continuity test). 1.4 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.5 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if a...
Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems
Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja
2015-08-11
Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.
Ferromagnetic Peierls insulator state in A Mg4Mn6O15(A =K ,Rb ,Cs )
Yamaguchi, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Ohta, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sato, H.
2018-04-01
Using the density-functional-theory-based electronic structure calculations, we study the electronic state of recently discovered mixed-valent manganese oxides A Mg4Mn6O15(A =K ,Rb ,Cs ) , which are fully spin-polarized ferromagnetic insulators with a cubic crystal structure. We show that the system may be described as a three-dimensional arrangement of the one-dimensional chains of a 2 p orbital of O and a 3 d orbital of Mn running along the three axes of the cubic lattice. We thereby argue that in the ground state the chains are fully spin polarized due to the double-exchange mechanism and are distorted by the Peierls mechanism to make the system insulating.
Ground-state and spectral properties of an asymmetric Hubbard ladder
Abdelwahab, Anas; Jeckelmann, Eric; Hohenadler, Martin
2015-04-01
We investigate a ladder system with two inequivalent legs, namely, a Hubbard chain and a one-dimensional electron gas. Analytical approximations, the density-matrix renormalization group method, and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine ground-state properties, gaps, and spectral functions of this system at half-filling. Evidence for the existence of four different phases as a function of the Hubbard interaction and the rung hopping is presented. First, a Luttinger liquid exists at very weak interchain hopping. Second, a Kondo-Mott insulator with spin and charge gaps induced by an effective rung exchange coupling is found at moderate interchain hopping or strong Hubbard interaction. Third, a spin-gapped paramagnetic Mott insulator with incommensurate excitations and pairing of doped charges is observed at intermediate values of the rung hopping and the interaction. Fourth, the usual correlated band insulator is recovered for large rung hopping. We show that the wave numbers of the lowest single-particle excitations are different in each insulating phase. In particular, the three gapped phases exhibit markedly different spectral functions. We discuss the relevance of asymmetric two-leg ladder systems as models for atomic wires deposited on a substrate.
Hydrodynamic states of phonons in insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.A. Sokolovsky
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The Chapman-Enskog method is generalized for accounting the effect of kinetic modes on hydrodynamic evolution. Hydrodynamic states of phonon system of insulators have been studied in a small drift velocity approximation. For simplicity, the investigation was carried out for crystals of the cubic class symmetry. It has been found that in phonon hydrodynamics, local equilibrium is violated even in the approximation linear in velocity. This is due to the absence of phonon momentum conservation law that leads to a drift velocity relaxation. Phonon hydrodynamic equations which take dissipative processes into account have been obtained. The results were compared with the standard theory based on the local equilibrium validity. Integral equations have been obtained for calculating the objects of the theory (including viscosity and heat conductivity. It has been shown that in low temperature limit, these equations are solvable by iterations. Steady states of the system have been considered and an expression for steady state heat conductivity has been obtained. It coincides with the famous result by Akhiezer in the leading low temperature approximation. It has been established that temperature distribution in the steady state of insulator satisfies a condition of heat source absence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, E.G.; Dorenbos, P.
2014-01-01
Optical spectroscopy data has been collected on the energy needed for electron transfer from the valence band to Ti 4+ in about 40 different insulating and II–VI and III–V semiconducting compounds. It provides a measure for the location of the Ti 3+ 3d 1 ground state level above the valence band. This is combined with the vacuum referred binding energy (VRBE) of valence band electrons as obtained with the chemical shift model based on lanthanide impurity spectroscopy. It provides the VRBE of an electron in the Ti 3+ ground state level. This work will first show that the energy of electron transfer to Ti 4+ is about the same as that to Eu 3+ irrespective of the type of compound. Next it will be shown that the VRBE of the Ti 3+ 3d 1 ground state is always near −4 eV. An approximately ±1 eV spread around that value is attributed to the crystal field splitting of the Ti 3+ 3d-levels. - Highlights: • Data on the energy of charge transfer (CT) to Ti 4+ in 38 compounds was collected. • A correlation between the Ti 4+ and Eu 3+ CT energies has been established. • The chemical shift model has been applied to Ti impurity states. • The Ti 3+ ground state binding energy is always around −4±1 eV
In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann
2015-01-01
The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi 2 Te 3 nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects
In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Fan W., E-mail: fanchen@purdue.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Jauregui, Luis A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Tan, Yaohua [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Manfra, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Chen, Yong P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kubis, Tillmann [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-09-21
The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.
In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states
Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann
2015-09-01
The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi2Te3 nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.
Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment case study: insulating oil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, S. L.
1997-01-01
A series of studies were conducted to develop the technical basis for establishing soil cleanup levels for electrical insulating oil that would protect human health and the environment in the State of Washington. Samples of insulating oil and ground water from electric utility sites were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Oil dissolution and soil leachability tests were conducted to evaluate the mobility of the oil in the aqueous state. Results indicate that insulating oil is relatively immobile in the subsurface. As a result of this study, soil cleanup level for insulating oil at operating electrical substations in the State of Washington was increased from 200 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg. 6 refs., 3 tabs
Influence of different propellant systems on ablation of EPDM insulators in overload state
Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tuanwei
2018-04-01
This study examines the propellants used in full-scale solid rocket motors (SRM) and investigates how insulator ablation is affected by two propellant formulations (A and B) during flight overload conditions. An experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations were performed to discover the intrinsic causes of insulator ablation rates from the perspective of lab-scaled ground-firing tests, the decoupling of thermochemical ablation, and particle erosion. In addition, the difference in propellant composition, and the insulator charring layer microstructure were analyzed. Results reveal that the degree of insulator ablation is positively correlated with the propellant burn rate, particle velocity, and aggregate concentrations during the condensed phase. A lower ratio of energetic additive material in the AP oxidizer of the propellant is promising for the reduction in particle size and increase in the burn rate and pressure index. However, the overall higher velocity of a two-phase flow causes severe erosion of the insulation material. While the higher ratio of energetic additive to the AP oxidizer imparts a smaller ablation rate to the insulator (under lab-scale test conditions), the slag deposition problem in the combustion chamber may cause catastrophic consequences for future large full-scale SRM flight experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niyaz, P.
1993-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo techniques were used to study two quantum many-body systems, the one-dimensional extended boson-Hubbard Hamiltonian, a model of superfluid-insulator quantum phase transitions, and the two-dimensional Holstein Model, a model for electron-phonon interactions. For the extended boson-Hubbard model, the authors studied the ground state properties at commensurate filling (density = 1) and half-integer filling (density = 1/2). At commensurate filling, the system has two possible insulating phases for strong coupling. If the on-site repulsion dominates, the system freezes into an insulating phase where each site is singly occupied. If the intersite repulsion dominates, doubly occupied and empty sites alternate. At weak coupling, the system becomes a superfluid. The authors investigated the order of phase transitions between these different phases. At half-integer filling, the authors found one strong coupling insulating phase, where singly occupied and empty sites alternate, and a weak coupling superfluid phase. The authors also investigated the possibility of a supersolid phase and found no clear evidence of such a new phase. For the electron-phonon (Holstein) model, the authors focused on the finite temperature phase transition from a metallic state to an insulating charge density wave (CDW) state as the temperature is lowered. The authors present the first calculation of the spectral density from Monte Carlo data for this system. The authors also investigated the formation of a CDW state as a function of various parameters characterizing the electron-phonon interactions. Using these numerical results as benchmarks, the authors then investigated different levels of Migdal approximations. The authors found the solutions of a set of gapped Migdal-Eliashberg equations agreed qualitatively with the Monte Carlo results
Spin-polarized ground state and exact quantization at ν=5/2
Pan, Wei
2002-03-01
The nature of the even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=5/2 remains elusive, in particular, its ground state spin-polarization. An earlier, so-called "hollow core" model arrived at a spin-unpolarized wave function. The more recent calculations based on a model of BCS-like pairing of composite fermions, however, suggest that its ground state is spin-polarized. In this talk, I will first review the earlier experiments and then present our recent experimental results showing evidence for a spin-polarized state at ν=5/2. Our ultra-low temperature experiments on a high quality sample established the fully developed FQHE state at ν=5/2 as well as at ν=7/3 and 8/3, manifested by a vanishing R_xx and exact quantization of the Hall plateau. The tilted field experiments showed that the added in-plane magnetic fields not only destroyed the FQHE at ν=5/2, as seen before, but also induced an electrical anisotropy, which is now interpreted as a phase transition from a paired, spin-polarized ν=5/2 state to a stripe phase, not unlike the ones at ν=9/2, 11/2, etc in the N > 1 higher Landau levels. Furthermore, in the experiments on the heterojunction insulated-gate field-effect transistors (HIGFET) at dilution refrigerator temperatures, a strong R_xx minimum and a concomitant developing Hall plateau were observed at ν=5/2 in a magnetic field as high as 12.6 Tesla. This and the subsequent density dependent studies of its energy gap largely rule out a spin-singlet state and point quite convincingly towards a spin-polarized ground state at ν=5/2.
Communication grounding facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Gye Seong
1998-06-01
It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.
Dye, Scott A.
2015-01-01
New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite
2016-01-01
This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. Hist...
Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse
2018-06-01
Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.
Ground states of a spin-boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amann, A.
1991-01-01
Phase transition with respect to ground states of a spin-boson Hamiltonian are investigated. The spin-boson model under discussion consists of one spin and infinitely many bosons with a dipole-type coupling. It is shown that the order parameter of the model vanishes with respect to arbitrary ground states if it vanishes with respect to ground states obtained as (biased) temperature to zero limits of thermic equilibrium states. The ground states of the latter special type have been investigated by H. Spohn. Spohn's respective phase diagrams are therefore valid for arbitrary ground states. Furthermore, disjointness of ground states in the broken symmetry regime is examined
TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viola, M.
1983-01-01
The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain
Raman Scattering as a Probe of the Magnetic State of BEDT-TTF Based Mott Insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nora Hassan
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Quasi-two-dimensional Mott insulators based on BEDT-TTF molecules have recently demonstrated a variety of exotic states, which originate from electron–electron correlations and geometrical frustration of the lattice. Among those states are a triangular S = 1/2 spin liquid and quantum dipole liquid. In this article, we show the power of Raman scattering technique to characterize magnetic and electronic excitations of these states. Our results demonstrate a distinction between a spectrum of magnetic excitations in a simple Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic interactions, and a spectrum of an insulator with an additional on-site charge degree of freedom.
49 CFR 236.527 - Roadway element insulation resistance.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element insulation resistance. 236.527 Section 236.527 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... element insulation resistance. Insulation resistance between roadway inductor and ground shall be...
Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Benato
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.
Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karnaukhov, Igor N., E-mail: karnaui@yahoo.com
2017-06-21
Highlights: • Proposed a new approach for description of phase transitions in topological insulators. • Considered the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators. • The Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics. - Abstract: The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.
Ground state and elementary excitations of a model valence-fluctuation system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandow, B.H.
1979-01-01
The nature of the valence fluctuation problem is described, and motivations are given for an Anderson-lattice model Hamiltonian. A simple trial wave function is posed for the ground state, and the variational problem is solved. This demonstrates clearly that there is no Kondo-like divergence; the present concentrated Kondo problem is thus more simple mathematically than the sngle-impurity problem. Elementary excitations are studies by the Green's function techniques of Zubarev and Hubbard. Quenching of local moments and a large specific heat are found at low temperatures. The quasi-particle spectrum exhibits a gap, but epsilon/sub F/ does not lie in this gap. The insulation-like feature of SmB 6 , SmS, and TmSe at very low temperatures is explained in terms of a strongly reduced mobility for states near the gap, and reasons are given why this feature is not observed in other valence-fluctuation compounds. 73 references
Realization of the Axion Insulator State in Quantum Anomalous Hall Sandwich Heterostructures
Xiao, Di; Jiang, Jue; Shin, Jae-Ho; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Liu, Chaoxing; Wu, Weida; Chan, Moses H. W.; Samarth, Nitin; Chang, Cui-Zu
2018-02-01
The "magnetoelectric effect" arises from the coupling between magnetic and electric properties in materials. The Z2 invariant of topological insulators (TIs) leads to a quantized version of this phenomenon, known as the topological magnetoelectric (TME) effect. This effect can be realized in a new topological phase called an "axion insulator" whose surface states are all gapped but the interior still obeys time reversal symmetry. We demonstrate such a phase using electrical transport measurements in a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) sandwich heterostructure, in which two compositionally different magnetic TI layers are separated by an undoped TI layer. Magnetic force microscopy images of the same sample reveal sequential magnetization reversals of the top and bottom layers at different coercive fields, a consequence of the weak interlayer exchange coupling due to the spacer. When the magnetization is antiparallel, both the Hall resistance and Hall conductance show zero plateaus, accompanied by a large longitudinal resistance and vanishing longitudinal conductance, indicating the realization of an axion insulator state. Our findings thus show evidence for a phase of matter distinct from the established QAH state and provide a promising platform for the realization of the TME effect.
2014-01-01
This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...
Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems
Olszowiec, Piotr
2014-01-01
Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...
Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems
Olszowiec, Piotr
2013-01-01
Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...
Wind Power Plant Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bolado, O. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bollen, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Edds, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Hejdak, W. J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Houseman, D. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Klein, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Maibach, P. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nicolai, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Pasupulati, S. V. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Saylors, S. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Siebert, T. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group
2009-01-01
Proper insulation coordination is critical to achieving expected life from wind plant equipment. The collector systems of large wind plants require the application of surge arresters to protect the equipment insulation from transient overvoltages. The application of surge arresters is constrained by maximum operating and temporary overvoltage levels. This paper provides a tutorial description of the process of selecting and applying surge arresters to wind plant medium voltage collector systems, with emphasis on the peculiar properties of this application.
Ground states of quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.
1978-07-01
The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume
Kotegawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Keiki; Kuwata, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Junichi; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ohta, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo
2018-05-01
A single crystal of RuAs obtained with the Bi-flux method shows obvious successive metal-insulator transitions at TMI 1˜255 K and TMI 2˜195 K. The x-ray diffraction measurement reveals the formation of a superlattice of 3 ×3 ×3 of the original unit cell below TMI 2, accompanied by a change of the crystal system from the orthorhombic structure to the monoclinic one. Simple dimerization of the Ru ions is not seen in the ground state. The multiple As sites observed in the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum also demonstrate the formation of the superlattice in the ground state, which is clarified to be nonmagnetic. The divergence in 1 /T1 at TMI 1 shows that a symmetry lowering by the metal-insulator transition is accompanied by strong critical fluctuations of some degrees of freedom. Using the structural parameters in the insulating state, the first-principles calculation reproduces successfully the reasonable size of nuclear quadrupole frequencies νQ for the multiple As sites, ensuring the high validity of the structural parameters. The calculation also gives a remarkable suppression in the density of states near the Fermi level, although the gap opening is insufficient. A coupled modulation of the calculated Ru d -electron numbers and the crystal structure proposes the formation of a charge density wave in RuAs. Some lacking factors remain, but it is shown that a lifting of degeneracy protected by the nonsymmorphic symmetry through the superlattice formation is a key ingredient for the metal-insulator transition in RuAs.
Edge states of a three-dimensional topological insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, Oindrila; Sen, Diptiman; Soori, Abhiram
2014-01-01
We use the bulk Hamiltonian for a three-dimensional topological insulator such as Bi 2 Se 3 to study the states which appear on its various surfaces and along the edge between two surfaces. We use both analytical methods based on the surface Hamiltonians (which are derived from the bulk Hamiltonian) and numerical methods based on a lattice discretization of the bulk Hamiltonian. We find that the application of a potential barrier along an edge can give rise to states localized at that edge. These states have an unusual energy-momentum dispersion which can be controlled by applying a potential along the edge; in particular, the velocity of these states can be tuned to zero. The scattering and conductance across the edge is studied as a function of the edge potential. We show that a magnetic field in a particular direction can also give rise to zero energy states on certain edges. We point out possible experimental ways of looking for the various edge states. (paper)
Metal-insulator transition in disordered systems from the one-body density matrix
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo
2017-01-01
The insulating state of matter can be probed by means of a ground state geometrical marker, which is closely related to the modern theory of polarization (based on a Berry phase). In the present work we show that this marker can be applied to determine the metal-insulator transition in disordered...... the one-body density matrix. The approach has a general ab initio formulation and could in principle be applied to realistic disordered materials by standard electronic structure methods....... systems. In particular, for noninteracting systems the geometrical marker can be obtained from the configurational average of the norm-squared one-body density matrix, which can be calculated within open as well as periodic boundary conditions. This is in sharp contrast to a classification based...
On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. → Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. → The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Zhu
2018-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel third harmonic voltage differential stator grounding protection (THV-DSGP method combining the adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient. It can solve the protection sensitivity degradation problem when the insulation resistance of stator winding to ground is slowly declining. This protection method retains the advantages of the adaptive coefficient, which is to maintain high sensitivity in case of an instantaneous ground fault. Moreover, the fixed coefficient can remember the initial insulation state of the stator winding and prevent relay failure when the stator insulation is slowly declining. In addition, due to zero-sequence voltage disconnection (ZSVD often leading to malfunctioning of the THV stator ground protection, the existing criterion of the ZSVD was improved according to the electrical characteristics of the generator when ZSVD happens. THV-DSGP with both adaptive coefficient and fixed coefficient was simulated in the Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the proposed protection can be applied to the slow ground fault of the stator winding. Furthermore, the improved criterion of ZSVD can effectively distinguish the stator metal earth fault and the secondary loop break of the zero-sequence voltage.
Search for the QCD ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.; Wetterich, C.
1994-05-01
Within the Euclidean effective action approach we propose criteria for the ground state of QCD. Despite a nonvanishing field strength the ground state should be invariant with respect to modified Poincare transformations consisting of a combination of translations and rotations with suitable gauge transformations. We have found candidate states for QCD with four or more colours. The formation of gluon condensates shows similarities with the Higgs phenomenon. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, C.-Y.
1991-01-01
At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, C -Y [Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Wolsong (Korea, Republic of)
1991-04-01
At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; Lutz, W.; McMullan, D.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing
2014-01-01
In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton; Langfeld, Kurt; Lavelle, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; McMullan, David
2008-01-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all ch...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.
1993-01-01
In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping
1993-01-01
In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, J.; Li, X.P.
1993-01-01
In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing
A short course on topological insulators band structure and edge states in one and two dimensions
Asbóth, János K; Pályi, András
2016-01-01
This course-based primer provides newcomers to the field with a concise introduction to some of the core topics in the emerging field of topological insulators. The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible. The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators. The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akrawy Dashty T.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical α-decay half-lives of some nuclei from ground state to ground state are calculated using different nuclear potential model including Coulomb proximity potential (CPPM, Royer proximity potential and Broglia and Winther 1991. The calculated values comparing with experimental data, it is observed that the CPPM model is in good agreement with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negele, J.W.
1975-01-01
The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures
Voltage-driven magnetization control in topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael E. Flatté
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A major barrier to the development of spin-based electronics is the transition from current-driven spin torque, or magnetic-field-driven magnetization reversal, to a more scalable voltage-driven magnetization reversal. To achieve this, multiferroic materials appear attractive, however the effects in current materials occur at very large voltages or at low temperatures. Here the potential of a new class of hybrid multiferroic materials is described, consisting of a topological insulator adjacent to a magnetic insulator, for which an applied electric field reorients the magnetization. As these materials lack conducting states at the chemical potential in their bulk, no dissipative charge currents flow in the bulk. Surface states at the interface, if present, produce effects similar to surface recombination currents in bipolar devices, but can be passivated using magnetic doping. Even without conducting states at the chemical potential, for a topological insulator there is a finite spin Hall conductivity provided by filled bands below the chemical potential. Spin accumulation at the interface with the magnetic insulator provides a torque on the magnetization. Properly timed voltage pulses can thus reorient the magnetic moment with only the flow of charge current required in the leads to establish the voltage. If the topological insulator is sufficiently thick the resulting low capacitance requires little charge current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Davari
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The molecular ionization potential has a relatively strong electric-field dependence as compared to the excitation energies which has implications for electrical insulation since the excited states work as an energy sink emitting light in the UV/VIS region. At some threshold field, all the excited states of the molecule have vanished and the molecule is a two-state system with the ground state and the ionized state, which has been hypothesized as a possible origin of different streamer propagation modes. Constrained density-functional theory is used to calculate the field-dependent ionization potential of different types of molecules relevant for electrically insulating liquids. The low singlet-singlet excitation energies of each molecule have also been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that low-energy singlet-singlet excitation of the type n → π* (lone pair to unoccupied π* orbital has the ability to survive at higher fields. This type of excitation can for example be found in esters, diketones and many color dyes. For alkanes (as for example n-tridecane and cyclohexane on the other hand, all the excited states, in particular the σ → σ* excitations vanish in electric fields higher than 10 MV/cm. Further implications for the design of electrically insulating dielectric liquids based on the molecular ionization potential and excitation energies are discussed.
Utegulov, B. B.
2018-02-01
In the work the study of the developed method was carried out for reliability by analyzing the error in indirect determination of the insulation parameters in an asymmetric network with an isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V. The conducted studies of the random relative mean square errors show that the accuracy of indirect measurements in the developed method can be effectively regulated not only by selecting a capacitive additional conductivity, which are connected between phases of the electrical network and the ground, but also by the selection of measuring instruments according to the accuracy class. When choosing meters with accuracy class of 0.5 with the correct selection of capacitive additional conductivity that are connected between the phases of the electrical network and the ground, the errors in measuring the insulation parameters will not exceed 10%.
Reduction of heat insulation upon soaking of the insulation layer
Achtliger, J.
1983-09-01
Improved thermal protection of hollow masonry by introduction of a core insulation between the inner and outer shell is discussed. The thermal conductivity of insulation materials was determined in dry state and after soaking by water with different volume-related moisture contents. The interpolated thermal conductivity values from three measured values at 10 C average temperature are presented as a function of the pertinent moisture content. Fills of expanded polystyrene, perlite and granulated mineral fibers, insulating boards made of mineral fibers and in situ cellular plastics produced from urea-formaldehyde resin were investigated. Test results show a confirmation of thermal conductivity values for insulating materials in hollow masonry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valles, James
2008-01-01
Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.
Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
We show that the surface states of magnetic topological insulators realize an activated behavior and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations. Applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the topological insulator in the presence
Nie, X. C.; Song, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiu; Gu, Peng; Liu, Shi-Bing; Li, Fan; Meng, Jian-Qiao; Duan, Yu-Xia; Liu, H. Y.
2018-03-01
We present systematic studies of the transient dynamics of GaAs by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. In photoexcited non-equilibrium states, we found a sign reverse in reflectivity change ΔR/R, from positive around room temperature to negative at cryogenic temperatures. The former corresponds to a free carrier metallic state, while the latter is attributed to an exciton insulating state, in which the transient electronic properties is mostly dominated by excitons, resulting in a transient metal–insulator transition (MIT). Two transition temperatures (T 1 and T 2) are well identified by analyzing the intensity change of the transient reflectivity. We found that photoexcited MIT starts emerging at T 1 as high as ∼ 230 K, in terms of a dip feature at 0.4 ps, and becomes stabilized below T 2 that is up to ∼ 180 K, associated with a negative constant after 40 ps. Our results address a phase diagram that provides a framework for the inducing of MIT through temperature and photoexcitation, and may shed light on the understanding of light-semiconductor interaction and exciton physics.
Quantum Hall effect on top and bottom surface states of topological insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films.
Yoshimi, R; Tsukazaki, A; Kozuka, Y; Falson, J; Takahashi, K S; Checkelsky, J G; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-04-14
The three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel state of matter characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. To verify the topological nature of the surface states, Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and their combined/mixed compounds have been intensively studied. Here, we report the realization of the quantum Hall effect on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films. With electrostatic gate-tuning of the Fermi level in the bulk band gap under magnetic fields, the quantum Hall states with filling factor ±1 are resolved. Furthermore, the appearance of a quantum Hall plateau at filling factor zero reflects a pseudo-spin Hall insulator state when the Fermi level is tuned in between the energy levels of the non-degenerate top and bottom surface Dirac points. The observation of the quantum Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulator films may pave a way toward topological insulator-based electronics.
Ziegler, Tom; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen
2014-09-09
The random phase approximation (RPA) equation of adiabatic time dependent density functional ground state response theory (ATDDFT) has been used extensively in studies of excited states. It extracts information about excited states from frequency dependent ground state response properties and avoids, thus, in an elegant way, direct Kohn-Sham calculations on excited states in accordance with the status of DFT as a ground state theory. Thus, excitation energies can be found as resonance poles of frequency dependent ground state polarizability from the eigenvalues of the RPA equation. ATDDFT is approximate in that it makes use of a frequency independent energy kernel derived from the ground state functional. It is shown in this study that one can derive the RPA equation of ATDDFT from a purely variational approach in which stationary states above the ground state are located using our constricted variational DFT (CV-DFT) method and the ground state functional. Thus, locating stationary states above the ground state due to one-electron excitations with a ground state functional is completely equivalent to solving the RPA equation of TDDFT employing the same functional. The present study is an extension of a previous work in which we demonstrated the equivalence between ATDDFT and CV-DFT within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trivedi, Tanuj, E-mail: tanuj@utexas.edu; Sonde, Sushant; Movva, Hema C. P.; Banerjee, Sanjay K., E-mail: banerjee@ece.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)
2016-02-07
We report on van der Waals epitaxial growth, materials characterization, and magnetotransport experiments in crystalline nanosheets of Bismuth Telluro-Sulfide (BTS). Highly layered, good-quality crystalline nanosheets of BTS are obtained on SiO{sub 2} and muscovite mica. Weak-antilocalization (WAL), electron-electron interaction-driven insulating ground state and universal conductance fluctuations are observed in magnetotransport experiments on BTS devices. Temperature, thickness, and magnetic field dependence of the transport data indicate the presence of two-dimensional surface states along with bulk conduction, in agreement with theoretical models. An extended-WAL model is proposed and utilized in conjunction with a two-channel conduction model to analyze the data, revealing a surface component and evidence of multiple conducting channels. A facile growth method and detailed magnetotransport results indicating BTS as an alternative topological insulator material system are presented.
A study on the insulation coordination of 765 kV system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jeong Boo; Shim, Eung Bo [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Lee, Yong Han; Youn, Jae Yeong; Hwang, Chi Woo; Jung, Dong Hak [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-31
Analysis of the power frequency temporary overvoltage. Analysis of switching surges - Fault imitation, closing and re closing, fault clearing. Analysis of lightning surges. Insulation design of 765 kV overhead transmission line. Insulation coordination of 765 kV gas insulated substation. Transient recovery voltage and high speed ground switch (author). 38 refs., 55 figs.
Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states
Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.
2017-10-01
Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.
Single-spin addressing in an atomic Mott insulator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weitenberg, Christof; Endres, Manuel; Sherson, Jacob
2011-01-01
directly monitored the tunnelling quantum dynamics of single atoms in the lattice prepared along a single line, and observed that our addressing scheme leaves the atoms in the motional ground state. The results should enable studies of entropy transport and the quantum dynamics of spin impurities...... and quantum spin dynamics. Here we demonstrate how such control can be implemented at the most fundamental level of a single spin at a specific site of an optical lattice. Using a tightly focused laser beam together with a microwave field, we were able to flip the spin of individual atoms in a Mott insulator...... with sub-diffraction-limited resolution, well below the lattice spacing. The Mott insulator provided us with a large two-dimensional array of perfectly arranged atoms, in which we created arbitrary spin patterns by sequentially addressing selected lattice sites after freezing out the atom distribution. We...
Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state
Meystre, Pierre
2011-05-01
The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.
On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
2011-01-01
We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state ...
On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory
Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.
2011-08-01
We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.
Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua
2013-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altindal, S.; Doekme, I.; Tataroglu, A.; Sahingoez, R.
2002-01-01
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) Schottky barrier diodes which is consider distribution of interface states in equilibrium with semiconductor were determined at two (low and high) temperature. The interface states were responsible for non-ideal behavior of the forward I-V characteristic of diodes. Both diodes (n and p type Si) showed non-ideal behavior with an ideality factor 1.6 and 1.85 respectively at room temperature. The higher values of n-type Si were attributed to an order of magnitude higher density of interface states in the both diodes. The effect of an interfacial insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor are also studied. The high density of interface states also caused a reduction in the barrier height of the MIS diode. It is shown that by using Norde function at low and high temperature, barrier height □ b , series resistance R s and ideality factor n can be determined even in the case 1 s obtained from Norde function strongly depend on temperature, and decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the potential barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The mean density of interface states N ss decreases with increasing temperature. Particularly at low temperature the I-V characteristics are controlled by interface states density
Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Dreysse, H.
1991-12-01
A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sukhanov, Aleksei A.
2017-05-15
We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.
Sukhanov, Aleksei A.
2017-05-01
We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.
Topological origin of edge states in two-dimensional inversion-symmetric insulators and semimetals
Miert, Guido van|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413490378; Ortix, Carmine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413315304; de Morais Smith, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836346
2017-01-01
Symmetries play an essential role in identifying and characterizing topological states of matter. Here, we classify topologically two-dimensional (2D) insulators and semimetals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling using time-reversal ($\\mathcal{T}$) and inversion ($\\mathcal{I}$) symmetry. This allows
Thermic insulation in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolaon, G. (Ambassade de France a New York (USA)); Atlas, O. (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, (USA))
1984-01-30
At present, thermic insulation accounts for 13% of the savings which have been made and this percentage should increase substantially in the future. The ideal insulation material must have low thermic conductivity, but also be light, have a low dilatation coefficient, good mechanical resistance and be fireproof and non-toxic. Rock wool and above all glass wool have the major portion in the insulation market with about 75% of the total. The prospects for an increase in sales are average: 6 to 7% per year until 1990 with a stabilization or a decrease after this date. Production is concentrated in the hands of about ten producers. The insulation with a cellulose base -with the addition of a combustion inhibitor, usually borax- represent about 15% of the market. Manufacturers are numerous and the production units are small. Any serious evaluation of the future of this product is difficult to make. However, it should be noted that combustion inhibition is one of the main factors of success of this product and constitutes a relatively active field of research. Perlite and vermiculite have a marginal part of the market which is concentrated in the hands of a few dozen producers. Their future seems promising and their production should double between now and the end of the century. There is also the field of plastics which has to be considered and notably polystyrene, polyurethanes and polyisocyanates. These can be injected and moulded in situ. To the extent that toxicity studies can definitively conclude that they are not harmful (urea-formol resins have just been prohibited), their future is brillant and their growth rate could reach about 200% per year. The big chemical and pharmaceutical companies are interested in these products and their portion of the market can rapidly go beyond their present 6 to 8%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cícero Lefort Borges
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper summarises the activities undertaken when using antennas (ultrasound and radiofrequency for identifying insulators in pre-failure state by detecting the noise emitted by the distribution line and correlating this with these insulators (porcelain pin type dielectric breakdown. This has led to developing low-cost maintenance procedures and providing support and criteria for engineer-ing decisions regarding replacing these insulators. The technique used two detectors; a radio frequency detector was used in a first investigation of a particular distribution line, set to 40 MHz and installed on the roof of a moving vehicle. The ultrasound detector was used for inspecting (phases A, B, C each structure (pole selected. Atmospheric conditions had no influence on defining pre-failure insulators (pin type based on the noise detection technique. Pin type insulators emitting noise should be replaced since measurement was made from the ground and near the base of the post.
Singlet Ground State Magnetism:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen
1979-01-01
The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...
Interaction effects and quantum phase transitions in topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varney, Christopher N.; Sun Kai; Galitski, Victor; Rigol, Marcos
2010-01-01
We study strong correlation effects in topological insulators via the Lanczos algorithm, which we utilize to calculate the exact many-particle ground-state wave function and its topological properties. We analyze the simple, noninteracting Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice with known topological properties and demonstrate that these properties are already evident in small clusters. Next, we consider interacting fermions by introducing repulsive nearest-neighbor interactions. A first-order quantum phase transition was discovered at finite interaction strength between the topological band insulator and a topologically trivial Mott insulating phase by use of the fidelity metric and the charge-density-wave structure factor. We construct the phase diagram at T=0 as a function of the interaction strength and the complex phase for the next-nearest-neighbor hoppings. Finally, we consider the Haldane model with interacting hard-core bosons, where no evidence for a topological phase is observed. An important general conclusion of our work is that despite the intrinsic nonlocality of topological phases their key topological properties manifest themselves already in small systems and therefore can be studied numerically via exact diagonalization and observed experimentally, e.g., with trapped ions and cold atoms in optical lattices.
Charge driven metal-insulator transitions in LaMnO3|SrTiO3 (111) superlattices
Cossu, Fabrizio; Tahini, Hassan Ali; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2017-01-01
Interfaces of perovskite oxides, due to the strong interplay between the lattice, charge and spin degrees of freedom, can host various phase transitions, which is particularly interesting if these transitions can be tuned by external fields. Recently, ferromagnetism was found together with a seemingly insulating state in superlattices of manganites and titanates. We therefore study the (111) oriented $(\\text{LaMnO}_3)_{6-x}\\vert(\\text{SrTiO}_3)_{6+x}~(x = -0.5, 0, 0.5)$ superlattices by means of ab initio calculations, predicting a ferromagnetic ground state due to double exchange in all cases. We shed light on the ferromagnetic coupling in the LaMnO3 region and at the interfaces. The insulating states of specific superlattices can be understood on the basis of Jahn-Teller modes and electron/hole doping.
Charge driven metal-insulator transitions in LaMnO3|SrTiO3 (111) superlattices
Cossu, Fabrizio
2017-08-01
Interfaces of perovskite oxides, due to the strong interplay between the lattice, charge and spin degrees of freedom, can host various phase transitions, which is particularly interesting if these transitions can be tuned by external fields. Recently, ferromagnetism was found together with a seemingly insulating state in superlattices of manganites and titanates. We therefore study the (111) oriented $(\\\\text{LaMnO}_3)_{6-x}\\\\vert(\\\\text{SrTiO}_3)_{6+x}~(x = -0.5, 0, 0.5)$ superlattices by means of ab initio calculations, predicting a ferromagnetic ground state due to double exchange in all cases. We shed light on the ferromagnetic coupling in the LaMnO3 region and at the interfaces. The insulating states of specific superlattices can be understood on the basis of Jahn-Teller modes and electron/hole doping.
Insulating materials for cables: state of the technology and future developments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blechschmidt, H H [Hessische Elektrizitaets-A.G., Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.)
1977-02-01
This article gives a summary of old and new insulating materials for electrical cables. The electrical properties of some polymer insulating materials (PVC, polyethelene (PE), polymerised polyethelene (VPE), polypropylene) are compared in a table with the properties of paper insulation. The changeover from oiled paper to plastic insulation is almost complete for low voltage cables. Soft PVC is the dominant insulating material in this field. For medium voltage cables (10 kV and 20 kV supplies) and for high voltage cables (60 kV and 110 kV supplies) there is a trend to plastic PE/VPE, because these insulating materials have better electrical properties than PVC.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Severin, Gregory; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.
2014-01-01
The ground state branch of the β decay of 66Ga is an allowed Fermi (0+ → 0+) transition with a relatively high f t value. The large f t and the isospin-forbidden nature of the transition indicates that the shape of the β spectrum of this branch may be sensitive to higher order contributions...... to the decay. Two previous measurements of the shape have revealed deviations from an allowed spectrum but disagree about whether the shape factor has a positive or negative slope. As a test of a new iron-free superconducting β spectrometer, we have measured the shape of the ground state branch of the 66Ga β...... spectrum above a positron energy of 1.9 MeV. The spectrum is consistent with an allowed shape, with the slope of the shape factor being zero to within ±3 × 10−3 per MeV. We have also determined the endpoint energy for the ground state branch to be 4.1535 ± 0.0003 (stat.) ±0.0007 (syst.) MeV, in good...
Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator.
Farajollahpour, T; Jafari, S A
2018-01-10
We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the 'ARPES-dark' state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.
Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator
Farajollahpour, T.; Jafari, S. A.
2018-01-01
We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the ‘ARPES-dark’ state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.
Exploring photonic topological insulator states in a circuit-QED lattice
Li, Jing-Ling; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Zhao, Feng
2018-04-01
We propose a simple protocol to explore the topological properties of photonic integer quantum Hall states in a one-dimensional circiut-QED lattice. By periodically modulating the on-site photonic energies in such a lattice, we demonstrate that this one-dimensional lattice model can be mapped into a two-dimensional integer quantum Hall insulator model. Based on the lattice-based cavity input-output theory, we show that both the photonic topological protected edge states and topological invariants can be clearly measured from the final steady state of the resonator lattice after taking into account cavity dissipation. Interestingly, we also find that the measurement signals associated with the above topological features are quite unambitious even in five coupled dissipative resonators. Our work opens up a new prospect of exploring topological states with a small-size dissipative quantum artificial lattice, which is quite attractive to the current quantum optics community.
Park, Wan Kyu; Sun, Lunan; Noddings, Alexander; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary; Greene, Laura H
2016-06-14
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a well-known Kondo insulator in which the insulating bulk arises from strong electron correlations, has recently attracted great attention owing to increasing evidence for its topological nature, thereby harboring protected surface states. However, corroborative spectroscopic evidence is still lacking, unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts, including Bi2Se3 Here, we report results from planar tunneling that unveil the detailed spectroscopic properties of SmB6 The tunneling conductance obtained on the (001) and (011) single crystal surfaces reveals linear density of states as expected for two and one Dirac cone(s), respectively. Quite remarkably, it is found that these topological states are not protected completely within the bulk hybridization gap. A phenomenological model of the tunneling process invoking interaction of the surface states with bulk excitations (spin excitons), as predicted by a recent theory, provides a consistent explanation for all of the observed features. Our spectroscopic study supports and explains the proposed picture of the incompletely protected surface states in this topological Kondo insulator SmB6.
Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons
Peng, Hailin; Lai, Keji; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Chen, Yulin; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cui, Yi
2009-01-01
Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport
Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters
Shen, Shun-Qing
2012-01-01
Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...
Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft
Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.
1972-01-01
Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.
High-speed ground transportation development outside United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)
1995-09-01
This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.
Duo gating on a 3D topological insulator - independent tuning of both topological surface states
Li, Chuan; de Ronde, Bob; Snelder, Marieke; Stehno, Martin; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander; ICE Team; IOP Collaboration
ABSTRACT: Topological insulators are associated with a trove of exciting physics, such as the ability to host robust anyons, Majorana Bound States, which can be used for quantum computation. For future Majorana devices it is desirable to have the Fermi energy tuned as close as possible to the Dirac point of the topological surface state. Based on previous work on gating BSTS, we report the experimental progress towards gate-tuning of the top and bottom topological surface states of BiSbTeSe2 crystal flakes. When the Fermi level is moved across the Dirac point conduction is shown to change from electron dominated transport to hole dominated transport independently for either surface. In the high magnetic field, one can tune the system precisely between the different landau levels of both surfaces, thus a full gating map of the possible landau levels combination is established. In addition, we provide a simple capacitance model to explain the general hysteresis behaviors in topological insulator systems.
Steady-state heat transfer in He II through porous superconducting cable insulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudouy, B.J.P.; Juster, F.P.; Meuris, C.; Vieillard, L.
1996-01-01
The LHC program includes the study of thermal behavior of the superconducting cables wound in the dipole magnet cooled by superfluid helium (He II). Insulation of these superconducting cables forms the major thermal shield hindering the He II cooling. This is particularly a problem in magnets which are subjected to thermal loads. To investigate He II heat transfer processes an experimental model has been realized which creates a one-dimensional heat transfer in such media. Insulation is generally realized by wrapping around the superconducting cable a combination of different kind of Kapton reg-sign tapes, fiber-glass impregnated by epoxy resin or Kevlar reg-sign fiber tapes. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through these multi-layer porous slabs has been analyzed. Experimental results for a range of heat flux show the existence of different thermal regimes related to He II. It is shown that the parameters of importance are a global geometrical factor which could be considered as an equivalent open-quotes permeabilityclose quotes related to He II heat transfer, the transfer function f(T) of He II and the thermal conductivity of the slab. The authors present and analyze results for different insulations as a function of the temperature
Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K.E.L.
2010-01-01
Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and often exhibit poor reliability. Two technical approaches to solving this problem will be investigated. Firstly, inverted ceramics offer solutions for reduced gradients between the electrodes and ground. An inverted design will be presented for 350 kV, with maximum gradients in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Secondly, novel ceramic manufacturing processes will be studied, in order to protect triple junction locations from emission, by applying a coating with a bulk resistivity. The processes for creating this coating will be optimized to provide protection as well as be used to coat a ceramic with an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of an HV standoff ceramic cylinder. Example insulator designs are being computer modelled, and insulator samples are being manufactured and tested
Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamza, Eman [NON LANL; Nachtergaele, Bruno [NON LANL; Sims, Robert [NON LANL
2009-01-01
We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.
Floquet topological insulators for sound
Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea
2016-06-01
The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amato, M.A.; March, N.H.
1988-09-01
Using the quantum Monte Carlo charge-charge structure factor S qq (k) it is argued that (i) in the metallic phase the small k expasion is non-analytic at order k 5 , reflecting plasmon dispersion, while in the insulating phase the non-analyticity occurs at O(k 3 ), due to van der Waals interaction between the protons. (author) [pt
Air-Filled Nanopore Based High-Performance Thermal Insulation Materials
Gangåssæter, Haakon Fossen; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Alex Mofid, Sohrab; Gao, Tao
2017-01-01
State-of-the-art thermal insulation solutions like vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and aerogels have low thermal conductivity, but their drawbacks may make them unable to be the thermal insulation solutions that will revolutionize the building industry regarding energy-efficient building envelopes. Nevertheless, learning from these materials may be crucial to make new and novel high-performance thermal insulation products. This study presents a review on the state-of-the-art air-filled thermal...
Song, Qi; Mi, Jian; Zhao, Dan; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Tao; Chen, Xian Hui; Xie, X. C.; Zhang, Chi; Shi, Jing; Han, Wei
2016-01-01
There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin–momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the spin injection and observe the inverse Edelstein effect in the surface states of a topological Kondo insulator, SmB6. At low temperatures when only surface carriers are present, a clear spin signal is observed. Furthermore, the magnetic field angle dependence of the spin signal is consistent with spin–momentum locking property of surface states of SmB6. PMID:27834378
Fast Preparation of Critical Ground States Using Superluminal Fronts
Agarwal, Kartiek; Bhatt, R. N.; Sondhi, S. L.
2018-05-01
We propose a spatiotemporal quench protocol that allows for the fast preparation of ground states of gapless models with Lorentz invariance. Assuming the system initially resides in the ground state of a corresponding massive model, we show that a superluminally moving "front" that locally quenches the mass, leaves behind it (in space) a state arbitrarily close to the ground state of the gapless model. Importantly, our protocol takes time O (L ) to produce the ground state of a system of size ˜Ld (d spatial dimensions), while a fully adiabatic protocol requires time ˜O (L2) to produce a state with exponential accuracy in L . The physics of the dynamical problem can be understood in terms of relativistic rarefaction of excitations generated by the mass front. We provide proof of concept by solving the proposed quench exactly for a system of free bosons in arbitrary dimensions, and for free fermions in d =1 . We discuss the role of interactions and UV effects on the free-theory idealization, before numerically illustrating the usefulness of the approach via simulations on the quantum Heisenberg spin chain.
Ground state energy of a polaron in a superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Nkrumah, G.; Mensah, N.G.
2000-10-01
The ground state energy of a polaron in a superlattice was calculated using the double-time Green functions. The effective mass of the polaron along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis was also calculated. The dependence of the ground state energy and the effective mass along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis on the electron-phonon coupling constant α and on the superlattice parameters (i.e. the superlattice period d and the bandwidth Δ) were studied. It was observed that if an infinite square well potential is assumed, the ground state energy of the polaron decreases (i.e. becomes more negative) with increasing α and d, but increases with increasing Δ. For small values of α, the polaron ground state energy varies slowly with Δ, becoming approximately constant for large Δ. The effective mass along the planes perpendicular to the superlattice axis was found to be approximately equal to the mass of an electron for all typical values of α, d and Δ. (author)
Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.
Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F
2014-10-31
We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39) C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10) cm(3) s(-1).
Polymer-Reinforced, Non-Brittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation
Hess, David M.
2013-01-01
The primary application for cryogenic insulating foams will be fuel tank applications for fueling systems. It is crucial for this insulation to be incorporated into systems that survive vacuum and terrestrial environments. It is hypothesized that by forming an open-cell silica-reinforced polymer structure, the foam structures will exhibit the necessary strength to maintain shape. This will, in turn, maintain the insulating capabilities of the foam insulation. Besides mechanical stability in the form of crush resistance, it is important for these insulating materials to exhibit water penetration resistance. Hydrocarbon-terminated foam surfaces were implemented to impart hydrophobic functionality that apparently limits moisture penetration through the foam. During the freezing process, water accumulates on the surfaces of the foams. However, when hydrocarbon-terminated surfaces are present, water apparently beads and forms crystals, leading to less apparent accumulation. The object of this work is to develop inexpensive structural cryogenic insulation foam that has increased impact resistance for launch and ground-based cryogenic systems. Two parallel approaches will be pursued: a silica-polymer co-foaming technique and a post foam coating technique. Insulation characteristics, flexibility, and water uptake can be fine-tuned through the manipulation of the polyurethane foam scaffold. Silicate coatings for polyurethane foams and aerogel-impregnated polyurethane foams have been developed and tested. A highly porous aerogel-like material may be fabricated using a co-foam and coated foam techniques, and can insulate at liquid temperatures using the composite foam
Correlated ground state and E2 giant resonance built on it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tohyama, Mitsuru
1995-01-01
Taking 16 O as an example of realistic nuclei, we demonstrate that a correlated ground state can be obtained as a long time solution of a time-dependent density-matrix formalism (TDDM) when the residual interaction is adiabatically treated. We also study in TDDM the E2 giant resonance of 16 O built on the correlated ground state and compare it with that built on the Hartree-Fock ground state. It is found that a spurious mixing of low frequency components seen in the latter is eliminated by using the correlated ground state. (author)
Ground-Water Availability in the United States
Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.
2008-01-01
Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.
Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori
1998-10-01
Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and
Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Xing-Jie; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xiang, Tao; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B
2016-01-01
We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon–doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon–doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott–Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of
Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator
Han, Xing-Jie; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B.; Xiang, Tao
2016-10-01
We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon-doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon-doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of the
The ground state energy of a classical gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conlon, J.G.
1983-01-01
The ground state energy of a classical gas is treated using a probability function for the position of the particles and a potential function. The lower boundary for the energy when the particle number is large is defined as ground state energy. The coulomb gas consisting of positive and negative particles is also treated (fixed and variable density case) the stability of the relativistic system is investigated as well. (H.B.)
Anomalous Ground State of the Electrons in Nano-confined Water
2016-06-13
Anomalous ground state of the electrons in nano -confined water G. F. Reiter1*, Aniruddha Deb2*, Y. Sakurai3, M. Itou3, V. G. Krishnan4, S. J...electronic ground state of nano -confined water must be responsible for these anomalies but has so far not been investigated. We show here for the first time...using x-ray Compton scattering and a computational model, that the ground state configuration of the valence electrons in a particular nano
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism in topological insulators
Zhang, Duming
Topological insulators, a new state of matter discovered recently, have attracted great interest due to their novel properties. They are insulating inside the bulk, but conducting at the surface or edges. This peculiar behavior is characterized by an insulating bulk energy gap and gapless surface or edge states, which originate from strong spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. The spin and momentum locked surface states not only provide a model system to study fundamental physics, but can also lead to applications in spintronics and dissipationless electronics. While topological insulators are interesting by themselves, more exotic behaviors are predicted when an energy gap is induced at the surface. This dissertation explores two types of surface state gap in topological insulators, a superconducting gap induced by proximity effect and a magnetic gap induced by chemical doping. The first three chapters provide introductory theory and experimental details of my research. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the theoretical background of topological insulators. Chapter 2 is dedicated to material synthesis principles and techniques. I will focus on two major synthesis methods: molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of Bi2Se3 thin films and chemical vapor deposition for the growth of Bi2Se3 nanoribbons and nanowires. Material characterization is discussed in Chapter 3. I will describe structural, morphological, magnetic, electrical, and electronic characterization techniques used to study topological insulators. Chapter 4 discusses the experiments on proximity-induced superconductivity in topological insulator (Bi2Se3) nanoribbons. This work is motivated by the search for the elusive Majorana fermions, which act as their own antiparticles. They were proposed by Ettore Majorara in 1937, but have remained undiscovered. Recently, Majorana's concept has been revived in condensed matter physics: a condensed matter analog of Majorana fermions is predicted to
Zhang, Qianfan
2012-03-27
Topological insulator is a new state of matter attracting tremendous interest due to its gapless linear dispersion and spin momentum locking topological states located near the surface. Heterostructures, which have traditionally been powerful in controlling the electronic properties of semiconductor devices, are interesting for topological insulators. Here, we studied the spatial distribution of the topological state in Sb 2Se 3-Bi 2Se 3 heterostructures by first-principle simulation and discovered that an exotic topological state exists. Surprisingly, the state migrates from the nontrivial Bi 2Se 3 into the trivial Sb 2Se 3 region and spreads across the entire Sb 2Se 3 slab, extending beyond the concept of "surface" state while preserving all of the topological surface state characteristics. This unusual topological state arises from the coupling between different materials and the modification of electronic structure near Fermi energy. Our study demonstrates that heterostructures can open up opportunities for controlling the real-space distribution of the topological state and inducing quantum phase transitions between topologically trivial and nontrivial states. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Solving satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the satisfiability (SAT) problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit exact cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed
Calculations of the ground state of 16O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieper, S.C.
1989-01-01
One of the central problems in nuclear physics is the description of nuclei as systems of nucleons interacting via realistic potentials. There are two main aspects of this problem: specification of the Hamiltonian, and calculation of the ground states of nuclei with the given interaction. Realistic interactions must contain both two- and three-nucleon potentials and these potentials have a complicated non-central operator structure consisting, for example, of spin, isospin and tensor dependences. This structure results in formidable many-body problems in the computation of the ground states of nuclei. At present, reliable solutions of the Faddeev equations for the A = 3 nuclei with such interactions are routine. Recently, Carlson has made an essentially exact GFMC calculation of the He ground state using just a two-nucleon interaction, and there are reliable variational calculations for more complete potential models. Nuclear matter calculations can also be made with reasonable reliability. However, there have been very few calculations of nuclei with A > 5 using realistic interactions, and none with a modern three-nucleon interaction. In the present paper I present a new technique for variational calculations for such nuclei and apply it to the ground state of 16 O. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons
Peng, Hailin
2009-12-13
Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.
Ground state energy fluctuations in the nuclear shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velazquez, Victor; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Frank, Alejandro; Barea, Jose; Zuker, Andres P.
2005-01-01
Statistical fluctuations of the nuclear ground state energies are estimated using shell model calculations in which particles in the valence shells interact through well-defined forces, and are coupled to an upper shell governed by random 2-body interactions. Induced ground-state energy fluctuations are found to be one order of magnitude smaller than those previously associated with chaotic components, in close agreement with independent perturbative estimates based on the spreading widths of excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanou, Stefanos
2002-07-01
Substrate crosstalk or coupling has been acknowledged to be a limiting factor in mixed signal RF integration. Although high levels of integration and high frequencies of operation are desirable for mixed mode RF and microwave circuits, they make substrate crosstalk more pronounced and may lead to circuit performance degradation. High signal isolation is dictated by requirements for low power dissipation, reduced number of components and lower integration costs for feasible system-on-chip (SoC) solutions. Substrate crosstalk suppression in ground plane silicon-on-insulator (GPSOI) substrates is investigated in this thesis. Test structures are designed and fabricated on SOI substrates with a buried WSi 2 plane that is connected to ground; hence it is called a ground plane. A Faraday cage structure that exhibits very high degrees of signal isolation is presented and compared to other SOI isolation schemes. The Faraday cage structure is shown to achieve 20 dB increased isolation in the frequency range of 0.5-50 GHz compared to published data for high resistivity (200 Ωcm) thin film SOI substrates with no ground planes, but where capacitive guard rings were used. The measurement results are analysed with the aid of planar electromagnetic simulators and compact lumped element models of all the fabricated test structures are developed. The accuracy of the lumped models is validated against experimental measurements. (author)
Lightweight, Thermally Insulating Structural Panels
Eisen, Howard J.; Hickey, Gregory; Wen, Liang-Chi; Layman, William E.; Rainen, Richard A.; Birur, Gajanana C.
1996-01-01
Lightweight, thermally insulating panels that also serve as structural members developed. Honeycomb-core panel filled with low-thermal-conductivity, opacified silica aerogel preventing convection and minimizes internal radiation. Copper coating on face sheets reduces radiation. Overall thermal conductivities of panels smaller than state-of-art commercial non-structurally-supporting foam and fibrous insulations. On Earth, panels suitable for use in low-air-pressure environments in which lightweight, compact, structurally supporting insulation needed; for example, aboard high-altitude aircraft or in partially evacuated panels in refrigerators.
Ground state phase diagram of extended attractive Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robaszkiewicz, S.; Chao, K.A.; Micnas, R.
1980-08-01
The ground state phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model with intraatomic attraction has been derived in the Hartree-Fock approximation formulated in terms of the Bogoliubov variational approach. For a given value of electron density, the nature of the ordered ground state depends essentially on the sign and the strength of the nearest neighbor coupling. (author)
Exact ground and excited states of an antiferromagnetic quantum spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, I.
1989-08-01
A quasi-one-dimensional spin model which consists of a chain of octahedra of spins has been suggested for which a certain parameter regime of the Hamiltonian, the ground state, can be written down exactly. The ground state is highly degenerate and can be other than a singlet. Also, several excited states can be constructed exactly. The ground state is a local RVB state for which resonance is confined to rings of spins. Some exact numerical results for an octahedron of spins have also been reported. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Extended random-phase approximation with three-body ground-state correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tohyama, M.; Schuck, P.
2008-01-01
An extended random-phase approximation (ERPA) which contains the effects of ground-state correlations up to a three-body level is applied to an extended Lipkin model which contains an additional particle-scattering term. Three-body correlations in the ground state are necessary to preserve the hermiticity of the Hamiltonian matrix of ERPA. Two approximate forms of ERPA which neglect the three-body correlations are also applied to investigate the importance of three-body correlations. It is found that the ground-state energy is little affected by the inclusion of the three-body correlations. On the contrary, three-body correlations for the excited states can become quite important. (orig.)
Aramberri, H.; Muñoz, M. C.
2017-05-01
We investigate the effects of strain on the topological order of the Bi2Se3 family of topological insulators by ab initio first-principles methods. Strain can induce a topological phase transition and we present the phase diagram for the 3D topological insulators, Bi2Te3 , Sb2Te3 , Bi2Se3 , and Sb2Se3 , under combined uniaxial and biaxial strain. Their phase diagram is universal and shows metallic and insulating phases, both topologically trivial and nontrivial. In particular, uniaxial tension can drive the four compounds into a topologically trivial insulating phase. We propose a Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunction in which a strain-induced topological interface state arises in the common gap of this normal insulator-topological insulator heterojunction. Unexpectedly, the interface state is confined in the topologically trivial subsystem and is physically protected from ambient impurities. It can be switched on or off by means of uniaxial strain and therefore Sb2Te3 /Bi2Te3 heterojunctions provide a topological system which hosts tunable robust helical interface states with promising spintronic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.
2004-01-01
High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage
Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures
Fischer, Mark H.
2016-03-11
Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.
Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2005 : Reviews & Forecasts
Okamoto, Tatsuki
This article reports the state-of-art of TC-DEI ( Technical Committee of Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation of IEEJ) activites. The activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees under TC-DEI. Recent activites were categorized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend for each category is mentioned as was done in the article of 2003. Thoese are activities on asset management (AI application and insulation diagnosis), activities on new insulating and functional materials (Nano composite) and activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc superconducting cable insulation).
Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2006 : Review & Forecast
Okamoto, Tatsuki
This article reports the state-of-art of TC-DEI ( Technical Committee of Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation of IEEJ) activites. The activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees under TC-DEI. Recent activites were categorized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend for each category is mentioned as was seen in the articles of 2005. Those are activities on asset management (AI application and insulation diagnosis), activities on new insulating and functional materials (Nano composite) and activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc superconducting cable insulation).
Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.
2018-04-01
We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.
Magnetostriction-driven ground-state stabilization in 2H perovskites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, D. G.; Senn, M. S.; University of Oxford; Khalyavin, D. D.; Cortese, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, the magnetic ground state of Sr_3ARuO_6, with A =(Li,Na), is studied using neutron diffraction, resonant x-ray scattering, and laboratory characterization measurements of high-quality crystals. Combining these results allows us to observe the onset of long-range magnetic order and distinguish the symmetrically allowed magnetic models, identifying in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and a small ferromagnetic component along the c axis. While the existence of magnetic domains masks the particular in-plane direction of the moments, it has been possible to elucidate the ground state using symmetry considerations. We find that due to the lack of local anisotropy, antisymmetric exchange interactions control the magnetic order, first through structural distortions that couple to in-plane antiferromagnetic moments and second through a high-order magnetoelastic coupling that lifts the degeneracy of the in-plane moments. Finally, the symmetry considerations used to rationalize the magnetic ground state are very general and will apply to many systems in this family, such as Ca_3ARuO_6, with A = (Li,Na), and Ca_3LiOsO_6 whose magnetic ground states are still not completely understood.
The relation between the (N) and (N-1) electrons atomic ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briet, P.
1984-05-01
The relation between the ground state of an N and (N-1) electrons atomic system are studied. We show that in some directions of the configuration space, the ratio of the N electrons atomic ground state to the one particle density is asymptotically equivalent to the (N-1) electrons atomic ground state
Degenerate ground states and multiple bifurcations in a two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model.
Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T; Zhou, Huan-Qiang
2014-06-01
We numerically investigate the two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model on the infinite square lattice by using the infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm. We show that the quantum fidelity, defined as an overlap measurement between an arbitrary reference state and the iPEPS ground state of the system, can detect q-fold degenerate ground states for the Z_{q} broken-symmetry phase. Accordingly, a multiple bifurcation of the quantum ground-state fidelity is shown to occur as the transverse magnetic field varies from the symmetry phase to the broken-symmetry phase, which means that a multiple-bifurcation point corresponds to a critical point. A (dis)continuous behavior of quantum fidelity at phase transition points characterizes a (dis)continuous phase transition. Similar to the characteristic behavior of the quantum fidelity, the magnetizations, as order parameters, obtained from the degenerate ground states exhibit multiple bifurcation at critical points. Each order parameter is also explicitly demonstrated to transform under the Z_{q} subgroup of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. We find that the q-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice undergoes a discontinuous (first-order) phase transition for q=3 and q=4 and a continuous phase transition for q=2 (the two-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model).
Phase coherent transport in hybrid superconductor-topological insulator devices
Finck, Aaron
2015-03-01
Heterostructures of superconductors and topological insulators are predicted to host unusual zero energy bound states known as Majorana fermions, which can robustly store and process quantum information. Here, I will discuss our studies of such heterostructures through phase-coherent transport, which can act as a unique probe of Majorana fermions. We have extensively explored topological insulator Josephson junctions through SQUID and single-junction diffraction patterns, whose unusual behavior give evidence for low-energy Andreev bound states. In topological insulator devices with closely spaced normal and superconducting leads, we observe prominent Fabry-Perot oscillations, signifying gate-tunable, quasi-ballistic transport that can elegantly interact with Andreev reflection. Superconducting disks deposited on the surface of a topological insulator generate Aharonov-Bohm-like oscillations, giving evidence for unusual states lying near the interface between the superconductor and topological insulator surface. Our results point the way towards sophisticated interferometers that can detect and read out the state of Majorana fermions in topological systems. This work was done in collaboration with Cihan Kurter, Yew San Hor, and Dale Van Harlingen. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q.
Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules
Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE
Dielectric and Insulating Technology 2004 : Review & Forecast
Okamoto, Tatsuki
This article reports the state-of-art of DEIS activites. DEIS activiteis are basically based on the activites of 8-10 investigation committees’ under DEIS committee. Recent DEIS activites are categlized into three functions in this article and remarkable activity or trend of each category is mentioned. Those are activities on insulation diagnosis (AI application and asset management), activities on new insulation technology for power tansmission (high Tc super conducting cable insulation and all solid sinulated substation), and activities on new insulating materials (Nanocomposite).
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.
2016-07-27
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2016-01-01
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Experimental Insights into Ground-State Selection of Quantum XY Pyrochlores
Hallas, Alannah M.; Gaudet, Jonathan; Gaulin, Bruce D.
2018-03-01
Extensive experimental investigations of the magnetic structures and excitations in the XY pyrochlores have been carried out over the past decade. Three families of XY pyrochlores have emerged: Yb2B2O7, Er2B2O7, and, most recently, [Formula: see text]Co2F7. In each case, the magnetic cation (either Yb, Er, or Co) exhibits XY anisotropy within the local pyrochlore coordinates, a consequence of crystal field effects. Materials in these families display rich phase behavior and are candidates for exotic ground states, such as quantum spin ice, and exotic ground-state selection via order-by-disorder mechanisms. In this review, we present an experimental summary of the ground-state properties of the XY pyrochlores, including evidence that they are strongly influenced by phase competition. We empirically demonstrate the signatures for phase competition in a frustrated magnet: multiple heat capacity anomalies, suppressed TN or TC, sample- and pressure-dependent ground states, and unconventional spin dynamics.
Electronic structure properties of UO2 as a Mott insulator
Sheykhi, Samira; Payami, Mahmoud
2018-06-01
In this work using the density functional theory (DFT), we have studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of uranium dioxide with antiferromagnetic 1k-, 2k-, and 3k-order structures. Ordinary approximations in DFT, such as the local density approximation (LDA) or generalized gradient approximation (GGA), usually predict incorrect metallic behaviors for this strongly correlated electron system. Using Hubbard term correction for f-electrons, LDA+U method, as well as using the screened Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for the exchange-correlation (XC), we have obtained the correct ground-state behavior as an insulator, with band gaps in good agreement with experiment.
Dirac-Screening Stabilized Surface-State Transport in a Topological Insulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Brüne
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We report magnetotransport studies on a gated strained HgTe device. This material is a three-dimensional topological insulator and exclusively shows surface-state transport. Remarkably, the Landau-level dispersion and the accuracy of the Hall quantization remain unchanged over a wide density range (3×10^{11} cm^{−2}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veselovsky, P.; Zink, S.; Balacek, P.; Mares, I.
1989-01-01
The insulation consists of a sewn fabric cover made of inorganic fibers, in which the fiber filling is reinforced mechanically by dense point interweaving. The inorganic fibers, 1 to 5 μm in diameter, consist of min. 97 wt.% mixture of aluminium and silicon oxides in the vitreous state. The fibers making up the cover consist of min. 95% silicon, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and boron oxides in the vitreous state; the rest can consist of alloy steel fibres. The bulk density of the insulation is 70 to 150 kg/m 3 . The product is highly resistant to temperature and to the action of chemicals, water, and acid and alkaline deactivation solutions. Its manufacture is fast and undemanding. It is designed for thermal insulation of pipes, tanks and valves in nuclear power plants. (M.D.). 2 figs
Phase Diagram of a Simple Model for Fractional Topological Insulator
Chen, Hua; Yang, Kun
2012-02-01
We study a simple model of two species of (or spin-1/2) fermions with short-range intra-species repulsion in the presence of opposite (effetive) magnetic field, each at filling factor 1/3. In the absence of inter-species interaction, the ground state is simply two copies of the 1/3 Laughlin state, with opposite chirality. Due to the overall time-reversal symmetry, this is a fractional topological insulator. We show this phase is stable against moderate inter-species interactions. However strong enough inter-species repulsion leads to phase separation, while strong enough inter-species attraction drives the system into a superfluid phase. We obtain the phase diagram through exact diagonalization caluclations. Nature of the fractional topological insluator-superfluid phase transition is discussed using an appropriate Chern-Simons-Ginsburg-Landau effective field theory.
Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazighi, R.
1982-03-01
The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Physical processes in high field insulating liquid conduction
Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Anderson, Delmar; Wilkins, Frank; Obregon, Robert
2017-10-01
In the power grid transmission where a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances, High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission of up to 1MV becomes more attractive since is more efficient than the counterpart AC. However, two of the most difficult problems to solve are the cable connections to the high voltage power sources and their insulation from the ground. The insulating systems are usually composed of transformer oil and solid insulators. The oil behavior under HVDC is similar to that of a weak electrolyte. Its behavior under HVDC is dominated more by conductivity than dielectric constant. Space charge effects in the oil bulk near high voltage electrodes and impeded plastic insulators affect the voltage oil hold-off. We have constructed an experimental facility where we study the oil and plastic insulator behavior in an actual HVDC System. Experimental results will be presented and compared with the present understanding of the physics governing the oil behavior under very high electrical stresses. Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.
Antibonding hole ground state in InAs quantum dot molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Planelles, Josep [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080, Castelló (Spain)
2015-01-22
Using four-band k⋅p Hamiltonians, we study how strain and position-dependent effective masses influence hole tunneling in vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Strain reduces the tunneling and hence the critical interdot distance required for the ground state to change from bonding to antibonding. Variable mass has the opposite effect and a rough compensation leaves little affected the critical bonding-to-antibonding ground state crossover. An alternative implementation of the magnetic field in the envelope function Hamiltonian is given which retrieves the experimental denial of possible after growth reversible magnetically induced bonding-to-antibonding ground state transition, predicted by the widely used Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian.
A Model Ground State of Polyampholytes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wofling, S.; Kantor, Y.
1998-01-01
The ground state of randomly charged polyampholytes (polymers with positive and negatively charged groups along their backbone) is conjectured to have a structure similar to a necklace, made of weakly charged parts of the chain, compacting into globules, connected by highly charged stretched 'strings' attempted to quantify the qualitative necklace model, by suggesting a zero approximation model, in which the longest neutral segment of the polyampholyte forms a globule, while the remaining part will form a tail. Expanding this approximation, we suggest a specific necklace-type structure for the ground state of randomly charged polyampholyte's, where all the neutral parts of the chain compact into globules: The longest neutral segment compacts into a globule; in the remaining part of the chain, the longest neutral segment (the second longest neutral segment) compacts into a globule, then the third, and so on. A random sequence of charges is equivalent to a random walk, and a neutral segment is equivalent to a loop inside the random walk. We use analytical and Monte Carlo methods to investigate the size distribution of loops in a one-dimensional random walk. We show that the length of the nth longest neutral segment in a sequence of N monomers (or equivalently, the nth longest loop in a random walk of N steps) is proportional to N/n 2 , while the mean number of neutral segments increases as √N. The polyampholytes in the ground state within our model is found to have an average linear size proportional to dN, and an average surface area proportional to N 2/3
Three-body problem in the ground-state representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.
1993-01-01
The ground-state probability density of a three-body system is used to construct a classical potential U whose minimum coincides exactly with the ground-state energy. The spectrum of excited states may approximately be obtained by imposing quasiclassical quantization conditions over the classical motion in U. We show nontrivial one-dimensional models in which either this quantization condition is exact or considerably improves the usual semiclassical quantization. For three-dimensional problems, the small-oscillation frequencies in states with total angular momentum L = 0 are computed. These frequencies could represent an improvement over the frequencies of triatomic molecules computed with the use of ordinary quasiclassics for the motion of the nuclei in the molecular term. By providing a semiclassical description of the first excited quantum states, the sketched approach rises some interesting questions such as, for example, the relevance (once again) of classical chaos to quantum mechanics
On effective holographic Mott insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology,Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
2016-12-20
We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.
On effective holographic Mott insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol
2016-01-01
We present a class of holographic models that behave effectively as prototypes of Mott insulators — materials where electron-electron interactions dominate transport phenomena. The main ingredient in the gravity dual is that the gauge-field dynamics contains self-interactions by way of a particular type of non-linear electrodynamics. The electrical response in these models exhibits typical features of Mott-like states: i) the low-temperature DC conductivity is unboundedly low; ii) metal-insulator transitions appear by varying various parameters; iii) for large enough self-interaction strength, the conductivity can even decrease with increasing doping (density of carriers) — which appears as a sharp manifestation of ‘traffic-jam’-like behaviour; iv) the insulating state becomes very unstable towards superconductivity at large enough doping. We exhibit some of the properties of the resulting insulator-superconductor transition, which is sensitive to the momentum dissipation rate in a specific way. These models imply a clear and generic correlation between Mott behaviour and significant effects in the nonlinear electrical response. We compute the nonlinear current-voltage curve in our model and find that indeed at large voltage the conductivity is largely reduced.
Tahir, Muhammad
2013-05-01
We show that the surface states of magnetic topological insulators realize an activated behavior and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations. Applying an external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the topological insulator in the presence of Zeeman interaction, we investigate the opening of a gap at the Dirac point, making the surface Dirac fermions massive, and the effects on the transport properties. Analytical expressions are derived for the collisional conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We also calculate the Hall conductivity using the Kubo formalism. Evidence for a transition from gapless to gapped surface states at n = 0 and activated transport is found from the temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the collisional and Hall conductivities. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.
Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)
2014-11-10
The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.
Non-Dirac Chern insulators with large band gaps and spin-polarized edge states.
Xue, Y; Zhang, J Y; Zhao, B; Wei, X Y; Yang, Z Q
2018-05-10
Based on first-principles calculations and k·p models, we demonstrate that PbC/MnSe heterostructures are a non-Dirac type of Chern insulator with very large band gaps (244 meV) and exotically half-metallic edge states, providing the possibilities of realizing very robust, completely spin polarized, and dissipationless spintronic devices from the heterostructures. The achieved extraordinarily large nontrivial band gap can be ascribed to the contribution of the non-Dirac type electrons (composed of px and py) and the very strong atomic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction of the heavy Pb element in the system. Surprisingly, the band structures are found to be sensitive to the different exchange and correlation functionals adopted in the first-principles calculations. Chern insulators with various mechanisms are acquired from them. These discoveries show that the predicted nontrivial topology in PbC/MnSe heterostructures is robust and can be observed in experiments at high temperatures. The system has great potential to have attractive applications in future spintronics.
Effects of insulation on potted superconducting coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeller, A.F.; DeKamp, J.C.; Magsig, C.T.; Nolen, J.A.; McInturff, A.D.
1989-01-01
Test coils using identical wire but with either Formvar or Polyesterimid insulation were fabricated to determine the effects of insulation on training behavior. It was found that the type of insulation did not affect the training behavior. While considerable attention has been paid to epoxy formulations used for superconducting coils, little study has been devoted to the effects of the wire insulation on training behavior. If the insulation does not bind well with the epoxy, the wires will not be held securely in place, and training will be required to make the coil operate at its design limit. In fact, the coil may never reach its design current, showing considerable degredation. Conversely, if the epoxy-insulation reaction is to soften or weaken the insulation, then shorts and/or training may result. The authors have undertaken a study of the effects of the insulation on potted coils wet wound with Stycast 2850 FT epoxy. The wire was insulated with one of two insulting varnishes: Formvar (a polyvinyl formal resin) or Polyesterimid (a phenolic resin). Formvar is the standard insulation in the United States while Polyesterimid the European standard
Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials
Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.
2017-11-01
Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.
Interplay between surface and bulk states in the Topological Kondo Insulator SmB6
Biswas, Sangram; Hatnean, Monica Ciomaga; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Bid, Aveek
Kondo insulator SmB6 is predicted to have topologically protected conducting surface states(TSS). We have studied electrical transport through surface states(SS) at ultra-low temperatures in single crystals of SmB6 using local-nonlocal transport scheme and found a large nonlocal signal at temperatures lower than bulk Kondo gap scale. Using resistance fluctuation spectroscopy, we probed the local and nonlocal transport channels and showed that at low temperatures, transport in this system takes place only through SS. The measured noise in this temperature range arises due to Universal Conductance Fluctuations whose statistics was found to be consistent with theoretical predictions for that of 2D systems in the Symplectic symmetry class. We studied the temperature dependence of noise and found that, unlike the topological insulators of the dichalcogenide family, the noise in surface and bulk conduction channels in SmB6 are uncorrelated - at sufficiently low temperatures, the bulk has no discernible contribution to electrical transport in SmB6 making it an ideal platform for probing the physics of TSS. Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Indian Institute of Scienc and EPSRC, UK, Grant EP/L014963/1.
On calculations of the ground state energy in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efimov, G.V.
1991-02-01
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the Wick-ordering method called the oscillator representation suggested to calculate the ground-state energy for a wide class of potentials allowing the existence of a bound state. The following examples are considered: the orbital excitations of the ground-state in the Coulomb plus linear potential, the Schroedinger equation with a ''relativistic'' kinetic energy √p 2 +m 2 , the Coulomb three-body problem. (author). 22 refs, 2 tabs
Optical transitions in two-dimensional topological insulators with point defects
Sablikov, Vladimir A.; Sukhanov, Aleksei A.
2016-12-01
Nontrivial properties of electronic states in topological insulators are inherent not only to the surface and boundary states, but to bound states localized at structure defects as well. We clarify how the unusual properties of the defect-induced bound states are manifested in optical absorption spectra in two-dimensional topological insulators. The calculations are carried out for defects with short-range potential. We find that the defects give rise to the appearance of specific features in the absorption spectrum, which are an inherent property of topological insulators. They have the form of two or three absorption peaks that are due to intracenter transitions between electron-like and hole-like bound states.
Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technoloty, Multimedia University, Melaca Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)
2015-04-24
Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.
Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-05-21
The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.
Ground-state fidelity in the BCS-BEC crossover
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Ayan; Pieri, Pierbiagio
2009-01-01
The ground-state fidelity has been introduced recently as a tool to investigate quantum phase transitions. Here, we apply this concept in the context of a crossover problem. Specifically, we calculate the fidelity susceptibility for the BCS ground-state wave function, when the intensity of the fermionic attraction is varied from weak to strong in an interacting Fermi system, through the BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover. Results are presented for contact and finite-range attractive potentials and for both continuum and lattice models. We conclude that the fidelity susceptibility can be useful also in the context of crossover problems.
Antiferrodistortive phase transitions and ground state of PZT ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, Dhananjai
2013-01-01
The ground state of the technologically important Pb(Zr x Ti (1-x) )O 3 , commonly known as PZT, ceramics is currently under intense debate. The phase diagram of this material shows a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) for x∼0.52 at 300K, across which a composition induced structural phase transition occurs leading to maximization of the piezoelectric properties. In search for the true ground state of the PZT in the MPB region, Beatrix Noheda and coworkers first discovered a phase transition from tetragonal (space group P4mm) to an M A type monoclinic phase (space group Cm) at low temperatures for x=0.52. Soon afterwards, we discovered yet another low temperature phase transition for the same composition in which the M A type (Cm) monoclinic phase transforms to another monoclinic phase with Cc space group. We have shown that the Cm to Cc phase transition is an antiferrodistortive (AFD) transition involving tilting of oxygen octahedra leading to unit cell doubling and causing appearance of superlattice reflections which are observable in the electron and neutron diffraction patterns only and not in the XRD patterns, as a result of which Noheda and coworkers missed the Cc phase in their synchrotron XRD studies at low temperatures. Our findings were confirmed by leading groups using neutron, TEM, Raman and high pressure diffraction studies. The first principles calculations also confirmed that the true ground state of PZT in the MPB region has Cc space group. However, in the last couple of years, the Cc space group of the ground state has become controversial with an alternative proposal of R3c as the space group of the ground state phase which is proposed to coexist with the metastable Cm phase. In order to resolve this controversy, we recently revisited the issue using pure PZT and 6% Sr 2+ substituted PZT, the latter samples show larger tilt angle on account of the reduction in the average cationic radius at the Pb 2+ site. Using high wavelength neutrons and high
Ground state correlations and structure of odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishev, S.; Voronov, V. V.
2006-01-01
It is well known that the Pauli principle plays a substantial role at low energies because the phonon operators are not ideal boson operators. Calculating the exact commutators between the quasiparticle and phonon operators one can take into account the Pauli principle corrections. Besides the ground state correlations due to the quasiparticle interaction in the ground state influence the single particle fragmentation as well. In this paper, we generalize the basic QPM equations to account for both mentioned effects. As an illustration of our approach, calculations on the structure of the low-lying states in "1"3"1Ba have been performed.
Using Expert Systems in Evaluation of the State of High Voltage Machine Insulation Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Záliš
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Expert systems are used for evaluating the actual state and future behavior of insulating systems of high voltage electrical machines and equipment. Several rule-based expert systems have been developed in cooperation with top diagnostic workplaces in the Czech Republic for this purpose. The IZOLEX expert system evaluates diagnostic measurement data from commonly used offline diagnostic methods for the diagnostic of high voltage insulation of rotating machines, non-rotating machines and insulating oils. The CVEX expert system evaluates the discharge activity on high voltage electrical machines and equipment by means of an off-line measurement. The CVEXON expert system is for evaluating the discharge activity by on-line measurement, and the ALTONEX expert system is the expert system for on-line monitoring of rotating machines. These developed expert systems are also used for educating students (in bachelor, master and post-graduate studies and in courses which are organized for practicing engineers and technicians and for specialists in the electrical power engineering branch. A complex project has recently been set up to evaluate the measurement of partial discharges. Two parallel expert systems for evaluating partial dischatge activity on high voltage electrical machines will work at the same time in this complex evaluating system.
Hara, Akito; Awano, Teruyoshi
2017-06-01
Ultrashallow thermal donors (USTDs), which consist of light element impurities such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, have been found in Czochralski silicon (CZ Si) crystals. To the best of our knowledge, these are the shallowest hydrogen-like donors with negative central-cell corrections in Si. We observed the ground-state splitting of USTDs by far-infrared optical absorption at different temperatures. The upper ground-state levels are approximately 4 meV higher than the ground-state levels. This energy level splitting is also consistent with that obtained by thermal excitation from the ground state to the upper ground state. This is direct evidence that the wave function of the USTD ground state is made up of a linear combination of conduction band minimums.
Electrically and Thermally Insulated Joint for Liquid Nitrogen Transfer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Carsten; Jensen, Kim Høj; Holbøll, Joachim T.
1999-01-01
A prototype of a superconducting cable is currently under construction. The cable conductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen in order to obtain superconductivity. The peripheral cooling circuit is kept at ground potential. This requires a joint which insulates both electrically and thermally...
Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Tan, Yaohua; Klimeck, Gerhard
2015-01-01
Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are well known 3D-topological insulators (TI). Films made of these materials exhibit metal-like surface states with a Dirac dispersion and possess high mobility. The high mobility metal-like surface states can serve as building blocks for a variety of applications that involve tuning their dispersion relationship and opening a band gap. A band gap can be opened either by breaking time reversal symmetry, the proximity effect of a superconductor or ferromagnet or adjusting the dimensionality of the TI material. In this work, methods that can be employed to easily open a band gap for the TI surface states are assessed. Two approaches are described: (1) Coating the surface states with a ferromagnet which has a controllable magnetization axis. The magnetization strength of the ferromagnet is incorporated as an exchange interaction term in the Hamiltonian. (2) An s-wave superconductor, because of the proximity effect, when coupled to a 3D-TI opens a band gap on the surface. Finally, the hybridization of the surface Dirac cones can be controlled by reducing the thickness of the topological insulator film. It is shown that this alters the band gap significantly.
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;
Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve
2015-11-14
The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.
2001-07-01
These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.
Ground state correlations and structure of odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishev, S.; Voronov, V.V.
2008-01-01
It is well known that the Pauli principle plays a substantial role at low energies because the phonon operators are not ideal boson operators. Calculating the exact commutators between the quasiparticle and phonon operators one can take into account the Pauli principle corrections. Besides, the ground state correlations due to the quasiparticle interaction in the ground state influence the single-particle fragmentation as well. In this paper, we generalize the basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model to account for both effects mentioned. As an illustration of our approach, calculations on the structure of the low-lying states in 133 Ba have been performed
Ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system.
Zitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan
2012-02-10
We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry "dark state" on the dots.
Theoretical study of OCCHCN as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiguo Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cyanoketene (OCCHCN has been reported as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6 in Patent US0135817. Stationary point equilibrium geometries on the ground state have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p level, and the harmonic vibration frequencies are calculated at the same level. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps (Eg, ionization potentials (IP, and electron affinities (EA of the studied molecules are obtained. The minimum energy path (MEP is obtained by the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC theory, and the energetic information is further refined by QCISD(T (single-point method. The results show that OCCHCN can be used as SF6 alternative insulation gas in high voltage equipment according to potential energy surface analysis. As the isomerization and the cleavage reactions potential barriers are lower than the Eg and IP values, resulting in OCCHCN is not easy to be ionized and excited.
RPA ground state correlations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lenske, H.
1990-01-01
Overcounting in the RPA theory of ground state correlations is shown to be avoided if exact rather than quasiboson commutators are used. Single particle occupation probabilities are formulated in a compact way by the RPA Green function. Calculations with large configuration spaces and realistic interactions are performed with 1p1h RPA and second RPA (SRPA) including 2p2h mixing in excited states. In 41 Ca valence hole states are found to be quenched by about 10% in RPA and up to 18% in SRPA. Contributions from low and high lying excitations and their relation to long and short range correlations in finite nuclei are investigated. (orig.)
PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.
Protective capping of topological surface states of intrinsically insulating Bi2Te3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katharina Hoefer
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We have identified epitaxially grown elemental Te as a capping material that is suited to protect the topological surface states of intrinsically insulating Bi2Te3. By using angle-resolved photoemission, we were able to show that the Te overlayer leaves the dispersive bands of the surface states intact and that it does not alter the chemical potential of the Bi2Te3 thin film. From in-situ four-point contact measurements, we observed that the conductivity of the capped film is still mainly determined by the metallic surface states and that the contribution of the capping layer is minor. Moreover, the Te overlayer can be annealed away in vacuum to produce a clean Bi2Te3 surface in its pristine state even after the exposure of the capped film to air. Our findings will facilitate well-defined and reliable ex-situ experiments on the properties of Bi2Te3 surface states with nontrivial topology.
Vortices and gate-tunable bound states in a topological insulator coupled to superconducting leads
Finck, Aaron; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.
2014-03-01
It has been predicted that zero energy Majorana bound states can be found in the core of vortices within topological superconductors. Here, we report on Andreev spectroscopy measurements of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a normal metal lead and one or more niobium leads. The niobium induces superconductivity in the Bi2Se3 through the proximity effect, leading to both signatures of Andreev reflection and a prominent re-entrant resistance effect. When a large magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the surface of the Bi2Se3, we observe multiple abrupt changes in the subgap conductance that are accompanied by sharp peaks in the dynamical resistance. These peaks are very sensitive to changes in magnetic field and disappear at temperatures associated with the critical temperature of the induced superconductivity. The appearance of the transitions and peaks can be tuned by a top gate. At high magnetic fields, we also find evidence of gate-tunable states, which can lead to stable zero-bias conductance peaks. We interpret our results in terms of a transition occurring within the proximity effect region of the topological insulator, likely due to the formation of vortices. We acknowledge support from Microsoft Project Q.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.V. Vasilevskij
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction. An important problem in power transformers resource prognosis is the formation of moisture dynamics trends of transformer insulation. Purpose. Increasing the accuracy of power transformer insulation resource assessment based on accounting of moisture dynamics in interrelation with temperature dynamics. Working out of moisture dynamics model in paper insulation-transformer oil system in conjunction with thermodynamic model, load model and technical maintenance model. Methodology. The mathematical models used for describe the moisture dynamics are grounded on nonlinear differential equations. Interrelation moisture dynamics model with thermodynamic, load and technical maintenance models described by UML model. For confirming the adequacy of model used computer simulation. Results. We have implemented the model of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation in interrelation with other models, which describe the state of power transformer in operation. The proposed model allows us to form detailed trends of moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation basing on monitoring data or power transformers operational factors simulation results. We have performed computer simulation of moisture exchange processes and calculation of transformer insulation resource for different moisture trends. Originality. The offered model takes into account moisture dynamics in power transformers insulation under the influence of changes of the power transformers thermal mode and operational factors. Practical value. The offered model can be used in power transformers monitoring systems for automation of resource assessment of oil-immersed power transformers paper insulation at different phase of lifecycle. Model also can be used for assessment of projected economic efficiency of power transformers exploitation in projected operating conditions.
The topological Anderson insulator phase in the Kane-Mele model
Orth, Christoph P.; Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2016-04-01
It has been proposed that adding disorder to a topologically trivial mercury telluride/cadmium telluride (HgTe/CdTe) quantum well can induce a transition to a topologically nontrivial state. The resulting state was termed topological Anderson insulator and was found in computer simulations of the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model. Here, we show that the topological Anderson insulator is a more universal phenomenon and also appears in the Kane-Mele model of topological insulators on a honeycomb lattice. We numerically investigate the interplay of the relevant parameters, and establish the parameter range in which the topological Anderson insulator exists. A staggered sublattice potential turns out to be a necessary condition for the transition to the topological Anderson insulator. For weak enough disorder, a calculation based on the lowest-order Born approximation reproduces quantitatively the numerical data. Our results thus considerably increase the number of candidate materials for the topological Anderson insulator phase.
Cluster decay of Ba isotopes from ground state and as an excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
otherwise, inclusion of excitation energy decreases the T1/2 values. ... penetrates the nuclear barrier and reaches scission configuration after running .... between the ground-state energy levels of the parent nuclei and the ground-state energy.
Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diederix, K.M.
1979-01-01
Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)
Experimental demonstration of anomalous Floquet topological insulator for sound
Peng, Yu-Gui; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, De-Gang; Shen, Ya-Xi; Xu, Xiang-Yuan; Bao, Ming; Jia, Han; Zhu, Xue-Feng
2016-11-01
Time-reversal invariant topological insulator is widely recognized as one of the fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics, for which the most fascinating hallmark is perhaps a spin-based topological protection, the absence of scattering of conduction electrons with certain spins on matter surface. Recently, it has created a paradigm shift for topological insulators, from electronics to photonics, phononics and mechanics as well, bringing about not only involved new physics but also potential applications in robust wave transport. Despite the growing interests in topologically protected acoustic wave transport, T-invariant acoustic topological insulator has not yet been achieved. Here we report experimental demonstration of anomalous Floquet topological insulator for sound: a strongly coupled metamaterial ring lattice that supports one-way propagation of pseudo-spin-dependent edge states under T-symmetry. We also demonstrate the formation of pseudo-spin-dependent interface states due to lattice dislocations and investigate the properties of pass band and band gap states.
Gapless Spin-Liquid Ground State in the S =1 /2 Kagome Antiferromagnet
Liao, H. J.; Xie, Z. Y.; Chen, J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, H. D.; Huang, R. Z.; Normand, B.; Xiang, T.
2017-03-01
The defining problem in frustrated quantum magnetism, the ground state of the nearest-neighbor S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, has defied all theoretical and numerical methods employed to date. We apply the formalism of tensor-network states, specifically the method of projected entangled simplex states, which combines infinite system size with a correct accounting for multipartite entanglement. By studying the ground-state energy, the finite magnetic order appearing at finite tensor bond dimensions, and the effects of a next-nearest-neighbor coupling, we demonstrate that the ground state is a gapless spin liquid. We discuss the comparison with other numerical studies and the physical interpretation of this result.
Long range order in the ground state of two-dimensional antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neves, E.J.; Perez, J.F.
1985-01-01
The existence of long range order is shown in the ground state of the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet for S >= 3/2. The method yields also long range order for the ground state of a larger class of anisotropic quantum antiferromagnetic spin systems with or without transverse magnetic fields. (Author) [pt
Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Cui, Yi
2012-01-01
in controlling the electronic properties of semiconductor devices, are interesting for topological insulators. Here, we studied the spatial distribution of the topological state in Sb 2Se 3-Bi 2Se 3 heterostructures by first-principle simulation and discovered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)
2015-07-01
Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romina Ruberto
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We report a classical computer-simulation study of the phase diagram of AlCl3 in the pressure-temperature (p, T plane, showing (i that melting from a layered crystal structure occurs into a molecular liquid at low (p, T and into a dissociated ionic liquid at high (p, T, and (ii that a broad transition from a molecular insulator to an ionic conductor takes place in the liquid state.
Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain
2010-01-01
This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.
Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators
Scheurer, Mathias S.; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P.
2015-02-01
Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers.
On the ground state for fractional quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jellal, A.
1998-09-01
In the present letter, we investigate the ground state wave function for an explicit model of electrons in an external magnetic field with specific inter-particle interactions. The excitation states of this model are also given. (author)
Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn
2013-01-01
This poster presents a new radon sub-slab suctioning system. This system makes use of a grid of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground floor slab. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced...
Topological BF field theory description of topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Gil Young; Moore, Joel E.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We show that a BF theory is the effective theory of 2D and 3D topological insulators. → The non-gauge-invariance of the bulk theory yields surface terms for a bosonized Dirac fermion. → The 'axion' term in electromagnetism is correctly obtained from gapped surfaces. → Generalizations to possible fractional phases are discussed in closing. - Abstract: Topological phases of matter are described universally by topological field theories in the same way that symmetry-breaking phases of matter are described by Landau-Ginzburg field theories. We propose that topological insulators in two and three dimensions are described by a version of abelian BF theory. For the two-dimensional topological insulator or quantum spin Hall state, this description is essentially equivalent to a pair of Chern-Simons theories, consistent with the realization of this phase as paired integer quantum Hall effect states. The BF description can be motivated from the local excitations produced when a π flux is threaded through this state. For the three-dimensional topological insulator, the BF description is less obvious but quite versatile: it contains a gapless surface Dirac fermion when time-reversal-symmetry is preserved and yields 'axion electrodynamics', i.e., an electromagnetic E . B term, when time-reversal symmetry is broken and the surfaces are gapped. Just as changing the coefficients and charges of 2D Chern-Simons theory allows one to obtain fractional quantum Hall states starting from integer states, BF theory could also describe (at a macroscopic level) fractional 3D topological insulators with fractional statistics of point-like and line-like objects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Amir
2011-01-01
A complete classification is given for one-dimensional chains with nearest-neighbor interactions having two states in each site, for which a matrix product ground state exists. The Hamiltonians and their corresponding matrix product ground states are explicitly obtained.
Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-31
It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.
The ground fault detection system for the Tore Supra toroidal pump limiter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zunino, K.; Cara, P.; Fejoz, P.; Hourtoule, J.; Loarer, T.; Pomaro, N.; Santagiustina, A.; Spuig, P.; Villecroze, F.
2003-01-01
The toroidal pump limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is electrically insulated from the vacuum-vessel, to allow its polarization at a voltage of up to 1 kV. In order to monitor continuously the integrity of the TPL electrical insulation, an electronic diagnostic system called TPL ground fault detection system (GFDS) has been developed. The paper will report on the design and the operation experience of the GFD system and on the evolution of the TPL grounding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maenchen, J.E.
1983-01-01
The coupling of energy from a high power pulsed accelerator through a long triplate magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) in vacuum to an annular applied magnetic field insulated extraction ion diode is examined. The narrow power transport window and the wave front erosion of the MITL set stringent impedance history conditions on the diode load. A new ion diode design developed to satisfy these criteria with marginal electron insulation is presented. The LION accelerator is used to provide a positive polarity 1.5 MV, 350 kA, 40 ns FWHM pulse with a 30 kA/ns current rate from a triplate MITL source. A transition converts the triplate into a cylindrical cross section which flares into the ion diode load. Extensive current and voltage measurements performed along this structure and on the extracted ion beam provide conclusive evidence that the self insulation condition of the MITL is maintained in the transition by current loss alone. The ion diode utilizes a radial magnetic field between a grounded cathode annular emission tip and a disk anode. A 50 cm 2 dielectric/metal anode area serves as the ion plasma source subject to direct electron bombardment from the opposing cathode tip under marginal magnetic insulation conditions. The ions extracted cross the radial magnetic field and exit the diode volume as an annular cross section beam of peak current about 100 kA. The diode current gradually converts from the initial electron flow to nearly 100% ion current after 30 ns, coupling 60% of the diode energy into ions
Dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Hsien-Yu; Lu, Tsai-Lien; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chang, Yung-Yung; Tsai, Chin-Chun
2010-01-01
The dissociation energy of the ground state of NaH was determined by analyzing the observed near dissociation rovibrational levels. These levels were reached by stimulated emission pumping and fluorescence depletion spectroscopy. A total of 114 rovibrational levels in the ranges 9≤v '' ≤21 and 1≤J '' ≤14 were assigned to the X 1 Σ + state of NaH. The highest vibrational level observed was only about 40 cm -1 from the dissociation limit in the ground state. One quasibound state, above the dissociation limit and confined by the centrifugal barrier, was observed. Determining the vibrational quantum number at dissociation v D from the highest four vibrational levels yielded the dissociation energy D e =15 815±5 cm -1 . Based on new observations and available data, a set of Dunham coefficients and the rotationless Rydberg-Klein-Rees curve were constructed. The effective potential curve and the quasibound states were discussed.
Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices
2015-03-20
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 20120321 - 20150320 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Topological insulators and superconductors for innovative...locking, which hold promise for various innovative devices. Similarly, topological superconductors are associated with exotic surface states, which...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final Report Title: Topological Insulators and Superconductors for Innovative Devices
Stressed state of a cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenevskij, V.V.; Sugak, E.B.; Fedorenko, L.I.
1985-01-01
The stresses arising in cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet intended for separation and scanning of beam of secondary particles with 5-10 MeV energy are investigated during its switching. The magnet represents a single-turn construction. During its switching repulsion forces arise in copper buses which affect the core consisting of a set of iron plates. In its turn two cores trying to separate transmit impact load onto cement electrical insulation, the mechanical strength of which determines the construction durability on the whole. For selection of calculation technique the method of photoelasticity is used on models of transparent polymeric materials. Epoxy resin served as material for insulation model, duraluminium for the rest of magnet parts. It is concluded that the calculation technique for the magnet under investigation is a hingeless circular arc
Regionalization of ground motion attenuation in the conterminous United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.
1979-01-01
Attenuation results from geometric spreading and from absorption. The former is almost independent of crustal geology or physiographic region. The latter depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high-frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States will be similar to that in the western United States. Most of the differences in ground motion can be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The other important factor is that for some Western earthquakes the fault breaks the earth's surface, resulting in larger ground motion. No Eastern earthquakes are known to have broken the earth's surface by faulting. The stress drop of Eastern earthquakes may be higher than for Western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. This factor is believed to be of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. 6 figures
Magnetic excitons in singlet-ground-state ferromagnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birgeneau, R.J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.
1971-01-01
The authors report measurements of the dispersion of singlet-triplet magnetic excitons as a function of temperature in the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3Tl. Well-defined excitons are observed in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions, but with energies which are nearly...
Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shojaee, F.; Bolori zadeh, M. A.
2007-01-01
Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom Atomic wave function expressed in a Slater - type basis obtained within Roothaan- Hartree - Fock for the ground state of the atoms He through B. The total energy is given for each atom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suo, Bingbing; Yu, Yan-Mei; Han, Huixian
2015-01-01
We present the fully relativistic multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ground and low-lying excited electronic states of IrO for individual spin-orbit component. The lowest-lying state is calculated for Ω = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, and 7/2 in order to clarify the ground state of IrO. Our calculation suggests that the ground state is of Ω = 1/2, which is highly mixed with 4 Σ − and 2 Π states in Λ − S notation. The two low-lying states 5/2 and 7/2 are nearly degenerate with the ground state and locate only 234 and 260 cm −1 above, respectively. The equilibrium bond length 1.712 Å and the harmonic vibrational frequency 903 cm −1 of the 5/2 state are close to the experimental measurement of 1.724 Å and 909 cm −1 , which suggests that the 5/2 state should be the low-lying state that contributes to the experimental spectra. Moreover, the electronic states that give rise to the observed transition bands are assigned for Ω = 5/2 and 7/2 in terms of the obtained excited energies and oscillator strengths
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.
Topological insulators fundamentals and perspectives
Ortmann, Frank; Valenzuela, Sergio O
2015-01-01
There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic
A Rigorous Investigation on the Ground State of the Penson-Kolb Model
Yang, Kai-Hua; Tian, Guang-Shan; Han, Ru-Qi
2003-05-01
By using either numerical calculations or analytical methods, such as the bosonization technique, the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model has been previously studied by several groups. Some physicists argued that, as far as the existence of superconductivity in this model is concerned, it is canonically equivalent to the negative-U Hubbard model. However, others did not agree. In the present paper, we shall investigate this model by an independent and rigorous approach. We show that the ground state of the Penson-Kolb model is nondegenerate and has a nonvanishing overlap with the ground state of the negative-U Hubbard model. Furthermore, we also show that the ground states of both the models have the same good quantum numbers and may have superconducting long-range order at the same momentum q = 0. Our results support the equivalence between these models. The project partially supported by the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research Projects (G20000365) and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10174002
Higher-order topological insulators and superconductors protected by inversion symmetry
Khalaf, Eslam
2018-05-01
We study surface states of topological crystalline insulators and superconductors protected by inversion symmetry. These fall into the category of "higher-order" topological insulators and superconductors which possess surface states that propagate along one-dimensional curves (hinges) or are localized at some points (corners) on the surface. We provide a complete classification of inversion-protected higher-order topological insulators and superconductors in any spatial dimension for the 10 symmetry classes by means of a layer construction. We discuss possible physical realizations of such states starting with a time-reversal-invariant topological insulator (class AII) in three dimensions or a time-reversal-invariant topological superconductor (class DIII) in two or three dimensions. The former exhibits one-dimensional chiral or helical modes propagating along opposite edges, whereas the latter hosts Majorana zero modes localized to two opposite corners. Being protected by inversion, such states are not pinned to a specific pair of edges or corners, thus offering the possibility of controlling their location by applying inversion-symmetric perturbations such as magnetic field.
Geometric effects on surface states in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowire
Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillman; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard
2012-02-01
Bismuth Telluride (BT) is a 3D topological insulator (TI) with surface states that have energy dispersion linear in momentum and forms a Dirac cone at low energy. In this work we investigate the surface properties of a BT nanowire and demonstrate the existence of TI states. We also show how such states vanish under certain geometric conditions. An atomistic model (sp3d5s* TB) is used to compute the energy dispersion in a BT nanowire. Penetration depth of the surface states is estimated by ratio of Fermi velocity and band-gap. BT possesses a tiny band-gap, which creates small localization of surface states and greater penetration in to the bulk. To offset this large spatial penetration, which is undesirable to avoid a direct coupling between surfaces, we expect that bigger cross-sections of BT nanowires would be needed to obtain stable TI states. Our numerical work validates this prediction. Furthermore, geometry of the nanowire is shown to influence the TI states. Using a combined analytical and numerical approach our results reveal that surface roughness impact electronic structure leading to Rashba type splits along z-direction. Cylindrical and square cross-sections are given as illustrative examples.
Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2017-02-17
We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073021]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.
The significant role of covalency in determining the ground state of cobalt phthalocyanines molecule
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhou
2016-03-01
Full Text Available To shed some light on the metal 3d ground state configuration of cobalt phthalocyanines system, so far in debate, we present an investigation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS at Co L2,3 edge and theoretical calculation. The density functional theory calculations reveal highly anisotropic covalent bond between central cobalt ion and nitrogen ligands, with the dominant σ donor accompanied by weak π-back acceptor interaction. Our combined experimental and theoretical study on the Co-L2,3 XAS spectra demonstrate a robust ground state of 2A1g symmetry that is built from 73% 3d7 character and 27% 3 d 8 L ¯ ( L ¯ denotes a ligand hole components, as the first excited-state with 2Eg symmetry lies about 158 meV higher in energy. The effect of anisotropic and isotropic covalency on the ground state was also calculated and the results indicate that the ground state with 2A1g symmetry is robust in a large range of anisotropic covalent strength while a transition of ground state from 2A1g to 2Eg configuration when isotropic covalent strength increases to a certain extent. Here, we address a significant anisotropic covalent effect of short Co(II-N bond on the ground state and suggest that it should be taken into account in determining the ground state of analogous cobalt complexes.
Topological Insulator State in Thin Bismuth Films Subjected to Plane Tensile Strain
Demidov, E. V.; Grabov, V. M.; Komarov, V. A.; Kablukova, N. S.; Krushel'nitskii, A. N.
2018-03-01
The results of experimental examination of galvanomagnetic properties of thin bismuth films subjected to plane tensile strain resulting from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate material and bismuth are presented. The resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient were studied at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K in magnetic fields as strong as 0.65 T. Carrier densities were calculated. A considerable increase in carrier density in films thinner than 30 nm was observed. This suggests that surface states are more prominent in thin bismuth films on mica substrates, while the films themselves may exhibit the properties of a topological insulator.
Impact of insulation and consumer behavior on natural gas consumption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Mastrigt, P.
1983-09-01
The influence of insulation measures and certain changes in behavioral patterns on gas consumption for home heating has been examined, both on an annual basis and on the maximum day and at the maximum hour. By means of good insulation (cavity wall insulation and double glazing on the ground floor) annual gas consumption can be brought down by 28-35%, depending on the type of dwelling, as compared with moderate insulation. Maximum day consumption will go down by 26-33% and maximum hour consumption by no more than 20-28%. Further insulation, to current Danish standards, would enable savings of up to 72% of annual consumption, 64-66% of maximum day consumption and 52-55% of maximum hour consumption. By further night reduction from 14.5 degrees C to 12 degrees C 2% of the annual consumption can be saved in moderately insulated dwellings. It also leads, however, to an increase in maximum hour consumption by some 11%. In heavily insulated dwellings further night reduction does not yield any additional savings on the annual consumption. By lowering the thermostat setting by 2 degrees C in the daytime annual consumption in a moderately insulated dwelling can be cut by 9%. With increasing insulation level the savings will get higher, up to 11% in heavily insulated dwellings. Drawing the curtains during the evening and night may yield savings of 4-6% depending on the ratio of glass surface to total outer wall surface. These savings will be lower as the insulation level increases. The results of the study have been converted to the overall domestic natural gas consumption in the Netherlands. In 1985 the annual consumption will be 7% lower than in 1978 as a result of insulation measures and changes in consumer behavior, even at a rise in the total number of connections. Maximum day consumption will be 5% lower and maximum hour consumption will be virtually the same. This trend became already manifest during the 1978-1982 period.
Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan
2008-01-01
By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced
Measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen
Juhász, B; Federmann, S
2011-01-01
The ASACUSA collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic beam line, consisting of a cusp trap as a source of partially polarized antihydrogen atoms, a radiofrequency spin-flip cavity, a superconducting sextupole magnet as spin analyser, and an antihydrogen detector. This will be a measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment, and also a test of the CPT invariance. Monte Carlo simulations predict that the antihydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting can be determined with a relative precision of ~10−7. The first preliminary measurements of the hyperfine transitions will start in 2011.
Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons
Kong, Desheng; Randel, Jason C.; Peng, Hailin; Cha, Judy J.; Meister, Stefan; Lai, Keji; Chen, Yulin; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Manoharan, Hari C.; Cui, Yi
2010-01-01
Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive
52 KILN EFFICIENCY AND INSULATION. Anthony Obiy Etuokwu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP-G61
52. KILN EFFICIENCY AND INSULATION. Anthony Obiy Etuokwu. Department of Fine and Industrial Arts,. Niger Delta University,. Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State. etuokwutony@yahoo.com. Introduction. The kiln is an insulating fire chamber that has the ability to retain the heat that is generated into it, and utilizes such heat ...
Ripple-modulated electronic structure of a 3D topological insulator.
Okada, Yoshinori; Zhou, Wenwen; Walkup, D; Dhital, Chetan; Wilson, Stephen D; Madhavan, V
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional topological insulators host linearly dispersing states with unique properties and a strong potential for applications. An important ingredient in realizing some of the more exotic states in topological insulators is the ability to manipulate local electronic properties. Direct analogy to the Dirac material graphene suggests that a possible avenue for controlling local properties is via a controlled structural deformation such as the formation of ripples. However, the influence of such ripples on topological insulators is yet to be explored. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine the effects of one-dimensional buckling on the electronic properties of Bi(2)Te(3.) By tracking spatial variations of the interference patterns generated by the Dirac electrons we show that buckling imposes a periodic potential, which locally modulates the surface-state dispersion. This suggests that forming one- and two-dimensional ripples is a viable method for creating nanoscale potential landscapes that can be used to control the properties of Dirac electrons in topological insulators.
Electron scattering from the ground state of mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fursa, D.; Bray, I.
2000-01-01
Full text: Close-coupling calculations have been performed for electron scattering from the ground state of mercury. We have used non-relativistic convergent close-coupling computer code with only minor modifications in order to account for the most prominent relativistic effects. These are the relativistic shift effect and singlet-triplet mixing. Very good agreement with measurements of differential cross sections for elastic scattering and excitation of 6s6p 1 P state at all energies is obtained. It is well recognised that a consistent approach to electron scattering from heavy atoms (like mercury, with nuclear charge Z=80) must be based on a fully relativistic Dirac equations based technique. While development of such technique is under progress in our group, the complexity of the problem ensures that results will not be available in the near future. On other hand, there is considerable interest in reliable theoretical results for electron scattering from heavy atoms from both applications and the need to interpret existing experimental data. This is particularly the case for mercury, which is the major component in fluorescent lighting devices and has been the subject of intense experimental study since nineteen thirties. Similarly to our approach for alkaline-earth atoms we use a model of two valence electrons above an inert Hartree-Fock core to describe the mercury atom. Note that this model does not account for any core excited states which are present in the mercury discrete spectrum. The major effect of missing core-excited states is substantial underestimation of the static dipole polarizability of the mercury ground state (34 a.u.) and consequent underestimation of the forward scattering elastic cross sections. We correct for this by adding in the scattering calculations a phenomenological polarization potential. In order to obtain correct ground state ionization energy for mercury one has to account for the relativistic shift effect. We model this
SU (N ) spin-wave theory: Application to spin-orbital Mott insulators
Dong, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian-Xin
2018-05-01
We present the application of the SU (N ) spin-wave theory to spin-orbital Mott insulators whose ground states exhibit magnetic orders. When taking both spin and orbital degrees of freedom into account rather than projecting Hilbert space onto the Kramers doublet, which is the lowest spin-orbital locked energy levels, the SU (N ) spin-wave theory should take the place of the SU (2 ) one due to the inevitable spin-orbital multipole exchange interactions. To implement the application, we introduce an efficient general local mean-field method, which involves all local fluctuations, and develop the SU (N ) linear spin-wave theory. Our approach is tested firstly by calculating the multipolar spin-wave spectra of the SU (4 ) antiferromagnetic model. Then, we apply it to spin-orbital Mott insulators. It is revealed that the Hund's coupling would influence the effectiveness of the isospin-1 /2 picture when the spin-orbital coupling is not large enough. We further carry out the SU (N ) spin-wave calculations of two materials, α -RuCl3 and Sr2IrO4 , and find that the magnonic and spin-orbital excitations are consistent with experiments.
Development of a Leave-in-Place Slab Edge Insulating Form System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marc Hoeschele; Eric Lee
2009-08-31
Concrete slabs represent the primary foundation type in residential buildings in the fast-growing markets throughout the southern and southwestern United States. Nearly 75% of the 2005 U.S. population growth occurred in these southern tier states. Virtually all of these homes have uninsulated slab perimeters that transfer a small, but steady, flow of heat from conditioned space to outdoors during the heating season. It is estimated that new home foundations constructed each year add 0.016 quads annually to U.S. national energy consumption; we project that roughly one quarter of this amount can be attributed to heat loss through the slab edge and the remaining three quarters to deep ground transfers, depending upon climate. With rising concern over national energy use and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions, it is becoming increasingly imperative that all cost-effective efforts to improve building energy efficiency be implemented. Unlike other building envelope components that have experienced efficiency improvements over the years, slab edge heat loss has largely been overlooked. From our vantage point, a marketable slab edge insulation system would offer significant benefits to homeowners, builders, and the society as a whole. Conventional slab forming involves the process of digging foundation trenches and setting forms prior to the concrete pour. Conventional wood form boards (usually 2 x 10's) are supported by vertical stakes on the outer form board surface, and by supporting 'kickers' driven diagonally from the top of the form board into soil outside the trench. Typically, 2 x 10's can be used only twice before they become waste material, contributing to an additional 400 pounds of construction waste per house. Removal of the form boards and stakes also requires a follow-up trip to the jobsite by the concrete subcontractor and handling (storage/disposal) of the used boards. In the rare cases where the slab is insulated (typically custom
Reactive ground-state pathways are not ubiquitous in red/green cyanobacteriochromes.
Chang, Che-Wei; Gottlieb, Sean M; Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S
2013-09-26
Recent characterization of the red/green cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) NpR6012g4 revealed a high quantum yield for its forward photoreaction [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 130-133] that was ascribed to the activity of hidden, productive ground-state intermediates. The dynamics of the pathways involving these ground-state intermediates was resolved with femtosecond dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, the first such study reported for any CBCR. To address the ubiquity of such second-chance initiation dynamics (SCID) in CBCRs, we examined the closely related red/green CBCR NpF2164g6 from Nostoc punctiforme. Both NpF2164g6 and NpR6012g4 use phycocyanobilin as the chromophore precursor and exhibit similar excited-state dynamics. However, NpF2164g6 exhibits a lower quantum yield of 32% for the generation of the isomerized Lumi-R primary photoproduct, compared to 40% for NpR6012g4. This difference arises from significantly different ground-state dynamics between the two proteins, with the SCID mechanism deactivated in NpF2164g6. We present an integrated inhomogeneous target model that self-consistently fits the pump-probe and pump-dump-probe signals for both forward and reverse photoreactions in both proteins. This work demonstrates that reactive ground-state intermediates are not ubiquitous phenomena in CBCRs.
Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.
O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N
2010-04-01
Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.
A Ground State Tri-pí-Methane Rearrangement
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zimmerman, H. E.; Církva, Vladimír; Jiang, L.
2000-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 49 (2000), s. 9585-9587 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : tri-pi-methane * ground state Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.558, year: 2000
Many electron variational ground state of the two dimensional Anderson lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Y.; Bowen, S.P.; Mancini, J.D.
1991-02-01
A variational upper bound of the ground state energy of two dimensional finite Anderson lattices is determined as a function of lattice size (up to 16 x 16). Two different sets of many-electron basis vectors are used to determine the ground state for all values of the coulomb integral U. This variational scheme has been successfully tested for one dimensional models and should give good estimates in two dimensions
On metal-insulator transition in cubic fullerides
Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu
The interplay between degenerate orbital and electron correlation is a key to characterize the electronic phases in, for example, transition metal compounds and alkali-doped fullerides. Besides, the degenerate orbital couples to spin and lattice degrees of freedom ,giving rise to exotic phenomena. Here, we develop the self-consistent Gutzwiller approach for the simultaneous treatment of the Jahn-Teller effect and electron correlation, and apply the methodology to reveal the nature of the ground electronic state of fullerides. For small Coulomb repulsion on site U, the fulleride is quasi degenerate correlated metal. With increase of U, we found the quantum phase transition from the metallic phase to JT split phase. In the latter, the Mott transition (MT) mainly develops in the half-filled subband, whereas the empty and the completely filled subbands are almost uninvolved. Therefore, we can qualify the metal-insulator transition in fullerides as an orbital selective MT induced by JT effect.
Magnetic gating of a 2D topological insulator
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2016-09-01
Deterministic control of transport properties through manipulation of spin states is one of the paradigms of spintronics. Topological insulators offer a new playground for exploring interesting spin-dependent phenomena. Here, we consider a ferromagnetic ‘gate’ representing a magnetic adatom coupled to the topologically protected edge state of a two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator to modulate the electron transmission of the edge state. Due to the locked spin and wave vector of the transport electrons the transmission across the magnetic gate depends on the mutual orientation of the adatom magnetic moment and the current. If the Fermi energy matches an exchange-split bound state of the adatom, the electron transmission can be blocked due to the full back scattering of the incident wave. This antiresonance behavior is controlled by the adatom magnetic moment orientation so that the transmission of the edge state can be changed from 1 to 0. Expanding this consideration to a ferromagnetic gate representing a 1D chain of atoms shows a possibility to control the spin-dependent current of a strip of a 2D topological insulator by magnetization orientation of the ferromagnetic gate.
Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Testing of Variable Density Multilayer Insulation with a Foam Substrate
Martin, J. J.; Hastings, L.
2001-01-01
The multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB), with an 18-cu m liquid hydrogen tank, was used to evaluate a combination foam/multilayer combination insulation (MLI) concept. The foam element (Isofoam SS-1171) insulates during ground hold/ascent flight, and allowed a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required. The 45-layer MLI was designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Unique WI features include a variable layer density, larger but fewer double-aluminized Mylar perforations for ascent to orbit venting, and a commercially established roll-wrap installation process that reduced assembly man-hours and resulted in a roust, virtually seamless MLI. Insulation performance was measured during three test series. The spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) successfully prevented purge gas liquefaction within the MLI and resulted in the expected ground hold heat leak of 63 W/sq m. The orbit hold tests resulted in heat leaks of 0.085 and 0.22 W/sq m with warm boundary temperatures of 164 and 305 K, respectively. Compared to the best previously measured performance with a traditional MLI system, a 41-percent heat leak reduction with 25 fewer MLI layers was achieved. The MHTB MLI heat leak is half that calculated for a constant layer density MLI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clouthier, D.J.; Huang, G.; Adam, A.G.; Merer, A.J.
1994-01-01
High-resolution intracavity dye laser spectroscopy has been used to obtain sub-Doppler spectra of transitions to 350 rotational levels in the 4 1 0 band of the A 1 A 2 --X 1 A 1 electronic transition of thioformaldehyde. Ground state combination differences from the sub-Doppler spectra, combined with microwave and infrared data, have been used to improve the ground state rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of H 2 CS. The upper state shows a remarkable number of perturbations. The largest of these are caused by nearby triplet levels, with matrix elements of 0.05--0.15 cm -1 . A particularly clear singlet--triplet avoided crossing in K a ' = 7 has been shown to be caused by interaction with the F 1 component of the 3 1 6 2 vibrational level of the a 3 A 2 state. At least 53% of the S 1 levels show evidence of very small perturbations by high rovibronic levels of the ground state. The number of such perturbations is small at low J, but increases rapidly beyond J=5 such that 40%--80% of the observed S 1 levels of any given J are perturbed by ground state levels. Model calculations show that the density and J dependence of the number of perturbed levels can be explained if there is extensive rotation-induced mixing of the vibrational levels in the ground state
Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Shigetaka; Baba, Makoto; Noto, Fumitoshi; Ruike, Mitsuo.
1990-01-01
Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)
Ground-state properties of a supersymmetric fermion chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fendley, Paul; Hagendorf, Christian
2011-01-01
We analyze the ground state of a strongly interacting fermion chain with a supersymmetry. We conjecture a number of exact results, such as a hidden duality between weak and strong couplings. By exploiting a scale-free property of the perturbative expansions, we find exact expressions for the order parameters, yielding the critical exponents. We show that the ground state of this fermion chain and another model in the same universality class, the XYZ chain along a line of couplings, are both written in terms of the same polynomials. We demonstrate this explicitly for up to N = 24 sites and provide consistency checks for large N. These polynomials satisfy a recursion relation related to the Painlevé VI differential equation and, using a scale-free property of these polynomials, we derive a simple and exact formula for their N→∞ limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobota, Jonathan
2012-03-14
Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.
Jiménez, Andrea
2014-02-01
We study the unexpected asymptotic behavior of the degeneracy of the first few energy levels in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on triangulations of closed Riemann surfaces. There are strong mathematical and physical reasons to expect that the number of ground states (i.e., degeneracy) of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangulations of a fixed closed Riemann surface is exponential in the number of vertices. In the set of plane triangulations, the degeneracy equals the number of perfect matchings of the geometric duals, and thus it is exponential by a recent result of Chudnovsky and Seymour. From the physics point of view, antiferromagnetic triangulations are geometrically frustrated systems, and in such systems exponential degeneracy is predicted. We present results that contradict these predictions. We prove that for each closed Riemann surface S of positive genus, there are sequences of triangulations of S with exactly one ground state. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is that exponential degeneracy would be found in the excited states with energy close to the ground state energy. However, as our second result, we show the existence of a sequence of triangulations of a closed Riemann surface of genus 10 with exactly one ground state such that the degeneracy of each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited energy levels belongs to O( n), O( n 2), O( n 3) and O( n 4), respectively.
Coupling effect of topological states and Chern insulators in two-dimensional triangular lattices
Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin
2018-03-01
We investigate topological states of two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattices with multiorbitals. Tight-binding model calculations of a 2D triangular lattice based on px and py orbitals exhibit very interesting doubly degenerate energy points at different positions (Γ and K /K' ) in momentum space, with quadratic non-Dirac and linear Dirac band dispersions, respectively. Counterintuitively, the system shows a global topologically trivial rather than nontrivial state with consideration of spin-orbit coupling due to the "destructive interference effect" between the topological states at the Γ and K /K' points. The topologically nontrivial state can emerge by introducing another set of triangular lattices to the system (bitriangular lattices) due to the breakdown of the interference effect. With first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic Chern insulating behavior (quantum anomalous Hall effect) in a family of the 2D triangular lattice metal-organic framework of Co(C21N3H15) (TPyB-Co) from this scheme. Our results provide a different path and theoretical guidance for the search for and design of new 2D topological quantum materials.
Correlation induced paramagnetic ground state in FeAl
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mohn, P.; Persson, C.; Blaha, P.; Schwarz, K.; Novák, Pavel; Eschrig, H.
2001-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 19 (2001), s. 196401-1-196401-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : FeAl * paramagnetic ground state Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.668, year: 2001
Yang, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jing-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Xiong; Deng, Jian-Bo; Tao, Xiao-Ma; Hu, Xian-Ru
2018-05-01
By doing calculations based on density functional theory, we predict that the two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) NiOsCl6 as a Chern insulator can realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. We investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in different magnetic configurations and the Néel AFM configuration is proved to be ground state. When considering spin–orbit coupling (SOC), this layered material with spins perpendicular to the plane shows properties as a Chern insulator characterized by an inversion band structure and a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial band gap is 37 meV and the Chern number C = ‑1, which are induced by a strong SOC and AFM order. With strong SOC, the NiOsCl6 system performs a continuous topological phase transition from the Chern insulator to the trivial insulator upon the increasing Coulomb repulsion U. The critical U c is indicated as 0.23 eV, at which the system is in a metallic phase with . Upon increasing U, the E g reduces linearly with C = ‑1 for 0 U c . At last we analysis the QAH properties and this continuous topological phase transition theoretically in a two-band model. This AFM Chern insulator NiOsCl6 proposes not only a promising way to realize the QAH effect, but also a new material to study the continuous topological phase transition.
Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Long-Long; Xu Wen
2015-01-01
We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)
Design of the Yang magnetically-insulated transmission line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Yuanchao; Song Shenyi
2002-01-01
The authors have designed a new magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) for the Yang accelerator. The differences between the existing line and the designing one are given. The electric strength of some special regions on the lines and the inductance of the lines have been calculated. The authors have checked the states of magnetic insulation on the designing line
Nonspherical atomic ground-state densities and chemical deformation densities from x-ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruedenberg, K.; Schwarz, W.H.E.
1990-01-01
Presuming that chemical insight can be gained from the difference between the molecular electron density and the superposition of the ground-state densities of the atoms in a molecule, it is pointed out that, for atoms with degenerate ground states, an unpromoted ''atom in a molecule'' is represented by a specific ensemble of the degenerate atomic ground-state wave functions and that this ensemble is determined by the anisotropic local surroundings. The resulting atomic density contributions are termed oriented ground state densities, and the corresponding density difference is called the chemical deformation density. The constraints implied by this conceptual approach for the atomic density contributions are formulated and a method is developed for determining them from x-ray scattering data. The electron density of the appropriate promolecule and its x-ray scattering are derived, the determination of the parameters of the promolecule is outlined, and the chemical deformation density is formulated
Construction of ground-state preserving sparse lattice models for predictive materials simulations
Huang, Wenxuan; Urban, Alexander; Rong, Ziqin; Ding, Zhiwei; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand
2017-08-01
First-principles based cluster expansion models are the dominant approach in ab initio thermodynamics of crystalline mixtures enabling the prediction of phase diagrams and novel ground states. However, despite recent advances, the construction of accurate models still requires a careful and time-consuming manual parameter tuning process for ground-state preservation, since this property is not guaranteed by default. In this paper, we present a systematic and mathematically sound method to obtain cluster expansion models that are guaranteed to preserve the ground states of their reference data. The method builds on the recently introduced compressive sensing paradigm for cluster expansion and employs quadratic programming to impose constraints on the model parameters. The robustness of our methodology is illustrated for two lithium transition metal oxides with relevance for Li-ion battery cathodes, i.e., Li2xFe2(1-x)O2 and Li2xTi2(1-x)O2, for which the construction of cluster expansion models with compressive sensing alone has proven to be challenging. We demonstrate that our method not only guarantees ground-state preservation on the set of reference structures used for the model construction, but also show that out-of-sample ground-state preservation up to relatively large supercell size is achievable through a rapidly converging iterative refinement. This method provides a general tool for building robust, compressed and constrained physical models with predictive power.
Stable π-Extended p -Quinodimethanes: Synthesis and Tunable Ground States
Zeng, Zebing
2014-12-18
© 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p-Quinodimethane (p-QDM) is a highly reactive hydrocarbon showing large biradical character in the ground state. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of the p-QDM moiety into an aromatic hydrocarbon framework could lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. On the other hand, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. Therefore, the synthesis of stable π-extended p-QDMs is very challenging. In this Personal Account we will briefly discuss different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties, including two types of polycyclic hydrocarbons: (1) tetrabenzo-Tschitschibabin\\'s hydrocarbons, and (2) tetracyano-rylenequinodimethanes. We will discuss how the aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance play important roles in determining their ground states and properties. Incorporation of the p-quinodimethane moiety into aromatic hydrocarbon frameworks can lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Furthermore, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. In this Personal Account, different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties are briefly discussed, including the roles of aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance.
Ground states of the massless Derezinski-Gerard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkubo, Atsushi
2009-01-01
We consider the massless Derezinski-Gerard model introduced by Derezinski and Gerard in 1999. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of a ground state of the massless Derezinski-Gerard model without the assumption that the Hamiltonian of particles has compact resolvent.
Ground State Structure of a Coupled 2-Fermion System in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics
Finster, Felix
1997-05-01
We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to theN=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like
Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alvise Bastianello
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strigari, Fabio
2015-04-13
This thesis is mainly focused on the class of Kondo insulators, which also comprises Kondo semiconductors and semimetals. When the right conditions are met - i.e. for a certain number of electrons per unit cell and for certain symmetries of the electronic structure - the interaction between the conduction and f electrons opens a narrow hybridization gap close to the Fermi level. Here we investigate the Kondo semiconductor CeNiSn, as well as the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} compound family with M=Ru, Os and Fe. Many explanations for the low-temperature behavior have been suggested, all of which stress the significance of the 4f crystalline-electric-field (CEF) ground state, which is investigated in the framework of this thesis. We determine the CEF wave functions in this compound family and quantify the degree of c-f hybridization in order to address speculations about the impact of hybridization on the magnetic order. In addition, on the search for parameters which correlate with ground-state properties in heavy-fermion compounds, we investigate the CEF ground states of the intermetallic substitution series CeRh{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}In{sub 5} since its phase diagram covers all phases of interest, from antiferromagnetic to superconducting as well as regions of phase coexistence. To shed light on the issues above, namely the CEF ground state and the hybridization strength, respectively, two new experimental approaches are used: polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). Recently, linearly polarized XAS at the Ce M{sub 4,5} edge has been proven to be highly useful when it comes to the determination of the 4f ground-state wave function in tetragonal rare earth systems. In the present thesis the same technique is applied to the above-mentioned materials, demonstrating that linearly polarized XAS can be employed to obtain an unambiguous and reliable picture of the CEF ground state even in Kondo-insulating systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lü, Xiaoling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Jiang, Liwei [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng, Yisong, E-mail: zhengys@jlu.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2016-04-22
Graphene has intrinsic edge states localized at zigzag edge or lattice defect. Helical boundary states can also be established in such a two-dimensional carbon material at the boundary of topological insulator (TI) phase realized by the extrinsic Rashba spin–orbital coupling (SOC) in gated bilayer graphene. We theoretically investigate the interaction between these two kinds of edge (boundary) states when they coexist in a bilayer graphene. We find that this interaction gives rise to some very interesting results. In a zigzag edged nanoribbon of bilayer graphene, it is possible that the TI helical state does not localize at the TI phase boundary. Instead it moves to the nanoribbon edge even though the SOC is absent therein. In a bulk lattice of bilayer graphene embedded with two line defects, the numbers of helical state subbands at the two line defects are not equal to each other. In such a case, the backscattering lacking is still forbidden since the Kramers pairs are valley polarized. - Highlights: • The TI helical state moves to nanoribbon edge in a gated ZENR-BG. • The gapless modes of LD-BG at the two line defects are not equal to each other. • The Kramers pairs are still valley polarized in a gated LD-BG.
Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia
Teh, Khar San; Yarbrough, David W.; Lim, Chin Haw; Salleh, Elias
2017-12-01
The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ṡ K/W) for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ṡ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil) varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ṡ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ṡ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.
Entanglement of two ground state neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Browaeys, Antoine; Evellin, Charles
2011-01-01
We report on our recent progress in trapping and manipulation of internal states of single neutral rubidium atoms in optical tweezers. We demonstrate the creation of an entangled state between two ground state atoms trapped in separate tweezers using the effect of Rydberg blockade. The quality...... of the entanglement is measured using global rotations of the internal states of both atoms....
Power flow studies of magnetically insulated lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDaniel, D.H.; Poukey, J.W.; Bergeron, K.D.; VanDevender, J.P.; Johnson, D.L.
1977-01-01
The designs for relativistic electron beam accelerators with power levels of 20 to 100 TW are greatly restricted by the inductance of a single diode of reasonable size. This fact leads to modular designs of very large accelerators. One concept uses several small insulators at a large radius arranged around the accelerator center. The total effective inductance is then low, but the energy must then be transported by self-magnetic insulated vacuum lines to the target volume. A triplate vacuum line configuration eases many mechanical support problems and allows more A-K gaps or feeds to be packaged around a given radius. This type of vacuum transmission line was chosen for initial experiments at Sandia. The experiments were conducted on the MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) accelerator. The water pulse forming lines are connected to a vacuum triplate line through a conventional stacked insulator. Diagnostics on the experiment consisted of: (1) input V; (2) input I; (3) I monitors at the input, middle, and output of both the center conductor and ground plane of the transmission line; (4) magnetic energy analyzer to view peak electron energy in the A-K gap; (5) calorimetry; and (6) Faraday cups to look at electron current flowing across the transmission line. The main goal of the experiment is to obtain input impedance of the transmission line as a function of voltage and to measure electron loss currents. These measurements are compared to theoretical models for the input impedance and energy losses
Ground State Energy of the Modified Nambu-Goto String
Hadasz, Leszek
We calculate, using zeta function regularization method, semiclassical energy of the Nambu-Goto string supplemented with the boundary, Gauss-Bonnet term in the action and discuss the tachyonic ground state problem.
Ground state energy of the modified Nambu-Goto string
Hadasz, Leszek
1997-01-01
We calculate, using zeta function regularization method, semiclassical energy of the Nambu-Goto string supplemented with the boundary, Gauss-Bonnet term in the action and discuss the tachyonic ground state problem.
Optimization of the vacuum insulator stack of the MIG pulsed power generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khamzakhan, G; Chaikovsky, S A
2014-01-01
The MIG multi-purpose pulsed power machine is intended to generate voltage pulses of amplitude up to 6 MV with electron-beam loads and current pulses of amplitude up to 2.5 MA and rise time '00 ns with inductive loads like Z pinches. The MIG generator is capable of producing a peak power of 2.5 TW. Its water transmission line is separated from the vacuum line by an insulator stack. In the existing design of the insulator, some malfunctions have been detected. The most serious problems revealed are the vacuum surface flashover occurring before the current peaks and the deep discharge traces on the water-polyethylene interface of the two rings placed closer to the ground. A comprehensive numerical simulation of the electric field distribution in the insulator of the MIG generator has been performed. It has been found that the chief drawbacks are nonuniform voltage grading across the insulator rings and significant enhancement of the electric field at anode triple junctions. An improved design of the insulator stack has been developed. It is expected that the proposed modification that requires no rearrangement of either the water line or the load-containing vacuum chamber will provide higher electric strength of the insulator
Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao
2017-06-15
Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.
Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao
2017-01-01
Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.
Singlet Ground State Magnetism: III Magnetic Excitons in Antiferromagnetic TbP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knorr, K.; Loidl, A.; Kjems, Jørgen
1981-01-01
The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined.......The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined....
Unambiguous assignment of the ground state of a nearly degenerate cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutsev, G. L.; Khanna, S. N.; Jena, P.
2000-01-01
A synergistic approach that combines first-principles theory and electron photodetachment experiment is shown to be able to uniquely identify the ground state of a nearly degenerate cluster in the gas phase. Additionally, this approach can complement the Stern-Gerlach technique in determining the magnetic moment of small clusters unambiguously. The method, applied to a Fe 3 cluster, reveals its ground state to have a magnetic moment of 10μ B --in contrast with earlier predictions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Thin Aerogel as a Spacer in Multilayer Insulation
Moroz, Nancy
2015-01-01
Cryogenic fluid management is a critical technical area that is needed for future space exploration. A key challenge is the storability of liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid methane (LCH4), and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants for long-duration missions. The storage tanks must be well-insulated to prevent over-pressurization and venting, which can lead to unacceptable propellant losses for long-duration missions to Mars and beyond. Aspen Aerogels had validated the key process step to enable the fabrication of thin, low-density aerogel materials. The multilayer aerogel insulation (MLAI) system prototypes were prepared using sheets of aerogel materials with superior thermal performance exceeding current state-of-the-art insulation for space applications. The exceptional properties of this system include a new breakthrough in high-vacuum cryogenic thermal insulation, providing a durable material with excellent thermal performance at a reduced cost when compared to longstanding state-of-the-art multilayer insulation systems. During the Phase II project, further refinement and qualification/system-level testing of the MLAI system will be performed for use in cryogenic storage applications. Aspen has been in discussions with United Launch Alliance, LLC; NASA's Kennedy Space Center; and Yetispace, Inc., to test the MLAI system on rea-lworld tanks such as Vibro-Acoustic Test Article (VATA) or the Cryogenic Orbital Testbed (CRYOTE).
Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2015-11-20
We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.
Rayleigh approximation to ground state of the Bose and Coulomb glasses
Ryan, S. D.; Mityushev, V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Berlyand, L.
2015-01-01
Glasses are rigid systems in which competing interactions prevent simultaneous minimization of local energies. This leads to frustration and highly degenerate ground states the nature and properties of which are still far from being thoroughly understood. We report an analytical approach based on the method of functional equations that allows us to construct the Rayleigh approximation to the ground state of a two-dimensional (2D) random Coulomb system with logarithmic interactions. We realize a model for 2D Coulomb glass as a cylindrical type II superconductor containing randomly located columnar defects (CD) which trap superconducting vortices induced by applied magnetic field. Our findings break ground for analytical studies of glassy systems, marking an important step towards understanding their properties. PMID:25592417
Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter
Shen, Shun-Qing
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...
Modeling of the stress-strain state of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Levenko Anna
2017-01-01
Full Text Available None of the methods described previously provides a solution to the problem that deals with the SSS evaluation of the ground mass which is under the influence of chemically active substances and, in particular, under the influence of peracetic acid. The stress-strain state of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid was estimated. Stresses occurring in the ground mass in the natural state were determined after the entry of acid into it and after the chemical fixation of it with sodium silicate. All the parameters of the stress-strain state of the ground mass were obtained under a number of physical and mechanical conditions. It was determined that following the work on the silicatization of the ground mass contaminated with peracetic acid the quantity of strain decreased by 26.11 to 48.9%. The comparison of the results of stress calculations indicates the stress reduction in the ground mass in 1.8 – 2.6 times after its fixing.
Kohn-Sham Theory for Ground-State Ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ullrich, C. A.; Kohn, W.
2001-01-01
An electron density distribution n(r) which can be represented by that of a single-determinant ground state of noninteracting electrons in an external potential v(r) is called pure-state v -representable (P-VR). Most physical electronic systems are P-VR. Systems which require a weighted sum of several such determinants to represent their density are called ensemble v -representable (E-VR). This paper develops formal Kohn-Sham equations for E-VR physical systems, using the appropriate coupling constant integration. It also derives local density- and generalized gradient approximations, and conditions and corrections specific to ensembles
Ground state structure of a coupled 2-fermion system in supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, F.
1997-01-01
We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to the N=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc
HgTe based topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruene, Christoph
2014-01-01
This PhD thesis summarizes the discovery of topological insulators and highlights the developments on their experimental observations. The work focuses on HgTe. The thesis is structured as follows: - The first chapter of this thesis will give a brief overview on discoveries in the field of topological insulators. It focuses on works relevant to experimental results presented in the following chapters. This includes a short outline of the early predictions and a summary of important results concerning 2-dimensional topological insulators while the final section discusses observations concerning 3-dimensional topological insulators. - The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe marked the first experimental observation of a topological insulator. Chapter 2 focuses on HgTe quantum wells and the quantum spin Hall effect. The growth of high quality HgTe quantum wells was one of the major goals for this work. In a final set of experiments the spin polarization of the edge channels was investigated. Here, we could make use of the advantage that HgTe quantum well structures exhibit a large Rashba spin orbit splitting. - HgTe as a 3-dimensional topological insulator is presented in chapter 3. - Chapters 4-6 serve as in depth overviews of selected works: Chapter 4 presents a detailed overview on the all electrical detection of the spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells. The detection of the spin polarization of the quantum spin Hall effect is shown in chapter 5 and chapter 6 gives a detailed overview on the quantum Hall effect originating from the topological surface state in strained bulk HgTe.
1980-01-01
Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.
A simple parameter-free wavefunction for the ground state of two-electron atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ancarani, L U; Rodriguez, K V; Gasaneo, G
2007-01-01
We propose a simple and pedagogical wavefunction for the ground state of two-electron atoms which (i) is parameter free (ii) satisfies all two-particle cusp conditions (iii) yields reasonable ground-state energies, including the prediction of a bound state for H - . The mean energy, and other mean physical quantities, is evaluated analytically. The simplicity of the result can be useful as an easy-to-use wavefunction when testing collision models
Trapping cold ground state argon atoms for sympathetic cooling of molecules
Edmunds, P. D.; Barker, P. F.
2014-01-01
We trap cold, ground-state, argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a build-up cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of co-trapped metastable argon atoms using a new type of parametric loss spectroscopy. Using this technique we als...
Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.
1985-06-01
Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binz, A.; Moosmann, A.; Steinke, G.; Schonhardt, U.; Fregnan, F. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Simmler, H.; Brunner, S.; Ghazi, K.; Bundi, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cauberg, H.; Tenpierik, M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Johannesson, G.; Thorsell, T. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Erb, M.; Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Basel and Bern (Switzerland)
2005-07-01
This final report on vacuum insulation panels (VIP) presents and discusses the work done under IEA/Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 39, subtask B on the basis of a wide selection of reports from practice. The report shows how the building trade deals with this new material today, the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work. As well as presenting recommendations for the practical use of VIP, the report also addresses questions regarding the effective insulation values to be expected with current VIP, whose insulation performance is stated as being a factor of five to eight times better than conventional insulation. The introduction of this novel material in the building trade is discussed. Open questions and risks are examined. The fundamentals of vacuum insulation panels are discussed and the prerequisites, risks and optimal application of these materials in the building trade are examined.
7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.
2010-01-01
...) The insulation resistance test set should have an output voltage not to exceed 500 volts dc and may be... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield...
Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation
Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.
2012-01-01
Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teubert, Joerg
2008-07-01
The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teubert, Joerg
2008-01-01
The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about
Construction and study of exact ground states for a class of quantum antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fannes, M.
1989-01-01
Techniques of quantum probability are used to construct the exact ground states for a class of quantum spin systems in one dimension. This class in particular contains the antiferromagnetic models introduced by various authors under the name of VBS-models. The construction permits a detailed study of these ground states. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Ground state properties of the bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Paul
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Ground state properties, dispersion relations and scaling behaviour of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain have been studied where the exchange interactions on alternate bonds are ferromagnetic (FM and antiferromagnetic (AFM in two separate cases. The resulting models separately represent nearest neighbour (NN AFM-AFM and AFM-FM bond alternating chains. Ground state energy has been estimated analytically by using both bond operator and Jordan-Wigner representations and numerically by using exact diagonalization. Dispersion relations, spin gap and several ground state orders have been obtained. Dimer order and string orders are found to coexist in the ground state. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM-AFM chain which further remains non-zero for the AFM-FM chain. This spin gap along with the string orders attribute to the Haldane phase. The Haldane phase is found to exist in most of the anisotropic region similar to the isotropic point.
Kally, James; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Delin; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Wang, Jian-Ping; Department of Electrical; Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Collaboration; Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University Collaboration
The surface states of topological insulators offer a potentially very efficient way to generate spins and spin-orbit torques to magnetic moments in proximity. The switching by spin-orbit torque itself only requires two terminals so that a charge current can be applied. However, a third terminal with additional magnetic tunneling junction structure is needed to sense the magnetization state if such devices are used for memory and logic applications. The recent discovery of unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy metal/ferromagnetic and topological insulator/magnetically doped topological insulator systems offers an alternative way to sense magnetization while still keeping the number of terminals to minimal two. The unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in topological insulator/strong ferromagnetic layer heterostructure system has yet not been reported. In this work, we report our experimental observations of such magnetoresistance. It is found to be present and comparable to the best result of the previous reported Ta/Co systems in terms of magnetoresistance per current density per total resistance.
Interplay of Chiral and Helical States in a Quantum Spin Hall Insulator Lateral Junction
Calvo, M. R.; de Juan, F.; Ilan, R.; Fox, E. J.; Bestwick, A. J.; Mühlbauer, M.; Wang, J.; Ames, C.; Leubner, P.; Brüne, C.; Zhang, S. C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2017-12-01
We study the electronic transport across an electrostatically gated lateral junction in a HgTe quantum well, a canonical 2D topological insulator, with and without an applied magnetic field. We control the carrier density inside and outside a junction region independently and hence tune the number and nature of 1D edge modes propagating in each of those regions. Outside the bulk gap, the magnetic field drives the system to the quantum Hall regime, and chiral states propagate at the edge. In this regime, we observe fractional plateaus that reflect the equilibration between 1D chiral modes across the junction. As the carrier density approaches zero in the central region and at moderate fields, we observe oscillations in the resistance that we attribute to Fabry-Perot interference in the helical states, enabled by the broken time reversal symmetry. At higher fields, those oscillations disappear, in agreement with the expected absence of helical states when band inversion is lifted.
Infrared circular photogalvanic effect in topological insulators
Luo, Siyuan
2018-04-01
Topological insulators have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to its unique phenomena. Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is one of the important phenomena in topological insulators. Bi2Se3, as one of the 3D topological insulators, consist of a single Dirac cone at the Γ point in k-space [1], corresponding to the surface states. Controlled by the Berry curvature of the surface band, the dominant photo response due to the interband transition is helicity dependent [2]. In addition, due to the spin-momentum locking in topological insulators' surface, the sign of spin-angular-momentum of obliquely incident light and photo currents are locked together. On the other hand, Bi2Se3 consists of quintuple layers which make it possible to be exfoliated and transferred based on graphene fabrication. In this paper, Bi2Se3 devices were fabricated and Ohm contact was achieved. We experimentally demonstrated the CPGE in Bi2Se3 using 1550nm incident laser.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakrishna, Jayashree; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Daues, Gregory; Bondarescu, Mihai
2008-01-01
Excited state soliton stars are studied numerically for the first time. The stability of spherically symmetric S-branch excited state oscillatons under radial perturbations is investigated using a 1D code. We find that these stars are inherently unstable either migrating to the ground state or collapsing to black holes. Higher excited state configurations are observed to cascade through intermediate excited states during their migration to the ground state. This is similar to excited state boson stars [J. Balakrishna, E. Seidel, and W.-M. Suen, Phys. Rev. D 58, 104004 (1998).]. Ground state oscillatons are then studied in full 3D numerical relativity. Finding the appropriate gauge condition for the dynamic oscillatons is much more challenging than in the case of boson stars. Different slicing conditions are explored, and a customized gauge condition that approximates polar slicing in spherical symmetry is implemented. Comparisons with 1D results and convergence tests are performed. The behavior of these stars under small axisymmetric perturbations is studied and gravitational waveforms are extracted. We find that the gravitational waves damp out on a short time scale, enabling us to obtain the complete waveform. This work is a starting point for the evolution of real scalar field systems with arbitrary symmetries
The Development and Application of Simulative Insulation Resistance Tester
Jia, Yan; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hao
2018-02-01
The insulation state determines the performance and insulation life of electrical equipment, so it has to be judged in a timely and accurate manner. Insulation resistance test, as the simplest and most basic test of high voltage electric tests, can measure the insulation resistance and absorption ratio which are effective criterion of part or whole damp or dirty, breakdown, severe overheating aging and other insulation defects. It means that the electrical test personnel need to be familiar with the principle of insulation resistance test, and able to operate the insulation resistance tester correctly. At present, like the insulation resistance test, most of electrical tests are trained by physical devices with the real high voltage. Although this allows the students to truly experience the test process and notes on security, it also has certain limitations in terms of safety and test efficiency, especially for a large number of new staves needing induction training every year. This paper presents a new kind of electrical test training system based on the simulative device of dielectric loss measurement and simulative electrical testing devices. It can not only overcome the defects of current training methods, but also provide other advantages in economical efficiency and scalability. That makes it possible for the system to be allied in widespread.
Induced quadrupolar singlet ground state of praseodymium in a modulated pyrochlore
van Duijn, J.; Kim, K. H.; Hur, N.; Ruiz-Bustos, R.; Adroja, D. T.; Bridges, F.; Daoud-Aladine, A.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.; Wen, J. J.; Kearney, V.; Huang, Q. Z.; Cheong, S.-W.; Perring, T. G.; Broholm, C.
2017-09-01
The complex structure and magnetism of Pr2 -xBixRu2O7 was investigated by neutron scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. Pr has an approximate doublet ground state and the first excited state is a singlet. While the B -site (Ru) is well ordered throughout, this is not the case for the A -site (Pr/Bi). A broadened distribution for the Pr-O2 bond length at low temperature indicates the Pr environment varies from site to site even for x =0 . The environment about the Bi site is highly disordered ostensibly due to the 6 s lone pairs on Bi3 +. Correspondingly, we find that the non-Kramers doublet ground-state degeneracy, otherwise anticipated for Pr in the pyrochlore structure, is lifted so as to produce a quadrupolar singlet ground state with a spatially varying energy gap. For x =0 , below TN, the Ru sublattice orders antiferromagnetically, with propagation vector k =(0 ,0 ,0 ) as for Y2Ru2O7 . No ordering associated with the Pr sublattice is observed down to 100 mK. The low-energy magnetic response of Pr2 -xBixRu2O7 features a broad spectrum of magnetic excitations associated with inhomogeneous splitting of the Pr quasidoublet ground state. For x =0 (x =0.97 ), the spectrum is temperature dependent (independent). It appears disorder associated with Bi alloying enhances the inhomogeneous Pr crystal-field level splitting so that intersite interactions become irrelevant for x =0.97 . The structural complexity for the A -site may be reflected in the hysteretic uniform magnetization of B -site ruthenium in the Néel phase.
Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr
2008-05-15
We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, on the diatomic lattice and have found the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate or non-uniform phases. We have also constructed the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the model on the triangular lattice and found 20 and 59 fundamental phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found.
Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states.
Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nađa; Decleva, Piero
2016-02-28
Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy.
Analysis of a back flashover across insulator strings on a 115 kV transmission line tower by PSCAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Worakit Anekthanasuwan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Lightning striking on a transmission tower induces high ground potential rise and high voltage at tower arms in which potential is normally at ground level, and subsequently causes overvoltage across an insulator string. If this overvoltage is higher than the withstanding voltage of the insulator string according to the v-t (voltage-time curve, back flashover phenomena will occur and this event may cause outage. The main objective of this paper is to study the factors influencing the back flashover phenomena. The computer program PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC is used to simulate lightning striking on a transmission tower 115kV. Lightning current, transmission towers, ground resistance, insulator strings and back flashover phenomena are modeled. Main simulations are lightning striking on different towers, different soil resistivity, different lightning current magnitudes and wave shapes, different locations, and different phase angles of source voltage. Simulation results show that the higher tower encounters higher induced voltage. A back flashover occurs at the top tower arm easier than at the middle and lower arms. The higher soil resistivity induces higher voltage. The larger lightning current magnitude impacts on higher induced voltage. The longer rise time of lightning current generates lower induced voltage. Lightning strikes directly on tower generate higher voltage than that of striking on overhead ground wires.
Ground-state correlations within a nonperturbative approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
De Gregorio, G.; Herko, J.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Veselý, Petr
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 024306. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07117S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ground state * harmonic oscillator frequency * space dimensions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016
Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2008-01-01
We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and J 0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhigang; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji
2013-01-01
A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET with a variable low-k dielectric trench (LDT MOSFET) is proposed and its performance and characteristics are investigated. The trench in the drift region between drain and source is filled with low-k dielectric to extend the effective drift region. At OFF state, the low-k dielectric trench (LDT) can sustain high voltage and enhance the dielectric field due to the accumulation of ionized charges. At the same time, the vertical dielectric field in the buried oxide can also be enhanced by these ionized charges. Additionally, ON-state analysis of LDT MOSFET demonstrates excellent forward characteristics, such as low gate-to-drain charge density ( 2 ) and a robust safe operating area (0–84 V). (semiconductor devices)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.
1988-01-01
The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)
Evidence of topological insulator state in the semimetal LaBi
Lou, R.; Fu, B.-B.; Xu, Q. N.; Guo, P.-J.; Kong, L.-Y.; Zeng, L.-K.; Ma, J.-Z.; Richard, P.; Fang, C.; Huang, Y.-B.; Sun, S.-S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L.; Shi, Y.-G.; Lei, H. C.; Liu, K.; Weng, H. M.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.; Wang, S.-C.
2017-03-01
By employing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations, we performed a systematic investigation on the electronic structure of LaBi, which exhibits extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR), and is theoretically predicted to possess band anticrossing with nontrivial topological properties. Here, the observations of the Fermi-surface topology and band dispersions are similar to previous studies on LaSb [L.-K. Zeng, R. Lou, D.-S. Wu, Q. N. Xu, P.-J. Guo, L.-Y. Kong, Y.-G. Zhong, J.-Z. Ma, B.-B. Fu, P. Richard, P. Wang, G. T. Liu, L. Lu, Y.-B. Huang, C. Fang, S.-S. Sun, Q. Wang, L. Wang, Y.-G. Shi, H. M. Weng, H.-C. Lei, K. Liu, S.-C. Wang, T. Qian, J.-L. Luo, and H. Ding, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 127204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.127204], a topologically trivial XMR semimetal, except the existence of a band inversion along the Γ -X direction, with one massless and one gapped Dirac-like surface state at the X and Γ points, respectively. The odd number of massless Dirac cones suggests that LaBi is analogous to the time-reversal Z2 nontrivial topological insulator. These findings open up a new series for exploring novel topological states and investigating their evolution from the perspective of topological phase transition within the family of rare-earth monopnictides.
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Hanquan, E-mail: hanquan.wang@gmail.com [School of Statistics and Mathematics, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650221 (China); Yunnan Tongchang Scientific Computing and Data Mining Research Center, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650221 (China)
2014-10-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method.
A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Hanquan
2014-01-01
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-04-26
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.
2011-01-01
The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.
Pade approximants for the ground-state energy of closed-shell quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F.M.
1997-08-01
Analytic approximations to the ground-state energy of closed-shell quantum dots (number of electrons from 2 to 210) are presented in the form of two-point Pade approximants. These Pade approximants are constructed from the small- and large-density limits of the energy. We estimated that the maximum error, reached for intermediate densities, is less than ≤ 3%. Within that present approximation the ground-state is found to be unpolarized. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Exact ground-state correlation functions of an atomic-molecular Bose–Einstein condensate model
Links, Jon; Shen, Yibing
2018-05-01
We study the ground-state properties of an atomic-molecular Bose–Einstein condensate model through an exact Bethe Ansatz solution. For a certain range of parameter choices, we prove that the ground-state Bethe roots lie on the positive real-axis. We then use a continuum limit approach to obtain a singular integral equation characterising the distribution of these Bethe roots. Solving this equation leads to an analytic expression for the ground-state energy. The form of the expression is consistent with the existence of a line of quantum phase transitions, which has been identified in earlier studies. This line demarcates a molecular phase from a mixed phase. Certain correlation functions, which characterise these phases, are then obtained through the Hellmann–Feynman theorem.
Insulation coordination workstation for AC and DC substations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, R.R.; Hileman, A.R.
1990-01-01
The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed to aid the substation design engineer in the insulation coordination process. The workstation utilizes state of the art computer technology to present a set of tools necessary for substation insulation coordination, and to support the decision making process for all aspects of insulation coordination. The workstation is currently being developed for personal computers supporting OS/2 Presentation Manager. Modern Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) technology was utilized to create an easily expandable framework which currently consists of four modules, each accessing a central application database. The heart of the workstation is a library of user-friendly application programs for the calculation of important voltage stresses used for the evaluation of insulation coordination. The Oneline Diagram is a graphic interface for data entry into the EPRI distributed EMTP program, which allows the creation of complex systems on the CRT screen using simple mouse clicks and keyboard entries. Station shielding is graphically represented in the Geographic Viewport using a three-dimensional substation model, and the interactive plotting package allows plotting of EPRI EMTP output results on the CRT screen, printer, or pen plotter. The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed by Advanced Systems Technology (AST), a division of ABB Power Systems, Inc., and sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute under RP 2323-5, AC/DC Insulation Coordination Workstation
Ground state structure of U2Mo: static and lattice dynamics study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B.D.; Joshi, K.D.; Kaushik, T.C.
2016-01-01
According to experimental reports, the ground state stable structure of U 2 Mo is tetragonal. However, various theoretical studies performed in past do not get tetragonal phase as the stable structure at ambient conditions. Therefore, the ground state structure of U 2 Mo is still unresolved. In an attempt to understand the ground state properties of this system, we have carried out first principle electronic band structure calculations. The structural stability analysis carried out using evolutionary structure search algorithm in conjunction with ab-inito method shows that a hexagonal structure (space group P6/mmm) is the lowest enthalpy structure at ambient condition and remains stable upto 200 GPa. The elastic and lattice dynamical stability further supports the stability of this phase at ambient condition. Further, using the 0 K calculations in conjunction with finite temperature corrections, we have derived the isotherm and shock adiabat (Hugoniot) of this material. Various equilibrium properties such as ambient pressure volume, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of bulk modulus etc. are derived from equation of state. (author)
Theory of Nonlinear Dispersive Waves and Selection of the Ground State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M.I.
2005-01-01
A theory of time-dependent nonlinear dispersive equations of the Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree type is developed. The short, intermediate and large time behavior is found, by deriving nonlinear master equations (NLME), governing the evolution of the mode powers, and by a novel multitime scale analysis of these equations. The scattering theory is developed and coherent resonance phenomena and associated lifetimes are derived. Applications include Bose-Einstein condensate large time dynamics and nonlinear optical systems. The theory reveals a nonlinear transition phenomenon, 'selection of the ground state', and NLME predicts the decay of excited state, with half its energy transferred to the ground state and half to radiation modes. Our results predict the recent experimental observations of Mandelik et al. in nonlinear optical waveguides
Effects of Ion Beam Irradiation on Nanoscale InOx Cooper-Pair Insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srdjan Milosavljević
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of irradiating indium oxide films of nanoscale thickness by ion beams, when these films are in the Cooper-pair insulator state. Radiation effects are predicted on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport. Results of numerical experiments are interpreted within the theoretical model of a Cooper-pair insulator. The study suggests that radiation-induced changes in InOx films exposed to ion beams could significantly alter their current-voltage characteristics and that a transition to a metallic state is possible, due to radiation-induced perturbation of the fine-tuned granular structure. Furthermore, incident and displaced ions can break up enough Cooper pairs in InOx films to cause dissolution of this specific insulating state.
Ground-state properties of third-row elements with nonlocal density functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagno, P.; Jepsen, O.; Gunnarsson, O.
1989-01-01
The cohesive energy, the lattice parameter, and the bulk modulus of third-row elements are calculated using the Langreth-Mehl-Hu (LMH), the Perdew-Wang (PW), and the gradient expansion functionals. The PW functional is found to give somewhat better results than the LMH functional and both are found to typically remove half the errors in the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, while the gradient expansion gives worse results than the local-density approximation. For Fe both the LMH and PW functionals correctly predict a ferromagnetic bcc ground state, while the LSD approximation and the gradient expansion predict a nonmagnetic fcc ground state
Ground-state configuration of neutron-rich Aluminum isotopes through Coulomb Breakup
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chakraborty S.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Neutron-rich 34,35Al isotopes have been studied through Coulomb excitation using LAND-FRS setup at GSI, Darmstadt. The method of invariant mass analysis has been used to reconstruct the excitation energy of the nucleus prior to decay. Comparison of experimental CD cross-section with direct breakup model calculation with neutron in p3/2 orbital favours 34Al(g.s⊗νp3/2 as ground state configuration of 35Al. But ground state configuration of 34Al is complicated as evident from γ-ray spectra of 33Al after Coulomb breakup of 34Al.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salasnich, L.; Parola, A.
2011-01-01
We consider a bosonic Josephson junction made of N ultracold and dilute atoms confined by a quasi-one-dimensional double-well potential within the two-site Bose-Hubbard model framework. The behavior of the system is investigated at zero temperature by varying the interatomic interaction from the strongly attractive regime to the repulsive one. We show that the ground state exhibits a crossover from a macroscopic Schroedinger-cat state to a separable Fock state through an atomic coherent regime. By diagonalizing the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we characterize the emergence of the macroscopic cat states by calculating the Fisher information F, the coherence by means of the visibility α of the interference fringes in the momentum distribution, and the quantum correlations by using the entanglement entropy S. Both Fisher information and visibility are shown to be related to the ground-state energy by employing the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This result, together with a perturbative calculation of the ground-state energy, allows simple analytical formulas for F and α to be obtained over a range of interactions, in excellent agreement with the exact diagonalization of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In the attractive regime the entanglement entropy attains values very close to its upper limit for a specific interaction strength lying in the region where coherence is lost and self-trapping sets in.
The Structural Heat Intercept-Insulation-Vibration Evaluation Rig (SHIVER)
Johnson, W. L.; Zoeckler, J. G.; Best-Ameen, L. M.
2015-01-01
NASA is currently investigating methods to reduce the boil-off rate on large cryogenic upper stages. Two such methods to reduce the total heat load on existing upper stages are vapor cooling of the cryogenic tank support structure and integration of thick multilayer insulation systems to the upper stage of a launch vehicle. Previous efforts have flown a 2-layer MLI blanket and shown an improved thermal performance, and other efforts have ground-tested blankets up to 70 layers thick on tanks with diameters between 2 3 meters. However, thick multilayer insulation installation and testing in both thermal and structural modes has not been completed on a large scale tank. Similarly, multiple vapor cooled shields are common place on science payload helium dewars; however, minimal effort has gone into intercepting heat on large structural surfaces associated with rocket stages. A majority of the vapor cooling effort focuses on metallic cylinders called skirts, which are the most common structural components for launch vehicles. In order to provide test data for comparison with analytical models, a representative test tank is currently being designed to include skirt structural systems with integral vapor cooling. The tank is 4 m in diameter and 6.8 m tall to contain 5000 kg of liquid hydrogen. A multilayer insulation system will be designed to insulate the tank and structure while being installed in a representative manner that can be extended to tanks up to 10 meters in diameter. In order to prove that the insulation system and vapor cooling attachment methods are structurally sound, acoustic testing will also be performed on the system. The test tank with insulation and vapor cooled shield installed will be tested thermally in the B2 test facility at NASAs Plumbrook Station both before and after being vibration tested at Plumbrooks Space Power Facility.
Guidelines for earthquake ground motion definition for the Eastern United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.
1985-01-01
Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground-motion definition for the eastern United States are established in this paper. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large to great (M > 7.5) sized earthquakes have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes have been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data has been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, SSE. A new procedure for establishing the Operating Basis Earthquake, OBE, is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors
Tetradymites as thermoelectrics and topological insulators
Heremans, Joseph P.; Cava, Robert J.; Samarth, Nitin
2017-10-01
Tetradymites are M2X3 compounds — in which M is a group V metal, usually Bi or Sb, and X is a group VI anion, Te, Se or S — that crystallize in a rhombohedral structure. Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 are archetypical tetradymites. Other mixtures of M and X elements produce common variants, such as Bi2Te2Se. Because tetradymites are based on heavy p-block elements, strong spin-orbit coupling greatly influences their electronic properties, both on the surface and in the bulk. Their surface electronic states are a cornerstone of frontier work on topological insulators. The bulk energy bands are characterized by small energy gaps, high group velocities, small effective masses and band inversion near the centre of the Brillouin zone. These properties are favourable for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials but make it difficult to obtain an electrically insulating bulk, which is a requirement of topological insulators. This Review outlines recent progress made in bulk and thin-film tetradymite materials for the optimization of their properties both as thermoelectrics and as topological insulators.
Quantum double-well chain: Ground-state phases and applications to hydrogen-bonded materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.; Campbell, D.K.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1994-01-01
Extrapolating the results of hybrid quantum Monte Carlo simulations to the zero temperature and infinite-chain-length limits, we calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a system of quantum particles on a chain of harmonically coupled, symmetric, quartic double-well potentials. We show that the ground state of this quantum chain depends on two parameters, formed from the ratios of the three natural energy scales in the problem. As a function of these two parameters, the quantum ground state can exhibit either broken symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all nonzero (as would be the case for a classical chain), or restored symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all zero (as would be the case for a single quantum particle). In addition to the phase diagram as a function of these two parameters, we calculate the ground-state energy, an order parameter related to the average position of the particle, and the susceptibility associated with this order parameter. Further, we present an approximate analytic estimate of the phase diagram and discuss possible physical applications of our results, emphasizing the behavior of hydrogen halides under pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J; Duffy, G J; Rowlands, W J; Lezama, A; Hannaford, P; Akulshin, A M
2007-01-01
We present an experimental study of sub-natural width resonances in fluorescence from a collimated beam of 6 Li atoms excited on the D 1 and D 2 lines by a bichromatic laser field. We show that in addition to ground-state Zeeman coherence, coherent population oscillations between ground and excited states contribute to the sub-natural resonances. High-contrast resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption due to both effects, i.e., ground-state Zeeman coherence and coherent population oscillations, are observed
Electron beam charging of insulators: A self-consistent flight-drift model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touzin, M.; Goeuriot, D.; Guerret-Piecourt, C.; Juve, D.; Treheux, D.; Fitting, H.-J.
2006-01-01
Electron beam irradiation and the self-consistent charge transport in bulk insulating samples are described by means of a new flight-drift model and an iterative computer simulation. Ballistic secondary electron and hole transport is followed by electron and hole drifts, their possible recombination and/or trapping in shallow and deep traps. The trap capture cross sections are the Poole-Frenkel-type temperature and field dependent. As a main result the spatial distributions of currents j(x,t), charges ρ(x,t), the field F(x,t), and the potential slope V(x,t) are obtained in a self-consistent procedure as well as the time-dependent secondary electron emission rate σ(t) and the surface potential V 0 (t). For bulk insulating samples the time-dependent distributions approach the final stationary state with j(x,t)=const=0 and σ=1. Especially for low electron beam energies E 0 G of a vacuum grid in front of the target surface. For high beam energies E 0 =10, 20, and 30 keV high negative surface potentials V 0 =-4, -14, and -24 kV are obtained, respectively. Besides open nonconductive samples also positive ion-covered samples and targets with a conducting and grounded layer (metal or carbon) on the surface have been considered as used in environmental scanning electron microscopy and common SEM in order to prevent charging. Indeed, the potential distributions V(x) are considerably small in magnitude and do not affect the incident electron beam neither by retarding field effects in front of the surface nor within the bulk insulating sample. Thus the spatial scattering and excitation distributions are almost not affected
Study of ground state optical transfer for ultracold alkali dimers
Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Londono, Beatriz; Borsalino, Dimitri; Vexiau, Romain; Mahecha, Jorge; Dulieu, Olivier; Luc-Koenig, Eliane
2013-05-01
Control of molecular states by laser pulses offer promising potential applications. The manipulation of molecules by external fields requires precise knowledge of the molecular structure. Our motivation is to perform a detailed analysis of the spectroscopic properties of alkali dimers, with the aim to determine efficient optical paths to form molecules in the absolute ground state and to determine the optimal parameters of the optical lattices where those molecules are manipulated to avoid losses by collisions. To this end, we use state of the art molecular potentials, R-dependent spin-orbit coupling and transition dipole moment to perform our calculations. R-dependent SO coupling are of crucial importance because the transitions occur at internuclear distances where they are affected by this R-dependence. Efficient schemes to transfer RbCs, KRb and KCs to the absolute ground state as well as the optimal parameters of the optical lattices will be presented. This work was supported in part by ``Triangle de la Physique'' under contract 2008-007T-QCCM (Quantum Control of Cold Molecules).
Ground State of Bosons in Bose-Fermi Mixture with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Sakamoto, Ryohei; Ono, Yosuke; Hatsuda, Rei; Shiina, Kenta; Arahata, Emiko; Mori, Hiroyuki
2017-07-01
We study an effect of spin-1/2 fermions on the ground state of a Bose system with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. By using mean-field and tight-binding approximations, we show the ground state phase diagram of the Bose system in the spin-orbit coupled Bose-Fermi mixture and find that the characteristic phase domain, where a spin current of fermions may be induced, can exist even in the presence of a significantly large number of fermions.
Sideband cooling of micromechanical motion to the quantum ground state.
Teufel, J D; Donner, T; Li, Dale; Harlow, J W; Allman, M S; Cicak, K; Sirois, A J; Whittaker, J D; Lehnert, K W; Simmonds, R W
2011-07-06
The advent of laser cooling techniques revolutionized the study of many atomic-scale systems, fuelling progress towards quantum computing with trapped ions and generating new states of matter with Bose-Einstein condensates. Analogous cooling techniques can provide a general and flexible method of preparing macroscopic objects in their motional ground state. Cavity optomechanical or electromechanical systems achieve sideband cooling through the strong interaction between light and motion. However, entering the quantum regime--in which a system has less than a single quantum of motion--has been difficult because sideband cooling has not sufficiently overwhelmed the coupling of low-frequency mechanical systems to their hot environments. Here we demonstrate sideband cooling of an approximately 10-MHz micromechanical oscillator to the quantum ground state. This achievement required a large electromechanical interaction, which was obtained by embedding a micromechanical membrane into a superconducting microwave resonant circuit. To verify the cooling of the membrane motion to a phonon occupation of 0.34 ± 0.05 phonons, we perform a near-Heisenberg-limited position measurement within (5.1 ± 0.4)h/2π, where h is Planck's constant. Furthermore, our device exhibits strong coupling, allowing coherent exchange of microwave photons and mechanical phonons. Simultaneously achieving strong coupling, ground state preparation and efficient measurement sets the stage for rapid advances in the control and detection of non-classical states of motion, possibly even testing quantum theory itself in the unexplored region of larger size and mass. Because mechanical oscillators can couple to light of any frequency, they could also serve as a unique intermediary for transferring quantum information between microwave and optical domains.
Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.
Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser
2014-02-18
The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from
Testing electrical insulation of LCT coils and instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luton, J.N.; Ulbricht, A.R.; Ellis, J.F.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.; Okuno, K.; Siewerdt, L.O.; Zahn, G.R.; Zichy, J.A.
1986-09-01
Three of the superconducting test coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) use conductors cooled internally by forced flow of helium. In the other three coils, the conductors are cooled externally by a bath of helium. The coils and facility are designed for rapid discharges (dumps) at voltages up to 2.5 kV, depending on coil design. Many coil sensors are connected electrically to the conductors. These sensor leads and signal conditioning equipment also experience high voltage. High-potential tests of ground insulation were performed on all components of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). Coil insulation was also tested by ring-down tests that produced voltage distributions within the coils like those occurring during rapid discharge. Methods were developed to localize problem areas and to eliminate them. The effect on breakdown voltage near the Paschen minimum of magnetic fields up to 2 T was investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Mamta; Tripathi, S.K. [Panjab University, Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)
2013-11-15
This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of Al/PVA:n-CdS (MS) and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PVA:n-CdS (MIS) diode. The effects of interfacial insulator layer, interface states (N{sub ss}) and series resistance (R{sub s}) on the electrical characteristics of Al/PVA:n-CdS structures have been investigated using forward and reverse bias I-V, C-V, and G/w-V characteristics at room temperature. Al/PVA:n-CdS diode is fabricated with and without insulator Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to explain the effect of insulator layer on main electrical parameters. The values of the ideality factor (n), series resistance (R{sub s}) and barrier height ({phi} {sub b}) are calculated from ln(I) vs. V plots, by the Cheung and Norde methods. The energy density distribution profile of the interface states is obtained from the forward bias I-V data by taking into account the bias dependence ideality factor (n(V)) and effective barrier height ({phi} {sub e}) for MS and MIS diode. The N{sub ss} values increase from mid-gap energy of CdS to the bottom of the conductance band edge for both MS and MIS diode. (orig.)
Estimation of thermal insulation performance in multi-layer insulator for liquid helium pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Shibata, Takemasa
1991-01-01
For a multi-layer insulator around the liquid helium pipes for cryopumps of JT-60 NBI, a multi-layer insulator composed of 10 layers, which can be wound around the pipe at the same time and in which the respective layers are in concentric circles by shifting them in arrangement, has been developed and tested. As the result, it was shown that the newly developed multi-layer insulator has better thermal insulation performance than the existing one, i.e. the heat load of the newly developed insulator composed of 10 layers was reduced to 1/3 the heat load of the existing insulator, and the heat leak at the joint of the insulator in longitudinal direction of the pipe was negligible. In order to clarify thermal characteristics of the multi-layer insulator, the heat transfer through the insulator has been analyzed considering the radiation heat transfer by the netting spacer between the reflectors, and the temperature dependence on the emissivities and the heat transmission coefficients of these two components of the insulator. The analytical results were in good agreements with the experimental ones, so that the analytical method was shown to be valid. Concerning the influence of the number of layers and the layer density on the insulation performance of the insulator, analytical results showed that the multi-layer insulator with the number of layer about N = 20 and the layer density below 2.0 layer/mm was the most effective for the liquid helium pipe of a JT-60 cryopump. (author)
Symmetry Breakdown in Ground State Dissociation of HD+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Carnes, K. D.; Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Weaver, O. L.; Esry, B. D.
2000-01-01
Experimental studies of the dissociation of the electronic ground state of HD + following ionization of HD by fast proton impact indicate that the H + +D 1s dissociation channel is more likely than the H1s+D + dissociation channel by about 7% . This isotopic symmetry breakdown is due to the finite nuclear mass correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which makes the 1sσ state 3.7 meV lower than the 2pσ state at the dissociation limit. The measured fractions of the two dissociation channels are in agreement with coupled-channels calculations of 1sσ to 2pσ transitions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Non-Gaussian ground-state deformations near a black-hole singularity
Hofmann, Stefan; Schneider, Marc
2017-03-01
The singularity theorem by Hawking and Penrose qualifies Schwarzschild black holes as geodesic incomplete space-times. Albeit this is a mathematically rigorous statement, it requires an operational framework that allows us to probe the spacelike singularity via a measurement process. Any such framework necessarily has to be based on quantum theory. As a consequence, the notion of classical completeness needs to be adapted to situations where the only adequate description is in terms of quantum fields in dynamical space-times. It is shown that Schwarzschild black holes turn out to be complete when probed by self-interacting quantum fields in the ground state and in excited states. The measure for populating quantum fields on hypersurfaces in the vicinity of the black-hole singularity goes to zero towards the singularity. This statement is robust under non-Gaussian deformations of and excitations relative to the ground state. The physical relevance of different completeness concepts for black holes is discussed.
Design of load-to-failure tests of high-voltage insulation breaks for ITER's cryogenic network
Langeslag, S A E; Aviles Santillana, I; Sgobba, S; Foussat, A
2015-01-01
The development of new generation superconducting magnets for fusion research, such as the ITER experiment, is largely based on coils wound with so-called cable-in-conduit conductors. The concept of the cable-in-conduit conductor is based on a direct cooling principle, by supercritical helium, flowing through the central region of the conductor, in close contact with the superconducting strands. Consequently, a direct connection exists between the electrically grounded helium coolant supply line and the highly energised magnet windings. Various insulated regions, constructed out of high-voltage insulation breaks, are put in place to isolate sectors with different electrical potential. In addition to high voltages and significant internal helium pressure, the insulation breaks will experience various mechanical forces resulting from differential thermal contraction phenomena and electro-magnetic loads. Special test equipment was designed, prepared and employed to assess the mechanical reliability of the insul...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, J.T.
1985-09-11
A panel of thermal insulation material has at least one main portion which comprises a dry particulate insulation material compressed within a porous envelope so that it is rigid or substantially rigid and at least one auxiliary portion which is secured to and extends along at least one of the edges of the main portions. The auxiliary portions comprise a substantially uncompressed dry particulate insulation material contained within an envelope. The insulation material of the auxiliary portion may be the same as or may be different from the insulation material of the main portion. The envelope of the auxiliary portion may be made of a porous or a non-porous material. (author).
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.
2016-02-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ-Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2016-02-15
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)
Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, L.H.C.; Barone, F.A.
2016-01-01
Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector. (orig.)
Faraday Rotation Due to Surface States in the Topological Insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3.
Shao, Yinming; Post, Kirk W; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Dai, Siyuan; Frenzel, Alex J; Richardella, Anthony R; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Fogler, Michael M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Kharzeev, Dmitri E; Basov, D N
2017-02-08
Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy, we have explored the charge dynamics of (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 thin films on InP substrates. From the magneto-transmission data we extracted three distinct cyclotron resonance (CR) energies that are all apparent in the broad band Faraday rotation (FR) spectra. This comprehensive FR-CR data set has allowed us to isolate the response of the bulk states from the intrinsic surface states associated with both the top and bottom surfaces of the film. The FR data uncovered that electron- and hole-type Dirac Fermions reside on opposite surfaces of our films, which paves the way for observing many exotic quantum phenomena in topological insulators.
Insulating materials for optoelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agullo-Lopez, F.
1990-01-01
Optoelectronics is an interdisciplinary field. Basic functions of an optoelectronic system include the generator of the optical signal, its transmission and handling and, finally, its detection, storage and display. A large variety of semiconductor and insulating materials are used or are being considered to perform those functions. The authors focus on insulating materials, mostly oxides. For signal generation, tunable solid state lasers, either vibronic or those based oon colour centres are briefly described, and their main operating parameters summarized. Reference is made to some developments on fiber and waveguide lasers. Relevant physical features of the silica fibres used for low-loss, long-band, optical transmission are reviewed, as well as present efforts to further reduce attenuation in the mid-infrared range. Particular attention is paid to photorefractive materials (LiNbO 3 , BGO, BSO, etc.), which are being investigated
Fractional quantum Hall states of atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soerensen, Anders S.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2005-01-01
We describe a method to create fractional quantum Hall states of atoms confined in optical lattices. We show that the dynamics of the atoms in the lattice is analogous to the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field if an oscillating quadrupole potential is applied together with a periodic modulation of the tunneling between lattice sites. In a suitable parameter regime the ground state in the lattice is of the fractional quantum Hall type, and we show how these states can be reached by melting a Mott-insulator state in a superlattice potential. Finally, we discuss techniques to observe these strongly correlated states
Structural instability and ground state of the U_2Mo compound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losada, E.L.; Garcés, J.E.
2015-01-01
This work reports on the structural instability at T = 0 °K of the U_2Mo compound in the C11_b structure under the distortion related to the C_6_6 elastic constant. The electronic properties of U_2Mo such as density of states (DOS), bands and Fermi surface (FS) are studied to understand the source of the instability. The C11_b structure can be interpreted as formed by parallel linear chains along the z-directions each one composed of successive U–Mo–U blocks. Hybridization due to electronic interactions inside the U–Mo–U blocks is slightly modified under the D_6 distortion. The change in distance between chains modifies the U–U interaction and produces a split of f-states. The distorted structure is stabilized by a decrease in energy of the hybridized states, mainly between d-Mo and f-U states, together with the f-band split. Consequently, an induced Peierls distortion is produced in U_2Mo due to the D_6 distortion. It is important to note that the results of this work indicate that the structure of the ground state of the U_2Mo compound is not the assumed C11_b structure. It is suggested for the ground state a structure with hexagonal symmetry (P6 #168), ∼0.1 mRy below the energy of the recently proposed Pmmn structure. - Highlights: • Structural instability of the C11b compound due to the D6 deformation. • Induced Peierls distortion due to the D6 deformation. • Distorted structure is stabilized by hybridization and split of f-Uranium state. • P6 (#168) suggested ground state for the U_2Mo compound.
On the topological ground state of E-infinity spacetime and the super string connection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2007-01-01
There are at present a huge number of valid super string ground states, making the one corresponding to our own universe extremely hard to determine. Therefore it may come as quite a surprise that it is a rather simple undertaking to determine the exact topological ground state of E-infinity Cantorian spacetime theory. Similar to the ground state of the Higgs for E-infinity, the expectation value of the topological ground state is non-zero and negative. Its value is given exactly by -bar o -∼ n(1/φ) n =-(4+φ 3 ) where φ=(5-1)/2 and n represents an integer Menger-Uhryson dimension running from n=0 to n=-∼. Recalling that the average dimension of ε (∼) is given by ∼ =4+φ 3 , one could interpret this result as saying that our E-infinity spacetime may be viewed as an in itself closed manifold given by the remarkable equation: + =zeroThus in a manner of speaking, the universe could have spontaneously tunnelled into existence from virtual nothingness
Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.
2009-01-01
The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually increa...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostek, P.T.
1987-08-11
In a channel specially designed to fasten semi-rigid mineral fibre insulation to masonry walls, it is known to be constructed from 20 gauge galvanized steel or other suitable material. The channel is designed to have pre-punched holes along its length for fastening of the channel to the drywall screw. The unique feature of the channel is the teeth running along its length which are pressed into the surface of the butted together sections of the insulation providing a strong grip between the two adjacent pieces of insulation. Of prime importance to the success of this system is the recent technological advancements of the mineral fibre itself which allow the teeth of the channel to engage the insulation fully and hold without mechanical support, rather than be repelled or pushed back by the inherent nature of the insulation material. After the insulation is secured to the masonry wall by concrete nail fastening systems, the drywall is screwed to the channel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagaki, Y.
2015-01-01
The helical edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) experience appreciable quantum mechanical scattering in narrow channels when the width changes abruptly. The interference of the geometry scattering in narrow-wide-narrow waveguide structures is shown to give rise to the strong suppression of transmission when the incident energy is barely above the propagation threshold. Periodic resonant transmission takes place in this high reflection regime while the length of the wide section is varied. The resonance condition is governed by the transverse confinement in the wide section, where the form of quantization is manifested to differ for the two orthogonal directions. The confined energy levels in TI quantum dots are derived based on this observation. In addition, the off-diagonal spin-orbit term is found to produce an anomalous resonance state, which merges with the bottom ordinary resonance state to annihilate
Guidelines for earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.
1985-01-01
Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground-motion definition for the eastern United States are established in this paper. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large to great (M > 7.5) sized earthquakes have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes have been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data has been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, SSE. A new procedure for establishing the Operating Basis Earthquake, OBE, is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Identifying Two-Dimensional Z 2 Antiferromagnetic Topological Insulators
Bègue, F.; Pujol, P.; Ramazashvili, R.
2018-01-01
We revisit the question of whether a two-dimensional topological insulator may arise in a commensurate Néel antiferromagnet, where staggered magnetization breaks the symmetry with respect to both elementary translation and time reversal, but retains their product as a symmetry. In contrast to the so-called Z 2 topological insulators, an exhaustive characterization of antiferromagnetic topological phases with the help of topological invariants has been missing. We analyze a simple model of an antiferromagnetic topological insulator and chart its phase diagram, using a recently proposed criterion for centrosymmetric systems [13]. We then adapt two methods, originally designed for paramagnetic systems, and make antiferromagnetic topological phases manifest. The proposed methods apply far beyond the particular examples treated in this work, and admit straightforward generalization. We illustrate this by two examples of non-centrosymmetric systems, where no simple criteria have been known to identify topological phases. We also present, for some cases, an explicit construction of edge states in an antiferromagnetic topological insulator.
Quantifying confidence in density functional theory predictions of magnetic ground states
Houchins, Gregory; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian
2017-10-01
Density functional theory (DFT) simulations, at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level, are being routinely used for material discovery based on high-throughput descriptor-based searches. The success of descriptor-based material design relies on eliminating bad candidates and keeping good candidates for further investigation. While DFT has been widely successfully for the former, oftentimes good candidates are lost due to the uncertainty associated with the DFT-predicted material properties. Uncertainty associated with DFT predictions has gained prominence and has led to the development of exchange correlation functionals that have built-in error estimation capability. In this work, we demonstrate the use of built-in error estimation capabilities within the BEEF-vdW exchange correlation functional for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the magnetic ground state of solids. We demonstrate this approach by calculating the uncertainty estimate for the energy difference between the different magnetic states of solids and compare them against a range of GGA exchange correlation functionals as is done in many first-principles calculations of materials. We show that this estimate reasonably bounds the range of values obtained with the different GGA functionals. The estimate is determined as a postprocessing step and thus provides a computationally robust and systematic approach to estimating uncertainty associated with predictions of magnetic ground states. We define a confidence value (c-value) that incorporates all calculated magnetic states in order to quantify the concurrence of the prediction at the GGA level and argue that predictions of magnetic ground states from GGA level DFT is incomplete without an accompanying c-value. We demonstrate the utility of this method using a case study of Li-ion and Na-ion cathode materials and the c-value metric correctly identifies that GGA-level DFT will have low predictability for NaFePO4F . Further, there
The ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
2003-01-01
The ground-state spin configurations are obtained for the spin-3/2 Ising model Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single-ion crystal field. The interactions are assumed to be only between nearest-neighbors. The calculated ground-state phase diagrams are presented on diatomic lattices, such as the square, honeycomb and sc lattices, and triangular lattice in the (Δ/z vertical bar J vertical bar ,K/ vertical bar J vertical bar) and (H/z vertical bar J vertical bar, K/ vertical bar J vertical bar) planes
Fission barriers and asymmetric ground states in the relativistic mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutz, K.; Reinhard, P.G.; Greiner, W.
1995-01-01
The symmetric and asymmetric fission path for 240 Pu, 232 Th and 226 Ra is investigated within the relativistic mean-field model. Standard parametrizations which are well fitted to nuclear ground-state properties are found to deliver reasonable qualitative and quantitative features of fission, comparable to similar nonrelativistic calculations. Furthermore, stable octupole deformations in the ground states of radium isotopes are investigated. They are found in a series of isotopes, qualitatively in agreement with nonrelativistic models. But the quantitative details differ amongst the models and between the various relativistic parametrizations. (orig.)
Numerical study of ground state and low lying excitations of quantum antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trivedi, N.; Ceperley, D.M.
1989-01-01
The authors have studied, via Green function Monte Carlo (GFMC), the S = 1/2 Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet in two dimensions on a square lattice. They obtain the ground state energy with only statistical errors E 0 /J = -0.6692(2), the staggered magnetization m † = 0.31(2), and from the long wave length behavior of the structure factor, the spin wave velocity c/c o = 1.14(5). They show that the ground state wave function has long range pair correlations arising from the zero point motion of spin waves
Optimized RVB states of the 2-d antiferromagnet: ground state and excitation spectrum
Chen, Yong-Cong; Xiu, Kai
1993-10-01
The Gutzwiller projection of the Schwinger-boson mean-field solution of the 2-d spin- {1}/{2} antiferromagnet in a square lattice is shown to produce the optimized, parameter-free RVB ground state. We get -0.6688 J/site and 0.311 for the energy and the staggered magnetization. The spectrum of the excited states is found to be linear and gapless near k≅0. Our calculation suggests, upon breaking of the rotational symmetry, ɛ k≅2JZ r1-γ 2k with Zr≅1.23.
Ground-state energy for 1D (t,U,X)-model at low densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzatu, F.D.
1992-09-01
In describing the properties of quasi-1D materials with a highly-screened interelectronic potential, an attractive hopping term has to be added to the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The effective interaction and the ground-state energy in ladder approximation are analyzed. At low electronic densities, the attractive part of the interaction, initially smaller than the repulsive term, can become more effective, the ground-state energy decreasing below the unperturbed value. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs
Moradi, Sharif; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Mollamohammadi, Sepideh; Stubenvoll, Alexander; Günther, Stefan; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Asgari, Sassan; Braun, Thomas; Baharvand, Hossein
2017-12-12
Ground-state pluripotency is a cell state in which pluripotency is established and maintained through efficient repression of endogenous differentiation pathways. Self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are influenced by ESC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the "miRNome" of ESCs cultured under conditions favoring ground-state pluripotency. We found that ground-state ESCs express a distinct set of miRNAs compared with ESCs grown in serum. Interestingly, most "ground-state miRNAs" are encoded by an imprinted region on chromosome 12 within the Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Functional analysis revealed that ground-state miRNAs embedded in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus (miR-541-5p, miR-410-3p, and miR-381-3p) promoted pluripotency via inhibition of multi-lineage differentiation and stimulation of self-renewal. Overall, our results demonstrate that ground-state pluripotency is associated with a unique miRNA signature, which supports ground-state self-renewal by suppressing differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Search for the weak non-analog Fermi branch in the 42Sc ground state beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DelVecchio, R.M.; Daehnick, W.W.
1978-01-01
We have searched for the β-decay branch from the 4 2Sc ground state to the 1.837 MeV level in 4 2Ca. Since both states are J/sup π/ = 0 + , T = 1, this decay is an example of a non-analog Fermi decay which could occur by reason of some mixing of the analog ground states into the lowest excited 0 + state in both 4 2Sc and 4 2Ca. As a signal for this branch, we looked for a subsequent cascade γ ray with a Ge(Li) detector-rabbit arrangement. We found a branching ratio of (2.2 +- 1.7) x 10 - 5 relative to the superallowed ground state to ground state decay. Interpreted as an upper limit, this corresponds to a branching ratio - 5 at the 68% confidence level. This result is at the lower bound of what present theory can predict with a Coulomb force mixing calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Barnali; Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Siruguri, V.; Chatterji, Tapan; Thomas, Hansen; Mukovskii, Ya.M.
2013-01-01
Depending on the doping level x the hole-doped perovskite manganites, like La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 exhibit a wide variety of physical properties. These compounds lead their high sensitivity to thermodynamic variables like temperature, magnetic field and pressure. The structure can be modified by application of high pressure and it can be quantitative that changes the Mn-O bond length and increases the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. In some cases the pressure can bring about qualitative changes in the structure like change in the lattice structure or its symmetry. These structural factors can contribute to the effective electron transfer integral between Mn ions, which in turn can change the magnetic exchanges like the double-exchange as well as the super exchange. For low hole doping (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.2), the low temperature ground state is Ferromagnetic insulator (FMI). The ground state of the low doped manganite La 0.79 Ca 0.21 MnO 3 (LCMO) can be destabilized by external hydrostatic pressure. We have done electrical transport measurement under magnetic field and under high pressure for understanding the nature of the resulting phase(s) that arise from the applied hydrostatic pressure. We find that the metallic phase so created under pressure has no appreciable magnetoresistance (MR). The Neutron powder diffraction measurement done on D20 diffractometer (λ=1.3Å) at ILL, Grenoble, France under high hydrostatic pressure up to 10GPa shows that the pressure leads to a change in the crystal structure from orthorhombic to rhombohedral and leading to a change in magnetic structure also; and most importantly collapse of the magnetic moment to a low value that leads to absence of any MR under pressure induced metallization. (author)
Magneto-photoconductivity of three dimensional topological insulator bismuth telluride
Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting
2018-03-01
Magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in a 3D topological insulator is studied. Among the 3D topological insulators bismuth telluride has unique hexagonal warping and spin texture which has been studied by photoemission, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transport. Here, we report on low temperature magneto-photoconductivity, up to 7 T, of two metallic bismuth telluride topological insulator samples with 68 and 110 nm thicknesses excited by 2.33 eV photon energy along the magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane. At 4 K, both samples exhibit negative magneto-photoconductance below 4 T, which is as a result of weak-antilocalization of Dirac fermions similar to the previous observations in electrical transport. However the thinner sample shows positive magneto-photoconductance above 4 T. This can be attributed to the coupling of surface states. On the other hand, the thicker sample shows no positive magneto-photoconductance up to 7 T since there is only one surface state at play. By fitting the magneto-photoconductivity data of the thicker sample to the localization formula, we obtain weak antilocalization behaviour at 4, 10, and 20 K, as expected; however, weak localization behaviour at 30 K, which is a sign of surface states masked by bulk states. Also, from the temperature dependence of phase coherence length bulk carrier-carrier interaction is identified separately from the surface states. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish surface states by magneto-photoconductivity at low temperature, even in metallic samples.
Room temperature giant and linear magnetoresistance in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanosheets.
Wang, Xiaolin; Du, Yi; Dou, Shixue; Zhang, Chao
2012-06-29
Topological insulators, a new class of condensed matter having bulk insulating states and gapless metallic surface states, have demonstrated fascinating quantum effects. However, the potential practical applications of the topological insulators are still under exploration worldwide. We demonstrate that nanosheets of a Bi(2)Te(3) topological insulator several quintuple layers thick display giant and linear magnetoresistance. The giant and linear magnetoresistance achieved is as high as over 600% at room temperature, with a trend towards further increase at higher temperatures, as well as being weakly temperature-dependent and linear with the field, without any sign of saturation at measured fields up to 13 T. Furthermore, we observed a magnetic field induced gap below 10 K. The observation of giant and linear magnetoresistance paves the way for 3D topological insulators to be useful for practical applications in magnetoelectronic sensors such as disk reading heads, mechatronics, and other multifunctional electromagnetic applications.
Electronic and ground state properties of ThTe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhardwaj, Purvee, E-mail: purveebhardwaj@gmail.com; Singh, Sadhna, E-mail: drsadhna100@gmail.com [High Pressure Research Lab. Department of Physics Barkatullah University, Bhopal (MP) 462026 (India)
2016-05-06
The electronic properties of ThTe in cesium chloride (CsCl, B2) structure are investigated in the present paper. To study the ground state properties of thorium chalcogenide, the first principle calculations have been calculated. The bulk properties, including lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained. The calculated equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results.
State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian
2007-01-01
This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia; Xiao Jingling
2006-01-01
We study theoretically the ground state energy of a polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor by considering the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling with the Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method. Our numerical results show that the Rashba SO interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state energy of the polaron. The electron areal density and vector dependence of the ratio of the SO interaction to the total ground state energy or other energy composition are obvious. One can see that even without any external magnetic field, the ground state energy can be split by the Rashba SO interaction, and this split is not a single but a complex one. Since the presents of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the polaron are more stable than electron's.
Ferromagnetic-insulators-modulated transport properties on the surface of a topological insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jun-Ji; Liao Wen-Hu
2014-01-01
Transport properties on the surface of a topological insulator (TI) under the modulation of a two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnet/ferromagnet junction are investigated by the method of wave function matching. The single ferromagnetic barrier modulated transmission probability is expected to be a periodic function of the polarization angle and the planar rotation angle, that decreases with the strength of the magnetic proximity exchange increasing. However, the transmission probability for the double ferromagnetic insulators modulated n—n junction and n—p junction is not a periodic function of polarization angle nor planar rotation angle, owing to the combined effects of the double ferromagnetic insulators and the barrier potential. Since the energy gap between the conduction band and the valence band is narrowed and widened respectively in ranges of 0 ≤ θ < π/2 and π/2 < θ ≤ π, the transmission probability of the n—n junction first increases rapidly and then decreases slowly with the increase of the magnetic proximity exchange strength. While the transmission probability for the n—p junction demonstrates an opposite trend on the strength of the magnetic proximity exchange because the band gaps contrarily vary. The obtained results may lead to the possible realization of a magnetic/electric switch based on TIs and be useful in further understanding the surface states of TIs
Ground state energy and width of 7He from 8Li proton knockout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denby, D. H.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hall, C. C.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Spyrou, A.; Breitbach, E.; Howes, R.; Brown, J.; Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Mosby, S. M.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hinnefeld, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jenson, R. A.; Luther, B.; Olson, C. W.; Schiller, A.
2008-01-01
The ground state energy and width of 7 He has been measured with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and superconducting dipole Sweeper magnet experimental setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. 7 He was produced by proton knockout from a secondary 8 Li beam. The measured decay energy spectrum is compared to simulations based on Breit-Wigner line shape with an energy-dependent width for the resonant state. The energy of the ground state is found to be 400(10) keV with a full-width at half-maximum of 125( -15 +40 ) keV
Energies of the ground state and first excited 0 sup + state in an exactly solvable pairing model
Dinh Dang, N
2003-01-01
Several approximations are tested by calculating the ground-state energy and the energy of the first excited 0 sup + state using an exactly solvable model with two symmetric levels interacting via a pairing force. They are the BCS approximation (BCS), Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method, random-phase approximation (RPA), quasiparticle RPA (QRPA), the renormalized RPA (RRPA), and renormalized QRPA (RQRPA). It is shown that, in the strong-coupling regime, the QRPA which neglects the scattering term of the model Hamiltonian offers the best fit to the exact solutions. A recipe is proposed using the RRPA and RQRPA in combination with the pairing gap given by the LN method. Applying this recipe, it is shown that the superfluid-normal phase transition is avoided, and a reasonably good description for both of the ground-state energy and the energy of the first excited 0 sup + state is achieved. (orig.)
Excitonic metal-insulator phase transition of the Mott type in compressed calcium
Voronkova, T. O.; Sarry, A. M.; Sarry, M. F.; Skidan, S. G.
2017-05-01
It has been experimentally found that, under the static compression of a calcium crystal at room temperature, it undergoes a series of structural phase transitions: face-centered cubic lattice → body-centered cubic lattice → simple cubic lattice. It has been decided to investigate precisely the simple cubic lattice (because it is an alternative lattice) with the aim of elucidating the possibility of the existence of other (nonstructural) phase transitions in it by using for this purpose the Hubbard model for electrons with half-filled ns-bands and preliminarily transforming the initial electronic system into an electron-hole system by means of the known Shiba operators (applicable only to alternative lattices). This transformation leads to the fact that, in the new system of fermions, instead of the former repulsion, there is an attraction between electrons and holes. Elementary excitations of this new system are bound boson pairs—excitons. This system of fermions has been quantitatively analyzed by jointly using the equation-of-motion method and the direct algebraic method. The numerical integration of the analytically exact transcendental equations derived from the first principles for alternative (one-, two-, and three-dimensional) lattices has demonstrated that, in systems of two-species (electrons + hole) fermions, temperature-induced metal-insulator phase transitions of the Mott type are actually possible. Moreover, all these crystals are in fact excitonic insulators. This conclusion is in complete agreement with the analytically exact calculations of the ground state of a one-dimensional crystal (with half-filled bands), which were performed by Lieb and Wu with the aim to find out the Mott insulator-metal transition of another type.
Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan
2017-12-01
Topologically protected wave engineering in artificially structured media resides at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research, which is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogs of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation by means of robust edge mode excitations through analogies drawn to exotic quantum states. A variety of artificial acoustic systems hosting topological edge states have been proposed analogous to the quantum Hall effect, topological insulators, and Floquet topological insulators in electronic systems. However, those systems were characterized by a fixed geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful applications. Here we establish acoustic multipolar pseudospin states as an engineering degree of freedom in time-reversal invariant flow-free phononic crystals and develop reconfigurable topological insulators through rotation of their meta-atoms and reshaping of the metamolecules. Specifically, we show how rotation forms man-made snowflakelike molecules, whose topological phase mimics pseudospin-down (pseudospin-up) dipolar and quadrupolar states, which are responsible for a plethora of robust edge confined properties and topological controlled refraction disobeying Snell's law.
Towards the measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juhasz, Bertalan, E-mail: bertalan.juhasz@oeaw.ac.at [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics (Austria)
2012-12-15
The ASACUSA collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic beam line, which will consist of a superconducting cusp trap as a source of partially polarized antihydrogen atoms, a radiofrequency spin-flip cavity, a superconducting sextupole magnet as spin analyser, and an antihydrogen detector. This will be a measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment, and also a test of the CPT invariance. Monte Carlo simulations predict that the antihydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting can be determined with a relative precision of better than {approx} 10{sup - 6}. The first preliminary measurements of the hyperfine transitions will start in 2011.
Impurity band Mott insulators: a new route to high Tc superconductivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ganapathy Baskaran
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Last century witnessed the birth of semiconductor electronics and nanotechnology. The physics behind these revolutionary developments is certain quantum mechanical behaviour of 'impurity state electrons' in crystalline 'band insulators', such as Si, Ge, GaAs and GaN, arising from intentionally added (doped impurities. The present article proposes that certain collective quantum behaviour of these impurity state electrons, arising from Coulomb repulsions, could lead to superconductivity in a parent band insulator, in a way not suspected before. Impurity band resonating valence bond theory of superconductivity in boron doped diamond, recently proposed by us, suggests possibility of superconductivity emerging from impurity band Mott insulators. We use certain key ideas and insights from the field of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and organics. Our suggestion also offers new possibilities in the field of semiconductor electronics and nanotechnology. The current level of sophistication in solid state technology and combinatorial materials science is very well capable of realizing our proposal and discover new superconductors.
Exact ground state of finite Bose-Einstein condensates on a ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakmann, Kaspar; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Alon, Ofir E.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2005-01-01
The exact ground state of the many-body Schroedinger equation for N bosons on a one-dimensional ring interacting via a pairwise δ-function interaction is presented for up to 50 particles. The solutions are obtained by solving Lieb and Liniger's system of coupled transcendental equations numerically for finite N. The ground-state energies for repulsive and attractive interactions are shown to be smoothly connected at the point of zero interaction strength, implying that the Bethe ansatz can be used also for attractive interactions for all cases studied. For repulsive interactions the exact energies are compared to (i) Lieb and Liniger's thermodynamic limit solution and (ii) the Tonks-Girardeau gas limit. It is found that the energy of the thermodynamic limit solution can differ substantially from that of the exact solution for finite N when the interaction is weak or when N is small. A simple relation between the Tonks-Girardeau gas limit and the solution for finite interaction strength is revealed. For attractive interactions we find that the true ground-state energy is given to a good approximation by the energy of the system of N attractive bosons on an infinite line, provided the interaction is stronger than the critical interaction strength of mean-field theory
Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
2015-08-11
The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.
A study on influence of borax to polyester insulators
ERSOY, Aysel; KUNTMAN, Ayten
2014-01-01
In this study the effect of borax on polyester insulators is investigated by evaluating the tracking and erosion resistance using the inclined plane test. The test procedure follows the ASTM D2303 standard. During the test, 50 Hz current was acquired from the ground electrode allowing a sampling rate of 48000 samples per second. The effect of borax concentration on the glass transition and the degradation temperature is studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) an...
Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2016-01-01
It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.
Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E., E-mail: eugene-stefanovich@usa.net; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2016-10-15
It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreno, Fernando; Corral, Horacio [Tradis, SP (Brazil). E-mail: tradis@mandic.com.br
1999-07-01
This work presents a tap and transition connection in low voltage protected underground cables. This connection allows tapping for clients or branchings from a main energized cables. The compact connectors range various types of insulated cables protected and under grounded in a simple way. The work analysed the advantages of using two components polyurethane resins for the tapping protection and insulation restoring.
Constructions complying with tightened Danish sound insulation requirements for new housing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan
New sound insulation requirements in Denmark in 2008 New Danish Building Regulations with tightened sound insulation requirements were introduced in 2008 (and in 2010 with unchanged acoustic requirements). Compared to the Building Regulations from 1995, the airborne sound insulation requirements...... were 2 –3 dB stricter and the impact sound insulation requirements 5 dB stricter. The limit values are given using the descriptors R’w and L’n,w as before. For the first time, acoustic requirements for dwellings are not found as figures in the Building Regulations. Instead, it is stated......), Denmark. [2] "Lydisolering mellem boliger – Nybyggeri" (Sound insulation between dwellings – Newbuild)". Publication expected in April 2011. The guideline is a part of a series of seven new SBi acoustic guidelines. Project leader Birgit Rasmussen. The series shall replace the existing guidelines 1984...
2D XXZ model ground state properties using an analytic Lanczos expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Weihong Zheng
1997-01-01
A formalism was developed for calculating arbitrary expectation values for any extensive lattice Hamiltonian system using a new analytic Lanczos expansion, or plaquette expansion, and a recently proved exact theorem for ground state energies. The ground state energy, staggered magnetisation and the excited state gap of the 2D anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model are then calculated using this expansion for a range of anisotropy parameters and compared to other moment based techniques, such as the t-expansion, and spin-wave theory and series expansion methods. It was found that far from the isotropic point all moment methods give essentially very similar results, but near the isotopic point the plaquette expansion is generally better than the others. 20 refs., 6 tabs
Ground-state properties of K-isotopes from laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy
Lievens, P; Rajabali, M M; Krieger, A R
By combining high-resolution laser spectroscopy with $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy on polarized K-beams we aim to establish the ground-state spins and magnetic moments of the neutron-rich $^{48,49,50,51}$K isotopes from N=29 to N=32. Spins and magnetic moments of the odd-K isotopes up to N=28 reveal an inversion of the ground-state, from the normal $\\,{I}$=3/2 ($\\pi{d}_{3/2}^{-1}$) in $^{41-45}$K$\\to\\,{I}$=1/2 ($\\pi{s}_{1/2}^{-1}$) in $^{47}$K. This inversion of the proton single particle levels is related to the strong proton $d_{3/2}$ - neutron $f_{7/2}$ interaction which lowers the energy of the $\\pi{d}_{3/2}$ single particle state when filling the $\
Ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Zhang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Using the Nehari manifold and the concentration compactness principle, we study the existence of ground state solutions for asymptotically periodic Schrodinger equations with critical growth.
On the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozovik, Yu.E.; Yudson, V.I.
1978-01-01
The theory of the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas is presented. The conditions for the validity of the ladder and the Bogolubov approximations are derived. These conditions ensure the existence of a Bose condensate in the ground state of two-dimensional systems. These conditions are different from the corresponding conditions for the three-dimensional case. The connection between the effective interaction and the two-dimensional scattering amplitude at some characteristic energy kappa 2 /2m (not equal to 0) is obtained (f(kappa = 0) = infinity in the two-dimensional case). (Auth.)
Current-induced switching of magnetic molecules on topological insulator surfaces
Locane, Elina; Brouwer, Piet W.
2017-03-01
Electrical currents at the surface or edge of a topological insulator are intrinsically spin polarized. We show that such surface or edge currents can be used to switch the orientation of a molecular magnet weakly coupled to the surface or edge of a topological insulator. For the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator as well as for the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator the application of a well-chosen surface or edge current can lead to a complete polarization of the molecule if the molecule's magnetic anisotropy axis is appropriately aligned with the current direction. For a generic orientation of the molecule a nonzero but incomplete polarization is obtained. We calculate the probability distribution of the magnetic states and the switching rates as a function of the applied current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Talafi Noghani
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical multilayer hybrid insulator-metal-insulator (HIMI and metal-insulator-metal (HMIM plasmonic slab waveguides are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Propagation length (Lp and spatial length (Ls are used as two figures of merit to qualitate the plasmonic waveguides. Symmetrical structures are shown to be more performant (having higher Lp and lower Ls, nevertheless it is shown that usage of asymmetrical geometry could compensate for the performance degradation in practically realized HIMI waveguides with different substrate materials. It is found that HMIM slab waveguide could support almost long-range subdiffraction plasmonic modes at dimensions lower than the spatial length of the HIMI slab waveguide.
In situ Raman spectroscopy of topological insulator BiTe films with varying thickness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, C.; Zhu, X.; Nilsson, Louis
2013-01-01
Topological insulators (TIs) are a new state of quantum matter with a band gap in bulk and conducting surface states. In this work, the Raman spectra of topological insulator Bi2Te3 films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been measured by an in situ ultrahigh vacuum (UHV...... effects and symmetry breaking. In addition, an obvious change was observed at 3 QL when a Dirac cone formed. These results offer some new information about the novel quantum states of TIs....
Magnetic ground and remanent states of synthetic metamagnets with perpendicular anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, N S; Roessler, U K; Bogdanov, A N; Hellwig, O
2011-01-01
In this work, we summarize our theoretical results within a phenomenological micromagnetic approach for magnetic ground state and nonequilibrium states as topological magnetic defects in multilayers with strong perpendicular anisotropy and antiferromagnetic (AF) interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), e.g. [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru(Ir, NiO). We give detailed analysis of our model together with the most representative results which elucidate common features of such systems. We discuss phase diagrams of the magnetic ground state, and compare solutions of our model with experimental data. A model to assess the stability of so-called tiger tail patterns is presented. It is found that these modulated topological defect cannot be stabilized by an interplay between magnetostatic and IEC energies only. It is argued that tiger tail patterns arise as nuclei of ferro-stripe structure in AF domain walls and that they are stabilized by domain wall pinning.
Ground states for light and heavy quark hadrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, J T [Physics Dept., Philippines Univ., Manila (Philippines)
1994-01-01
According to de Rujula et al. if the degenerate multiplet masses are known then it is not necessary to parametrize the interactions. With degenerate multiplet masses calculated from the spinorial decomposition of the SU(2)xSU(2) part of the SU(6)xSU(6) symmetry, the ground states for 3, 4 and 5 quark hadrons are calculated in terms of the Cartan matrix integers n[sub [alpha
Manipulating topological-insulator properties using quantum confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotulla, M; Zülicke, U
2017-01-01
Recent discoveries have spurred the theoretical prediction and experimental realization of novel materials that have topological properties arising from band inversion. Such topological insulators are insulating in the bulk but have conductive surface or edge states. Topological materials show various unusual physical properties and are surmised to enable the creation of exotic Majorana-fermion quasiparticles. How the signatures of topological behavior evolve when the system size is reduced is interesting from both a fundamental and an application-oriented point of view, as such understanding may form the basis for tailoring systems to be in specific topological phases. This work considers the specific case of quantum-well confinement defining two-dimensional layers. Based on the effective-Hamiltonian description of bulk topological insulators, and using a harmonic-oscillator potential as an example for a softer-than-hard-wall confinement, we have studied the interplay of band inversion and size quantization. Our model system provides a useful platform for systematic study of the transition between the normal and topological phases, including the development of band inversion and the formation of massless-Dirac-fermion surface states. The effects of bare size quantization, two-dimensional-subband mixing, and electron–hole asymmetry are disentangled and their respective physical consequences elucidated. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuebinger, Martin; Gabel, Judith; Gagel, Philipp; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
Akin to the well known oxide heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) the formation of a conducting interface is found between the strongly correlated, polar Mott insulator LaV{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (LVO) and the non-polar band insulator STO. Since LaV{sup 3+}O{sub 3} tends to overoxidize to the thermodynamically more favourable LaV{sup 5+}O{sub 4} phase when exposed to air, a suitable passivation is required. Therefore, we have employed pulsed laser deposition thin film growth of LVO films with a crystalline LAO capping layer. In situ photoemission measurements of samples before and after being exposed to air show that the V oxidation state can indeed be stabilized by the LAO capping layer. By transport measurements, we identify an insulator-to-metal transition at a combined LAO/LVO overlayer thickness of 4 to 5 unit cells. With LVO being a Mott insulator, passivation by the LAO capping opens the opportunity to study a band-filling controlled Mott insulator to metal transition induced by a purely electrostatic mechanism without interfering overoxidation of the LVO film.
α-clustering in the ground state of 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michel, F.
1976-01-01
The anomalous large angle scattering observed in 40 Ca(α, α) is studied in the frame of a semi-microscopic model taking into account the presence of α-correlations in the ground state of 40 Ca. The calculations, performed between 18 and 29 MeV, assert the potential, non resonant nature of the phenomenon. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smajo Sulejmanovic
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.
Local Peltier-effect-induced reversible metal–insulator transition in VO2 nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takami, Hidefumi; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu
2016-01-01
We report anomalous resistance leaps and drops in VO 2 nanowires with operating current density and direction, showing reversible and nonvolatile switching. This event is associated with the metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) of local nanodomains with coexistence states of metallic and insulating phases induced by thermoelectric cooling and heating effects. Because the interface of metal and insulator domains has much different Peltier coefficient, it is possible that a significant Peltier effect would be a source of the local MIT. This operation can be realized by one-dimensional domain configuration in VO 2 nanowires because one straight current path through the electronic domain-interface enables theoretical control of thermoelectric effects. This result will open a new method of reversible control of electronic states in correlated electron materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Hyunwoo, E-mail: chw0089@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Changhwan, E-mail: cshin@uos.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The quantum capacitance in topological insulator (TI) at room temperature is directly revealed. • The physical origin of quantum capacitance, the two dimensional surface state of TI, is experimentally validated. • Theoretically calculated results of ideal quantum capacitance can well predict the experimental data. - Abstract: A topological insulator (TI) is a new kind of material that exhibits unique electronic properties owing to its topological surface state (TSS). Previous studies focused on the transport properties of the TSS, since it can be used as the active channel layer in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, a TI with a negative quantum capacitance (QC) effect can be used in the gate stack of MOSFETs, thereby facilitating the creation of ultra-low power electronics. Therefore, it is important to study the physics behind the QC in TIs in the absence of any external magnetic field, at room temperature. We fabricated a simple capacitor structure using a TI (TI-capacitor: Au-TI-SiO{sub 2}-Si), which shows clear evidence of QC at room temperature. In the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, the total capacitance of the TI-capacitor increases in the accumulation regime, since QC is the dominant capacitive component in the series capacitor model (i.e., C{sub T}{sup −1} = C{sub Q}{sup −1} + C{sub SiO2}{sup −1}). Based on the QC model of the two-dimensional electron systems, we quantitatively calculated the QC, and observed that the simulated C-V curve theoretically supports the conclusion that the QC of the TI-capacitor is originated from electron–electron interaction in the two-dimensional surface state of the TI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Chatterjee, S.
2013-01-01
The region of the nuclear chart around neutron magic number, N∼20 and proton number (Z), 10≤ Z≤12 is known as the Island of Inversion. The valance neutron(s) of these nuclei, even in their ground state, are most likely occupying the upper pf orbitals which are normally lying above sd orbitals, N∼20 shell closure. Nuclei like 34,35 Al are lying at the boundary of this Island of Inversion. Little experimental information about their ground state configuration are available in literature
Ground state solutions for non-local fractional Schrodinger equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Pu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study a time-independent fractional Schrodinger equation with non-local (regional diffusion $$ (-\\Delta^{\\alpha}_{\\rho}u + V(xu = f(x,u \\quad \\text{in }\\mathbb{R}^{N}, $$ where $\\alpha \\in (0,1$, $N > 2\\alpha$. We establish the existence of a non-negative ground state solution by variational methods.
Search for C+ C clustering in Mg ground state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-04
Jan 4, 2017 ... Finite-range knockout theory predictions were much larger for (12C,212C) reaction, indicating a very small 12C−12C clustering in 24Mg. (g.s.) . Our present results contradict most of the proposed heavy cluster (12C+12C) structure models for the ground state of 24Mg. Keywords. Direct nuclear reactions ...
Two dimensional topological insulator in quantizing magnetic fields
Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.
2018-05-01
The effect of quantizing magnetic field on the electron transport is investigated in a two dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) based on a 8 nm (013) HgTe quantum well (QW). The local resistance behavior is indicative of a metal-insulator transition at B ≈ 6 T. On the whole the experimental data agrees with the theory according to which the helical edge states transport in a 2D TI persists from zero up to a critical magnetic field Bc after which a gap opens up in the 2D TI spectrum.
The ground state energy of 3He droplet in the LOCV framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modarres, M.; Motahari, S.; Rajabi, A.
2012-01-01
The (extended) lowest order constrained variational method was used to calculate the ground state energy of liquid helium 3 ( 3 He) droplets at zero temperature. Different types of density distribution profiles, such as the Gaussian, the Quasi-Gaussian and the Woods-Saxon were used. It was shown that at least, on average, near 20 3 He atoms are needed to get the bound state for 3 He liquid droplet. Depending on the choice of the density profiles and the atomic radius of 3 He, the above estimate can increase to 300. Our calculated ground state energy and the number of atoms in liquid 3 He droplet were compared with those of Variational Monte Carlo method, Diffusion Monte Carlo method and Density Functional Theory, for which a reasonable agreement was found.
Dark current of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers
Yin, Sun; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul
2015-03-01
The dark current density at fixed voltage bias in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the donor and acceptor layers. The dominant current flow process in these systems involves the formation and subsequent recombination of an interfacial exciplex state. If the exciplex formation rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer can increase dark current whereas, if the exciplex recombination rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer decreases dark current. We present a device model to describe this behavior and illustrate it experimentally for various donor/acceptor systems, e.g. P3HT/LiF/C60.
Optical Manipulation and Detection of Emergent Phenomena in Topological Insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gedik, Nuh [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
2017-02-17
The three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) is a new quantum phase of matter that exhibits quantum-Hall-like properties, even in the absence of an external magnetic field. These materials are insulators in the bulk but have a topologically protected conducting state at the surface. Charge carriers on these surface states behave like a two-dimensional gas of massless helical Dirac fermions for which the spin is ideally locked perpendicular to the momentum. The purpose of this project is to probe the unique collective electronic behaviors of topological insulators by developing and using advanced time resolved spectroscopic techniques with state-of-the-art temporal and spatial resolutions. The nature of these materials requires development of specialized ultrafast techniques (such as time resolved ARPES that also has spin detection capability, ultrafast electron diffraction that has sub-100 fs time resolution and THz magneto-spectroscopy). The focus of this report is to detail our achievements in terms of establishing state of the art experimental facilities. Below, we will describe achievements under this award for the entire duration of five years. We will focus on detailing the development of ultrafast technqiues here. The details of the science that was done with these technqiues can be found in the publications referencing this grant.
Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
Mellnik, A. R.
2014-07-23
Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.
Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6
Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.
2018-03-01
It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.
Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons
Kong, Desheng
2010-01-13
Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
High spin state driven magnetism and thermoelectricity in Mn doped topological insulator Bi2Se3
Maurya, V. K.; Dong, C. L.; Chen, C. L.; Asokan, K.; Patnaik, S.
2018-06-01
We report on the synthesis, and structural - magnetic characterizations of Mn doped Bi2Se3 towards achieving a magnetically doped topological insulator. High quality single crystals of MnxBi2-xSe3 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) are grown and analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Magnetic properties of these samples under ZFC-FC protocol and isothermal magnetization confirm ferromagnetic correlation above x = 0.03 value. XANES measurements confirm that the dopant Mn is in Mn2+ state. This is further reconfirmed to be in high spin state by fitting magnetic data with Brillouin function for J = 5/2. Both Hall and Seebeck measurements indicate a sign change of charge carriers above x = 0.03 value of Mn doping. We propose Mn doped Bi2Se3 to be a potential candidate for electromagnetic and thermoelectric device applications involving topological surface states.
Structural instability and ground state of the U{sub 2}Mo compound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Losada, E.L., E-mail: losada@cab.cnea.gov.ar [SIM" 3, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Garcés, J.E. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)
2015-11-15
This work reports on the structural instability at T = 0 °K of the U{sub 2}Mo compound in the C11{sub b} structure under the distortion related to the C{sub 66} elastic constant. The electronic properties of U{sub 2}Mo such as density of states (DOS), bands and Fermi surface (FS) are studied to understand the source of the instability. The C11{sub b} structure can be interpreted as formed by parallel linear chains along the z-directions each one composed of successive U–Mo–U blocks. Hybridization due to electronic interactions inside the U–Mo–U blocks is slightly modified under the D{sub 6} distortion. The change in distance between chains modifies the U–U interaction and produces a split of f-states. The distorted structure is stabilized by a decrease in energy of the hybridized states, mainly between d-Mo and f-U states, together with the f-band split. Consequently, an induced Peierls distortion is produced in U{sub 2}Mo due to the D{sub 6} distortion. It is important to note that the results of this work indicate that the structure of the ground state of the U{sub 2}Mo compound is not the assumed C11{sub b} structure. It is suggested for the ground state a structure with hexagonal symmetry (P6 #168), ∼0.1 mRy below the energy of the recently proposed Pmmn structure. - Highlights: • Structural instability of the C11b compound due to the D6 deformation. • Induced Peierls distortion due to the D6 deformation. • Distorted structure is stabilized by hybridization and split of f-Uranium state. • P6 (#168) suggested ground state for the U{sub 2}Mo compound.
Topological phases of topological-insulator thin films
Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Vekhter, Ilya
2018-02-01
We study the properties of a thin film of topological insulator material. We treat the coupling between helical states at opposite surfaces of the film in the properly-adapted tunneling approximation, and show that the tunneling matrix element oscillates as a function of both the film thickness and the momentum in the plane of the film for Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 . As a result, while the magnitude of the matrix element at the center of the surface Brillouin zone gives the gap in the energy spectrum, the sign of the matrix element uniquely determines the topological properties of the film, as demonstrated by explicitly computing the pseudospin textures and the Chern number. We find a sequence of transitions between topological and nontopological phases, separated by semimetallic states, as the film thickness varies. In the topological phase, the edge states of the film always exist but only carry a spin current if the edge potentials break particle-hole symmetry. The edge states decay very slowly away from the boundary in Bi2Se3 , making Bi2Te3 , where this scale is shorter, a more promising candidate for the observation of these states. Our results hold for free-standing films as well as heterostructures with large-gap insulators.
Probing the 8He ground state via the 8He(p,t)6He reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keeley, N.; Skaza, F.; Lapoux, V.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Beaumel, D.; Becheva, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Delaunay, F.; Drouart, A.; Gillibert, A.; Giot, L.; Kemper, K.W.; Nalpas, L.; Pakou, A.; Pollacco, E.C.; Raabe, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rusek, K.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Sida, J.-L.; Stepantsov, S.; Wolski, R.
2007-01-01
The weakly-bound 8 He nucleus exhibits a neutron halo or thick neutron skin and is generally considered to have an α+4n structure in its ground state, with the four valence neutrons each occupying 1p 3/2 states outside the α core. The 8 He(p,t) 6 He reaction is a sensitive probe of the ground state structure of 8 He, and we present a consistent analysis of new and existing data for this reaction at incident energies of 15.7 and 61.3A MeV, respectively. Our results are incompatible with the usual assumption of a pure (1p 3/2 ) 4 structure and suggest that other configurations such as (1p 3/2 ) 2 (1p 1/2 ) 2 may be present with significant probability in the ground state wave function of 8 He
Design principles for HgTe based topological insulator devices
Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard
2013-07-01
The topological insulator properties of CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are theoretically studied. The CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well behaves as a topological insulator beyond a critical well width dimension. It is shown that if the barrier (CdTe) and well-region (HgTe) are altered by replacing them with the alloy CdxHg1-xTe of various stoichiometries, the critical width can be changed. The critical quantum well width is shown to depend on temperature, applied stress, growth directions, and external electric fields. Based on these results, a novel device concept is proposed that allows to switch between a normal semiconducting and topological insulator state through application of moderate external electric fields.
Numerical study of the t-J model: Exact ground state and flux phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Y.; Poilblanc, D.
1990-01-01
Strongly correlated 2D electrons described by the t-J model are investigated numerically. Exact ground state for one and two holes in a finite cluster with periodic boundary conditions are obtained by using the Lanczos algorithm. The effects of Coulomb repulsion of the holes on the nearest neighbor sites are taken into account. Commensurate flux phases are investigated for the same size of clusters. They are shown to be a good approximation for the ground state specially in the intermediate value of J/t. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs
Edge forward mechanical protection for porcelain insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
deCasseres, D.K.
1987-12-01
Vandal damage to exposed outdoor insulators of all types has become an increasing problem. Porcelain is susceptible to impact fracture, and Area Boards have frequently found it necessary to protect expensive and often highly vulnerable terminating assemblies from the unwelcome attention of hooligans. Various means of physical protection can be used, but many of these are highly demanding in terms of maintenance. This article discusses the 'state of the art' in insulator protection, and describes the design and development of a new concept in the field-the Shed Protector-a number of which are now installed on 132kV sealing ends throughout the Electricity Supply Industry.
Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures
Fischer, Mark H.; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Manchon, Aurelien; Kim, Eun-Ah
2016-01-01
Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather
The properties of 4'-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol in the ground and excited states
Moroz, V. V.; Chalyi, A. G.; Roshal, A. D.
2008-09-01
The mechanism of protonation of 4-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol and the structure of its protolytic forms in the ground and excited states were studied by electron absorption and fluorescence (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy and with the use of the RM1 quantum-chemical method. A comparison of equilibrium constants and the theoretical enthalpies of formation showed that excitation should be accompanied by the inversion of the basicity of the electron acceptor groups of this compound and, as a consequence, changes in the structure of its monocationic form. An analysis of the spectral parameters of the protolytic 4-N,N-dimethylaminoflavonol forms, however, showed that their structure and the sequence of protonation in the excited state were the same as in the ground state. Changes in the structure of the monocation in the excited state were not observed because of the fast radiationless deactivation of this form and the occurrence of excited state intramolecular proton transfer in aprotic solvents.
Roberts, Brenden; Vidick, Thomas; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2017-12-01
The success of polynomial-time tensor network methods for computing ground states of certain quantum local Hamiltonians has recently been given a sound theoretical basis by Arad et al. [Math. Phys. 356, 65 (2017), 10.1007/s00220-017-2973-z]. The convergence proof, however, relies on "rigorous renormalization group" (RRG) techniques which differ fundamentally from existing algorithms. We introduce a practical adaptation of the RRG procedure which, while no longer theoretically guaranteed to converge, finds matrix product state ansatz approximations to the ground spaces and low-lying excited spectra of local Hamiltonians in realistic situations. In contrast to other schemes, RRG does not utilize variational methods on tensor networks. Rather, it operates on subsets of the system Hilbert space by constructing approximations to the global ground space in a treelike manner. We evaluate the algorithm numerically, finding similar performance to density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in the case of a gapped nondegenerate Hamiltonian. Even in challenging situations of criticality, large ground-state degeneracy, or long-range entanglement, RRG remains able to identify candidate states having large overlap with ground and low-energy eigenstates, outperforming DMRG in some cases.
Hartree–Fock many-body perturbation theory for nuclear ground-states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Tichai
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree–Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.
Hartree–Fock many-body perturbation theory for nuclear ground-states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tichai, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.tichai@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Langhammer, Joachim [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Binder, Sven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Roth, Robert, E-mail: robert.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-05-10
We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree–Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.
Observation of Hyperfine Transitions in Trapped Ground-State Antihydrogen
Olin, Arthur
2015-01-01
This paper discusses the first observation of stimulated magnetic resonance transitions between the hyperfine levels of trapped ground state atomic antihydrogen, confirming its presence in the ALPHA apparatus. Our observations show that these transitions are consistent with the values in hydrogen to within 4~parts~in~$10^3$. Simulations of the trapped antiatoms in a microwave field are consistent with our measurements.
Observation of hyperfine transitions in trapped ground-state antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collaboration: A. Olin for the ALPHA Collaboration
2015-08-15
This paper discusses the first observation of stimulated magnetic resonance transitions between the hyperfine levels of trapped ground state atomic antihydrogen, confirming its presence in the ALPHA apparatus. Our observations show that these transitions are consistent with the values in hydrogen to within 4 parts in 10{sup 3}. Simulations of the trapped antiatoms in a microwave field are consistent with our measurements.
Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Althammer, Matthias Klaus
2012-07-19
Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet
Asymmetric d-wave superconducting topological insulator in proximity with a magnetic order
Khezerlou, M.; Goudarzi, H.; Asgarifar, S.
2018-02-01
In the framework of the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism, we investigate the transport properties in the surface of a 3-dimensional topological insulator-based hybrid structure, where the ferromagnetic and superconducting orders are simultaneously induced to the surface states via the proximity effect. The superconductor gap is taken to be spin-singlet d-wave symmetry. The asymmetric role of this gap respect to the electron-hole exchange, in one hand, affects the topological insulator superconducting binding excitations and, on the other hand, gives rise to forming distinct Majorana bound states at the ferromagnet/superconductor interface. We propose a topological insulator N/F/FS junction and proceed to clarify the role of d-wave asymmetry pairing in the resulting subgap and overgap tunneling conductance. The perpendicular component of magnetizations in F and FS regions can be at the parallel and antiparallel configurations leading to capture the experimentally important magnetoresistance (MR) of junction. It is found that the zero-bias conductance is strongly sensitive to the magnitude of magnetization in FS region mzfs and orbital rotated angle α of superconductor gap. The negative MR only occurs in zero orbital rotated angle. This result can pave the way to distinguish the unconventional superconducting state in the relating topological insulator hybrid structures.
Heat insulation support device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koda, Tomokazu; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya.
1994-01-01
The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of heat insulation legs disposed in a circumferential direction. Each of the heat insulative support legs has a hollow shape, and comprises an outer column and an inner column as support structures having a heat insulative property (heat insulative structure), and a thermal anchor which absorbs compulsory displacement by a thin flat plate (displacement absorber). The outer column, the thermal anchor and the inner column are connected by a support so as to offset the positional change of objects to be supported due to shrinkage when they are shrunk. In addition, the portion between the superconductive coils as the objects to be supported and the inner column is connected by the support. The superconductive thermonuclear device is entirely contained in a heat insulative vacuum vessel, and the heat insulative support legs are disposed on a lower lid of the heat insulative vacuum vessel. With such a constitution, they are strengthened against lateral load and buckling, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of heat intrusion while keeping the compulsory displacement easy to be absorbed. (I.N.)
Economically optimal thermal insulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berber, J.
1978-10-01
Exemplary calculations to show that exact adherence to the demands of the thermal insulation ordinance does not lead to an optimal solution with regard to economics. This is independent of the mode of financing. Optimal thermal insulation exceeds the values given in the thermal insulation ordinance.
Panels of microporous insulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McWilliams, J.A.; Morgan, D.E.; Jackson, J.D.J.
1990-08-07
Microporous thermal insulation materials have a lattice structure in which the average interstitial dimension is less than the mean free path of the molecules of air or other gas in which the material is arranged. This results in a heat flow which is less than that attributable to the molecular heat diffusion of the gas. According to this invention, a method is provided for manufacturing panels of microporous thermal insulation, in particular such panels in which the insulation material is bonded to a substrate. The method comprises the steps of applying a film of polyvinyl acetate emulsion to a non-porous substrate, and compacting powdery microporous thermal insulation material against the film so as to cause the consolidated insulation material to bond to the substrate and form a panel. The polyvinyl acetate may be applied by brushing or spraying, and is preferably allowed to dry prior to compacting the insulation material. 1 fig.
Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de
2008-01-01
Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form
Total dose hardening of buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, B.Y.; Chen, C.E.; Pollack, G.; Hughes, H.L.; Davis, G.E.
1987-01-01
Total dose characteristics of the buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates have been studied using MOS transistors. The threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back channel transistor, which is controlled by charge trapping in the buried insulator, is reduced by lowering the oxygen dose as well as by an additional nitrogen implant, without degrading the front channel transistor characteristics. The improvements in the radiation characteristics of the buried insulator are attributed to the decrease in the buried oxide thickness or to the presence of the interfacial oxynitride layer formed by the oxygen and nitrogen implants
Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer
Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei
2017-08-01
In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.
Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet
Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.
2016-06-01
We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.
Survey of thermal insulation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, Izumi
1983-01-01
Better thermal insulations have been developed to meet the growing demands of industry, and studies on thermal insulation at both high temperature and low temperature have been widely performed. The purpose of this survey is to summarize data on the performances and characteristics of thermal insulation materials and thermal insulation structures (for instance, gas cooled reactors, space vehicles and LNG storage tanks), and to discuss ravious problems regarding the design of thermal insulation structures of pool-type LMFBRs. (author)
Detection of UV Pulse from Insulators and Application in Estimating the Conditions of Insulators
Wang, Jingang; Chong, Junlong; Yang, Jie
2014-10-01
Solar radiation in the band of 240-280 nm is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and corona discharges from high-voltage apparatus emit in air mainly in the 230-405 nm range of ultraviolet (UV), so the band of 240-280 nm is called UV Solar Blind Band. When the insulators in a string deteriorate or are contaminated, the voltage distribution along the string will change, which causes the electric fields in the vicinity of insulators change and corona discharge intensifies. An UV pulse detection method to check the conditions of insulators is presented based on detecting the UV pulse among the corona discharge, then it can be confirmed that whether there exist faulty insulators and whether the surface contamination of insulators is severe for the safe operation of power systems. An UV-I Insulator Detector has been developed, and both laboratory tests and field tests have been carried out which demonstrates the practical viability of UV-I Insulator Detector for online monitoring.
Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2002-01-01
It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsky, G.P.
1977-01-01
Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures
Ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system in a parabolic quantum well
Gerlach, B.; Wüsthoff, J.; Smondyrev, M. A.
1999-12-01
This paper presents a variational study of the ground-state energy of an exciton-(LO) phonon system, which is spatially confined to a quantum well. The exciton-phonon interaction is of Fröhlich type, the confinement potentials are assumed to be parabolic functions of the coordinates. Making use of functional integral techniques, the phonon part of the problem can be eliminated exactly, leading us to an effective two-particle system, which has the same spectral properties as the original one. Subsequently, Jensen's inequality is applied to obtain an upper bound on the ground-state energy. The main intention of this paper is to analyze the influence of the quantum-well-induced localization of the exciton on its ground-state energy (or its binding energy, respectively). To do so, we neglect any mismatch of the masses or the dielectric constants, but admit an arbitrary strength of the confinement potentials. Our approach allows for a smooth interpolation of the ultimate limits of vanishing and infinite confinement, corresponding to the cases of a free three-dimensional and a free two-dimensional exciton-phonon system. The interpolation formula for the ground-state energy bound corresponds to similar formulas for the free polaron or the free exciton-phonon system. These bounds in turn are known to compare favorably with all previous ones, which we are aware of.
Pressure-driven insulator-metal transition in cubic phase UO2
Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Werner, Philipp
2017-09-01
Understanding the electronic properties of actinide oxides under pressure poses a great challenge for experimental and theoretical studies. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of cubic phase uranium dioxide at different volumes using a combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. The ab initio calculations predict an orbital-selective insulator-metal transition at a moderate pressure of ∼45 GPa. At this pressure the uranium's 5f 5/2 state becomes metallic, while the 5f 7/2 state remains insulating up to about 60 GPa. In the metallic state, we observe a rapid decrease of the 5f occupation and total angular momentum with pressure. Simultaneously, the so-called “Zhang-Rice state”, which is of predominantly 5f 5/2 character, quickly disappears after the transition into the metallic phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrington, B J; Shepard, H K [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA). Dept. of Physics
1976-03-22
By fully exploiting the mathematical and physical analogy to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, a complete discussion of the ground state behavior of the four-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the static tree level approximation is presented. It is shown that a sufficiently strong external magnetic field can alter the ground state of the theory by restoring a spontaneously broken symmetry, or by creating a qualitatively different 'vortex' state. The energetically favored ground state is explicitly determined as a function of the external field and the ratio between coupling constants of the theory.
A comparative study of satellite estimation for solar insolation in Albania with ground measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitrushi, Driada; Berberi, Pëllumb; Muda, Valbona; Buzra, Urim; Bërdufi, Irma; Topçiu, Daniela
2016-01-01
The main objective of this study is to compare data provided by Database of NASA with available ground data for regions covered by national meteorological net NASA estimates that their measurements of average daily solar radiation have a root-mean-square deviation RMSD error of 35 W/m"2 (roughly 20% inaccuracy). Unfortunately valid data from meteorological stations for regions of interest are quite rare in Albania. In these cases, use of Solar Radiation Database of NASA would be a satisfactory solution for different case studies. Using a statistical method allows to determine most probable margins between to sources of data. Comparison of mean insulation data provided by NASA with ground data of mean insulation provided by meteorological stations show that ground data for mean insolation results, in all cases, to be underestimated compared with data provided by Database of NASA. Converting factor is 1.149.
Tabory, Charles N.; Young, Paul G.; Smith, Edwyn D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.
1994-01-01
Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors were fabricated on InP substrates using a planar self-aligned gate process. A 700-1000 A gate insulator of Si02 doped with phosphorus was deposited by a direct plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 mTorr, 275 C, 5 W, and power density of 8.5 MW/sq cm. High frequency capacitance-voltage measurements were taken on MIS capacitors which have been subjected to a 700 C anneal and an interface state density of lxl0(exp 11)/eV/cq cm was found. Current-voltage measurements of the capacitors show a breakdown voltage of 107 V/cm and a insulator resistivity of 10(exp 14) omega cm. Transistors were fabricated on semi-insulating InP using a standard planar self-aligned gate process in which the gate insulator was subjected to an ion implantation activation anneal of 700 C. MIS field effect transistors gave a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 23 mS/mm for a gate length of 3 microns. The drain current drift saturated at 87.5% of the initial current, while reaching to within 1% of the saturated value after only 1x10(exp 3). This is the first reported viable planar InP self-aligned gate transistor process reported to date.
Energy of ground state of laminar electron-hole liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andryushin, E.A.
1976-01-01
The problem of a possible existence of metal electron-hole liquid in semiconductors is considered. The calculation has been carried out for the following model: two parallel planes are separated with the distance on one of the planes electrons moving, on the other holes doing. Transitions between the planes are forbidden. The density of particles for both planes is the same. The energy of the ground state and correlation functions for such electron-and hole system are calculated. It is shown that the state of a metal liquid is more advantageous against the exciton gas. For the mass ratio of electrons and holes, msub(e)/msub(h) → 0 a smooth rearrangement of the system into a state with ordered heavy particles is observed
Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state
Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca
2017-12-01
Double-stripe magnetism [Q =(π /2 ,π /2 )] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi2Sb2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model in the regime J3≫J2≫J1 . Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π ,π ) . Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space, only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.
Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures
Kong, Desheng
2011-10-24
Electrical charges on the boundaries of topological insulators favour forward motion over back-scattering at impurities, producing low-dissipation, metallic states that exist up to room temperature in ambient conditions. These states have the promise to impact a broad range of applications from electronics to the production of energy, which is one reason why topological insulators have become the rising star in condensed-matter physics. There are many challenges in the processing of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Spectroscopic factor of the 7He ground state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, F.; Frekers, D.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Ryezayeva, N.; Thompson, I.J.
2007-01-01
The neutron spectroscopic factor S n of the 7 He ground state is extracted from an R-matrix analysis of a recent measurement of the 7 Li(d, 2 He) 7 He reaction with good energy resolution. The width extracted from a deconvolution of the spectrum is Γ=183(22) keV (full width at half maximum, FWHM). The result S n =0.64(9) is slightly larger than predictions of recent 'ab initio' Green's function Monte Carlo and fermionic molecular dynamics calculations
Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures
McMahon, Jeffrey M.
2011-01-01
\\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to s...
Lower bounds for the ground states of He-isoelectronic series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraga, Serafin
1981-01-01
A formulation, based on the concept of null local kinetic energy regions, has been developed for the determination of lower bounds for the ground state of a two-electron atom. Numerical results, obtained from Hartree-Fock functions, are presented for the elements He through Kr of the two-electron series
Variational calculation for the ground state of 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Consoni, L.H.A.; Coelho, H.T.; Das, T.K.
1983-01-01
A variational calculation is done for the ground state of a 3α-particle system. Two simple trial wavefunctions are used and results are compared with an exact calculation done by the Hyperspherical Harmonic method. A modifed Ali-Bodmer potential for the α-α interaction is considered for all calculations. It is found that these simple wave functions can be very useful for phenomenological calculations. (Author) [pt
Ground state solutions for diffusion system with superlinear nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiming Luo
2015-03-01
where $z=(u,v\\colon\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}\\rightarrow\\mathbb{R}^{2}$, $b\\in C^{1}(\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{N}, \\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $V(x\\in C(\\mathbb{R}^{N},\\mathbb{R}$. Under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity, we establish the existence of ground state solutions by the generalized Nehari manifold method developed recently by Szulkin and Weth.
Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure
Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.
2013-01-01
The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynisson, J.; Wilbrandt, R.; Brinck, V.
2002-01-01
. The physical and chemical properties of the excited singlet state of the trioxatriangulenium (TOTA(+)) carbenium ion are investigated by experimental and Computational means. The degeneracy of the lowest excited states is counteracted by Jahn-Teller-type distortion, which leads to vibronic broadening...... of the long wavelength absorption band. A strong fluorescence is observed at 520 nm (tau(n) = 14.6 ns, phi(n) = 0.12 in deaerated acetonitrile). The fluorescence is quenched by 10 aromatic electron donors predominantly via a dynamic charge transfer mechanism, but ground state complexation is shown...... triphenylenes is studied separately. Phosphorescence spectra, triplet lifetimes, and triplet-triplet absorption spectra are provided. In the discussion, TOTA(+) is compared to the unsubstituted xanthenium ion and its 9-phenyl derivative with respect to the excited state properties....
Disorder-induced transitions in resonantly driven Floquet topological insulators
Titum, Paraj; Lindner, Netanel H.; Refael, Gil
2017-08-01
We investigate the effects of disorder in Floquet topological insulators (FTIs) occurring in semiconductor quantum wells. Such FTIs are induced by resonantly driving a transition between the valence and conduction bands. We show that when disorder is added, the topological nature of such FTIs persists as long as there is a mobility gap at the resonant quasienergy. For strong enough disorder, this gap closes and all the states become localized as the system undergoes a transition to a trivial insulator. Interestingly, the effects of disorder are not necessarily adverse: we show that in the same quantum well, disorder can also induce a transition from a trivial to a topological system, thereby establishing a Floquet topological Anderson insulator (FTAI). We identify the conditions on the driving field necessary for observing such a transition.
arXiv Gauge Topological Nature of the Superconductor-Insulator Transition
Diamantini, M.C.; Lukyanchuk, I.; Vinokur, V.M.
It has long been believed that, at absolute zero, electrons can form only one quantum coherent state, a superconductor. Yet, several two dimensional superconducting systems were found to harbor the superinsulating state with infinite resistance, a mirror image of superconductivity, and a metallic state often referred to as Bose metal, characterized by finite longitudinal and vanishing Hall resistances. The nature of these novel and mysterious quantum coherent states is the subject of intense study.Here, we propose a topological gauge description of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) that enables us to identify the underlying mechanism of superinsulation as Polyakov's linear confinement of Cooper pairs via instantons. We find a criterion defining conditions for either a direct SIT or for the SIT via the intermediate Bose metal and demonstrate that this Bose metal phase is a Mott topological insulator in which the Cooper pair-vortex liquid is frozen by Aharonov-Bohm interactions.
Magnetically self-insulated transformers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novac, B.M.; Smith, I.R.; Brown, J.
2002-01-01
Magnetic insulation is the only practicable form of insulation for much equipment used in ultrahigh pulsed-power work, including transmission lines and plasma opening switches. It has not however so far been successfully exploited in the transformers that are necessarily involved, and the first proposed design that appeared more than 30 years ago raised apparently insuperable problems. The two novel arrangements for a magnetically insulated transformer described in this paper overcome the problems faced by the earlier designs and also offer considerable scope for development in a number of important areas. Theoretical justification is given for their insulating properties, and this is confirmed by proof-of-principle results obtained from a small-scale experimental prototype in which magnetic insulation was demonstrated at up to 100 kV. (author)
Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating phases
Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Rachel, Stephan
2014-03-01
We propose a realistic cold-atom setup which allows for a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator phase by simply tuning the hopping between the layers. We further employ cluster slave-rotor mean-field theory to study the effect of additional Hubbard onsite interactions that give rise to various spin liquid-like phases such as gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating states.
Urkude, Rajashri; Rawat, Rajeev; Palikundwar, Umesh
2018-04-01
In 3D topological insulators, achieving a genuine bulk-insulating state is an important topic of research. The material system (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 has been proposed as a topological insulator with high resistivity and low carrier concentration. Topological insulators are predicted to present interesting surface transport phenomena but their experimental studies have been hindered by metallic bulk conduction that overwhelms the surface transport. Here we present a study of the bulk-insulating properties of (Bi0.3Sb0.7)2Te3. We show that a high resistivity exceeding 1 Ωm as a result of variable-range hopping behavior of state and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations as coming from the topological surface state. We have been able to clarify both the bulk and surface transport channels, establishing a comprehensive understanding of the transport properties in this material. Our results demonstrate that (Bi0.3Sb0.7)2Te3 is a good material for studying the surface quantum transport in a topological insulator.
Tunable metal-insulator transitions in bilayer graphene by thermal annealing
Kalon, Gopinadhan; Shin, Young Jun; Yang, Hyunsoo
2012-01-01
Tunable and highly reproducible metal-insulator transitions have been observed in bilayer graphene upon thermal annealing at 400 K under high vacuum conditions. Before annealing, the sample is metallic in the whole temperature regime of study. Upon annealing, the conductivity changes from metallic to that of an insulator and the transition temperature is a function of annealing time. The pristine metallic state can be reinstated by exposing to air thereby inducing changes in the electronic pr...
Spin-state crossover and low-temperature magnetic state in yttrium-doped Pr0.7Ca0.3CoO3
Knížek, K.; Hejtmánek, J.; Maryško, M.; Novák, P.; Šantavá, E.; Jirák, Z.; Naito, T.; Fujishiro, H.; de la Cruz, Clarina
2013-12-01
The structural and magnetic properties of two mixed-valence cobaltites with a formal population of 0.30 Co4+ ions per f.u., (Pr1-yYy)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 (y=0 and 0.15), have been studied down to very low temperatures by means of high-resolution neutron diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, and heat-capacity measurements. The results are interpreted within the scenario of the spin-state crossover from a room-temperature mixture of the intermediate-spin Co3+ and low-spin Co4+ (IS/LS) to the LS/LS mixture in the sample ground states. In contrast to the yttrium-free y=0 that retains the metallic-like character and exhibits ferromagnetic (FM) ordering below 55 K, the doped system y=0.15 undergoes a first-order metal-insulator transition at 132 K, during which not only the crossover to low-spin states but also a partial electron transfer from Pr3+ 4f to cobalt 3d states takes place simultaneously. Taking into account the nonmagnetic character of LS Co3+, such a valence shift electronic transition causes a magnetic dilution, formally to 0.12 LS Co4+ or 0.12 t2g hole spins per f.u., which is the reason for an insulating, highly nonuniform magnetic ground state without long-range order. Nevertheless, even in that case there exists a relatively strong molecular field distributed over all the crystal lattice. It is argued that the spontaneous FM order in y=0 and the existence of strong FM correlations in y=0.15 apparently contradict the single t2g band character of LS/LS phase. The explanation we suggest relies on a model of the defect-induced, itinerant hole-mediated magnetism, where the defects are identified with the magnetic high-spin Co3+ species stabilized near oxygen vacancies.
Study of Hygrothermal Processes in External Walls with Internal Insulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biseniece Edite
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Being an important contributor to the final energy consumption, historic buildings built before 1945 have high specific heating energy consumption compared to current energy standards and norms. However, they often cannot be insulated from the outside due to their heritage and culture value. Internal insulation is an alternative. However internal insulation faces challenges related to hygrothermal behaviour leading to mold growth, freezing, deterioration and other risks. The goal of this research is to link hygrothermal simulation results with experimental results for internally insulated historic brick masonry to assess correlation between simulated and measured data as well as the most influential parameters. The study is carried out by both a mathematical simulation tool and laboratory tests of historic masonry with internal insulation with four insulation materials (mineral wool, EPS, wood fiber and granulated aerogel in a cold climate (average 4000 heating degree days. We found disparity between measured and simulated hygrothermal performance of studied constructions due to differences in material parameters and initial conditions of materials. The latter plays a more important role than material parameters. Under a steady state of conditions, the condensate tolerating system varies between 72.7 % and 80.5 % relative humidity, but in condensate limiting systems relative humidity variates between 73.3 % and 82.3 %. The temperature between the masonry wall and all insulation materials has stabilized on average at +10 °C. Mold corresponding to Mold index 3 was discovered on wood fiber mat.
Study of Hygrothermal Processes in External Walls with Internal Insulation
Biseniece, Edite; Freimanis, Ritvars; Purvins, Reinis; Gravelsins, Armands; Pumpurs, Aivars; Blumberga, Andra
2018-03-01
Being an important contributor to the final energy consumption, historic buildings built before 1945 have high specific heating energy consumption compared to current energy standards and norms. However, they often cannot be insulated from the outside due to their heritage and culture value. Internal insulation is an alternative. However internal insulation faces challenges related to hygrothermal behaviour leading to mold growth, freezing, deterioration and other risks. The goal of this research is to link hygrothermal simulation results with experimental results for internally insulated historic brick masonry to assess correlation between simulated and measured data as well as the most influential parameters. The study is carried out by both a mathematical simulation tool and laboratory tests of historic masonry with internal insulation with four insulation materials (mineral wool, EPS, wood fiber and granulated aerogel) in a cold climate (average 4000 heating degree days). We found disparity between measured and simulated hygrothermal performance of studied constructions due to differences in material parameters and initial conditions of materials. The latter plays a more important role than material parameters. Under a steady state of conditions, the condensate tolerating system varies between 72.7 % and 80.5 % relative humidity, but in condensate limiting systems relative humidity variates between 73.3 % and 82.3 %. The temperature between the masonry wall and all insulation materials has stabilized on average at +10 °C. Mold corresponding to Mold index 3 was discovered on wood fiber mat.
Reusable LH2 tank technology demonstration through ground test
Bianca, C.; Greenberg, H. S.; Johnson, S. E.
1995-01-01
The paper presents the project plan to demonstrate, by March 1997, the reusability of an integrated composite LH2 tank structure, cryogenic insulation, and thermal protection system (TPS). The plan includes establishment of design requirements and a comprehensive trade study to select the most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank system (RHCTS) within the most suitable of 4 candidate structural configurations. The 4 vehicles are winged body with the capability to deliver 25,000 lbs of payload to a circular 220 nm, 51.6 degree inclined orbit (also 40,000 lbs to a 28.5 inclined 150 nm orbit). A prototype design of the selected RHCTS is established to identify the construction, fabrication, and stress simulation and test requirements necessary in an 8 foot diameter tank structure/insulation/TPS test article. A comprehensive development test program supports the 8 foot test article development and involves the composite tank itself, cryogenic insulation, and integrated tank/insulation/TPS designs. The 8 foot diameter tank will contain the integrated cryogenic insulation and TPS designs resulting from this development and that of the concurrent lightweight durable TPS program. Tank ground testing will include 330 cycles of LH2 filling, pressurization, body loading, depressurization, draining, and entry heating.
Quantum and classical contributions to linear magnetoresistance in topological insulator thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R. K.; Sarkar, Jit; Mitra, Chiranjib
2016-01-01
Three dimensional topological insulators possess backscattering immune relativistic Dirac fermions on their surface due to nontrivial topology of the bulk band structure. Both metallic and bulk insulating topological insulators exhibit weak-antilocalization in the low magnetic field and linear like magnetoresistance in higher fields. We explore the linear magnetoresistance in bulk insulating topological insulator Bi 2-x Sb x Te 3-y Se y thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition technique. Thin films of Bi 2-x Sb x Te 3-y Se y were found to be insulating in nature, which conclusively establishes the origin of linear magnetoresistance from surface Dirac states. The films were thoroughly characterized for their crystallinity and composition and then subjected to transport measurements. We present a careful analysis taking into considerations all the existing models of linear magnetoresistance. We comprehend that the competition between classical and quantum contributions to magnetoresistance results in linear magnetoresistance in high fields. We observe that the cross-over field decreases with increasing temperature and the physical argument for this behavior is explained.
Some fundamental properties of the ground state of atoms and molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lieb, E.H.
1986-01-01
This paper studies the ground states of atoms and molecules in quantum mechanics and reports on some mathematically rigourous results pertaining to the matter. The non-relativistic Hamiltonian for a molecule in the static nucleus approximation is presented along with notations
Reentrant Metal-Insulator Transitions in Silicon -
Campbell, John William M.
This thesis describes a study of reentrant metal -insulator transitions observed in the inversion layer of extremely high mobility Si-MOSFETs. Magneto-transport measurements were carried out in the temperature range 20mK-4.2 K in a ^3He/^4 He dilution refrigerator which was surrounded by a 15 Tesla superconducting magnet. Below a melting temperature (T_{M}~500 mK) and a critical electron density (n_{s }~9times10^{10} cm^{-2}), the Shubnikov -de Haas oscillations in the diagonal resistivity enormous maximum values at the half filled Landau levels while maintaining deep minima corresponding to the quantum Hall effect at filled Landau levels. At even lower electron densities the insulating regions began to spread and eventually a metal-insulator transition could be induced at zero magnetic field. The measurement of extremely large resistances in the milliKelvin temperature range required the use of very low currents (typically in the 10^ {-12} A range) and in certain measurements minimizing the noise was also a consideration. The improvements achieved in these areas through the use of shielding, optical decouplers and battery operated instruments are described. The transport signatures of the insulating state are considered in terms of two basic mechanisms: single particle localization with transport by variable range hopping and the formation of a collective state such as a pinned Wigner crystal or electron solid with transport through the motion of bound dislocation pairs. The experimental data is best described by the latter model. Thus the two dimensional electron system in these high mobility Si-MOSFETs provides the first and only experimental demonstration to date of the formation of an electron solid at zero and low magnetic fields in the quantum limit where the Coulomb interaction energy dominates over the zero point oscillation energy. The role of disorder in favouring either single particle localization or the formation of a Wigner crystal is explored by
Gropengiesser, Uwe
1995-06-01
We compare various evlutionary strategies to determine the ground-state energy of the ± J spin glass. We show that the choice of different evolution laws is less important than a suitable treatment of the "free spins" of the system At least one combination of these strategies does not give the correct results, but the ground states of the other different strategies coincide. Therefore we are able to extrapolate the infinit-size ground-state energy for the square lattice to -1.401±0.0015 and for the simple cubic lattice to -1.786±0.004.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cirak, C.; Saglam, A.; Ucun, F.
2010-01-01
The ground state hydrogen conformations of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde have been investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The calculations have indicated that the compounds in the ground state exist with the carbonyl group O atom linked intra molecularly by the two hydrogen bonds of the two hydroxyl groups. The vibrational analyses of the ground state conformers of all the compounds were done and their optimized geometry parameters were given.
Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graneau, P.
1974-01-01
Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described
Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser
2012-09-18
Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other
Ground state of high-density matter
Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong
1988-01-01
It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.
BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.
1995-06-01
This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potential of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.
Pb5Bi24Se41: A new member of the homologous series forming topological insulator heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segawa, Kouji; Taskin, A.A.; Ando, Yoichi
2015-01-01
We have synthesized Pb 5 Bi 24 Se 41 , which is a new member of the (PbSe) 5 (Bi 2 Se 3 ) 3m homologous series with m=4. This series of compounds consist of alternating layers of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 and the ordinary insulator PbSe. Such a naturally-formed heterostructure has recently been elucidated to give rise to peculiar quasi-two-dimensional topological states throughout the bulk, and the discovery of Pb 5 Bi 24 Se 41 expands the tunability of the topological states in this interesting homologous series. The trend in the resistivity anisotropy in this homologous series suggests an important role of hybridization of the topological states in the out-of-plane transport. - Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction profiles taken on cleaved surfaces of single-crystal samples of the (PbSe) 5 (Bi 2 Se 3 ) 3m homologous series with various m values up to 4, which realizes topological insulator heterostructures. Schematic crystal structure of the new phase, m=4, is also shown. - Highlights: • We have synthesized a new member of the homologous series related to topological insulators. • In this compound, a heterostructure of topological and ordinary insulators naturally forms. • Resistivity anisotropy suggests an important role of hybridization of the topological states. • This compound expands the tunability of the topological states via chemical means
Sound Insulation between Dwellings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Birgit
2011-01-01
Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...
Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2017-08-01
A topological insulator (TI) thin film differs from the more typically studied thick TI system in that the former has both a top and a bottom surface where the states localized at both surfaces can couple to one other across the finite thickness. An out-of-plane magnetic field leads to the formation of discrete Landau level states in the system, whereas an in-plane magnetization breaks the angular momentum symmetry of the system. In this work, we study the spin accumulation induced by the application of an in-plane electric field to the TI thin film system where the Landau level states and inter-surface coupling are simultaneously present. We show, via Kubo formula calculations, that the in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to the magnetization due to the electric field vanishes for a TI thin film with symmetric top and bottom surfaces. A finite in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetization emerges upon applying either a differential magnetization coupling or a potential difference between the two film surfaces. This spin accumulation results from the breaking of the antisymmetry of the spin accumulation around the k-space equal-energy contours.
Lv, Yang; Kally, James; Zhang, Delin; Lee, Joon Sue; Jamali, Mahdi; Samarth, Nitin; Wang, Jian-Ping
2018-01-09
The large spin-orbit coupling in topological insulators results in helical spin-textured Dirac surface states that are attractive for topological spintronics. These states generate an efficient spin-orbit torque on proximal magnetic moments. However, memory or logic spin devices based upon such switching require a non-optimal three-terminal geometry, with two terminals for the writing current and one for reading the state of the device. An alternative two-terminal device geometry is now possible by exploiting the recent discovery of the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy metal/ferromagnet bilayers and unidirectional magnetoresistance in magnetic topological insulators. Here, we report the observation of such unidirectional magnetoresistance in a technologically relevant device geometry that combines a topological insulator with a conventional ferromagnetic metal. Our devices show a figure of merit (magnetoresistance per current density per total resistance) that is more than twice as large as the highest reported values in all-metal Ta/Co bilayers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, N.
1989-01-01
We consider the diffusion of a hole injected in a Mott insulator described by a one-band Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling and in the atomic limit. The diffusion coefficient turns out to be temperature independent exactly giving 1/T dependence for the drift mobility via the Einstein relation. This is in marked disagreement with the (1/T)/sup 1/2/ dependence obtaining in the self-retracing path approximation at low temperatures. We note the possible relevance of our result to the linear T dependence of the normal-state resistivity observed in the high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors
Influence of mass-asymmetry and ground state spin on fission fragment angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, R.G.; Biswas, D.C.; Saxena, A.; Pant, L.M.; Nayak, B.K.; Vind, R.P.; Sahu, P.K.; Sinha, Shrabani; Choudhury, R.K.
2001-01-01
The strong influence of the target or/and projectile ground state spin on the anomalously large anisotropies of fission fragments produced in the heavy-ion induced fission of actinide targets were reported earlier. Interestingly, all those systems studied were having a mass asymmetry greater than the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry and hence the presence of pre-equilibrium fission was unambiguously ruled out. The observed anisotropies were successfully explained using the ECD-K-States model. It is of interest to know the influence of the target/projectile ground state spin on systems having an entrance channel mass asymmetry less than the critical value where pre-equilibrium fission cannot be ignored. With this motivation we performed measurements of fission fragment angular distributions of the 16 O+ 235 U (spin=7/2) system
Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy
Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N
2007-01-01
We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.
Ground states and formal duality relations in the Gaussian core model
Cohn, H.; Kumar, A.; Schürmann, A.
2009-01-01
We study dimensional trends in ground states for soft-matter systems. Specifically, using a high-dimensional version of Parrinello-Rahman dynamics, we investigate the behavior of the Gaussian core model in up to eight dimensions. The results include unexpected geometric structures, with surprising
A new representation for ground states and its Legendre transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cedillo, A.
1994-01-01
The ground-state energy of an electronic system is a functional of the number of electrons (N) and the external potential (v): E = E(N,V), this is the energy representation for ground states. In 1982, Nalewajski defined the Legendre transforms of this representation, taking advantage of the strict concavity of E with respect to their variables (concave respect v and convex respect N), and he also constructed a scheme for the reduction of derivatives of his representations. Unfortunately, N and the electronic density (p) were the independent variables of one of these representations, but p depends explicitly on N. In this work, this problem is avoided using the energy per particle (ε) as the basic variables, and the Legendre transformations can be defined. A procedure for the reduction of derivatives is generated for the new four representations and, in contrast to the Nalewajski's procedure, it only includes derivatives of the four representations. Finally, the reduction of derivatives is used to test some relationships between the hardness and softness kernels
Local Peltier-effect-induced reversible metal–insulator transition in VO{sub 2} nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takami, Hidefumi; Kanki, Teruo, E-mail: kanki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Hidekazu, E-mail: kanki@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)
2016-06-15
We report anomalous resistance leaps and drops in VO{sub 2} nanowires with operating current density and direction, showing reversible and nonvolatile switching. This event is associated with the metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) of local nanodomains with coexistence states of metallic and insulating phases induced by thermoelectric cooling and heating effects. Because the interface of metal and insulator domains has much different Peltier coefficient, it is possible that a significant Peltier effect would be a source of the local MIT. This operation can be realized by one-dimensional domain configuration in VO{sub 2} nanowires because one straight current path through the electronic domain-interface enables theoretical control of thermoelectric effects. This result will open a new method of reversible control of electronic states in correlated electron materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, King-Leung; Salazar, Jose Luis Leon; Prasad, Leo; Chen, Wen-Lih
2011-01-01
In this investigation, the differences of heat transfer characteristics for insulated and non-insulated spherical containers between considering and neglecting the influence of heat radiation are studied by the simulations in some practical situations. It is found that the heat radiation effect cannot be ignored in conditions of low ambient convection heat coefficients (such ambient air) and high surface emissivities, especially for the non-insulated and thin insulated cases. In most practical situations when ambient temperature is different from surroundings temperature and the emissivity of insulation surface is different from that of metal wall surface, neglecting heat radiation will result in inaccurate insulation effect and heat transfer errors even with very thick insulation. However, the insulation effect considering heat radiation will only increase a very small amount after some dimensionless insulated thickness (such insulation thickness/radius ≥0.2 in this study), thus such dimensionless insulated thickness can be used as the optimum thickness in practical applications. Meanwhile, wrapping a material with low surface emissivity (such as aluminum foil) around the oxidized metal wall or insulation layer (always with high surface emissivity) can achieve very good insulated effect for the non-insulated or thin insulated containers.
Electrical insulating liquid: A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deba Kumar Mahanta
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.
Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Luzio, Luca; Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2016-01-01
We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.
Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Luzio, Luca, E-mail: diluzio@ge.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Isidori, Gino [Department of Physics, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)
2016-02-10
We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.
Ground state properties of new element Z=113 and its alpha decay chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai Fei; Chen Dinghan; Xu Chang; Ren Zhongzhou
2005-01-01
The authors investigate the ground state properties of the new element 278 113 and of the α-decay chain with different models, where the new element Z=113 has been produced at RIKEN in Japan by cold-fusion reaction. The experimental decay energies are reproduced by the deformed relativistic mean-field model, by the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) model, and by the macroscopic-microscopic model. Theoretical half-lives also reasonably agree with the data. Calculations further show that prolate deformation is important for the ground states of the nuclei in the α-decay chain of 278 113. The common points and differences among different models are compared and discussed. (author)
Biodegradation performance of environmentally-friendly insulating oil
Yang, Jun; He, Yan; Cai, Shengwei; Chen, Cheng; Wen, Gang; Wang, Feipeng; Fan, Fan; Wan, Chunxiang; Wu, Liya; Liu, Ruitong
2018-02-01
In this paper, biodegradation performance of rapeseed insulating oil (RDB) and FR3 insulating oil (FR3) was studied by means of ready biodegradation method which was performed with Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301B. For comparison, the biodegradation behaviour of 25# mineral insulating oil was also characterized with the same method. The testing results shown that the biodegradation degree of rapeseed insulating oil, FR3 insulating oil and 25# mineral insulating oil was 95.8%, 98.9% and 38.4% respectively. Following the “new chemical risk assessment guidelines” (HJ/T 154 - 2004), which illustrates the methods used to identify and assess the process safety hazards inherent. The guidelines can draw that the two vegetable insulating oils, i.e. rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil are easily biodegradable. Therefore, the both can be classified as environmentally-friendly insulating oil. As expected, 25# mineral insulating oil is hardly biodegradable. The main reason is that 25# mineral insulating oil consists of isoalkanes, cyclanes and a few arenes, which has few unsaturated bonds. Biodegradation of rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil also remain some difference. Biodegradation mechanism of vegetable insulating oil was revealed from the perspective of hydrolysis kinetics.
Tubular House - Form Follows Technology, Concrete Shell Structure with Inner Thermal Insulation
Idem, Robert; Kleczek, Paweł; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Chudoba, Piotr
2017-10-01
The aim of this paper is the theoretical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of using an unconventional technology and the original architectural form stemming from it - the building with external construction and internal insulation. In Central European climatic conditions, the traditional solution for the walls of heated buildings relies on using external thermal insulation. This stems from building physics: it prevents interstitial condensation of water vapour in the wall. Internal insulation is used exceptionally. This is done e.g. in historical buildings undergoing thermal modernization (due to the impossibility of interfering with facade). In such cases, a thermal insulation layer is used on the internal wall surface, along with an additional layer of vapour barrier. The concept of building concerns the intentional usage of an internal insulation. In this case, the construction is a tight external reinforced concrete shell. The architectural form of such building is strongly interrelated with the technology, which was used to build it. The paper presents the essence of this concept in descriptive and drawing form. The basic elements of such building are described (the external construction, the internal insulation and ventilation). As a case study, authors present a project of a residential building along with the description of the applied materials and installation solutions, and the results obtained from thermal, humidity and energetic calculations. The discussion presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed concept. The basic advantage of this solution is potentially low building cost. This stems from minimizing the ground works, the simplicity of the joints and the outer finish, as well as from the possibility of prefabrication of the elements. The continuity of the thermal insulation allows to reduce the amount of thermal bridges. The applied technology and form are applicable most of all for small buildings, due to limited
Orbital selective spin-texture in a topological insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Bahadur, E-mail: bahadursingh24@gmail.com; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)
2015-05-15
Three-dimensional topological insulators support a metallic non-trivial surface state with unique spin texture, where spin and momentum are locked perpendicular to each other. In this work, we investigate the orbital selective spin-texture associated with the topological surface states in Sb2Te{sub 3}, using the first principles calculations. Sb2Te{sub 3} is a strong topological insulator with a p-p type bulk band inversion at the Γ-point and supports a single topological metallic surface state with upper (lower) Dirac-cone has left (right) handed spin-texture. Here, we show that the topological surface state has an additional locking between the spin and orbitals, leading to an orbital selective spin-texture. The out-of-plane orbitals (p{sub z} orbitals) have an isotropic orbital texture for both the Dirac cones with an associated left and right handed spin-texture for the upper and lower Dirac cones, respectively. In contrast, the in-planar orbital texture (p{sub x} and p{sub y} projections) is tangential for the upper Dirac-cone and is radial for the lower Dirac-cone surface state. The dominant in-planar orbital texture in both the Dirac cones lead to a right handed orbital-selective spin-texture.
Le, Son Phuong; Nguyen, Duong Dai; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu
2018-01-01
We have investigated insulator-semiconductor interface fixed charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices with Al2O3 or AlTiO (an alloy of Al2O3 and TiO2) gate dielectrics obtained by atomic layer deposition on AlGaN. Analyzing insulator-thickness dependences of threshold voltages for the MIS devices, we evaluated positive interface fixed charges, whose density at the AlTiO/AlGaN interface is significantly lower than that at the Al2O3/AlGaN interface. This and a higher dielectric constant of AlTiO lead to rather shallower threshold voltages for the AlTiO gate dielectric than for Al2O3. The lower interface fixed charge density also leads to the fact that the two-dimensional electron concentration is a decreasing function of the insulator thickness for AlTiO, whereas being an increasing function for Al2O3. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the interface fixed charges and interface states. From the conductance method, it is shown that the interface state densities are very similar at the Al2O3/AlGaN and AlTiO/AlGaN interfaces. Therefore, we consider that the lower AlTiO/AlGaN interface fixed charge density is not owing to electrons trapped at deep interface states compensating the positive fixed charges and can be attributed to a lower density of oxygen-related interface donors.
Line list for the ground state of CaF
Hou, Shilin; Bernath, Peter F.
2018-05-01
The molecular potential energy function and electronic dipole moment function for the ground state of CaF were studied with MRCI, ACPF, and RCCSD(T) ab initio calculations. The RCCSD(T) potential function reproduces the experimental vibrational intervals to within ∼2 cm-1. The RCCSD(T) dipole moment at the equilibrium internuclear separation agrees well with the experimental value. Over a wide range of internuclear separations, far beyond the range associated with the observed spectra, the ab initio dipole moment functions are similar and highly linear. An extended Morse oscillator (EMO) potential function was also obtained by fitting the observed lines of the laboratory vibration-rotation and pure rotation spectra of the 40CaF X2Σ+ ground state. The fitted potential reproduces the observed transitions (v ≤ 8, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0, 1) within their experimental uncertainties. With this EMO potential and the RCCSD(T) dipole moment function, line lists for 40CaF, 42CaF, 43CaF, 44CaF, 46CaF, and 48CaF were computed for v ≤ 10, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0-10. The calculated emission spectra are in good agreement with an observed laboratory spectrum of CaF at a sample temperature of 1873 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-01-01
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-02-26
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Variational Monte Carlo calculations of nuclear ground states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiringa, R.B.
1990-01-01
A major goal in nuclear physics is to understand how nuclear structure comes about from the underlying interactions between nucleons. This requires modelling nuclei as collections of strongly interacting nucleons. We start with realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, supplemented with consistent three-nucleon potentials and two-body electroweak current operators, and try to predict nuclear ground properties, such as the binding energy, density and momentum distributions, and electromagnetic form factors. We also seek to predict other properties of nuclei such as excited states and low-energy reactions. 21 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs
The highly insulated glass house. State report; Det hoejisolerede glashus. Statusrapport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wittchen, K.B.; Aggerholm, S.
1997-11-01
A house with glass facades and translucent thermo insulating glazing is being tested with regard to its thermal comfort, ventilation, interior architecture and energy conservation. The core of the house is constructed of concrete, and in this part the kitchen, bathroom etc. are located. Heating and ventilation are automated. Advantages and drawbacks (leaks, steam condensates etc) are summarized. (EG)
Linear magnetoresistance and surface to bulk coupling in topological insulator thin films.
Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R K; Sarkar, Jit; Pandey, Atul; Patel, Bhavesh G; Mitra, Chiranjib
2017-12-20
We explore the temperature dependent magnetoresistance of bulk insulating topological insulator thin films. Thin films of Bi 2 Se 2 Te and BiSbTeSe 1.6 were grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique and subjected to transport measurements. Magnetotransport measurements indicate a non-saturating linear magnetoresistance (LMR) behavior at high magnetic field values. We present a careful analysis to explain the origin of LMR taking into consideration all the existing models of LMR. Here we consider that the bulk insulating states and the metallic surface states constitute two parallel conduction channels. Invoking this, we were able to explain linear magnetoresistance behavior as a competition between these parallel channels. We observe that the cross-over field, where LMR sets in, decreases with increasing temperature. We propose that this cross-over field can be used phenomenologically to estimate the strength of surface to bulk coupling.
Insulation structure of thermonuclear device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Takayuki; Usami, Saburo; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru
1998-01-01
The present invention provides an insulating structure of a thermonuclear device, in which insulation materials between toroidal coils are not broken even if superconductive toroidal coils are used. Namely, a tokamak type thermonuclear device of an insulating structure type comprises superconductive toroidal coils for confining plasmas arranged in a circular shape directing the center each at a predetermined angle, and the toroidal coils are insulated from each other. The insulation materials are formed by using a biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics. The contact surface of the toroidal coils and the insulating materials are arranged so that they are contact at a woven surface of the fiber reinforced plastics. Either or both of the contact surfaces of the fiber reinforced plastics and the toroidal coils are coated with a high molecular compound having a low friction coefficient. With such a constitution, since the interlayer shearing strength of the biaxially oriented fiber reinforced plastics is about 1/10 of the compression strength, the shearing stress exerted on the insulation material is reduced. Since a static friction coefficient on the contact surface is reduced to provide a structure causing slipping, shearing stress does not exceeds a predetermined limit. As a result, breakage of the insulation materials between the toroidal coils can be prevented. (I.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.
2010-01-01
We calculate the first-order perturbation correction to the ground-state energy and chemical potential of a harmonically trapped boson gas with contact interactions about the infinite repulsion Tonks-Girardeau limit. With c denoting the interaction strength, we find that, for a large number of particles N, the 1/c correction to the ground-state energy increases as N 5/2 , in contrast to the unperturbed Tonks-Girardeau value that is proportional to N 2 . We describe a thermodynamic scaling limit for the trapping frequency that yields an extensive ground-state energy and reproduces the zero temperature thermodynamics obtained by a local-density approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.
1977-01-01
Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.
2014-01-01
The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.
Luo, Ding; Lee, Sangsu; Zheng, Bin; Sun, Zhe; Zeng, Wangdong; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Furukawa, Ko; Kim, Dongho; Webster, Richard D.; Wu, Jishan
2014-01-01
and showed different ground states. Based on variable-temperature NMR/ESR measurements and density functional theory calculations, it was found that the indolo[2,3-b]carbazole derivative 1 is a persistent singlet biradical in the ground state with a moderate
Electrospinning onto Insulating Substrates by Controlling Surface Wettability and Humidity
Choi, WooSeok; Kim, Geon Hwee; Shin, Jung Hwal; Lim, Geunbae; An, Taechang
2017-11-01
We report a simple method for electrospinning polymers onto flexible, insulating substrates by controlling the wettability of the substrate surface. Water molecules were adsorbed onto the surface of a hydrophilic polymer substrate by increasing the local humidity around the substrate. The adsorbed water was used as the ground electrode for electrospinning. The electrospun fibers were deposited only onto hydrophilic areas of the substrate, allowing for patterning through wettability control. Direct writing of polymer fiber was also possible through near-field electrospinning onto a hydrophilic surface.
High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...
The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brazovskii, S., E-mail: brazov@lptms.u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, LPTMS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France); Kirova, N. [Université Paris-Saclay, LPS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France)
2016-03-15
We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor–acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zilong Jiang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry can lead to the formation of an energy gap in the Dirac spectrum of the surface states of a topological insulator (TI which can consequently give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena potentially useful for spintronics. In this work, we couple a non-magnetic TI to a high Curie temperature TC magnetic insulator to induce strong exchange interaction via the proximity effect. We have successfully grown 5 quintuple layer thick ternary TI (BixSb1-x2Te3 films on atomically flat yttrium iron garnet (YIG film with the combination of molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition, in which the Fermi level position relative to the Dirac point is varied by controlling the Bi:Sb ratio. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE and suppressed weak antilocalization (WAL measured under out of plane magnetic fields reveal that the TI surface in contact with YIG is magnetized. Our high-quality (BixSb1-x2Te3/Y IG heterostructure provides a tunable system for exploring the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE at higher temperatures in TI-based spintronic devices.
Insulation Reformulation Development
Chapman, Cynthia; Bray, Mark
2015-01-01
The current Space Launch System (SLS) internal solid rocket motor insulation, polybenzimidazole acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR), is a new insulation that replaced asbestos-based insulations found in Space Shuttle heritage solid rocket boosters. PBI-NBR has some outstanding characteristics such as an excellent thermal erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and low density. PBI-NBR also has some significant challenges associated with its use: Air entrainment/entrapment during manufacture and lay-up/cure and low mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. This technology development attempted to overcome these challenges by testing various reformulated versions of booster insulation. The results suggest the SLS program should continue to investigate material alternatives for potential block upgrades or use an entirely new, more advanced booster. The experimental design was composed of a logic path that performs iterative formulation and testing in order to maximize the effort. A lab mixing baseline was developed and documented for the Rubber Laboratory in Bldg. 4602/Room 1178.
A real-time insulation detection method for battery packs used in electric vehicles
Tian, Jiaqiang; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Zonghai
2018-05-01
Due to the energy crisis and environmental pollution, electric vehicles have become more and more popular. Compared to traditional fuel vehicles, the electric vehicles are integrated with more high-voltage components, which have potential security risks of insulation. The insulation resistance between the chassis and the direct current bus of the battery pack is easily affected by factors such as temperature, humidity and vibration. In order to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the electric vehicles, it is necessary to detect the insulation resistance of the battery pack. This paper proposes an insulation detection scheme based on low-frequency signal injection method. Considering the insulation detector which can be easily affected by noises, the algorithm based on Kalman filter is proposed. Moreover, the battery pack is always in the states of charging and discharging during driving, which will lead to frequent changes in the voltage of the battery pack and affect the estimation accuracy of insulation detector. Therefore the recursive least squares algorithm is adopted to solve the problem that the detection results of insulation detector mutate with the voltage of the battery pack. The performance of the proposed method is verified by dynamic and static experiments.
Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Looney
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.
Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity
Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi
2003-01-01
Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.
Kislyakov, M. A.; Chernov, V. A.; Maksimkin, V. L.; Bozhin, Yu. M.
2017-12-01
The article deals with modern methods of monitoring the state and predicting the life of electric machines. In 50% of the cases of failure in the performance of electric machines is associated with insulation damage. As promising, nondestructive methods of control, methods based on the investigation of the processes of polarization occurring in insulating materials are proposed. To improve the accuracy of determining the state of insulation, a multiparametric approach is considered, which is a basis for the development of an expert system for estimating the state of health.
Quantum phase transitions of a disordered antiferromagnetic topological insulator
Baireuther, P.; Edge, J. M.; Fulga, I. C.; Beenakker, C. W. J.; Tworzydło, J.
2014-01-01
We study the effect of electrostatic disorder on the conductivity of a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic insulator (a stack of quantum anomalous Hall layers with staggered magnetization). The phase diagram contains regions where the increase of disorder first causes the appearance of surface conduction (via a topological phase transition), followed by the appearance of bulk conduction (via a metal-insulator transition). The conducting surface states are stabilized by an effective time-reversal symmetry that is broken locally by the disorder but restored on long length scales. A simple self-consistent Born approximation reliably locates the boundaries of this so-called "statistical" topological phase.
Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luca Di Luzio
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamoon Hedayat
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Topological insulators (TI are known for striking quantum phenomena associated with their spin-polarized topological surface state (TSS. The latter in particular forms a Dirac cone that bridges the energy gap between valence and conduction bands, providing a unique opportunity for prospective device applications. In TI of the BixSb2−xTeySe3−y (BSTS family, stoichiometry determines the morphology and position of the Dirac cone with respect to the Fermi level. In order to engineer specific transport properties, a careful tuning of the TSS is highly desired. Therefore, we have systematically explored BSTS samples with different stoichiometries by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TARPES. This technique provides snapshots of the electronic structure and discloses the carrier dynamics in surface and bulk states, providing crucial information for the design of electro-spin current devices. Our results reveal the central role of doping level on the Dirac cone structure and its femtosecond dynamics. In particular, an extraordinarily long TSS lifetime is observed when the the vertex of the Dirac cone lies at the Fermi level.