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Sample records for instructional design theory

  1. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  2. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  3. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  4. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning

  5. What Should Instructional Designers Know about General Systems Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and explains the relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and GST. Benefits of integrating GST into the curriculum of ISD graduate programs are discussed, and a short bibliography on GST is included. (LRW)

  6. The Modified Delphi Method to Analyze the Application of Instructional Design Theory to Online Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeedick, Danielle Marie

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, the field of instructional design theory has experienced changes in what is mostly applied to traditional, on-ground education. While instructional design theory has been (and still is being) discussed, constructed, and deconstructed, there has been no agreement among prominent instructional design theory…

  7. Operationalising elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Ng, Gary; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating the Delphi process within the simplifying conditions method (SCM) described in elaboration theory (ET) to identify conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills for novice learners. We generated an initial list of conditions impacting the complexity of lumbar puncture (LP) from key informant interviews (n = 5) and a literature review. Eighteen clinician-educators from six different medical specialties were subsequently recruited as expert panellists. Over three Delphi rounds, these panellists rated: (i) their agreement with the inclusion of the simple version of the conditions in a representative ('epitome') training scenario, and (ii) how much the inverse (complex) version increases LP complexity for a novice. Cronbach's α-values were used to assess inter-rater agreement. All panellists completed Rounds 1 and 2 of the survey and 17 completed Round 3. In Round 1, Cronbach's α-values were 0.89 and 0.94 for conditions that simplify and increase LP complexity, respectively; both values increased to 0.98 in Rounds 2 and 3. With the exception of 'high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) pressure', panellists agreed with the inclusion of all conditions in the simplest (epitome) training scenario. Panellists rated patient movement, spinal anatomy, patient cooperativeness, body habitus, and the presence or absence of an experienced assistant as having the greatest impact on the complexity of LP. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using expert consensus to establish conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills, and the benefits of incorporating the Delphi method into the SCM. These data can be used to develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised, the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills

  8. Towards Cognitive Load Theory as Guideline for Instructional Design in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Barbara; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    We applied cognitive load theory in an heuristic out-of-school science lesson. The lesson comprises experiments concerning major attributes of NaCl and was designed for 5th to 8th grade students. Our interest focused on whether cognitive load theory provides sufficient guidelines for instructional design in the field of heuristic science…

  9. PROPOSAL FOR A MOOC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON THE THEORY DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERY LEARNIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio Sánchez-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first massive open online courses cMOOC lacked an instructional design and have now shifted to models that have an instructional design called xMOOC. This document makes a proposal instructional design for MOOC using the simplified adaptive method SAM inspired by the theory development and strategy of Mastery Learning as part of the research method based on the design of the qualitative paradigm. The results explain and justify the procedure used for the preparation of instructional design. The conclusion that has been reached is that both SAM and strategy Mastery Learning has allowed the instructional design for MOOC easily with emphasis in practice but supported with theoretical, personalized basis by tracking post and considering the learning strategy for the domain.

  10. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    be the most effective or most desirable way to use computer technology in literacy programs. This project is developing a series of instructional packages that are based on a different instructional model - authentic instruction. The instructional development model used to create these packages is also different. Instead of using the traditional five stage linear, sequential model based on behavioral learning theory, the project uses the recursive, reflective design and development model (R2D2) that is based on cognitive learning theory, particularly the social constructivism of Vygotsky, and an epistemology based on critical theory. Using alternative instructional and instructional development theories, the result of the summer faculty fellowship is LiteraCity, a multimedia adult literacy instructional package that is a simulation of finding and applying for a job. The program, which is about 120 megabytes, is distributed on CD-ROM.

  11. Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Promote Universally Designed College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sally; McGuire, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Universal Design applied to college instruction has evolved and rapidly spread on an international scale. Diffusion of Innovation theory is described and used to identify patterns of change in this trend. Implications and strategies are discussed for promoting this inclusive approach to teaching in higher education.

  12. Cognitive Load Theory, Educational Research, and Instructional Design: Some Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ton

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The recommended remedy is to design instructional systems…

  13. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  14. Espoused Theory and Theory-in-Use of Instructional Designers in the Use of Constructivism in Online Writing Instruction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Online Writing Instruction (OWI) has become a viable educational alternative in online instruction in the K-12 educational community. To continue to effectively compete in a global society, educators have identified a necessity for instruction that replicates real-world situations and problem-solving tasks which is consistent with constructivism.…

  15. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  16. Applying Instructional Design Theories to Bioinformatics Education in Microarray Analysis and Primer Design Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachak, Aviv; Ophir, Ron; Rubin, Eitan

    2005-01-01

    The need to support bioinformatics training has been widely recognized by scientists, industry, and government institutions. However, the discussion of instructional methods for teaching bioinformatics is only beginning. Here we report on a systematic attempt to design two bioinformatics workshops for graduate biology students on the basis of…

  17. Instructional Plans and Situated Learning: The Challenge of Suchman's Theory of Situated Action for Instructional Designers and Instructional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Michael J.

    This paper discusses the implications of Lucy Suchman's conclusion that a theory of situated action--i.e., the actual sense that specific users make out of specific Xeroxing events--is truer to the lived experience of Xerox users than a cognitive account of the user's plans--e.g., the hierarchy of subprocedures for how Xerox machines should be…

  18. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    Interventions and media campaigns promoting household disaster preparedness have produced mixed results in affecting behaviors. In large part, this is due to the limited application of instructional design strategies and behavior theory, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This study describes the development and evaluation of Ready CDC, an intervention designed to increase household disaster preparedness among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workforce. (1) Describe the instructional design strategies employed in the development of Ready CDC and (2) evaluate the intervention's impact on behavior change and factors influencing stage progression for household disaster preparedness behavior. Ready CDC was adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Ready campaign. Offered to CDC staff September 2013-November 2015, it consisted of a preassessment of preparedness attitudes and behaviors, an in-person training, behavioral reinforcement communications, and a 3-month follow-up postassessment. Ready CDC employed well-accepted design strategies, including presenting stimulus material and enhancing transfer of desired behavior. Excluding those in the TTM "maintenance" stage at baseline, this study determined 44% of 208 participants progressed at least 1 stage for developing a written disaster plan. Moreover, assessment of progression by stage found among participants in the "precontemplation" (n = 16), "contemplation" (n = 15), and "preparation" (n = 125) stages at baseline for assembling an emergency kit, 25%, 27%, and 43% moved beyond the "preparation" stage, respectively. Factors influencing stage movement included knowledge, attitudes, and community resiliency but varied depending on baseline stage of change. Employing instructional strategies and behavioral theories in preparedness interventions optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt preparedness behaviors. Study findings suggest that stage movement toward

  19. Using Web-Based Instruction to Teach Music Theory in the Piano Studio: Defining, Designing, and Implementing an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation rationalizes the best use of Web-based instruction (WBI) for teaching music theory to private piano students in the later primary grades. It uses an integrative research methodology for defining, designing, and implementing a curriculum that includes WBI. Research from the fields of music education, educational technology,…

  20. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  1. Motivational Design in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amanda Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…

  2. Dialectical Inquiry as an Instructional Heuristic in Organization Theory and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehler, Gordon E.; Welsh, M. Ann

    1993-01-01

    A strategy for teaching undergraduate organization theory and design uses dialectical inquiry (thesis-antithesis-synthesis) and involves students actively in classroom learning. Concepts are introduced through dichotomies as typically introduced in texts; discussion elaborates grey areas. Case analysis by this method conveys the often ambiguous…

  3. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  4. Using Heuristic Task Analysis to Create Web-Based Instructional Design Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Herbert R.

    2010-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to identify procedural and heuristic knowledge used when creating web-based instruction. The second purpose of this study was to develop suggestions for improving the Heuristic Task Analysis process, a technique for eliciting, analyzing, and representing expertise in cognitively complex tasks. Three expert…

  5. A Content Analysis of Instructional Design and Web Design Books: Implications for Inclusion of Web Design in Instructional Design Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilade, Titilola T.; Burton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This textual content analysis set out to determine the extent to which the theories, principles, and guidelines in 4 standard books of instructional design and technology were also addressed in 4 popular books on web design. The standard books on instructional design and the popular books on web design were chosen by experts in the fields. The…

  6. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  7. Cognitive load theory, educational research, and instructional design; some food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The

  8. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  9. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  10. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  11. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In practice, few researchers and designers have strong conceptual understanding of the marriage between the design discipline and scientific research traditions. Rather, most have strong exposure to either research methodologies or instructional design methods, theories and/or practices. Within the

  12. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  13. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  14. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  15. Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.

  16. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  17. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  18. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with a fundamental matter of concern in research through design: how can design work lead to the building of new theory? Controversy exists about the balance between theory and design work in research through design. While some researchers see theory production as the scientific...... hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...... the scene, it starts out by briefly examining ideas on this issue presented in existing research literature. Hereafter, it introduces three basic forms in which design work can lead to theory that is referred to as extending theories, scaffolding theories and blending theories. Finally, it is discussed how...

  19. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  20. Instructional psychology and the design of training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the role of instructional psychology in simulator design and use is discussed. It is suggested that research and development work has tended to focus upon the face validity of simulators rather than their instructional utility. Dimensions of simulation are reviewed as are the variety of uses to which a simulator may be put. The nature of instructional psychology is briefly described under the following headings: task analysis, the acquisition of knowledge and skill and theories of instruction. Attention is also given to the potential role of computer-based training and the topic of retention of training is introduced. (author)

  1. Investigating Instructional Design Management and Leadership Competencies--A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Chongwony, Lewis; Washington, Tawana

    2018-01-01

    Research in instructional design and educational technology journals typically focuses on the theories, technologies, and processes related to practice of instructional design. There is little research emphasis, however, on leadership and management of instructional design in higher education. Investigating the competencies associated with…

  2. Worldviews for Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2006-01-01

    aware of, I demonstrate how 'insidious inconsistency ' may infect design theory if we ignore this admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound methaphysical foundations ('worldviews') for design theory - and obtain philosophical insights......I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically...

  3. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    McKenney, S., & Visscher-Voerman, I. (2013). Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers. Educational Designer, 2(6). Available online: http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article20/index.htm

  4. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  5. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...... for the lessons and new pedagogical activities during lessons to make the learning process more situated. The video-clips should also include more students through scaffolding the academic reading with video-clips. However, the outcome was not as planned. The students didn’t recognize the video......This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...

  6. Algebraic design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Launey, Warwick De

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial design theory is a source of simply stated, concrete, yet difficult discrete problems, with the Hadamard conjecture being a prime example. It has become clear that many of these problems are essentially algebraic in nature. This book provides a unified vision of the algebraic themes which have developed so far in design theory. These include the applications in design theory of matrix algebra, the automorphism group and its regular subgroups, the composition of smaller designs to make larger designs, and the connection between designs with regular group actions and solutions to group ring equations. Everything is explained at an elementary level in terms of orthogonality sets and pairwise combinatorial designs--new and simple combinatorial notions which cover many of the commonly studied designs. Particular attention is paid to how the main themes apply in the important new context of cocyclic development. Indeed, this book contains a comprehensive account of cocyclic Hadamard matrices. The book...

  7. Literacity: A multimedia adult literacy package combining NASA technology, recursive ID theory, and authentic instruction theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry; Willis, Dee Anna; Walsh, Clare; Stephens, Elizabeth; Murphy, Timothy; Price, Jerry; Stevens, William; Jackson, Kevin; Villareal, James A.; Way, Bob

    1994-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application under development is LiteraCity, a simulation-based instructional package for adults who do not have functional reading skills. Using fuzzy logic routines and other technologies developed by NASA's Information Systems Directorate and hypermedia sound, graphics, and animation technologies the project attempts to overcome the limited impact of adult literacy assessment and instruction by involving the adult in an interactive simulation of real-life literacy activities. The project uses a recursive instructional development model and authentic instruction theory. This paper describes one component of a project to design, develop, and produce a series of computer-based, multimedia instructional packages. The packages are being developed for use in adult literacy programs, particularly in correctional education centers. They use the concepts of authentic instruction and authentic assessment to guide development. All the packages to be developed are instructional simulations. The first is a simulation of 'finding a friend a job.'

  8. Design Theory Projectability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    design science research is materially prescriptive, it requires a different perspective in developing the breadth of applications of design theories. In this paper we propose different concepts that embody forms of general technological knowledge The concept of projectability, developed originally......Technological knowledge has been characterized as having a scope that is specific to a particular problem. However, the information systems community is exploring forms of design science research that provide a promising avenue to technological knowledge with broader scope: design theories. Because...... as a means of distinguishing realized generalizations from unrealized generalizations, helps explain how design theories, being prescriptive, possess a different form of applicability. The concept of entrenchment describes the use of a theory in many projections. Together these concepts provide a means...

  9. Flexible learning and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Nikolova, Iliana

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of designing flexible learning and instruction. Flexibility is considered both from the learner's and the designer's perspective. The potential of telematics in the design, development and implementation of flexible and distance learning is discussed. A Method for

  10. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  11. Excellence in Physics Education Award: Modeling Theory for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David

    2014-03-01

    All humans create mental models to plan and guide their interactions with the physical world. Science has greatly refined and extended this ability by creating and validating formal scientific models of physical things and processes. Research in physics education has found that mental models created from everyday experience are largely incompatible with scientific models. This suggests that the fundamental problem in learning and understanding science is coordinating mental models with scientific models. Modeling Theory has drawn on resources of cognitive science to work out extensive implications of this suggestion and guide development of an approach to science pedagogy and curriculum design called Modeling Instruction. Modeling Instruction has been widely applied to high school physics and, more recently, to chemistry and biology, with noteworthy results.

  12. Librarians and Instructional Designers: Collaboration and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Joe; Moniz, Richard; Mann, Karen; Eshleman, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    With online education options more ubiquitous and sophisticated than ever, the need for academic librarians to be conversant with digital resources and design thinking has become increasingly important. The way forward is through collaboration with instructional designers, which allows librarians to gain a better understanding of digital resource…

  13. Impact of Instructional Design on Virtual Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Melody

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and student…

  14. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  15. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  16. Academic Reference and Instruction Librarians and Dweck's Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces psychologist Carol S. Dweck's entity and incremental theories of intelligence and explores the prevalence of these theories in academic librarians who participate in reference and instruction activities. Based on existing research, it is possible that implicit theories of intelligence could affect the ways in which…

  17. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  18. Successful AP Music Theory Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional approach of a highly successful Advanced Placement Music Theory teacher. I visited the participant's class twice a week for 14 weeks, taking field notes, conducting interviews, and collecting instructional artifacts. Analysis of qualitative data revealed three main themes: classroom…

  19. Applying Cognitive Load Theory Principles to Library Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    If the goal of library instructional guidance is to provide students with the knowledge needed to acquire new skills in order to accomplish their learning objectives, then it is prudent to consider factors that impact learning. Cognitive load theory addresses several of these factors and is applicable to a wide-range of instructional devices used…

  20. An Instructional Theory for the Post-Industrial Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems--ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The author discusses the importance of problem-based instruction (PBI), identifies some problems with PBI, overviews an…

  1. A Virtual Library for Instructional Systems Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James J.

    During the past three years, the role of the instructional systems designer has taken on greater significance for instructors. This is because many faculty members have been asked to put their entire courses online over the World Wide Web. Instructors are now creating a substantial percentage of the online courses with little or no background in…

  2. Designing Genetics Instruction for a Socratic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idros, Sharifah Norhaidah Syed

    2004-01-01

    Science is at heart a rational activity. Reasoning, being an important component of critical thinking has been successfully taught using Socratic methods. As an approach, the instructor or designer of instruction models an inquiring and probing mind focusing on providing questions and not answers. The main aim has been to allow learners to…

  3. Instructional Design: Its Relevance for CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary (language and educational technology departments) instructional design program that is intended to develop back-up computer programs for students taking supplementary English as a second language classes. The program encompasses training programs, the psychology of screen reading, task analysis, and color cueing.…

  4. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  5. Redefining Classroom Culture through Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah; Muhamad, Aminuddin

    2007-01-01

    This critical assessment attempts to define a good instructional design through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars and the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller, Jerome Bruner, and Richard E. Mayer and so on. This examination also discusses ways in directing the mental map of students for better knowledge…

  6. Considerations for Designing Instructional Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Branch, Robert C.

    Virtual reality is an immersive, interactive medium that manipulates the senses in order provide users with simulated experiences in computer-generated worlds. The visual design of virtual reality is an important issue, but literature has tended to stress the medium's instructional potential rather than setting forth a protocol for designing…

  7. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  8. A Design Approach to Teaching Persuasion: Theory and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, W. Patrick; And Others

    One course in persuasion reviews six theories of attitude change--five based on Otto Lerbinger's designs for persuasive communication (cognitive design, stimulus response design, motivational design, personality design, and social design), and a sixth (perceptual design) developed by the instructors. Instruction in each includes a variety of…

  9. Comparison of Effects of Teaching English to Thai Undergraduate Teacher-Students through Cross-Curricular Thematic Instruction Program Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory and Conventional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the effects of teaching English to Thai undergraduate teacher-students through cross-curricular thematic instruction program based on multiple intelligence theory and through conventional instruction. Two experimental groups, which utilized Randomized True Control Group-Pretest-posttest Time Series Design and…

  10. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID principles appropriate to distance education (DE and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle to increase course accessibility. Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level. The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

  11. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... to the metaphysical (pre-empirical) and  conceptual foundations of design theory....

  12. Instructional Design of a Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We present a brief overview of a model for the human cognitive architecture and three learning theories based on this model: cognitive load theory, cognitive apprenticeship, and worked examples (a key area of cognitive skill acquisition). Based on this brief overview we argue how an introductory...... object-oriented programming course is designed according to results of cognitive science and educational psychology in general and cognitive load theory and cognitive skill acquisition in particular; the principal techniques applied are: worked examples, scaffolding, faded guidance, cognitive...

  13. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  14. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  15. How Instruction Influences Conceptual Development: Vygotsky's Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarà, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Although current interpretations of Vygotsky's theory largely assume that instruction pushes development, the issue of how this occurs has yet to be clarified. For example, the notion of "zone of proximal development" has aroused strong disagreement, and the common conceptualization of the notion of "nonspontaneous concept" has…

  16. Instruction sequences and non-uniform complexity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop theory concerning non-uniform complexity in a setting in which the notion of single-pass instruction sequence considered in program algebra is the central notion. We define counterparts of the complexity classes P/poly and NP/poly and formulate a counterpart of the complexity theoretic

  17. Shorthand Instruction in Light of Recent Theories of Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Charles T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the highlights of three learning models (behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist), and examines them for the guidance they offer for instruction and learning in shorthand. Included are the theories of Skinner, Gagne, Carroll, Bloom, Wittrock, Ausubel, Bruner, Dember, Nebes, Scriven, Anderson, and Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  18. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (III)--Instructional Engineering: Design Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In the third of a series of articles on teaching psychomotor skills in dental education, the design of instructional materials is discussed. Steps include identifying appropriate teaching strategies for the tasks; organizing and sequencing subskills; identifying and collecting common errors; and drafting learning exercises for each subskill. (MSE)

  19. Melodic Dictation Instruction: A Survey of Advanced Placement Music Theory Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…

  20. An Instructional Model for Teaching Proof Writing in the Number Theory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…

  1. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    This writing aimed at (1) describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2) describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classi...

  2. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  3. A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Angela Doucet

    2013-01-01

    Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

  4. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  5. MOOCS AS NEW CONDITIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Karanam, Pushpanadham

    MOOCS AS NEW CONDITIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Prof. Karanam Pushpanadham (The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda) Prof. Mie Buhl (Aalborg University) Associate Prof. Lars Birch Andreasen (Aalborg University) ABSTRACT Education at all levels can shape the world of tomorrow, equipping...... education and research institutions and a critical mass of skilled and educated people, no society can ensure genuine sustainable development (UNESCO, 1998). Information and Communication Technologies have entailed changes in the conditions for teaching and learning. New technologies do not in themselves....... With the large-scale development of massive open online courses, MOOCs, new questions have arisen in relation to the planning, organizing and carrying out of the teaching situation. The classical pedagogical questions of what? (content), how? (methods), why? (purpose), and who? (participants) have been...

  6. A Classification Model and an Open E-Learning System Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets for Instructional Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güyer, Tolga; Aydogdu, Seyhmus

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests a classification model and an e-learning system based on this model for all instructional theories, approaches, models, strategies, methods, and technics being used in the process of instructional design that constitutes a direct or indirect resource for educational technology based on the theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets…

  7. Designing Preclinical Instruction of Psychomotor Skills (IV)--Instructional Engineering: Evaluation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…

  8. Preventing information overload: cognitive load theory as an instructional framework for teaching pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Sara K

    2014-02-01

    Nursing students are challenged by content-laden curricula and learning environments that emphasize testing outcomes. Likewise, educators are challenged to support student-centered learning in a manner that encourages students to connect and act upon their personal motivations. This article describes the use of cognitive load theory (CLT) as an instructional design framework for an undergraduate pharmacology for nursing course. Guided by the principles of CLT, four instructional strategies were used in this course: (a) opening review activities, (b) providing students with lecture notes, (c) a "Top Five" prototype approach, and (d) deciphering "Need to Knows" from "Nice to Knows." Instructional style and strategies received positive student feedback and were found to promote a student-centered environment and active learning. On the basis of this feedback, cognitive load theory may be a successful and effective framework for undergraduate pharmacology and other nursing courses, thus assisting students and educators alike in overcoming obstacles imposed on learning environments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Program Theory for Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2018-01-01

    How does participatory design work and what are the links between investments in terms of time, people and skills, the processes and the resulting effects? This paper explores program theory as a way for Participatory Design (PD) to investigate and evaluate these issues. Program theory comes out...

  10. Multimedia instructions and cognitive load theory: effects of modality and cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbers, Huib K; Martens, Rob L; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2004-03-01

    Recent research on the influence of presentation format on the effectiveness of multimedia instructions has yielded some interesting results. According to cognitive load theory (Sweller, Van Merriënboer, & Paas, 1998) and Mayer's theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), replacing visual text with spoken text (the modality effect) and adding visual cues relating elements of a picture to the text (the cueing effect) both increase the effectiveness of multimedia instructions in terms of better learning results or less mental effort spent. The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the modality and cueing effect in a classroom setting. The participants were 111 second-year students from the Department of Education at the University of Gent in Belgium (age between 19 and 25 years). The participants studied a web-based multimedia lesson on instructional design for about one hour. Afterwards they completed a retention and a transfer test. During both the instruction and the tests, self-report measures of mental effort were administered. Adding visual cues to the pictures resulted in higher retention scores, while replacing visual text with spoken text resulted in lower retention and transfer scores. Only a weak cueing effect and even a reverse modality effect have been found, indicating that both effects do not easily generalise to non-laboratory settings. A possible explanation for the reversed modality effect is that the multimedia instructions in this study were learner-paced, as opposed to the system-paced instructions used in earlier research.

  11. Algorithms in combinatorial design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Colbourn, CJ

    1985-01-01

    The scope of the volume includes all algorithmic and computational aspects of research on combinatorial designs. Algorithmic aspects include generation, isomorphism and analysis techniques - both heuristic methods used in practice, and the computational complexity of these operations. The scope within design theory includes all aspects of block designs, Latin squares and their variants, pairwise balanced designs and projective planes and related geometries.

  12. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative: lack of schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students; hence the new instructional design should motivate students to attend the lessons and to participate. The new instructional design...

  13. Project Management in Instructional Design: ADDIE Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age, instructional designers must possess both a sound instructional design knowledge base and solid project management skills that will enable them to complete courseware projects on time, on budget and in conformance with client expectations. Project management skills include the ability to apply repeatable processes, along with…

  14. A Symbiosis between Instructional Systems Design and Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to explore a complementary relationship between instructional systems design (ISD) and project management in an attempt to build a plausible case for integrating project management as a distinct course in the core of the graduate instructional systems design programs. It is argued that ISD and project management should form…

  15. What Do Instructional Designers in Higher Education Really Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Ritzhaupt, Albert

    2017-01-01

    What do instructional designers in higher education really do? With the rise in online courses and programs in higher education, this question is especially important. We interviewed eight instructional designers from across the United States using a semi-structured interview protocol. The results were analyzed using the constant comparative…

  16. MVP and Instructional Systems Design in Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is based on three premises. The first premise is that the use of instructional systems design (ISD) methods is important in online as well as traditional classroom settings. A second premise is that improving the motivational design of instruction brings benefits to teachers and learners alike. The third premise, specific to this…

  17. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As noted in part I of this article (published in "TechTrends 54"(3)), advances in technology continue to outpace research on the design and effectiveness of instructional (digital video) games. In general, instructional designers know little about game development, commercial video game developers know little about training, education and…

  18. The Need for Imagination and Creativity in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the need for imagination and creativity in adult education instructional design both online and face-to-face. It defines both imagination and creativity as well as provides an overview of the history of instructional design. It provides an examination of imagination and its application in educational…

  19. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  20. Computer Assisted Instructional Design for Computer-Based Instruction. Final Report. Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Pirolli, Peter

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and the cognitive sciences have made it possible to develop successful intelligent computer-aided instructional systems for technical and scientific training. In addition, computer-aided design (CAD) environments that support the rapid development of such computer-based instruction have also been recently…

  1. Universal Design for Instruction: The Paradigm, Its Principles, and Products for Enhancing Instructional Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…

  2. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  3. Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

  4. The Value of the Operational Principle in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    Formal design studies are increasing our insight into design processes, including those of instructional design. Lessons are being learned from other design fields, and new techniques and concepts can be imported as they are demonstrated effective. The purpose of this article is to introduce a design concept--the "operational principle"--for…

  5. Educating Instructional Designers: Different Methods for Different Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Gordon; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests new methods of teaching instructional design based on literature reviews of other design fields including engineering, architecture, interior design, media design, and medicine. Methods discussed include public presentations, visiting experts, competitions, artifacts, case studies, design studios, and internships and apprenticeships.…

  6. Radome electromagnetic theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Reuven

    2018-01-01

    Radome Electromagnetic Theory and Design explores the theoretical tools and methods required to design radomes that are fully transparent to the electromagnetic energy transmitted or received by the enclosed antenna. A radome is a weatherproof and camouflaged enclosure that protects the enclosed radar or communication antenna, and are typically used on a fixed or moving platform such as an aircraft, ship or missile.

  7. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  8. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  9. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p classroom strategies for increasing self-efficacy and given specific recommendations related to teamwork and feedback to support students. Finally, although there were weaknesses in the study related to the survey administration, future research opportunities are presented which may build from this work.

  10. Instructional Control of Cognitive Load in the Design of Complex Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Kester, L., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Instructional control of cognitive load in the design of complex learning environments. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & Roland Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp. 109-130). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  11. Social Ecology and Worksite Training and Development: Introducing the Social in Instructional System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Marc G.; Shuck, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) is recognized as an interdisciplinary field covering the breadth of behavioral and social sciences. However, since its inception, instructional systems design (ISD), a methodology widely used in the HRD field, has been based on a narrow range of behavioral science. Grounded in general system's theory, the ISD…

  12. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  13. Designing Opportunities to Learn Mathematics Theory-Building Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Hyman

    2017-01-01

    Mathematicians commonly distinguish two modes of work in the discipline: "Problem solving," and "theory building." Mathematics education offers many opportunities to learn problem solving. This paper explores the possibility, and value, of designing instructional activities that provide supported opportunities for students to…

  14. Liberating Learning Object Design from the Learning Style of Student Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…

  15. DESIGNING INSTRUCTION FOR THE TRADITIONAL, ADULT, AND DISTANCE LEARNER: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Tomei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.This text proposes a new paradigm for designing, developing, implementing, and assessed technology-based instruction. It addresses three target populations of today's learner: traditional, adult, and distance education. The text proposes a new model of instructional system design (ISD for developing effective technology-based education that involves a five-step process focusing on the learner, learning theories, resources, delivery modalities, and outcomes.

  16. Applications of decision theory to computer-based adaptive instructional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers applications of decision theory to the problem of instructional decision-making in computer-based adaptive instructional systems, using the Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS) as an example. The first section indicates how the problem of selecting the appropriate

  17. Operational amplifiers theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsing, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...

  18. Using instructional design process to improve design and development of Internet interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgart, Michelle M; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

    2012-06-28

    knowledge and behaviors, and desired outcomes. Through the ID process, designers focus on the needs of learners, taking into account their prior knowledge; set measurable learning objectives or performance requirements; assess learners' achievement of the targeted outcomes; and employ cycles of continuous formative evaluation to ensure that the intervention meets the needs of all stakeholders. The ID process offers a proven methodology for the design of instructional programs and should be considered an integral part of the creation of Internet interventions. By providing a framework for the design and development of Internet interventions and by purposefully focusing on these aspects, as well as the underlying theories supporting these practices, both the theories and the interventions themselves can continue to be refined and improved. By using the behavior change model for Internet interventions along with the best research available to guide design practice and inform development, developers of Internet interventions will increase their ability to achieve desired outcomes.

  19. Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in the…

  20. A Waterfall Design Strategy for Using Social Media for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Terence C.

    2016-01-01

    Using social media can create a rich learning environment that crosses all content areas. The key to creating this environment is for instructors and designers to match appropriate social media software with the intended learning outcome. This article describes an instructional design strategy that helps educators create learning activities that…

  1. Instructional Design as Manipulation of, or Cooperation with, Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael T.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2018-01-01

    We present a qualitative study of the tension between manipulative and cooperative approaches to instructional design. We found that our participants struggled to resist manipulative tendencies in their work contexts. More specifically, our findings suggest that our participants sought to design with their learners in mind to foster a more…

  2. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Like many rapidly growing industries, advances in video game technology are far outpacing research on its design and effectiveness. Relatively little is understood about how to apply what we know about teaching and learning to optimize game-based learning. For the most part, instructional designers know little about game development and video game…

  3. Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory: A Study on Information Retention among Trainee Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chiek Pin; Tasir, Zaidatun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the information retention among trainee teachers using a self-instructional printed module based on Cognitive Load Theory for learning spreadsheet software. Effective pedagogical considerations integrating the theoretical concepts related to cognitive load are reflected in the design and development of the…

  4. Does Staff Development in Cognitively Guided Instructional Theory Change Middle School Teachers' Mental Models about Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Judith R.

    This practicum was designed to increase middle-level teaching teams' understanding of cognitively guided instructional strategies or brain-based learning theories and to promote the incorporation of these strategies into the teaching of cross-curriculum thematic units. Twelve staff development modules based on a new perspective of learning which…

  5. AN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL FOR BLENDED HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional design models that are used by many higher education institutions to guide course design are insufficient for the unique opportunities of blended learning. Many established models are not practical tools for college faculty to use independently in the design of courses. Models like A.D.D.I.E., use a linear approach that can translate more easily into practical stages of course design, yet are historically rooted in the rapid prototyping of educational technologies or for designing military training and are inadequate for the complex demands of higher education, where learning outcomes are geared toward higher order thinking, scientific/clinical reasoning, and a syntheses of ideas into new knowledge. Presented here is an instructional design model that strategically incorporates the nuances of higher education, yet is practically framed to assist faculty with design challenges.

  6. Study of the 5E Instructional Model to Improve the Instructional Design Process of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuhua; Gao, Chong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5E instructional model on the teaching processes of novice teachers. First, we conducted a teaching design training project based on the 5E model for 40 novice teachers, and compared pre-texts of the teachers' teaching process from before the training with post-texts obtained immediately following the…

  7. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  8. Antenna theory: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, C. A.

    The book's main objective is to introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas. In a description of antennas, the radiation mechanism is discussed along with the current distribution on a thin wire. Fundamental parameters of antennas are examined, taking into account the radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, directivity, numerical techniques, gain, antenna efficiency, half-power beamwidth, beam efficiency, bandwidth, polarization, input impedance, and antenna temperature. Attention is given to radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions, linear wire antennas, loop antennas, linear and circular arrays, self- and mutual impedances of linear elements and arrays, broadband dipoles and matching techniques, traveling wave and broadband antennas, frequency independent antennas and antenna miniaturization, the geometrical theory of diffraction, horns, reflectors and lens antennas, antenna synthesis and continuous sources, and antenna measurements.

  9. Incorporating Kansei Engineering in Instructional Design: Designing Virtual Reality Based Learning Environments from a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Kee Man; Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the application of virtual reality (VR) technology in education is rapidly gaining momentum. The educational benefits offered by such technology have prompted many educators as well as instructional designers to investigate ways to create effective and engaging VR learning. Instructional designers have examined widely the…

  10. Service-Learning Instructional Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…

  11. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  12. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  13. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  14. From theory to practice: integrating instructional technology into veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.

  15. Teacher’s Instructional Behaviour in Instructional Management at Elementary School Reviewed from Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Astuti Ni Putu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing aimed at (1 describing the importance of teacher to review instructional management at elementary school based on Piaget’s cognitive development theory; and (2 describing teacher’s instructional behavior in managing instructional at elementary school reviewed from Piaget’s cognitive development theory. In general, Piaget’ cognitive development theory divides children’ cognitive development into four stages. In the elementary school ages of 7 to 11 or 12 years old, Piaget classified the cognitive development into concrete operational marked by the use of clear and logic rules. The children implement logic thinking on concrete object, yet abstract or hypothetical. Although the intelligence of this step has been advanced, the way of thinking of the children is still limited because still based on concrete object. Therefore, teacher should comprehend the importance of concrete operational instructional at elementary school so the children could maximally achieve the learning goal in accordance to their thinking level that they acquire. The suggestion that can be proposed is that the teacher should synergize the characteristics of elementary school students in concrete operational stage with the instructional readiness in the steps of planning, implementation and evaluation.

  16. Issues in Software Engineering of Relevance to Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Software engineering is popularly misconceived as being an upmarket term for programming. In a way, this is akin to characterizing instructional design as the process of creating PowerPoint slides. In both these areas, the construction of systems, whether they are learning or computer systems, is only one part of a systematic process. The most…

  17. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  18. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  19. Virtual Reality Hypermedia Design Frameworks for Science Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, R. William; Oh, Byron; Check, Rosa

    This paper reports on a study that conceptualizes a research framework to aid software design and development for virtual reality (VR) computer applications for instruction in the sciences. The framework provides methodologies for the processing, collection, examination, classification, and presentation of multimedia information within hyperlinked…

  20. Instructional Design for the Future of Undergraduate Journalism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    In the face of communication changes brought on by technology, journalism curriculum needs restructuring while staying true to its core values. Using an instructional design framework, and a case study, this paper proposes a journalism education based on Esser's spheres of influence. Current practices and principles are discussed. A literature…

  1. Instructional Design and Project Management: Complementary or Divergent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to identify the extent to which organizations that develop educational/training products are committed to project management, as measured by their project management implementation maturity, as a methodology that is separate and distinct from the processes of instructional design. A Web survey was…

  2. Evaluating Online Dialogue on "Security" Using a Novel Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Payal

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores evaluation strategies to gauge the impact of a novel instructional design on international community participation online. This is done by conceptualizing and devising indicators for measuring "engagement" online amongst marginalized adult communities worldwide. In doing so, a review of online evaluation literature is…

  3. Implementing Integrated Multicultural Instructional Design in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer L.; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to summarize the principles of integrated multicultural instructional design (IMID; Higbee, Goff, & Schultz, in press; Higbee, Schultz, & Goff, 2010) and present specific strategies for incorporating IMID in management education. The primary goal of IMID is to promote the integration of multicultural content…

  4. Designing Interactive Multimedia Instruction To Enable and Enhance Information Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Leslie E.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses key strategies for the design and development of Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) programs for adult learners, focusing on the removal of learning barriers and the incorporation of information literacy principles. Barriers include financial constraints, socio-economic and social class, communication skills, time constraints,…

  5. Designing Online Instruction for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…

  6. Training in Japan: The Use of Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Mina; Keller, John M.

    This study investigated the kinds of training conducted in Japanese companies and the degree to which instructional systems design (ISD) is implemented. A random sample of 12 Japanese companies in the banking, automobile manufacturing, electrical machinery, wholesale stores, insurance and securities, and transportation industries were surveyed; a…

  7. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  8. Design theory methods and organization for innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Masson, Pascal; Hatchuel, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the core of recent advances in design theory and its implications for design methods and design organization. Providing a unified perspective on different design methods and approaches, from the most classic (systematic design) to the most advanced (C-K theory), it offers a unique and integrated presentation of traditional and contemporary theories in the field. Examining the principles of each theory, this guide utilizes numerous real life industrial applications, with clear links to engineering design, industrial design, management, economics, psychology and creativity. Containing a section of exams with detailed answers, it is useful for courses in design theory, engineering design and advanced innovation management. "Students and professors, practitioners and researchers in diverse disciplines, interested in design, will find in this book a rich and vital source for studying fundamental design methods and tools as well as the most advanced design theories that work in practice". Pro...

  9. Using Multiple Ways to Investigate Cognitive Load Theory in the Context of Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Tianlong

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) (Sweller 1988, 1998, 2010) provides us a guiding framework for designing instructional materials. CLT differentiates three subtypes of cognitive load: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. The three cognitive loads are theorized based on the number of simultaneously processed elements in working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load depends upon the number of interacting elements in the instructional material that are related to the learning objective. Extraneous cognitive load is the mental resources allocated to processing unnecessary information which does not contribute to learning as caused by non- optimal instructional procedure. It is determined by the number of interacting elements which are not related to learning goal. Both intrinsic and extraneous load vary according to prior knowledge of learners. Germane cognitive load is indirectly related to interacting elements. It represents the cognitive resources deployed for processing intrinsic load, chunking information and constructing and automating schema. Germane cognitive load is related to level of motivation of the learner. Given this triarchic model of cognitive load and their different roles in learning activities, different learning outcomes can be expected depending upon the characteristics of the educational materials, learner characteristics, and instructional setting. In three experiments, we investigated cognitive load theory following different approaches. Given the triarchic nature of cognitive load construct, it is critical to find non- intrusive ways to measure cognitive load. In study one, we replicated and extended a previous landmark study to investigate the use of eye movements related metrics to measure the three kinds of cognitive load independently. We also collected working memory capacity of students using a cognitive operation-span task. Two of the three types of cognitive load (intrinsic and extraneous) were directly manipulated, and the third

  10. Testing the Utility of Person-Environment Correspondence Theory with Instructional Technology Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkmen, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the validity and usefulness of the person-environment correspondence theory with instructional technology students in Turkey. The participants included 211 students and three teachers. Results revealed that instructional technology students value achievement most and that they believe that entering a…

  11. Designs 2002 further computational and constructive design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This volume is a sequel to the 1996 compilation, Computational and Constructive Design Theory. It contains research papers and surveys of recent research work on two closely related aspects of the study of combinatorial designs: design construction and computer-aided study of designs. Audience: This volume is suitable for researchers in the theory of combinatorial designs

  12. Inclusive college teaching: universal design for instruction and diverse learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. McGuire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Shifts in enrollment patterns are affecting college classrooms and elements of teaching ranging from options for delivering course materials online to multiple methods of assessing learning. With the enrollment of more diverse college learners comes a call to intentionally design instruction that is more inclusive and responsive to multiple learning styles. The notion of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI is examined from its roots in the architectural field to its application as a model for teaching that anticipates diversity including students with disabilities. Principles of UDI are defined, and pedagogical examples are provided. Several implementation projects based on the UDI concept are described as are preliminary results regarding outcomes. Substantive issues are identified that have bearing on the direction this innovative idea will take over the next several years.

  13. Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts...... and assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus...

  14. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  15. Instructional Design Thought Processes of Expert Nurse Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Monty Dale

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how expert nurse educators design instruction. Six female expert nurse educators volunteered to participate. Each participant had over ten years experience teaching, and all were recognized for their teaching excellence. They also had master's or doctoral degrees. Participants worked in small private schools, community colleges, or large public universities. The methodology was based in developmental research. Qualitative data sources included interviews, think-aloud proto...

  16. Design of the RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Andrew Shell

    2016-01-01

    The hardware-software interface, embodied in the instruction set architecture (ISA), is arguably the most important interface in a computer system. Yet, in contrast to nearly all other interfaces in a modern computer system, all commercially popular ISAs are proprietary. A free and open ISA standard has the potential to increase innovation in microprocessor design, reduce computer system cost, and, as Moore’s law wanes, ease the transition to more specialized computational devices.In this d...

  17. Toward a New Theory for Selecting Instructional Visuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Richard S.; Burton, John K.

    This paper provides a rationale for the selection of illustrations and visual aids for the classroom. The theories that describe the processing of visuals are dual coding theory and cue summation theory. Concept attainment theory offers a basis for selecting which cues are relevant for any learning task which includes a component of identification…

  18. Children's Theory Of Mind: Educational And Instructional Implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical framework was theory theory which postulates that children collect evidence about the relation between mental states and action, much as scientists collect data to form a theory. The paper concludes that theory of mind is a significant social and cognitive development in the preschoolers years.

  19. Theory and design of microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Ian

    2000-01-01

    This is a thorough, graduate-level text which provides a single source for filter design including basic circuit theory, network synthesis and the design of a variety of microwave filter structures. The aim is to present design theories followed by specific examples with numerical simulations of the designs, with pictures of real devices wherever possible. The book is aimed at designers, engineers and researchers working in microwave electronics who need to design or specify filters.

  20. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  1. Investigating Peer Review as a Systemic Pedagogy for Developing the Design Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions of Novice Instructional Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated peer review as a contemporary instructional pedagogy for fostering the design knowledge, skills, and dispositions of novice Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals. Participants were graduate students enrolled in an introductory instructional design (ID) course. Survey, artifact, and observation data were…

  2. Would Having a Lead Instructional Designer Position Encourage Change in a K-12 Educational Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding the position Lead Instructional Designer (LID) will help an educational company or school district to work with principals and instructional designers to implement better instructional design strategies. This type of change creates more jobs and takes added pressure away from schools. The vision is to create better customer service to the…

  3. Applying Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojose, Bobby

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on a presentation given at National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2005 in Anaheim, California. It explicates the developmental stages of the child as posited by Piaget. The author then ties each of the stages to developmentally appropriate mathematics instruction. The implications in terms of not imposing…

  4. Instructional Design Issues in a Distributed Collaborative Engineering Design (CED) Instructional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Wu, Yiyan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in engineering practices have spawned changes in engineering education and prompted the use of distributed learning environments. A distributed collaborative engineering design (CED) course was designed to engage engineering students in learning about and solving engineering design problems. The CED incorporated an advanced interactive…

  5. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  6. Design Studios in Instructional Design and Technology: What Are the Possibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2016-01-01

    Design studios are an innovative way to educate Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) students. This article begins by addressing literature about IDT design studios. One conclusion from this literature is that IDT studios have been theoretically conceptualized. However, much of this conceptualization is insular to the field of IDT and only…

  7. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  8. Developmental Theories and Instructional Strategies: A Summary Paper. SIDRU Research Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beeke

    This paper provides curriculum makers with an overview of developmental theory and relates the theory to instructional strategies. The section on socioemotional development addresses Erikson's eight ages of man, Kohlberg's stages of moral development, motivation and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Taylor's stage model of creative development, and…

  9. The Theory and Practice of Programmed Instruction; A Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocztar, Jerry

    A historical sketch which traces behavioral theory from Pavlov to Skinner and explains the application of Skinner's theory to teaching begins this introduction to programed instruction. Next, three models of programed courses, Skinner's, Crowder's, and skip-branching, are described. The third section, techniques for elaborating programed courses,…

  10. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  11. Antenna theory analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Balanis, Constantine A

    2005-01-01

    The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Multimedia material on an accompanying CD presents PowerPoint viewgraphs of lecture notes, interactive review questions, Java animations and applets, and MATLAB features. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of e

  12. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    , which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements....... In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications...... to build such a theory of product design specifications upon....

  13. Modifying ADDIE: Incorporating New Technologies in Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul Clayton

    2014-01-01

    There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…

  14. Local Instruction Theories as Means of Support for teachers in Reform Mathematics Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a form of instructional design that is deemed fitting for reform mathematics education. Reform mathematics education requires instruction that helps students in developing their current ways of reasoning into more sophisticated ways of mathematical reasoning. This implies

  15. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 1: Building a Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-06-01

    the learning task. On the micro level users are confronting information, and searching is seen as the entire process of the interaction of users with a series of information tasks, as described in Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process. The micro level is the level of deep understanding as critical thinking skills craft the connection between information and knowledge. On the macro level the learning task, designed by an instructional team, shapes the inquiry. It is the context for information tasks. The learning task is relevant, engaging, and rigorous to sustain the interest and interaction of the user with information and emerging knowledge. The macro level is the level of instruction whereby the learning task fosters self-reflection, self-correction, and self-regulation. The role of evidence, which is generated by performance assessment and action research, is critical to both levels. On each of these levels the learning task informs the information search. Conclusion – Evidence is the link between information and knowledge in the learning process called inquiry. Sources of this evidence are information tasks embedded in the learning task, which are nested in a teaching and learning culture of inquiry. In order to generate evidence continuously throughout the inquiry unit, the task is characterized by research-based tools such as performance-based assessment and action research. The synergy of these elements in Part 1 of this article establishes the foundation for building a theory that supports further research of evidence based information literacy instruction.

  16. Reframing Design: Design Thinking and Mediation Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Design Thinking’ has proven to be a fruitful way to deal with societal problems and challenges. But what does it in fact mean to approach problems as design problems? What does it imply for our ways to understand societal challenges, and for the ways in which we address them? In order to answer

  17. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  18. Monkeys on the Screen?: Multicultural Issues in Instructional Message Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie McAnany

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available With the shift in numbers between Canadian-born students in the university classroom and the increased number of international students, it is a primary concern for instructors and instructional designers to know and understand learner characteristics in order to create effective instructional messages and materials. Recognizing how culture might shape cognition and learning, we can value and design for the diversity of students and maximize their learning while improving the learning environment for all students. To celebrate cultural diversity and meet the challenges associated with designing for diverse learning styles and educational experiences, this paper offers a review of the literature and proposes a systematic three-fold approach to the creation and evaluation of multicultural instructional messages and materials: first, “Do no harm”; second, “Know your learner”; and third, “Incorporate global concepts and images into instructional messages.” Résumé Avec le renversement des proportions d’étudiants nés au Canada et d’étudiants internationaux qui sont de plus en plus nombreux dans nos universités, connaître et comprendre les caractéristiques des apprenants constitue maintenant une préoccupation majeure pour les instructeurs et les concepteurs pédagogiques afin de créer des messages et du matériel pédagogiques efficaces. En prenant en considération la façon dont la culture peut influencer la cognition et l’apprentissage, nous pouvons tenir compte de la diversité des étudiants lors de la conception et ainsi maximiser leur apprentissage tout en améliorant l’environnement d’apprentissage pour tous les étudiants. Dans le but de célébrer la diversité culturelle tout en relevant les défis associés à la conception pour divers styles d’apprentissage et d’expériences éducatives, le présent article présente un examen de la documentation et propose une approche systématique en trois volets pour

  19. Screen Design Guidelines for Motivation in Interactive Multimedia Instruction: A Survey and Framework for Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Heum; Boling, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Identifies guidelines from the literature relating to screen design and design of interactive instructional materials. Describes two types of guidelines--those aimed at enhancing motivation and those aimed at preventing loss of motivation--for typography, graphics, color, and animation and audio. Proposes a framework for considering motivation in…

  20. Self-determination theory and understanding of student motivation in physical education instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Višnja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical education is considered to be a favorable context for accomplishment of important educational outcomes and promotion of physical activity in children and youth. The real scope of physical education instruction largely depends on student motivation. Self-determination theory, as a specific macrotheory of motivation, offers a rewarding framework for understanding student motivation in physical education instruction. The paper presents the basic tenets of self-determination theory, the most important studies in the domain of physical education and didactic and methodical implications. Two mini-theories within the self-determination theory are analyzed in more detail, the cognitive evaluation theory and the organismic integration theory. Empirical verification of the theoretical tenets indicates the existence of typical motivational profiles of students in physical education instruction, the basic psychological needs as mediators of influence of social and interpersonal factors on student motivation, followed by the importance of motivational climate, students' goal orientations and teaching style for self-determination of students' behavior in physical education instruction. Didactic and methodical implications refer to the need for developing a more flexible curriculum of physical education, encouraging a motivational climate, task-focused goal orientations, and, especially, encouraging the perceived moving competence of the student.

  1. OER Usage by Instructional Designers and Training Managers in Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs, different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley’s 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley’s model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the extensive literature regarding OER usage in education, the literature barely deals with OER usage by instructional designers or training managers in corporations. The purpose of this research is to examine the OER usage of these two stakeholders, distinguishing between Little and Big OER repositories, in which Little OER repositories such as YouTube and Wikipedia aren’t necessarily designed to fulfill educational purposes. Findings show that these stakeholders almost use only Little repositories and that their usage level is higher than what is documented in the literature: they mostly Revise–modify the form of the resource, and Remix–combine different resources to create new ones. These differences can be explained by the fact that materials from Little OER repositories are raw materials, requiring further editing and adjustment. Significant differences between instructional designers’ and training managers’ usage of OERs were found regarding the Reuse level of resources from internal repositories and the Google Images repository, and the frequency of this Reuse.

  2. Authenticity in the process of learning about Instructional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006. Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and deepen the understanding of instructional design through a service learning approach to teaching, emphasizing authentic learning and assessment. Students are teamed and assigned to an actual contract with an external client under the supervision of the instructor who acts as project manager for the group. Contracts are negotiated to deliberately offer instructional design services to clients who would not otherwise be able to afford them, such as community-based non-profit groups. The reasons are two fold: first, we want to avoid competing for contracts that would interfere with the business of commercial instructional design groups and contractors; second, we want to impress on our students the idea that instructional design has social importance beyond the profit/loss and cost/effectiveness orientation of many instructional design businesses. In this way, we promote the idea that instructional designers are agents of social change, and their influence crosses interpersonal, professional, institutional and societal dimensions of change (Schwier, Campbell and Kenny, 2007.  Résumé : L’apprentissage authentique est présenté comme une approche efficace en apprentissage, en particulier dans le contexte de l’apprentissage par problèmes (Savery, 2006. Enseigner et apprendre la conception pédagogique semble offrir une correspondance étroite entre les principes de l’apprentissage authentique et la pratique de la conception pédagogique. Cet article présente de manière détaillée les efforts visant à élargir et à approfondir la compréhension qu’ont les étudiants de la conception p

  3. Teaching for physical literacy: Implications to instructional design and PETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Silverman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical education teachers play an important role in helping students' development of the motor skills needed to be physically literate individuals. Research suggests that teacher made instructional design decisions can lead to enhanced motor skill learning. After presenting a model of evidence-based research this paper presents information that will help teachers plan and execute lessons designed to improve students' motor skills. Variables that impact motor skill learning in physical education including time, type of practice, content, presentation and organizational strategies, and student skill level are presented and discussed. A brief section on student attitudes, their relation to motor skill learning and to physical literacy is included. Motor skills are needed for physically literate people to enjoy lifelong physical activity. Physical education teachers and the decisions they make contribute to students' learning and whether the goal of physical literacy is met.

  4. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in the control group which may indicate that traditional teaching methods

  5. Theory Interpretation of Control System and Design Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Heon Sul

    2003-11-01

    This book tells of theory interpretation of control system and design practice using automatic balancing weighing machine , including what control is, basic use of CEM Tool such as summary, work environment of CEM Tool, Symbol of CEM Tool, instruction of CEM Tool, drawing graph, and practice of making of CEM Tool, basic use of SIM Tool, driving test of sensor measurement motor such as LED, Pulse pick-up, answer test of RC circuit, structure of balancing weighing machine and wheel mathematical model, analysis of time response and frequency response of balancing weighing machine, and mathematical model and material property of balancing weighing machine.

  6. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  7. Towards an Understanding of Instructional Design Heuristics: An Exploratory Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that experienced instructional designers often use heuristics and adapted models when engaged in the instructional design problem-solving process. This study used the Delphi technique to identify a core set of heuristics designers reported as being important to the success of the design process. The overarching purpose of the…

  8. Developing theory-driven design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Design research is increasingly weak in comparison with other fields; without action to increase scientific, theoretical, and methodological rigour there is a real possibility of the field being superseded and becoming obsolete through lack of impact. The aim of this paper is to show how design r....... I identify key learning indicating future directions for theory-driven design research. I conclude by providing some concrete recommendations for the field of design research and individual design researchers....

  9. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil TOPORSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, the modes of presentation in classic DE seemed to hinder the kinds of human interactions normally experienced in the traditional classroom, fostering individualized and isolated learning experiences.Online learning is a hybrid between the traditional classroom and the DE experience. Like the traditional classroom, instruction is teacher-facilitated. The student is enrolled in a conventional course with topic (lecture presentations, reading and homework assignments, classroom discussions, and class projects. Unlike the traditional classroom, courses are web-based and distributed from a distance, using an assortment of synchronous and asynchronous computer technologies and offered anywhere and anytime. In this way, online learning is different from the classic DE model by encouraging decentralized and collaborative learning environments. So that in this presentation will be discuss design principles for online instruction as being a new kind of classroom.

  10. When Theory and Intuition Meet: An Approach to Composition Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbar, Ali A.; Trump, Kathy

    Two teachers of English as a second language composition discuss, in dialogue form, their intuitions about writing and some of the theories of language learning and writing advanced in recent years. Among the topics addressed are the following: self-consciousness; the importance of developing self-confidence in writing; finding a balance between…

  11. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  12. In Respect to the Cognitive Load Theory: Adjusting Instructional Guidance with Student Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The amount of guidance supplied by educators to students in allied health programs is a factor in student learning. According to the cognitive load theory of learning, without adequate instructional support, novice learners will be overwhelmed and unable to store information, while unnecessary guidance supplied to advanced students will cause extraneous cognitive load on the working memory system. Adjusting instructional guidance for students according to their level of expertise to minimize extraneous cognitive load and optimize working memory storage capacity will enhance learning effectiveness. Novice students presented with complex subject matter require significant guidance during the initial stages, using strategies such as worked examples. As students comprehend information, instructional guidance needs to gradually fade to avoid elevated extraneous cognitive load from the expertise reversal effect. An instructional strategy that utilizes a systemic (fixed) or adjustable (adaptive) tapering of guidance to students in allied health programs depending on their expertise will optimize learning capability.

  13. Designing Technology-Enabled Instruction to Utilize Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Nyland, Robert; Bodily, Robert; Chapman, John; Jones, Brian; Young, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A key notion conveyed by those who advocate for the use of data to enhance instruction is an awareness that learning analytics has the potential to improve instruction and learning but is not currently reaching that potential. Gibbons (2014) suggested that a lack of learning facilitated by current technology-enabled instructional systems may be…

  14. Designing Instructional Strategies which Facilitate Learning for Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly

    The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…

  15. The Design of an Instructional Model Based on Connectivism and Constructivism to Create Innovation in Real World Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasatjanukul, Kanokrat; Jeerungsuwan, Namon

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to (1) design an instructional model based on Connectivism and Constructivism to create innovation in real world experience, (2) assess the model designed--the designed instructional model. The research involved 2 stages: (1) the instructional model design and (2) the instructional model rating. The sample…

  16. Aligning the Quantum Perspective of Learning to Instructional Design: Exploring the Seven Definitive Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Janzen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon a foundational paper (under review which explores the rudiments of the quantum perspective of learning. The quantum perspective of learning uses the principles of exchange theory or borrowed theory from the field of quantum holism pioneered by quantum physicist David Bohm (1971, 1973 to understand learning in a new way. Bohm proposes that everything exists as wholes, rather than as parts, and that everything is connected. Similarly, the quantum perspective of learning proposes that individuals learn in holistic ways as they interact with temporal and in infinitely extending virtual worlds. Further, according to the quantum perspective of learning, learners have infinite potential. In this paper, the quantum perspective of learning is examined utilizing a combination of Schunk’s (1991 and Ertmer and Newby’s (1993 definitive questions for aligning learning theory with instructional design. These seven definitive questions focus on how learning happens, influential factors in learning, the role of memory, transfer of knowledge, modalities of learning that can best explain the quantum perspective of learning, applicable assumptions, and a discussion of how instruction can be organized to optimize learning. Examples of strategies that facilitate the quantum perspective of learning are provided.

  17. Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-01-01

    Constructivism is referred to in two very different ways in education including medical education: to refer to a view of knowledge and to refer to a theory of learning and hence instruction. This proposal (a) distinguishes between these two usages of constructivism and (b) concludes that constructivism is not a theory of learning and thus as such has little to offer that might be of value to medical education.

  18. Supervision of Special Education Instruction in Rural Public School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Debora Ann

    2001-01-01

    The grounded theory presented in this study describes how the supervision of special education instruction occurs in public elementary schools in rural settings. Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was employed in this study. Nine elementary schools in three rural districts in the state of Virginia participated in the study. Interview data were collected from 34 participants, including special and general education teachers, principals, and directors of special education. Obs...

  19. Organization Theory: Implications for Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines the possibilities for scientific inquiry into the design of the university organization structure. In a theoretical context, bureaucratic management techniques were not refined enough to apply to university structures until the mid-twentieth century. Universities today are bureaucracies in that they have a formal division of…

  20. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  1. Instructional Design Briefing A Brief Overview in Relation to the China COE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Glasco, Bethany Lynn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-10

    This introduction provides a roadmap and guidance for the work that will be done by SMEs to prepare NDA course material to be transitioned from LANL to the China COE. It will cover the definition of instructional design; why instructional design is important; role of instructional designer vs an instructor and how they work together; and how this relates to our work in the China COE project.

  2. Design Heuristics in Academic, Corporate, and Military Instruction: More Similar than Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the practice of instructional design (ID) began in the U. S. military (Branson et al., 1975; Jeffrey & Bratton-Jeffrey, 2004; Reiser, 2102), there is little known regarding which design and development heuristics military instructional designers deem important to the ID process. The study reported in this article was…

  3. A Design Study of a Multimedia Instructional Grammar Program with Embedded Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Natalya A.; Thompson, Ann D.; Phye, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a design study meant to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating three rather different theoretical perspectives for future efforts in multimedia instructional design. A multimedia instructional grammar program contextualized within the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) was developed and evaluated. The program design was…

  4. Aligning Game Activity with Educational Goals: Following a Constrained Design Approach to Instructional Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E.; Scoresby, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design, creation and implementation of an instructional game for use in a high school poetry class following a commitment to an educational game design principle of "alignment". We studied groups of instructional designers and an interactive fiction computer game they built. The game was implemented in a 9th grade English classroom…

  5. The Implementation of Service-Learning in Graduate Instructional Design Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of service-learning experiences with a graduate-level instructional design course. Service-learning provides students with real-life experiences in a situated-learning environment. Students were tasked with working on an instructional design project in a real-world setting to gain consultative experience. This paper…

  6. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  7. Lowlands sociotechnical design theory and lean production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christis, Jac; Soepenberg, Erik; Mohr, Bernard J.; van Amelsvoort, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lean Production (LP) can be regarded as a design approach in search of a theoretical foundation. In this paper we show that Lowlands’ Sociotechnical Design Theory (STSL) could function as such a foundation. To reach this goal, we first describe STSL as a system theoretical reformulation of Original

  8. Gestalt Theory in Visual Screen Design — A New Look at an old subject

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, D.; Dooley, L.; Tuovinen, J. E

    2002-01-01

    Although often presented as a single basis for educational visual screen design, Gestalt theory is not a single small set of visual principles uniformly applied by all designers. In fact, it appears that instructional visual design literature often deals with only a small set of Gestalt laws. In this project Gestalt literature was consulted to distil the most relevant Gestalt laws for educational visual screen design. Eleven laws were identified. They deal with balance/symmetry, continuation,...

  9. Instructional design in the development of an online course on Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Almeida, Denise Maria de; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2018-03-26

    To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course. The course was evaluated by the experts and obtained a mean score of 0.92 (SD 0.15), considered as good quality (between 0.90-0.94), and by the students, with a mean score of 0.95 (SD 0.03), considered as high quality (0.95-1.00). The instructional design used was found to be appropriate to the development of the online course. As an active educational strategy, it contributed to the learning on Basic Life Support during cardiac arrest-related procedures in adults. In view of the need for technological innovations in education and systematization of care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the online course allows the establishment of continuous improvement processes in the quality of resuscitation in the care provided by students and professionals.

  10. Instructional design in the development of an online course on Basic Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tobase

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. Method Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course. Results The course was evaluated by the experts and obtained a mean score of 0.92 (SD 0.15, considered as good quality (between 0.90-0.94, and by the students, with a mean score of 0.95 (SD 0.03, considered as high quality (0.95-1.00. Conclusion The instructional design used was found to be appropriate to the development of the online course. As an active educational strategy, it contributed to the learning on Basic Life Support during cardiac arrest-related procedures in adults. In view of the need for technological innovations in education and systematization of care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the online course allows the establishment of continuous improvement processes in the quality of resuscitation in the care provided by students and professionals.

  11. Local Instruction Theory (LIT) on spherical geometry for enhancement students’ strategic competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraida, I.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-03-01

    This research focused on the analysis of the materials spherical geometry of the wake in an attempt to enhancemet the strategic competence of students and to produce learning trajectory. That is because the materials that are used less catchy concept gives students. Learning materials with Local Instructional Theory (LIT) can enhancemet the strategic competence of the students. This research aims to study the difference of achievement and improving the strategic competence of the students who got the Realistics Mathematics Education (RME) and (LIT) with conventional learning. This research is the Design Research with two cycles. This research has three phases i.e. 1) preparing for the experiment/preliminary; 2) teaching eksperiment; 3) retrospective analysis. The population of the research was the whole IX group junior high school 1 Rajapolah with samples of IXg and IXj group. Results of the analysis of the data shows that students based on Mathematical Prior Knowledge (MPK) acquire learning achievement have RME and LIT and enhancement strategic competence of the mathematical that are higher than those of students who obtain the conventional learning.

  12. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  13. Content Analysis of Research Trends in Instructional Design Models: 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, Idris; Özcan, Kursat Volkan; Çakir, Recep; Göktas, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    This study examines studies on instructional design models by applying content analysis. It covers 113 papers published in 44 international Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI) journals. Studies on instructional design models are explored in terms of journal of publication, preferred model, country where the study…

  14. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  15. The Interaction between Multimedia Data Analysis and Theory Development in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Fenna; Doorman, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics education researchers conducting instruction experiments using a design research methodology are challenged with the analysis of often complex and large amounts of qualitative data. In this paper, we present two case studies that show how multimedia analysis software can greatly support video data analysis and theory development in…

  16. How "fun/importance" fit affects performance: relating implicit theories to instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Amy T; Higgins, E Tory; Klem, Adena

    2003-09-01

    People experience a regulatory fit when they employ means of goal pursuit that fit their regulatory orientation, and this fit increases motivation that can enhance performance. The present studies extend previous research on regulatory fit to the classic motivational variables of fun and importance. They also examine for the first time the effect on performance of the fit between individuals' implicit theories about a task's fun or importance and their strategic engagement of the task as fun or important as induced by task instructions. In all three studies, task performance was better when the external task instructions "fit" rather than did not fit participants' implicit theory for the task. The implications of these findings for understanding the motivational effects of fun and importance are discussed.

  17. Design Experiments and the Generation of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    methodology (DBR) and a participatory design approach was used in a case in physiotherapy education from the beginning of the implementation of e-learning in order to create learning designs for the new teaching context and generate theory in relation to this. Ict-based learning designs were created...... in collaboration with teachers and students, and the empirical data are stemming from this work. The research question to discuss in this paper is concerned with the challenges that can arise in a DBR project when the interventions and design cycles do not evolve as planned. The paper therefore argues that it can...

  18. Integrating Virtual Reality (VR) into traditional instructional design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... this technology and presented how to integrat VR with traditional instructional ... training has forced organizations to adopt new .... skills in a safe, controlled environment ... phone charger battery pack [B] connected to.

  19. Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Ellen; Miller, J. Abbott

    1994-01-01

    Considers the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design. Considers the place of graphics within the theory of deconstruction in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. Argues that deconstruction is not a style but a mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions and…

  20. Toward a Theory of Representation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    understanding. This report describes research done at the Artificial Inteligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for this...AD-A210 885 Technical Report 1128 Toward a Theory of Representation Design Jeffrey Van Baale MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC ELECTE A... Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 11. REPORT DATE Advanced Research

  1. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  2. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (II)--Instructional Engineering: Task Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The first step in engineering the instruction of dental psychomotor skills, task analysis, is explained. A chart details the procedural, cognitive, desired-criteria, and desired-performance analysis of a single task, occlusal preparation for amalgam restoration with carious lesion. (MSE)

  3. Design methods and design theory for architectural design management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Achten, H.H.; Pels, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most parties that an architectural design manager meets in daily practice are engaged to some degree with design. What these parties are actually doing in a project is contingent with the concrete design project. Additionally, each party has some stake, and may employ different strategies to solve

  4. Theory and design of CNC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t

  5. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  6. Strengthening the Link between Theory and Practice in Teaching Design Engineering: An Empirical Study on a New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, E.; Pilot, A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering of the Delft University of Technology introduced a new bachelor program. Based on theories of learning and instruction three design principles were used to develop an approach that aims to make it easier for students to bridge the gap between theoretical design engineering courses and practical…

  7. A Conceptual Model for the Design and Delivery of Explicit Thinking Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    2005-01-01

    Developing student thinking skills is an important goal for most educators. However, due to time constraints and weighty content standards, thinking skills instruction is often embedded in subject matter, implicit and incidental. For best results, thinking skills instruction requires a systematic design and explicit teaching strategies. The…

  8. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  9. A Comprehensive Rubric for Instructional Design in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debattista, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The recognition of practice in online instruction is still subject to interpretation and different approaches as a result of the rapid changes in technology and its effect on society. The purpose of this paper is to address these differences through a synthesis that can be easily accessed and consulted by educators in the field of…

  10. Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses graphical user interfaces used for instructional purposes in educational environments, which promote learning goals, and in support environments, which promote performance goals. Explains three key principles of perception and gives guidelines for their use, including the figure/ground principle, the hierarchy principle, and the gestalt…

  11. Reflectarray antennas theory, designs, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nayeri, Payam; Elsherbeni, Atef Z

    2018-01-01

    This book provides engineers with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in reflectarray antenna research and development. The authors describe, in detail, design procedures for a wide range of applications, including broadband, multi-band, multi-beam, contour-beam, beam-scanning, and conformal reflectarray antennas. They provide sufficient coverage of basic reflectarray theory to fully understand reflectarray antenna design and analysis such that the readers can pursue reflectarray research on their own. Throughout the book numerous illustrative design examples including numerical and experimental results are provided. Featuring in-depth theoretical analysis along with practical design examples, Reflectarray Antennas is an excellent text/reference for engineering graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field of antennas. It belongs on the bookshelves of university libraries, research institutes, and industrial labs and research facilities.

  12. Applying Universal Instructional Design to Course Websites by Using Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Irene; Leslie, Donald; Kwan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore their use of learner-centred teaching strategies and Universal Instructional Design (UID) on course websites. UID is based on universal design, the design of products and environments intended to be usable by all people to the greatest extent possible (Burgstahler & Cory, 2008). UID applies universal design to instructional…

  13. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention Designed to Support Development of Stochastic Understanding of Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Darcy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic understanding of probability distribution undergirds development of conceptual connections between probability and statistics and supports development of a principled understanding of statistical inference. This study investigated the impact of an instructional course intervention designed to support development of stochastic…

  14. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  15. Evaluating Online Dialogue on “Security” Using a Novel Instructional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper explores evaluation strategies to gauge the impact of a novel instructional design on international community participation online. This is done by conceptualizing and devising indicators for measuring “engagement” online amongst marginalized adult communities

  16. How to use Gagne's model of instructional design in teaching psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadjooi, Kayvan; Rostami, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid

    2011-01-01

    Gagne's model of instructional design is based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli and focuses on the learning outcomes and how to arrange specific instructional events to achieve those outcomes. Applying Gagne's nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program as it gives structure to the lesson plans and a holistic view to the teaching. In this paper, we have chosen a routine practical procedure that junior doctors need to learn: insertion of a peritoneal (ascitic) drain and we use Gagne's "events of instruction" to design a lesson plan for this subject.

  17. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS OF DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDRY

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU. It was survey study. Population of the study consisted of 120 academicians of different academic department of AIOU. Survey was conducted through questionnaire for academic staff. It was revealed that need assessment is not done before conceiving the outlines of a course. Also the course did not contain sufficient activities, picture and illustrations. It was also found that did not confirm the course objectives. The study recommended that proper of the course writers for distance learning may be arranged.

  18. Fundamentals of information theory and coding design

    CERN Document Server

    Togneri, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In a clear, concise, and modular format, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and mathematics of information and coding theory. The authors emphasize how a code is designed and discuss the main properties and characteristics of different coding algorithms along with strategies for selecting the appropriate codes to meet specific requirements. They provide comprehensive coverage of source and channel coding, address arithmetic, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes and explore some more advanced topics such as PPM compression and turbo codes. Worked examples and sets of basic and advanced exercises in each chapter reinforce the text's clear explanations of all concepts and methodologies.

  19. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  20. Instructional Designers' Media Selection Practices for Distributed Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fells, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The design of online or distributed problem-based learning (dPBL) is a nascent, complex design problem. Instructional designers are challenged to effectively unite the constructivist principles of problem-based learning (PBL) with appropriate media in order to create quality dPBL environments. While computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools and…

  1. Towards a framework for attention cueing in instructional animations: Guidelines for research and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. de Koning (Björn); H.K. Tabbers (Huib); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the transferability of successful cueing approaches from text and static visualization research to animations. Theories of visual attention and learning as well as empirical evidence for the instructional effectiveness of attention cueing are reviewed and, based on

  2. The Instructional Design of Case Method Combined With Role-Playing in the Soil and Groundwater Training Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Hwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all environmental problems are caused by human. Besides being good at environmental engineering theory and technology, to enhance the ability to solve environmental problems, the environmental practitioners need a closer understanding of the stance of different stakeholders. This study is an instructional design combining both "case method" and "role-playing" into the “Soil and Groundwater Talent Training Courses” in Taipei. The curriculum is based on the hexavalent chromium pollution case in Yunlin County. Each group of students is encouraged to play four roles, inculding leather factory owners, farmers, environmental officials, and soil testing professionals. Each group of students has to propose solution strategies after discussion and consultation. The study adopts a single group posttest design. The qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed through proportion and Pearson correlation. Results were as follows: (1 The solution strategies identified by the students include: “mutual communication”, “consensus-building”, and “the formation of an environmental committee". (2 More than 80% of students were satisfied with the instruction, and they found it helpful in terms of knowledge and skills in doing surveying. A moderate positive correlation exists between students’ participation and learning satisfaction. A reflection concerning this instruction design along with some recommendations are provided.

  3. What Is This Thing Called "Design" in Design Research and Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper will consider the phenomenon of design research. It will then consider four research positions in social science research. The paper will show how the design perspectives map onto the research paradigms and how by rotating through these paradigms, a design research cycle is formed. Finally, the paper will discuss four research questions…

  4. Instruction by Design, A Report on the Conference on New Instructional Materials in Physics (University of Washington, Seattle, June 21-August 21, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Coll. Physics, College Park, MD.

    This review has a section devoted to each of the following conference topics: Monographs, Film, Experiment Sequences, Computer-assisted Instruction, Designing a Unit of Instruction, and Toward New Solutions. Each section contains background discussion on the rationale, philosophy, and importance for improvements in the area being considered. The…

  5. Developing Instructional Design to Improve Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apino, E.; Retnawati, H.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the instructional design to improve the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) of students in learning mathematics. This research is design research involving teachers and students of class X MIPA 1 MAN Yigyakarta III, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data collected through focus group discussions and tests. Data analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The results showed that the instructional design developed is effective to improving students’ HOTS in learning mathematics. Instructional design developed generally include three main components: (1) involve students in the activities non-routine problem solving; (2) facilitating students to develop the ability to analyze and evaluate (critical thinking) and the ability to create (creative thinking); and (3) encourage students to construct their own knowledge.

  6. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  7. Learning relationships from theory to design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J.H. Fowler

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years we have seen a very significant increase in the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT in schools, colleges and university. For example in 1998, there were over 195 accredited US universities offering a thousand or more distance learning courses (Philips and Yager, 1998. By no means were all of these new courses associated with educational innovation. The speed and ease of implementation of Webbased approaches, in particular, is resulting in design by imitation of current courses and methods, with a real lack of innovation or utilization of the power inherent in technologybased learning. Although matters are improving (see for example Brown, 1999, part of the reason for this failure to innovate is, we argue, because of the large gap between theory and practice.

  8. Practising what we preach: using cognitive load theory for workshop design and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Haji, Faizal A; Sibbald, Matthew; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Tavares, Walter; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-12-01

    Theory-based instructional design is a top priority in medical education. The goal of this Show and Tell article is to present our theory-driven approach to the design of instruction for clinical educators. We adopted cognitive load theory as a framework to design and evaluate a series of professional development workshops that were delivered at local, national and international academic conferences in 2014. We used two rating scales to measure participants' cognitive load. Participants also provided narrative comments as to how the workshops could be improved. Cognitive load ratings from 59 participants suggested that the workshop design optimized learning by managing complexity for different levels of learners (intrinsic load), stimulating cognitive processing for long-term memory storage (germane load), and minimizing irrelevant distracters (extraneous load). Narrative comments could also be classified as representing intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load, which provided specific directions for ongoing quality improvement. These results demonstrate that a cognitive load theory approach to workshop design and evaluation is feasible and useful in the context of medical education.

  9. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabrua Batoon, Maria Victoria; Glasserman Morales, Leonardo David; Yanez Figueroa, Jose Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive ebooks in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study…

  10. Design Models as Emergent Features: An Empirical Study in Communication and Shared Mental Models in Instructional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study that investigated the instructional design process of three teams involved in the development of an e-­learning unit. The teams declared they were using the same fast-­prototyping design and development model, and were composed of the same roles (although with a different number of SMEs).…

  11. A Simulation-Based LED Design Project in Photonics Instruction Based on Industry-University Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. -H.; Chen, M. -L.; Kuo, Y. -K.; Shen, Y. -C.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing industrial demand for light-emitting diode (LED) design professionals, based on industry-university collaboration in Taiwan, this paper develops a novel instructional approach: a simulation-based learning course with peer assessment to develop students' professional skills in LED design as required by industry as well as…

  12. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sheri; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kinney, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Designing experiential learning activities requires an instructor to think about what they want the students to learn. Using importance-performance analysis can assist with the instructional design of the activities. This exploratory study used importance-performance analysis in an online introduction to criminology course. There is limited…

  13. Development and Implementation of an Instructional Design for Effective Teaching of Ecosystem, Biodiversity, and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Elif Ozata; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instructional design whereby ecosystem, biodiversity, and environmental issues are addressed with a holistic approach that provides more efficient teaching as well as to test the effectiveness of this design. A literature review was carried out and need-assessment was firstly made using the Readiness Test. This review…

  14. The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training...

  15. Robert M. Gagne and M. David Merrill: In Conversation. No. 3: An Overview of M. David Merrill's New Component Design Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, David, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This third in a series of edited transcripts based on a conference at Utah State University describes Merrill's Component Design Theory (CDT) and compares it to his earlier Component Display Theory. Topics discussed include concept structures, knowledge acquisition, components of an instructional design system, and a new CDT matrix. (10…

  16. The Effects of Instructional Design on Student Engagement with Video Lectures at Cyber Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Costley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The number of students enrolled in online courses that use video lectures is on the rise. However, research shows that the number of students watching video lectures is low, and the number watching videos to completion is even lower. Background: This paper seeks to understand this problem by looking for correlations between instructional design and student engagement with video lectures. Methodology: Students at a cyber-university in South Korea (n=1801 were surveyed on their perception of the instructional design used in the courses they took and their engagement with online video lectures. Contribution: This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by demonstrating positive correlations between instructional design, watching, and finishing video lectures. Findings: While most other research has found low levels of online lecture viewership, this paper found significantly higher numbers watching and finishing videos. Other major findings of the paper are that five key elements of instructional design for online learning environments (designing methods, setting the curriculum, establishing time parameters, establishing netiquette, and utilizing the medium effectively all correlated positively with students watching and finishing video lectures. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Based on findings in this paper, it is recommended that practitioners consider taking actions when designing their instruction for online courses. These include batching their video lectures together by topic, devoting greater resources to helping students utilize the medium, and communicate time parameters in a way that encourages students to view video lectures in a timely manner. Recommendation for Researchers: As the watching of video lectures in this study was mandatory for learners, an interesting area of further research would be to examine whether that decision led to higher numbers of students watching them. Future Research: It is important for

  17. Optimizing physicians' instruction of PACS through e-learning: cognitive load theory applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Voet, T; Adang, L; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2009-03-01

    This article outlines the strategy used by our hospital to maximize the knowledge transfer to referring physicians on using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We developed an e-learning platform underpinned by the cognitive load theory (CLT) so that in depth knowledge of PACS' abilities becomes attainable regardless of the user's prior experience with computers. The application of the techniques proposed by CLT optimizes the learning of the new actions necessary to obtain and manipulate radiological images. The application of cognitive load reducing techniques is explained with several examples. We discuss the need to safeguard the physicians' main mental processes to keep the patient's interests in focus. A holistic adoption of CLT techniques both in teaching and in configuration of information systems could be adopted to attain this goal. An overview of the advantages of this instruction method is given both on the individual and organizational level.

  18. Nested Reconfigurable Robots: Theory, Design, and Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rather than the conventional classification method, we propose to divide modular and reconfigurable robots into intra-, inter-, and nested reconfigurations. We suggest designing the robot with nested reconfigurability, which utilizes individual robots with intra-reconfigurability capable of combining with other homogeneous/heterogeneous robots (inter-reconfigurability. The objective of this approach is to generate more complex morphologies for performing specific tasks that are far from the capabilities of a single module or to respond to programmable assembly requirements. In this paper, we discuss the theory, concept, and initial mechanical design of Hinged-Tetro, a self-reconfigurable module conceived for the study of nested reconfiguration. Hinged-Tetro is a mobile robot that uses the principle of hinged dissection of polyominoes to transform itself into any of the seven one-sided tetrominoes in a straightforward way. The robot can also combine with other modules for shaping complex structures or giving rise to a robot with new capabilities. Finally, the validation experiments verify the nested reconfigurability of Hinged-Tetro. Extensive tests and analyses of intra-reconfiguration are provided in terms of energy and time consumptions. Experiments using two robots validate the inter-reconfigur ability of the proposed module.

  19. User-Centered Design through Learner-Centered Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Burçak

    2014-01-01

    This article initially demonstrates the parallels between the learner-centered approach in education and the user-centered approach in design disciplines. Afterward, a course on human factors that applies learner-centered methods to teach user-centered design is introduced. The focus is on three tasks to identify the application of theoretical and…

  20. DesigningTheory of Machines and Mechanisms” course on Project Based Learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    by the industry and the learning outcomes specified by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA), India; this course is restructured on Project Based Learning approach. A mini project is designed to suit course objectives. An objective of this paper is to discuss the rationale of this course design......Theory of Machines and Mechanisms course is one of the essential courses of Mechanical Engineering undergraduate curriculum practiced at Indian Institute. Previously, this course was taught by traditional instruction based pedagogy. In order to achieve profession specific skills demanded...... and the process followed to design a project which meets diverse objectives....

  1. Tussenrapportage Validatie Onderwijsvernieuwingen (Validation Assistant in Instructional Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    validatie onderwij svemieuwingen D)atum mei 2007 Auteur (s) drs. J.P. van Meer drs. G,J. Veldhuis dr. M.L. van Ernmerik M.G. van Schaik Rubricering...als doel om nog beter is het van belang dat het maken van keuzes Auteur (s) passende adviezen te kunnen genereren. binnen een moeilijk grijpbaar...benaderd door de theorie achter de onderwijsconcepten te toetsen aan het oordeel van de expert. Er zijn echter beperkingen in deze opzet denkbaar die

  2. The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    training of mastoidectomy. Methods Eighteen novice medical students received 1 h of self-directed virtual reality simulation training of the mastoidectomy procedure randomized for standard instructions (control) or cognitive load theory-based instructions with a worked example followed by a problem......Background Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation....... Increased cognitive load when part tasks needed to be integrated in the post-training procedures could be a possible explanation for this. Other instructional designs and methods are needed to lower the cognitive load and improve the performance in virtual reality surgical simulation training of novices....

  3. Instructional Design, Facilitation, and Perceived Learning Outcomes: An Exploratory Case Study of a Human Trafficking MOOC for Attitudinal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Loizzo, Jamie; Watson, William R.; Mueller, Chad; Lim, Jieun; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory case study describes the design and facilitation of a massive open online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners', instructor's, and instructional designer's perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor and instructional designer were conducted, and data from…

  4. A Quasi-Experimental Examination: Cognitive Sequencing of Instruction Using Experiential Learning Theory for STEM Concepts in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2017-01-01

    Understanding methods for effectively instructing STEM education concepts is essential in the current climate of education (Freeman, Marginson, & Tyler 2014). Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) outlines four specific modes of learning, based on preferences for grasping and transforming information. This quasi-experimental study was…

  5. Beyond Measurement-Driven Instruction: Achieving Deep Learning Based on Constructivist Learning Theory, Integrated Assessment, and a Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, James A.; Fuller, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the critical role of assessment within a flipped classroom environment where instruction is based on constructivist learning theory and where desired student outcomes are at the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. While assessment is typically thought of in terms of providing summative measures of performance or achievement, it…

  6. Universal Design for Learning: Guidelines for Accessible Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Shaw, Carol; Carr-Chellman, Davin J.; Choi, Jinhee

    2018-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for the teaching-learning transaction that conceptualizes knowledge through learner-centered foci emphasizing accessibility, collaboration, and community. Given the importance of access to achieving social justice, UDL is a promising approach to meeting all learners' needs more effectively. In…

  7. Writing and Rewriting the Instructional Design Case: A View from Two Sides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D. Howard, Rodney Myers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes five problem areas educators grapple with when writing designs cases about learning interventions. The article is written from the vantage point of IJDL’s assistant editor who edited, reviewed, and coordinated the reviews of design cases over a period of two years while also writing his own design case (Howard & Myers, 2010: International Journal of Designs for Learning. The knowledge building genre of the instructional design case is viewed from the perspective of commonalities between articles published in a Tech Trends feature, the Instructional Design Portfolio, and this venue. The areas of concern common among reviews for these publications shed light on how the design case is developing into a rigorous form of educational inquiry. The areas of concern brought up in reviews of cases are discussed in light of the author’s first hand experiences of satisfying reviewers’ concerns and, in turn, coaching other educators through the process of a finalized design case. Those common areas are: (1 situating the design, (2 describing the design, (3 depicting the experience of the design, (4 developing trustworthiness through transparency, analysis, and reflection (5 removing aspects of design cases which confound their purpose. Specific examples from design cases that have gone through peer review describe how author-educators may approach the dissemination of design precedent through the careful documentation of pedagogical designs.

  8. The impact of design-based modeling instruction on seventh graders' spatial abilities and model-based argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, William J.

    models to better assist them in scientific argumentation over paper drawing models. In fact, when given a choice, students rarely used paper drawing to assist in argument. There was also a difference in model utility between the two different model types. Participants explicitly used 3D printed models to complete gestural modeling, while participants rarely looked at 2D models when involved in gestural modeling. This study's findings added to current theory dealing with the varied spatial challenges involved in different modes of expressed models. This study found that depth, symmetry and the manipulation of perspectives are typically spatial challenges students will attend to using CAD while they will typically ignore them when drawing using paper and pencil. This study also revealed a major difference in model-based argument in a design-based instruction context as opposed to model-based argument in a typical science classroom context. In the context of design-based instruction, data revealed that design process is an important part of model-based argument. Due to the importance of design process in model-based argumentation in this context, trusted methods of argument analysis, like the coding system of the IASCA, was found lacking in many respects. Limitations and recommendations for further research were also presented.

  9. Efficacy of the Technological/Engineering Design Approach: Imposed Cognitive Demands within Design-Based Biotechnology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Though not empirically established as an efficacious pedagogy for promoting higher order thinking skills, technological/engineering design-based learning in K-12 STEM education is increasingly embraced as a core instructional method for integrative STEM learning that promotes the development of student critical thinking skills (Honey, Pearson,…

  10. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  11. Is the Flipped Classroom Model for All? Correspondence Analysis from Trainee Instructional Media Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The educational potentials and challenges of "flipping" a classroom are today well-documented. However, taking into account the contradictory results, literature on the benefits in using the flipped model as a socially inclusive technology-supported instructional design model is still in its infancy. This study seeks to investigate the…

  12. Evaluation of iTunes University Courses through Instructional Design Strategies and m-Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Wei; Tang, Yingqi; Morris, Betty

    2016-01-01

    As mobile learning technology promotes learning accessibility and flexibility, students benefit from social interactivity and connective learning process which will also foster students' performance and satisfaction on learning content. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate iTunes U courses based on instructional design strategies…

  13. Designing Reading Instruction for Cultural Minorities: The Case of the Kamehameha Early Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robert C.; And Others

    This is a report on the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), a research and development project designed to find ways of improving the school performance of educationally disadvantaged Hawaiian children. The project, implemented in a laboratory school setting and continuously monitored, is described as a reading instruction program for…

  14. The Teacher as Instructional Designer: A Search Through the Curriculum Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacko, Carol M.; Garman, Noreen M.

    The vast amount of literature on curriculum and instructional design does not establish a clear frame of reference to help teachers utilize and operationalize concepts and information. Four specific problem areas are of special concern in the literature: (1) the terminology and definitions are confusing; (2) the place of the classroom teacher is…

  15. Blended/Hybrid Courses: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Instructional Designers and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature on blended/hybrid learning and identifies recommendations for instructional designers and faculty. Terminology and definitions are discussed first including the debate between the words "blended" and "hybrid." A working definition for the article is discussed but the article does not…

  16. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices Through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.

  17. Designing Online Instruction for Success: Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joel T.; Werner, Christian H.

    2007-01-01

    Given the high rate of student drop-out and withdrawal from courses and programs using an online learning format, it is important to consider innovative ways to foster and encourage student success in online environments. One such way is to incorporate aspects of student future orientation into the design of online instruction. This paper presents…

  18. Lights, Camera, Action: Facilitating the Design and Production of Effective Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Terry; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Mills, Leila A.; Baker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a rudimentary process intended to guide faculty in K-12 and higher education through the steps involved to produce video for their classes. The process comprises four steps: planning, development, delivery and reflection. Each step is infused with instructional design information intended to support the collaboration between…

  19. The Implementation and Evaluation of an Instructional Design Based on the Interdisciplinary Approach: Conscious Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Memet; Uyar, Melis Yesilpinar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the instructional design prepared as consumer-oriented and based upon interdisciplinary curriculum. In this study, case study approach, which is one of the qualitative research patterns, was employed. Observations, interviews and document analysis were used to collect data. For analyzing the…

  20. Instructional Design of Entrepreneurship Courses: Interview Research of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Belinda J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the opportunity recognition process of Wyoming BRAVO! Entrepreneur (WBE) Award winners or nominees, in order to better inform the learner analysis and organizational strategy components of instructional design, specifically with respect to entrepreneurship courses. This study may be of significance to post…

  1. Using the DSAP Framework to Guide Instructional Design and Technology Integration in BYOD Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…

  2. STEM Teachers' Planned and Enacted Attempts at Implementing Engineering Design-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Rupp, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates grades 5 and 6 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers' planned and actualized engineering design-based instruction, the instruments used to characterize their efforts, and the implications this work has for teachers' implementations of an integrated approach to STEM education.…

  3. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  4. An Instructional Design Framework to Improve Student Learning in a First-Year Engineering Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamarthi, Kumar; Drake, Eron; Prewett, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically…

  5. Instructional Design in Job Skills Training for Welfare Recipients and Displaced Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Arline; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Scully-Russ (2005) described the low-wage labor market issue and the tendency in academic literature to view the problem as "fixing" the skills of low wageworkers. However, the article does not address instructional design issues surrounding low-wage employee training interventions. This manuscript attempts to discover the key factors surrounding…

  6. Color Research and Its Application to the Design of Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Dennis; Wilson, Trudy

    1996-01-01

    Reviews color research and considers its implications for the design of instructional materials. Topics include physiological and psychological effects; color and learning, including attention, search tasks, retention and other objective measures, and non-objective measures; color and the cathode ray tube (CRT); and further research needs.…

  7. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  8. Design and Implementation of Instructional Videos for Upper-Division Undergraduate Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-McCormack, Jennifer A.; Muniz, Marc N.; Keuter, Ellie C.; Shaw, Scott K.; Cole, Renée S.

    2017-01-01

    Well-designed laboratories can help students master content and science practices by successfully completing the laboratory experiments. Upper-division chemistry laboratory courses often present special challenges for instruction due to the instrument intensive nature of the experiments. To address these challenges, particularly those associated…

  9. Metacognition and transfer within a course or instructional design rules and metacognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk

    2006-01-01

    A metacognitive strategy for doing research, included transfer, was taught in a course of nine afternoons. The success of this course raised some questions. How do the students learn? How does metacognition play a role? The course was designed in accordance with several instructional principles. The

  10. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  11. Fellowship Program in the Design and Development of Instructional Materials. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Malcolm; Pett, Dennis

    A two-year graduate program leading to a specialists's degree was administered to train individuals in the design of instructional materials for elementary, secondary, vocational and special education curricula. The program sought to achieve a multiplier effect by placing its graduates in positions in which they could help other educators to…

  12. OBE EAP-EOP Model: A Proposed Instructional Design in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Hjalmar Punla

    2016-01-01

    Outcome-Based Education (OBE) demands innovative Instructional Designs (ID) in the 21st century. Being a descriptive-qualitative research, this paper aimed to (1) identify the ID used in the English language curricula of a private tertiary level institution in the Southern Luzon, Philippines, (2) determined the elements that the ID of the English…

  13. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  14. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  15. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  16. The structure of contraceptive education and instruction within nurse led family planning clinics: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to explore and analyse how nurses instruct women in contraceptive use during consultations in family planning clinics to produce a grounded theory of contraceptive education. Nurses play a key role in instructing women how to use contraception in family planning clinic consultations. These one-to-one situations are encounters where women are taught how to use contraceptive methods effectively. However, very little is known about the nature of these consultations. A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach was used. Three linked 'core categories' emerged from the data analysis. Firstly, women are educated about their body and how it responds to contraception: 'reproductive education'. This core category is closely linked to 'surveillance' where women are taught to monitor their reproductive health and to 'contraceptive regimen' where women are instructed in techniques to successfully use a contraceptive method. Together these three core categories present a grounded theory of 'contraceptive education'. Nursing practice in this important area of women's health care is complex and requires skilled practitioners. This study presents unique empirical data into how nurses conduct one-to-one consultations with women - providing a novel insight into how contraception is explained in clinical situations. Key issues for practice from the data were the lack of a balance when discussing side effects, the rigidity of some instructions and the lack of recognition of risk from sexually transmitted infection. Nurses working in sexual health need to ensure that women understand the often complex instructions they provide and that rigid instruction be occasionally amended to enable some flexibility. The manner in which side-effects are discussed should also be balanced. Nurses need to address the risk of sexually transmitted infections more substantially in contraceptive discussions.

  17. A Comparison of Interactive Multimedia Instruction Designs Addressing Soldiers Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    animations, and if learners need such cues to support their learning (de Koning et al., 2009). If cues are overused, learners’ attention can be divided...J. P., Paas, F. (2009). Towards a framework for attention cueing in instructional animations: Guidelines for research and design. Educational...information (i.e., contextual content) than familiarization. This design strategy was selected on the basis of discussion with MCoE DOTD, who expressed a

  18. Elementary science teachers' integration of engineering design into science instruction: results from a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.; Navy, Shannon L.; Wheeler, Lindsay B.

    2017-07-01

    This randomised controlled trial used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the frequency and how elementary teachers integrated engineering design (ED) principles into their science instruction following professional development (PD). The ED components of the PD were aligned with Cunningham and Carlsen's [(2014). Teaching engineering practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25, 197-210] guidelines for ED PD and promoted inclusion of ED within science teaching. The treatment group included 219 teachers from 83 schools. Participants in the control group included 145 teachers from 60 schools in a mid-Atlantic state. Data sources, including lesson overviews and videotaped classroom observations, were analysed quantitatively to determine the frequency of ED integration and qualitatively to describe how teachers incorporated ED into instruction after attending the PD. Results indicated more participants who attended the PD (55%) incorporated ED into instruction compared with the control participants (24%), χ2(1, n = 401) = 33.225, p .05) through ED lessons. In ED lessons, students typically conducted research and created and tested initial designs. The results suggest the PD supported teachers in implementing ED into their science instruction and support the efficacy of using Cunningham and Carlsen's (2014) guidelines to inform ED PD design.

  19. Activity theory as a challenge to systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...

  20. Identifying Multimedia Production Competencies and Skills of Instructional Design and Technology Professionals: An Analysis of Recent Job Postings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William; Hoard, Brent; Brown, Abbie; Daniels, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to document necessary multimedia production competencies of Instructional Design and Technology graduates, a recent analysis of over 7 months' worth of Instructional Design and Technology job advertisements (n = 615) were conducted. Specific job skills from these postings were categorized and analyzed. The data set includes three job…

  1. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory for the use of action research as a tool of evidence based practice for information literacy instruction in school libraries. The emerging theory is intended to capture the complex phenomenon of information skills teaching as it is embedded in school curricula. Such a theory is needed to support research on the integrated approach to teaching information skills and knowledge construction within the framework of inquiry learning. Part 1 of this paper, in the previous issue, built a foundation for emerging theory, which established user‐centric information behavior and constructivist learning theory as the substantive theory behind evidence based library instruction in schools. Part 2 continues to build on the Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry as foundational to studying the information‐to‐knowledge connection and the concepts of help and intervention characteristic of 21st century school library instruction.Methods – This paper examines the purpose and methodology of action research as a tool of evidence based instruction. This is accomplished through the explication of three components of theory‐building: paradigm, substantive research, and metatheory. Evidence based practice is identified as the paradigm that contributes values and assumptions about school library instruction. It establishes the role of evidence in teaching and learning, linking theory and practice. Action research, as a tool of evidence based practice is defined as the synthesis of authentic learning, or performance‐based assessment practices that continuously generate evidence throughout the inquiry unit of instruction and traditional data collection methods typically used in formal research. This paper adds social psychology theory from Lewin’s work, which contributes methodology from Gestalt psychology, field theory, group dynamics, and change theory. For Lewin the purpose of action

  2. History of Science and Instructional Design: The Case of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroglou, Fanny; Koumaras, Panagiotis; Tselfes, Vassilis

    , leads the research subjects to differentiate electrostatic and electrodynamic phenomena. Our proposition is to provide pupils with: a) electrostatic and magnetic experiments where they can observe the similarities and differences as Gardano and Gilbert listed them and b) electrostatic and electrodynamic tasks, inspired by Faraday''s experiments, which provide them with the opportunity to observe the same electric effects produced either by friction or by using a battery or a high-voltage supplier. The trial of these experiments in a number of individual investigations with pupils shows that educational material with strong perceptual features and a design based on certain historical experiments, actually help pupils overcome their alternative ideas.

  3. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least...... the Participatory Design (PD) community – to engage in theorizing design, on the basis of our understanding of design and design practices. This theory could be posi-tioned as an alternative to other attempts to theorize design, for example the influential efforts of the Information Systems (IS) community. We urge...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  4. ARTEMIS: Reinvigorating History and Theory in Art and Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet, Jeff; Miles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    ARTEMIS (Art Educational Multiplayer Interactive Space) is an online multi-user virtual environment that is designed around the objects, artefacts, philosophies, personalities and critical discourses of the histories and theories of art and design. Conceived as a means of reinvigorating art history and theory education in the digital age, ARTEMIS…

  5. Applied CAL on Problem Based Learning Using Gagne’s Instructional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sundari Purbohadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— In the Problem-Based Learning (PBL model, students are expected to study independently. One of the methods that can improve the ability or skill of learners is using Computer Assisted Learning (CAL. Implementation of CAL in PBL should be able to create Self-Directed Learning (SDL culture through appropriate instructional design and interesting modules. In this paper, the CAL software is developed using multimedia learning principles, convenient appearance, and user-friendly navigation. The CAL’s learning content is designed using Gagne's instructional design. The experiment proved the CAL was able to give effect size 0.89 and developed self-directed learning culture. From the interviews, students were very glad and interested to use the CAL modules because they can learn anytime and can reach the course objectives without a lecturer.

  6. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  7. Design patterns for instructional materials that foster proficiency at analyzing and interpreting complex geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Krumhansl, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards incorporate a stronger emphasis on having students work with data than did prior standards. This emphasis is most obvious in Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data, but also permeates performance expectations built on Practice 2 when students test models, Practice 6 when students construct explanations, and Practice 7 when student test claims with evidence. To support curriculum developers who wish to guide high school students towards more sophisticated engagement with complex data, we analyzed a well-regarded body of instructional materials designed for use in introductory college courses (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/). Our analysis sought design patterns that can be reused for a variety of topics at the high school or college level. We found five such patterns, each of which was used in at least half of the modules analyzed. We describe each pattern, provide an example, and hypothesize a theory of action that could explain how the sequence of activities leverages known perceptual, cognitive and/or social processes to foster learning from and about data. In order from most to least frequent, the observed design patterns are as follows: In Data Puzzles, students respond to guiding questions about high-value snippets of data pre-selected and sequenced by the curriculum developer to lead to an Aha! inference. In Pooling Data to See the Big Picture, small groups analyze different instances of analogous phenomenon (e.g. different hurricanes, or different divergent plate boundaries) and pool their insights to extract the commonalities that constitute the essence of that phenomenon. In Make a Decision or Recommendation, students combine geoscience data with other factors (such as economic or environmental justice concerns) to make a decision or recommendation about a human or societal action. In Predict-Observe-Explain, students make a prediction about what the Earth will look like under conditions

  8. Instructional design in mathematics for undergraduate students based on learning by mistakes approach utilizing scilab assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartika, H.

    2018-03-01

    The issue related to making mistake while learning such as negative emotion is found while students learn mathematics with the aid of a computer. When the computer output showed a mistake message, the students considered it as a computer software malfunction. Based on this issue, the writer designs an instructional model based on learning by mistake approach and which is Scilab assisted. The method used in this research is research design involving undergraduate students in matrix algebra courses. The data collected throught survey with questionnaire to gain feedback about the approach implemented. The data analyzed using quantitative descriptive. The instructional design proposed is the student act as a mistake corrector while the teacher acts as a mistake maker. Teacher deliberately makes mistakes with the help of Scilab software. On the other hand, students correct, analyze and explain errors resulting from Scilab software. The result of this research is an ICT based instructional design which is expected to be applicable as an alternative learning in directing students to think positively about mistakes in learning. Furthermore, students are also expected to improve their ability in understanding and thinking critically while solving problems and improving themselves in learning mathematics.

  9. Towards a design theory for reducing aggression in psychiatric facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Roger S; Bogren, Lennart; Lundin, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a tentative theory for designing psychiatric environments to foster reduced aggression and violence. A basic premise underlying the design theory is that environmental and psycho-social stressors mediate and trigger aggression. The theory posits that aggression will be reduced...... buildings with design guided by the best available evidence and theory can play an important role in reducing the serious patient and staff safety problem of aggressive behavior....... if the facility has been designed with an evidence-based bundle of stress-reducing environmental characteristics that are identified and discussed. To make possible a tentative empirical evaluation of the theory, findings are described from a study that compared aggressive incidents in three Swedish psychiatric...

  10. An Instructional Design Framework to Improve Student Learning in a First-Year Engineering Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Yelamarthi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically enhance traditional flipped methodologies in a first-year engineering course, by using low-cost technology aids and proven pedagogical techniques to enhance student learning. Implemented in a first-year engineering course, this modified flipped model demonstrated an improved student awareness of essential engineering concepts and improved academic performance through collaborative and active learning activities, including flipped learning methodologies, without the need for expensive, formal active learning spaces. These findings have been validated through two studies and have shown similar results confirming that student learning is improved by the implementation of multi-pedagogical strategies in-formed by the use of an instructional design in a traditional classroom setting.

  11. Cognitive Tutoring based on Intelligent Decision Support in the PENTHA Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The research finality of this paper is how to support Authors to develop rule driven—subject oriented, adaptable course content, meta-rules—representing the disciplinary epistemology, model of teaching, Learning Path structure, and assessment parameters—for intelligent Tutoring actions in a personalized, adaptive e-Learning environment. The focus is to instruct the student to be a decision manager for himself, able to recognize the elements of a problem, select the necessary information with the perspective of factual choices. In particular, our research intends to provide some fundamental guidelines for the definition of didactical rules and logical relations, that Authors should provide to a cognitive Tutoring system through the use of an Instructional Design method (PENTHA Model) which proposes an educational environment, able to: increase productivity and operability, create conditions for a cooperative dialogue, developing participatory research activities of knowledge, observations and discoveries, customizing the learning design in a complex and holistic vision of the learning / teaching processes.

  12. A Review of What Instructional Designers Do: Questions Answered and Questions Not Asked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kenny

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review was to determine what evidence there is that instructional designers apply ID Models, as well as to establish what other activities and processes they might use in their professional activities. Only ten articles were located that directly pertained to this topic: seven reporting on empirical research and three case descriptions recounting development experiences. All ten papers pertained to process-based ID models. Results showed that, while instructional designers apparently do make use of process-based ID models, they do not spend the majority of their time working with them nor do they follow them in a rigid fashion. They also engage in a wide variety of other tasks that are not reflected in ID models.

  13. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  14. Software engineering design theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    … intended for use as a textbook for an advanced course in software design. Each chapter ends with review questions and references. … provides an overview of the software development process, something that would not be out of line in a course on software engineering including such topics as software process, software management, balancing conflicting values of stakeholders, testing, quality, and ethics. The author has principally focused on software design though, extracting the design phase from the surrounding software development lifecycle. … Software design strategies are addressed

  15. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  16. Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level...

  17. Application of Instructional Design Principles in Developing an Online Information Literacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa

    2016-01-01

    An online information literacy curriculum was developed as an intervention to engage students in independent study and self-assessment of their learning needs and learning outcomes, develop proficiency in information skills, and foster lifelong learning. This column demonstrates how instructional design principles were applied to create the learning experiences integrated into various courses of the medical curriculum to promote active learning of information skills and maximize self-directed learning outcomes for lifelong learning.

  18. Design Approach and Implementation of Application Specific Instruction Set Processor for SHA-3 BLAKE Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuli; Han, Jun; Weng, Xinqian; He, Zhongzhu; Zeng, Xiaoyang

    This paper presents an Application Specific Instruction-set Processor (ASIP) for the SHA-3 BLAKE algorithm family by instruction set extensions (ISE) from an RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processor. With a design space exploration for this ASIP to increase the performance and reduce the area cost, we accomplish an efficient hardware and software implementation of BLAKE algorithm. The special instructions and their well-matched hardware function unit improve the calculation of the key section of the algorithm, namely G-functions. Also, relaxing the time constraint of the special function unit can decrease its hardware cost, while keeping the high data throughput of the processor. Evaluation results reveal the ASIP achieves 335Mbps and 176Mbps for BLAKE-256 and BLAKE-512. The extra area cost is only 8.06k equivalent gates. The proposed ASIP outperforms several software approaches on various platforms in cycle per byte. In fact, both high throughput and low hardware cost achieved by this programmable processor are comparable to that of ASIC implementations.

  19. Inclusive design: Bridging theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, J.G.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. These groups could be supported by information and information technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design

  20. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.

  1. [Participants-centered Design of Annual Meeting: From the Perspectives of Instructional Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuaki

    2018-01-01

     This paper examines the reform experience of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences from Instructional Systems perspectives, to check whether it was effective, efficient, and appealing for participants. "Instructional Systems" has been a research area in educational technology for the past 50 years, and has also been applied to training and human resource development in healthcare domains. If an annual meeting is to be designed for participants' learning, then perspectives of Instructional Systems can be applied to interpret the effort of the reform. First, fill in the gaps of participants' knowledge, using before-and-after comparison. Design a conference to meet the needs of its participants by checking why they attend (expectations) and what they bring in (starting status). Second, design the conference as a process of innovation. The bigger the expected changes, the more carefully participants should be prepared to accommodate them. Third, follow plan-do-check-action cycles with data for confirming and revising the new ways of running the meeting. Plan to check "exportability" of the new ways, to assess whether it can be generalized to future meetings.

  2. Trainee Teachers' Mental Effort in Learning Spreadsheet through Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasir, Zaidatun; Pin, Ong Chiek

    2012-01-01

    A printed module should consist of media elements, namely text and pictures, which are self-instructional and could cater to the needs of the user. However, the typical platform of such visualization frequently overloads the limited working memory causing split attention and redundancy effects. The purpose of this study is to design and develop a…

  3. Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustang, B.; Zulkardi, Z.; Darmawijoyo, D.; Dolk, M.L.A.M.; van Eerde, H.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study’s context is employing the current reform movement adopting Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (an Indonesian version of

  4. Implementation of static generalized perturbation theory for LWR design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, R.F.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized perturbation theory (GPT) formulation is developed for application to light water reactor (LWR) design. The extensions made to standard generalized perturbation theory are the treatment of thermal-hydraulic and fission product poisoning feedbacks, and criticality reset. This formulation has been implemented into a standard LWR design code. The method is verified by comparing direct calculations with GPT calculations. Data are presented showing that feedback effects need to be considered when using GPT for LWR problems. Some specific potential applications of this theory to the field of LWR design are discussed

  5. Aligning Theory and Design: The Development of an Online Learning Intervention to Teach Evidence-based Practice for Maximal Reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagran, Louise; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni

    2015-09-01

    Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development.

  6. Optimal covariate designs theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...

  7. Using innovative instructional technology to meet training needs in public health: a design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millery, Mari; Hall, Michelle; Eisman, Joanna; Murrman, Marita

    2014-03-01

    Technology and distance learning can potentially enhance the efficient and effective delivery of continuing education to the public health workforce. Public Health Training Centers collaborate with instructional technology designers to develop innovative, competency-based online learning experiences that meet pressing training needs and promote best practices. We describe one Public Health Training Center's online learning module design process, which consists of five steps: (1) identify training needs and priority competencies; (2) define learning objectives and identify educational challenges; (3) pose hypotheses and explore innovative, technology-based solutions; (4) develop and deploy the educational experience; and (5) evaluate feedback and outcomes to inform continued cycles of revision and improvement. Examples illustrate the model's application. These steps are discussed within the context of design practices in the fields of education, engineering, and public health. They incorporate key strategies from across these fields, including principles of programmatic design familiar to public health professionals, such as backward design. The instructional technology design process we describe provides a structure for the creativity, collaboration, and systematic strategies needed to develop online learning products that address critical training needs for the public health workforce.

  8. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  9. Implications of Two Well-Known Models for Instructional Designers in Distance Education: Dick-Carey versus Morrison-Ross-Kemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    This paper first summarizes, and then compares and contrasts two well-known instructional design models: Dick and Carey Model (DC) and Morrison, Ross and Kemp model (MRK). The target audiences of both models are basically instructional designers. Both models have applications for different instructional design settings. They both see the…

  10. Towards a Design Theory for Collaborative Qualitative Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2016-01-01

    This position paper addresses how to develop a design theory to support the collaborative practice of qualitative data analysis. Qualitative researchers face several challenges in making sense of their empirical data and IS-support for this practice can be found in software applications...... such as NVivo, Atlas.ti, and DeDoose. While these software tools have utility and are valuable, they are also limiting – and they are particularly limiting researchers in their collaborative efforts with their co-researchers. In this paper, we investigate a design theory to extend it to support collaboration....... We use this as a stepping stone to discuss how to use a design theory to problematize existing applications and how to extend a design theory by abduction....

  11. Theory and Algorithms for Global/Local Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Layne T; Guerdal, Zafer; Haftka, Raphael T

    2005-01-01

    The motivating application for this research is the global/local optimal design of composite aircraft structures such as wings and fuselages, but the theory and algorithms are more widely applicable...

  12. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  13. Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolyuk, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the latest theoretical analysis and design methodologies of different types of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes (CVG). Together, the chapters analyze different types of sensitive element designs and their kinematics, derivation of motion equations, analysis of sensitive elements dynamics in modulated and demodulated signals, calculation and optimization of main performance characteristics, and signal processing and control. Essential aspects of numerical simulation of CVG using Simulink® are also covered. This is an ideal book for graduate students, researchers, and engineers working in fields that require gyroscope application, including but not limited to: inertial sensors and systems, automotive and consumer electronics, small unmanned aircraft control systems, personal mobile navigation systems and related software development, and augmented and virtual reality systems.

  14. Measuring lip force by oral screens Part 2: The importance of screen design, instruction and suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsén, Madeleine; Stenberg, Manne

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method for measuring lip force and to find the most important factors that influence the measurements in terms of magnitude and variability. The hypothesis tested was that suction is involved and thus the instruction and the design of the oral screen are of importance when measuring lip force. This is a methodological study in a healthy population. This study was conducted in a general community. The designs of the screens were soft and hard prefabricated screens and 2 semi-individually made with a tube allowing air to pass. The screens and the instructions squeeze or suck were tested on 29 healthy adults, one at a time and on 4 occasions. The test order of the screens was randomized. Data were collected during 4 consecutive days, and the procedure was repeated after 1 month. The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers. The instruction was an important mean to distinguish between squeezing and sucking. The design of the screen affected the lip force so that it increases in relation to the projected area of the screen. A screen design with a tube allowing air to pass made it possible to avoid suction when squeezing. By measuring with and without allowing air to pass, it was possible to distinguish between suction related and not suction related lip force. The additional screen pressure when sucking was related to the ability to produce a negative intraoral pressure. In conclusion lip force increases in relation to the projected area of the screen, sucking generally increases the measured lip force and the additional screen pressure when sucking is related to the ability to produce a negative intraoral pressure.

  15. An instructional model for the teaching of physics, based on a meaningful learning theory and class experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chrobak

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Practically all research studies concerning the teaching of Physics point out the fact that conventional instructional models fail to achieve their objectives. Many attempts have been done to change this situation, frequently with disappointing results. This work, which is the experimental stage in a research project of a greater scope, represents an effort to change to a model based on a cognitive learning theory, known as the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory, making use of the metacognitive tools that emerge from this theory. The results of this work indicate that the students react positively to the goals of meaningful learning, showing substantial understanding of Newtonian Mechanics. An important reduction in the study time required to pass the course has also been reported.

  16. RF MEMS theory, design, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasmall Radio Frequency and Micro-wave Microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMs), such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters, exhibit nearly zero power consumption or loss. For this reason, they are being developed intensively by corporations worldwide for use in telecommunications equipment. This book acquaints readers with the basics of RF MEMs and describes how to design practical circuits and devices with them. The author, an acknowledged expert in the field, presents a range of real-world applications and shares many valuable tricks of the trade.

  17. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in A High School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria PABRUA BATOON

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive e-books in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study revealed that participants use interactive e-books as a technological educational resource. The professors pointed out that the design of the interactive e-books helped students develop essential learning skills: technological ability, reading and writing skills, as well as cognition and metacognition abilities. Furthermore, the students noted that the use of interactive e-books has a positive effect on their grades due to its high audio and visual contents. However, the students indicated that they were allured to chat, to play or to navigate in their mobile device while they were using it. Finally, this study can contribute to the relative knowledge about the use of mobile technology in education, as well as, it aids the professor to make a reflection about the Instructional Design of the educational technological resources used in the classroom to promote better result in the process of learning.

  18. The Creativity Dimension of Instructional Materials Designed by Prospective Teachers: The Comparison across Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at revealing the creativity dimension of the materials designed and developed by the second year students studying at the department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology. A part of the participants has completed the process by designing materials in their own field, information technologies; while some of them have done so by designing materials in the field of mathematics. The data have been retrieved from an experimental study of 13 weeks. “Teaching Material Creativity Rubric” developed by the researchers, has been used as the data collection tool. The rubric has been developed in order to evaluate the creativity dimensions of products. While developing the rubric, the creative product evaluation dimensions of [14] have been a source of inspiration. The products developed by the students have been evaluated through the retrieved data, in terms of their creativity. The rubric developed includes Originality, Practicality & Sensibility, Productivity & Flexibility, Feasibility, Inclusiveness, and Insightfulness dimensions. In this research, the data of the aforementioned dimensions and sub-dimensions have been evaluated. The results present that the creativity level of the products on teaching information technologies, which have been developed by Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT students, is high. It has been argued that the creativity of domain-specifically developed materials is higher, through literature. Keywords: Material Design in Computers, Mathematics Teaching, Originality, Applicability, Creativity, Creativity and Domainswords.

  19. Instructional Design "Postpartum Fitness” for Midwife Staff of Shemiranat (Tehran, Iran Health Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rahmati Roodsari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the postpartum cares lives is supporting and encouraging them more to exercise after delivery and monitoring them. Health care workers, particularly midwives have a great role in the promotion of sport activity. Purpose of this study is Designed training for "postpartum fitness" by Roth well approach for midwives at health network in Shemiranat.Materials and Methods: This research is kind of Instructional design. Sampling was done by using census method Data collection was done by multiple choice tests for knowledge and attitudes of questionnaire and practical assessment exercise was part. After assessment and instructional design and was done Roth well model and Ganyh strategies.Results: Average response to questions in the cognitive domain was 49%. In this study 92% of the employees have positive attitude to importance and impact of the study. The result of the data related to the workplace of participants is health centers (53.3%. Most frequency is for who has less than 5 years’ work experience (50%and most frequency is for official staff (43.3%, most educational level related to bachelors (83.3% and the highest age rate is between 30-40 years old (40%.Conclusion: Positive attitude towards this issue and earn score below %80 indicates a need for staff to learn and raise awareness about the above topic. Create knowledge, training, counseling mothers about this issue are the midwife duties. This reflects a greater emphasis on design education.

  20. A Workshop on Algebraic Design Theory and Hadamard Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops the depth and breadth of the mathematics underlying the construction and analysis of Hadamard matrices and their use in the construction of combinatorial designs. At the same time, it pursues current research in their numerous applications in security and cryptography, quantum information, and communications. Bridges among diverse mathematical threads and extensive applications make this an invaluable source for understanding both the current state of the art and future directions. The existence of Hadamard matrices remains one of the most challenging open questions in combinatorics. Substantial progress on their existence has resulted from advances in algebraic design theory using deep connections with linear algebra, abstract algebra, finite geometry, number theory, and combinatorics. Hadamard matrices arise in a very diverse set of applications. Starting with applications in experimental design theory and the theory of error-correcting codes, they have found unexpected and important ap...

  1. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  2. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  3. Gestalt-A Learning Theory for Graphic Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This article will begin by seeking to define the notion of learning "by, through" and "from" experience. A linkage will then be established between these notions of experiences and gestalt theory. This will be explored within a subject specific context of graphic design. Links will be highlighted between the inherent nature of graphic design and…

  4. Introduction to TIPS: a theory for creative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sushkov, V.V.; Mars, Nicolaas; Wognum, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A highly intriguing problem in combining artificial intelligence and engineering design is automation of the creative and innovative phases of the design process. This paper gives a brief introduction to the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS) selected as a theoretical basis of the authors'

  5. A Design-Based Research Case Study Documenting a Constructivist ID Process and Instructional Solution for a Cross-Cultural Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Monica W.; Unger, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    As the need for instructing a globalized workforce increases, instructional designers must embrace the constraints and the opportunities these projects provide in order to move the field of cross-cultural instructional design (ID) forward. Cross-cultural projects offer multiple avenues for growth in ID practice, overcoming cultural barriers, and a…

  6. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  7. Constructal Theory and Aeroelastic Design of Flexible Flying Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mardanpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aeroelastic behavior of high-aspect-ratio very flexible flying wing is highly affected by the geometric nonlinearities of the aircraft structure. This paper reviews the findings on how these nonlinearities influence the structural and flight dynamics, and it shows that the aeroelastic flight envelope could significantly be extended with proper choices of design parameters such as engine placement. Moreover, in order to investigate the physics behind the effects of design parameters, constructal theory of design is reviewed. The constructal theory advances the philosophy of design as science, it states that the better structural design emerges when stress flow strangulation is avoided. Furthermore, it shows that airplanes, through their evolution, have obeyed theoretical allometric rules that unite their designs.

  8. Wicked ID: Conceptual Framework for Considering Instructional Design as a Wicked Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Becker

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of instructional design has parallels in other design disciplines. Software design is one that has experienced intense attention in the last 30 or so years, and many lessons learned there can be applied to ID. Using software design as a springboard, this concept paper seeks to propose a new approach to ID. It suggests that instructional design is almost always a Wicked Problem. The connection is formed between Wicked Problems as first described by Rittel and Webber in 1973, and the models in and processes of instructional design. The areas of social planning, organizational management and software design all posses some accepted and tested approaches to the solution of Wicked Problems. These will be described, and how they can be applied to ID will be explained. Finally, this paper will propose a meta-model for ID and explain how it can be used in the current context. Résumé : Le processus de conception pédagogique a des similitudes avec d’autres disciplines. La conception de logiciels a fait l’objet d’une grande attention dans les trente dernières années et de nombreuses leçons tirées peuvent s’appliquer à la conception pédagogique. En se basant sur la conception de logiciels, cet article cherche à proposer une nouvelle méthode à la conception pédagogique. Il laisse entendre que la conception pédagogique constitue presque toujours un problème épineux. Le lien est formé entre les problèmes épineux tels que décrits par Rittel et Webber en 1973 et les modèles et processus de la conception pédagogique. Les secteurs de l’organisation sociale, de la gestion des organisations et de la conception de logiciels comptent des méthodes acceptées et validées à la résolution de problèmes épineux. Nous les décrirons et expliquerons comment ils peuvent servir à la conception pédagogique. Enfin, l’article proposera un meta-modèle de la conception pédagogique et expliquera comment il peut servir dans le

  9. Improvement of Organizational Performance and Instructional Design: An Analogy Based on General Principles of Natural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    The process of improving organizational performance through designing systemic interventions has remarkable similarities to designing instruction for improving learners' performance. Both processes deal with subjects (learners and organizations correspondingly) with certain capabilities that are exposed to novel information designed for producing…

  10. Concept Generation for Design Creativity A Systematized Theory and Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Taura, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The concept generation process seems like an intuitional thought: difficult to capture and perform, although everyone is capable of it. It is not an analytical process but a synthetic process which has yet to be clarified. Furthermore, new research methods for investigating the concept generation process—a very difficult task since the concept generation process is driven by inner feelings deeply etched in the mind—are necessary to establish its theory and methodology.  Concept Generation for Design Creativity—A Systematized Theory and Methodology presents the concept generation process both theoretically and methodologically. Theoretically, the concept generation process is discussed by comparing metaphor, abduction, and General Design Theory from the perspective of similarities and dissimilarities. Property mapping, concept blending, and concept integration in thematic relation have been explained methodologically. So far, these theories and methods have been discussed independently, and the relation...

  11. Tuition vs. Intuition: Effects of Instruction on Naive Theories of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Calabi, Prassede

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that a major obstacle to evolution understanding is an essentialist view of the biological world. The present study investigated the effects of formal biology instruction on such misconceptions. Participants (N = 291) completed an assessment of their understanding of six aspects of evolution (variation, inheritance,…

  12. Districtwide Instructional Reform: Using Sociocultural Theory to Link Professional Learning to Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Chrysan

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind Act accountability pressures and calls to close achievement gaps between groups of students have challenged school districts to achieve systemwide instructional improvement. These policies create learning challenges for classroom teachers and for school and district leaders. This article engages questions about organizational…

  13. Theory into Practice: Best Practices for a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    Educators at one Georgia high school identified improved student proficiency in critical thinking as a major school goal. In order to infuse thinking skills instruction across the curriculum, a nine-member interdisciplinary team of teachers worked with a learning consultant for 1 year. Collaboration resulted in the development of a new model for…

  14. Instructional Design for Advanced Learners: Establishing Connections between the Theoretical Frameworks of Cognitive Load and Deliberate Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Ericsson, K. A.; Rikers, Remy; Paas, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) has been successful in identifying instructional formats that are more effective and efficient than conventional problem solving in the initial, novice phase of skill acquisition. However, recent findings regarding the “expertise reversal effect” have begun to stimulate

  15. Engineering and industrial design : an integrated interdisciplinary design theory

    OpenAIRE

    Brezing, Alexander Nikolaus; Löwer, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that superior products result from a balanced consideration of both “technology” and “aesthetic design”. Nonetheless, the gap between the two professions of the “design engineer“ and the “industrial designer“ has not been bridged since their origination in the course of industrialization [7]. One possible approach to enhance the collaboration of both disciplines is to teach the basics of the respective other’s. In Germany, the main work following this approach of tryi...

  16. Instructions for submittal and control of FFTF design documents and design related documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grush, R.E.

    1976-10-01

    This document provides the system and requirements for management of FFTF technical data prepared by Westinghouse Hanford (HEDL), and design contractors, the construction contractor and lower tier equipment suppliers. Included in this document are provisions for the review, approval, release, change control, and accounting of FFTF design disclosure and base documentation. Also included are provisions for submittal of other design related documents for review and approval consistent with applicable requirements of RDT-Standard F 2-2, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements.''

  17. Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…

  18. Developing Elementary Math and Science Process Skills Through Engineering Design Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Matthew G.

    This paper examines how elementary students can develop math and science process skills through an engineering design approach to instruction. The performance and development of individual process skills overall and by gender were also examined. The study, preceded by a pilot, took place in a grade four extracurricular engineering design program in a public, suburban school district. Students worked in pairs and small groups to design and construct airplane models from styrofoam, paper clips, and toothpicks. The development and performance of process skills were assessed through a student survey of learning gains, an engineering design packet rubric (student work), observation field notes, and focus group notes. The results indicate that students can significantly develop process skills, that female students may develop process skills through engineering design better than male students, and that engineering design is most helpful for developing the measuring, suggesting improvements, and observing process skills. The study suggests that a more regular engineering design program or curriculum could be beneficial for students' math and science abilities both in this school and for the elementary field as a whole.

  19. Instructional design strategies for developing an interactive video educational program for pregnant teens: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R; Smith, P

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-six teens attending an urban maternity hospital's prenatal clinic completed a questionnaire designed to assist in the development of educational programs utilizing computer-assisted television instruction or interactive video. Ninety-five percent of the teens agreed that additional information about desirable health behaviors during pregnancy would be helpful. Forty-six percent preferred obtaining information from a health professional at the hospital. Although 90% said that the race of the narrator for a film show was unimportant, responses regarding racial preference corresponded to the racial distribution of participants. Seventy-six percent of the teens preferred the narrator to be younger than 35 years of age, and 54% preferred a female narrator. Race was associated with video game experiences, preferences about the narrator's age and race, and favorite television shows. Age was not associated with responses to any of the questions. Although only 19% had ever used a computer, 98% stated they would like to try a computer with assistance. More than half (55%) knew how to type and 83% had played video games; of those who had played video games, 93% said they enjoyed doing so. Eighty-three percent of the respondents always or sometimes enjoyed cartoons. Favorite television shows and cartoon characters were identified. The design implications of the teens' preferences to the development of instruction using computers coupled with other emerging technologies are discussed.

  20. Towards the design of 3D multiscale instructive tissue engineering constructs: Current approaches and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-11-01

    The design of 3D constructs with adequate properties to instruct and guide cells both in vitro and in vivo is one of the major focuses of tissue engineering. Successful tissue regeneration depends on the favorable crosstalk between the supporting structure, the cells and the host tissue so that a balanced matrix production and degradation are achieved. Herein, the major occurring events and players in normal and regenerative tissue are overviewed. These have been inspiring the selection or synthesis of instructive cues to include into the 3D constructs. We further highlight the importance of a multiscale perception of the range of features that can be included on the biomimetic structures. Lastly, we focus on the current and developing tissue-engineering approaches for the preparation of such 3D constructs: top-down, bottom-up and integrative. Bottom-up and integrative approaches present a higher potential for the design of tissue engineering devices with multiscale features and higher biochemical control than top-down strategies, and are the main focus of this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of design rules from multi-objective design exploration (MODE) using rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective design exploration (MODE) and its application for design rule extraction are presented. MODE reveals the structure of design space from the trade-off information. The self-organizing map (SOM) is incorporated into MODE as a visual data-mining tool for design space. SOM divides the design space into clusters with specific design features. The sufficient conditions for belonging to a cluster of interest are extracted using rough set theory. The resulting MODE was applied to the multidisciplinary wing design problem, which revealed a cluster of good designs, and we extracted the design rules of such designs successfully.

  2. Bridging Theory and Practice: Developing Guidelines to Facilitate the Design of Computer-based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Young

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The design of computer-based learning environments has undergone a paradigm shift; moving students away from instruction that was considered to promote technical rationality grounded in objectivism, to the application of computers to create cognitive tools utilized in constructivist environments. The goal of the resulting computer-based learning environment design principles is to have students learn with technology, rather than from technology. This paper reviews the general constructivist theory that has guided the development of these environments, and offers suggestions for the adaptation of modest, generic guidelines, not mandated principles, that can be flexibly applied and allow for the expression of true constructivist ideals in online learning environments.

  3. From Paper to PDA: Design and Evaluation of a Clinical Ward Instruction on a Mobile Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Stage, Jan

    Mobile devices with small screens and minimal facilities for interaction are increasingly being used in complex human activities for accessing and processing information, while the user is moving. This paper presents a case study of the design and evaluation of a mobile system, which involved transformation of complex text and tables to digital format on a PDA. The application domain was an emergency medical ward, and the user group was junior registrars. We designed a PDA-based system for accessing information, focusing on the ward instruction, implemented a prototype and evaluated it for usability and utility. The evaluation results indicate significant problems in the interaction with the system as well as the extent to which the system is useful for junior registrars in their daily work.

  4. Instructional Design as Resource for the Strengthening of the Regional Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol del Carmen Terán González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation takes as a fundamental goal, the elaboration of an instructional digital design that contributes to the strengthening of the regional identity of the students. The study is based on the theoretical postulates of: UNESCO (2004, CBN (1997, Ausubel (1983, Vygotsky, Rodríguez (2001, Careaga (2001, Galvis (1992, Pastorini, (2000, Salazar (2008, Rosario (2005, Bernice McCarthy (1987, among others. The same one, adopted the type of descriptive investigation, with a field design placed in the modality of viable project. The population is constituted by 12 teachers, and 40 students of the sixth degree. For the diagnostic phase a questionnaire will be applied with 14 items for teachers and students, the validation will be of content across the experts' judgment. In conclusion, there exists weakness for the constitutive elements of the historical memory as part of the regional identity.

  5. Designing and Using an Open Graphic Interface for Instruction in Geometrical Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Miky; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses conceptual difficulties in the field of geometrical optics and describes RAY, a microcomputer-based graphic interface that was designed to serve as a teaching aid and as a learning environment. The ability to combine theory and formal representations with real demonstrations and experiments is discussed. (Contains seven references.) (LRW)

  6. Asthma in the community: Designing instruction to help students explore scientific dilemmas that impact their lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Erika Dawn

    School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their personal and community environments. Applying the knowledge integration perspective, I collaborated with education, science, and community partners to design a technology enhanced science module, Improving Your Community's Asthma Problem. This exemplar community science curriculum afforded students the opportunity to (a) investigate a local community health issue, (b) interact with relevant evidence related to physiology, clinical management, and environmental risks, and (c) construct an integrated understanding of the asthma problem in their community. To identify effective instructional scaffolds that engage students in the knowledge integration process and prepare them to participate in community science, I conducted 2 years of research that included 5 schools, 10 teachers, and over 500 students. This dissertation reports on four studies that analyzed student responses on pre-, post-, and embedded assessments. Researching across four design stages, the iterative design study investigated how to best embed the visualizations of the physiological processes breathing, asthma attack, and the allergic immune response in an inquiry activity and informed evidence-based revisions to the module. The evaluation study investigated the impact of this revised Asthma module across multiple classrooms and differences in students' prior knowledge. Combining evidence of student learning from the iterative and evaluation studies with classroom observations and teacher interviews, the longitudinal study explored the impact of teacher practices on student learning in years 1 and 2. In the final chapter, I studied how the Asthma module and

  7. Statistical Analysis of Designed Experiments Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tamhane, Ajit C

    2012-01-01

    A indispensable guide to understanding and designing modern experiments The tools and techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) allow researchers to successfully collect, analyze, and interpret data across a wide array of disciplines. Statistical Analysis of Designed Experiments provides a modern and balanced treatment of DOE methodology with thorough coverage of the underlying theory and standard designs of experiments, guiding the reader through applications to research in various fields such as engineering, medicine, business, and the social sciences. The book supplies a foundation for the

  8. Improving the requirements process in Axiomatic Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to integrate the traditional requirements process into Axiomatic Design Theory and proposes a method to structure the requirements process. The method includes a requirements classification system to ensure that all requirements information can be included...... in the Axiomatic Design process, a stakeholder classification system to reduce the chances of excluding one or more key stakeholders, and a table to visualize the mapping between the stakeholders and their requirements....

  9. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  10. Theories and Research in Educational Technology and Distance Learning Instruction through Blackboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, John Ronghua; Stanley, Nile

    2014-01-01

    Educational technology is a fast-growing and increasingly developed subject in education during the past 50 years. The focus of the development of its theories and research is oriented into the methods and effectiveness of its implementation. This presentation is reviewing various educational technology related theories, exploring and discussing…

  11. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  12. Mathematical design of a novel input/instruction device using a moving acoustic emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianchao; Guo, Yukun; Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the mathematical design of a novel input/instruction device using a moving emitter. The emitter acts as a point source and can be installed on a digital pen or worn on the finger of the human being who desires to interact/communicate with the computer. The input/instruction can be recognized by identifying the moving trajectory of the emitter performed by the human being from the collected wave field data. The identification process is modelled as an inverse source problem where one intends to identify the trajectory of a moving point source. There are several salient features of our study which distinguish our result from the existing ones in the literature. First, the point source is moving in an inhomogeneous background medium, which models the human body. Second, the dynamical wave field data are collected in a limited aperture. Third, the reconstruction method is independent of the background medium, and it is totally direct without any matrix inversion. Hence, it is efficient and robust with respect to the measurement noise. Both theoretical justifications and computational experiments are presented to verify our novel findings.

  13. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  14. Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12. Policy Brief #14-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    How do policymakers craft policies, particularly centered on the Common Core State Standards, to be more resilient and less likely to disintegrate during enactment? Researcher Jonathan Supovitz in "Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12" examines the design of a New York City Department of Education policy…

  15. Effectiveness of Facebook Based Learning to Enhance Creativity among Islamic Studies Students by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; Daud, Mohd Khairul Azman Md; Hussin, Zaharah

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic Studies students in the secondary educational setting in Malaysia. It describes the design process by employing the Isman Instructional Design Model. A quantitative study was carried out using experimental method and background survey. The…

  16. Rethinking Instructional Technology to Improve Pedagogy for Digital Literacy: A Design Case in a Graduate Early Childhood Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langub, Lee Woodham; Lokey-Vega, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    Digital literacy is an important aspect to consider within teacher education as a way to address twenty-first century learner needs, particularly in early childhood contexts where developmental concerns should be paramount in making instructional design decisions. This article is a design case of a graduate level early childhood education…

  17. A Model of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials for Academic Writing Course: "Needs & Documents Analysis and Model Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghufron, M. Ali; Saleh, Mursid; Warsono; Sofwan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a model of instructional materials for Academic Writing Course focusing on research paper writing. The model was designed based on the Curriculum at the English Education Study Program, Faculty of Language and Art Education of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. This model was developed in order to improve…

  18. Video Games: A Human Factors Guide to Visual Display Design and Instructional System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Abstract K Electronic video games have many of the same technological and psychological characteristics that are found in military computer-based...employed as learning vehicles, the especially compelling characteristics of electronic video games have not been fully explored for possible exploitation...new electronic video games . !? Accordingly, the following experiment was designed to determine those m dimensions along which electronic

  19. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle John Wilby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25 of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25 of students stated that the mixed

  20. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Nasr, Ziad Ghantous

    2016-11-01

    Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed

  1. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  2. Impact of Maple(TM) on the design, instruction and performance in an undergraduate physics mathematical methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Alan Paul

    1997-10-01

    A traditional undergraduate physics course on mathematical methods has been redesigned to incorporate the use of Maplesp{sc {TM}}, a computer algebra program, during all aspects of the course. Topics covered were: complex number theory; series approximations; matrix theory; partial differentiation; vector algebra; and vector calculus. Five undergraduate students were enrolled, from sophomore to senior in academic class standing. A qualitative case study methodology was used to describe the changes in the course design resulting from the incorporation of Maplesp{sc {TM}} and their impact on the instruction of the course, and to determine the effects on the students' learning and development of problem solving skills in physics using Maplesp{sc {TM}} as a problem solving tool. The impact of using Maplesp{sc {TM}} on the number and types of interactions is presented. The entire semester long course was included in this study. Each class session is described in detail. Examples of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} materials used are given. The use of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} program was allowed on all homework and exams with each student having their own computer during class. Constraints were made so that the assessment emphasis remained on the mathematics and the conceptual understanding of the problem solving methods. All of the students demonstrated some level of proficiency in using Maplesp{TM} to solve the assigned problems. Strategies for effectively using Maplesp{TM} were presented and were individualized by the students. The students reported positive and negative impacts of using Maplesp{sc {TM}}. All of the students satisfactorily completed the course requirements, receiving final course grades from B to A+. All of them continued to voluntarily use Maplesp{sc {TM}} during the following semester. Instructional methods used included various lecture techniques without Maplesp{sc {TM}} assistance, lectures and demonstrations using only Maplesp{sc {TM}}, and student tasks

  3. The importance of the instructional guide in the design of virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mercedes Gomez-Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in the processes of teaching and learning is one of the main challenges of educational institutions and teachers in the current society of knowledge, as responsible for a use Rational and meaningful use of its digital educational resources (RED. This involves developing competencies in the implementation of ICT in the classroom to enrich the learning environments. This article presents a reflection on the instructional guide as a didactic tool in the elaboration of RED that facilitates the design of these resources to support the activities of the classroom in these processes. This reflection is the result of a research on the subject carried out in a context of university teaching

  4. Heat pump dryers theory, design and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Filho, Odilio

    2015-01-01

    Explore the Social, Technological, and Economic Impact of Heat Pump Drying Heat pump drying is a green technology that aligns with current energy, quality, and environmental concerns, and when compared to conventional drying, delivers similar quality at a lower cost. Heat Pump Dryers: Theory, Design and Industrial Applications details the progression of heat pump drying-from pioneering research and demonstration work to an applied technology-and establishes principles and theories that can aid in the successful design and application of heat pump dryers. Based on the author's personal experience, this book compares heat pump dryers and conventional dryers in terms of performance, quality, removal rate, energy utilization, and the environmental effect of both drying processes. It includes detailed descriptions and layouts of heat pump dryers, outlines the principles of operation, and explains the equations, diagrams, and procedures used to form the basis for heat pump dryer dimensioning and design. The author ...

  5. The Effects of a Computer-Assisted Teaching Material, Designed According to the ASSURE Instructional Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, on Students' Achievement Levels in a Mathematics Lesson and Their Resulting Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakis, Hilal; Karamete, Aysen; Okçu, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects that computer-assisted instruction had on students' attitudes toward a mathematics lesson and toward learning mathematics with computer-assisted instruction. The computer software we used was based on the ASSURE Instructional Systems Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, and the software was designed to teach…

  6. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning designTheory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  7. The mathematical theory of signal processing and compression-designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2006-05-01

    The mathematical theory of signal processing, named processor coding, will be shown to inherently arise as the computational time dual of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication which is also known as source coding. Source coding is concerned with signal source memory space compression while processor coding deals with signal processor computational time compression. Their combination is named compression-designs and referred as Conde in short. A compelling and pedagogically appealing diagram will be discussed highlighting Conde's remarkable successful application to real-world knowledge-aided (KA) airborne moving target indicator (AMTI) radar.

  8. Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. This study's method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found to mediate motivation at all stages of the change

  9. Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing the Model of College English Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Activity theory signifies that activities are at the centre of human behaviour and it has been used to study cognitive process in many fields. Nowadays, college English listening learning is time-consuming but less effective in China, so enhancing the performance of listening instruction is a very hot topic. Theoretically, activity theory is able…

  10. Backward Instructional design for an educational open resource in Spanish Vocational Training: The case of the Web Apps Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jorge GARCÍA MARCOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the instructional design process used to elaborate an educational media developing the Web Applications module curriculum of Microcomputer Systems and Networks Intermediate Level Training Cycle, which belongs to the professional family of Computing and Communications within the studies of Vocational Education and Training. A backward model is followed as instructional design to create the educational media, starting with the learning outcomes and ending with the contents, in a reverse way to the procedure used in other instructional designs. The educational media has been designed based on constructivism as pedagogical principle and it has been used to create projects for the student to be actively involved in the development of their knowledge. The result is an open educational resource composed of six didactic sequences, where the student is expected to achieve higher order thinking skills. In addition to openness in access, use, adaptation and redistribution of material, the article provides a detailed view of the process that has been followed in each phase of instructional design. In this way, the educational resource evolves from being not only open in its content, but also in its design, so that the latter becomes accessible, reusable, adapted and redistributed by others. The full open educational resource can be found at the following link: http://www.cristiangarcia.org/WebAppsProject/index.html

  11. Low-voltage CMOS operational amplifiers theory, design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers: Theory, Design and Implementation discusses both single and two-stage architectures. Opamps with constant-gm input stage are designed and their excellent performance over the rail-to-rail input common mode range is demonstrated. The first set of CMOS constant-gm input stages was introduced by a group from Technische Universiteit, Delft and Universiteit Twente, the Netherlands. These earlier versions of circuits are discussed, along with new circuits developed at the Ohio State University. The design, fabrication (MOSIS Tiny Chips), and characterization of the new circuits are now complete. Basic analog integrated circuit design concepts should be understood in order to fully appreciate the work presented. However, the topics are presented in a logical order and the circuits are explained in great detail, so that Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers can be read and enjoyed by those without much experience in analog circuit design. It is an invaluable reference boo...

  12. A fairytale creation or the beginning of everything: Students’ pre-instructional conceptions about the Big Bang theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aretz

    2016-12-01

    However, it is not yet clear in science education if students’ conceptions about the Big Bang vary by nationality, and therefore, if it is possible to apply the same teaching modules to students from different countries, who may have diverse social and cultural backgrounds and different curricula. These conceptions with which students enter the classroom were investigated in our study. We implemented an open-ended questionnaire survey in Germany, with questions based on recent U.S. studies. The results clearly showed, with high interrater reliabilities, widespread misconceptions like the Big Bang being an explosion of preexisting matter into empty space or the universe having a centre. Furthermore, a comparison of results from researchers in the USA, Sweden and Germany allowed us to identify differences in students’ conceptions between the countries. Our findings appear to indicate that German students have slightly better pre-instructional conceptions about the Big Bang theory.

  13. The Effects of a Computer-Assisted Teaching Material, Designed According to the ASSURE Instructional Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, on Students’ Achievement Levels in a Mathematics Lesson and Their Resulting Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Karakış; Ayşen Karamete; Aydın Okçu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects that computer-assisted instruction had on students’ attitudes toward a mathematics lesson and toward learning mathematics with computer-assisted instruction. The computer software we used was based on the ASSURE Instructional Systems Design and the ARCS Model of Motivation, and the software was designed to teach fractions to fourth-grade students. The skill levels of these students were gauged before and after receiving the computer-assisted instruction. We str...

  14. Mapping Cultural Frame Shifting in Interaction Design with Blending Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner's blending theory as a new conceptual framework for explaining ‘cultural frame shifting' in interaction design. Cultural frame shifting is when people, through their explorative use of technology, are required imaginatively to reorganize...... their cultural background knowledge and expectations. In current HCI research it has occasionally been pointed out that a proper understanding of this phenomenon hinges on addressing the relationship between embodied interaction and cultural meaning construction as part of a larger interactive system. However...... the network model of mental spaces from Fauconnier & Turner's blending theory onto video material and interviews from initial qualitative use studies of a design case. In so doing we explore and argue for how meaning formation and embodied cognition coalesce in cultural frame shifting and provide a tool...

  15. An Arts-Based Instructional Model for Student Creativity in Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Laduca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, nearly all job growth in the United States has emerged from new companies and organizations with assumedly innovative products, services, and practices. Yet, the nurturing of student creative thinking and problem solving is infrequent in engineering education. Inherent to developing these creativity skills and attributes is the need to be exposed to difference — in people and environment. Engineering education rarely offers such opportunities. Additionally, engineering students are rarely presented opportunities to develop designs responding to real human problems. This paper puts forth a new instructional model to address these needs by utilizing arts processes and practices as catalysts for both creativity development in students and transdisciplinary collaboration on problems addressing deep human needs. This model is premised on the substantiated role of the arts in developing creativity and growing understanding of the human condition. This art-based instructional model was piloted as exploratory pedagogical research during the summers of 2015 and 2016 as a partnership between the Arts Nexus (IAN and the School of Engineering at the University of Dayton. In each year, this program supported twelve student interns from engineering, business, science, the arts, and the humanities to develop innovative technologies and services meeting client needs. Student growth in creative problem-solving and transdisciplinary collaboration, as well as the success of the completed innovation technology prototype were assessed by the project mentors and participating students via survey evaluations and narrative responses. The assessment results revealed substantial student growth in student creativity and transdisciplinary collaboration and a remarkably strong evaluation of the success of the students’ innovations. Also realized for all students was a transformation in their perception of their place in the world as

  16. Some considerations about the theory of intelligent design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN E CARREÑO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called theory of intelligent design (ID has gained a growing reputation in the Anglo-Saxon culture, becoming a subject of public debate. The approaches that constitute the core of this proposal, however, have been poorly characterized and systematized. The three most significant authors of ID are certainly Michael Behe, William Dembski and Stephen Meyer. Beyond the differences that can be distinguished in the work of each of them, the central fact in their arguments is the complexity of living organisms, which according to these authors, escapes any kind of natural explanation. In effect, according to the authors of ID, the irreducible complexity that can be detected in the natural world would allow to infer design in a scientifically valid way, even though many of them prefer to remain silent regarding the identity and attributes of the designer. We think that under this proposal, remains a deep epistemological confusion, since its very structure combines methodologies that are beyond the scope of historical and natural evolutionary theories. We also reject the claim that ID is a legitimate scientific theory, because it does not exhibit the classical characteristics that a scientific kind of knowledge must have.

  17. Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of controlling the color and appearance of surfaces simply by modifying the height profile of the surface on a nanoscale level. The applications for such methods are numerous: new design possibilities for high-end products, color engraving on any highly...... reflective surface, paint-free text and coloration, UV-resistant coloring, etc. In this initial study, the main focus is on finding a systematic way to obtain these results. For now the simulation and optimization is based on a simple scalar diffraction theory model. From the results, several design issues...

  18. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  19. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  20. An Instructional Design Model for Developing a Computer Curriculum To Increase Employee Productivity in a Pharmaceutical Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Mark R.

    This report presents an instructional design model that was developed for use by the End-Users Computing department of a large pharmaceutical company in developing effective--but not lengthy--microcomputer training seminars to train office workers and executives in the proper use of computers and thus increase their productivity. The 14 steps of…

  1. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  2. Elementary Science Teachers' Integration of Engineering Design into Science Instruction: Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.; Navy, Shannon L.; Wheeler, Lindsay B.

    2017-01-01

    This randomised controlled trial used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the frequency and how elementary teachers integrated engineering design (ED) principles into their science instruction following professional development (PD). The ED components of the PD were aligned with Cunningham and Carlsen's [(2014). "Teaching engineering…

  3. Tech Select Decision Aide: A Mobile Application to Facilitate Just-in-Time Decision Support for Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Fake, Helen

    2017-01-01

    With the ubiquitous use of mobile technologies and the increasing demand for just-in-time training, there is a need to prepare and support instructional designers and educators to meet the pedagogical and technological development requirements of their target audience in the most effective and efficient way. This paper reviews the iterative…

  4. Project-Based Learning with an Online Peer Assessment System in a Photonics Instruction for Enhancing LED Design Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; You, Li-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a novel instructional approach, a two-stage LED simulation of Project-based learning (PBL) course with online peer assessment (OPA), and explored how to apply OPA to the different structured problems in a PBL course to enhance students' professional skills in LED design as well as meta-cognitive thinking. The participants of…

  5. Comparative effectiveness of instructional design features in simulation-based education: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Hamstra, Stanley J; Brydges, Ryan; Zendejas, Benjamin; Szostek, Jason H; Wang, Amy T; Erwin, Patricia J; Hatala, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Although technology-enhanced simulation is increasingly used in health professions education, features of effective simulation-based instructional design remain uncertain. Evaluate the effectiveness of instructional design features through a systematic review of studies comparing different simulation-based interventions. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011. We included original research studies that compared one simulation intervention with another and involved health professions learners. Working in duplicate, we evaluated study quality and abstracted information on learners, outcomes, and instructional design features. We pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. From a pool of 10,903 articles we identified 289 eligible studies enrolling 18,971 trainees, including 208 randomized trials. Inconsistency was usually large (I2 > 50%). For skills outcomes, pooled effect sizes (positive numbers favoring the instructional design feature) were 0.68 for range of difficulty (20 studies; p simulation-based education.

  6. Balancing the Roles of Explicit Instruction of Text Form Language and Schema Theory in Student Non-Fiction Writing: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer van Arragon, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this study will be on the intersection of the following domains: Second Language Acquisition research on cohesion and coherence, discourse acquisition of young children, the effect of text form-focused instruction on student non-fiction writing and the impact of schema theory on student decision-making during the writing process.

  7. Integrating Scientific Methods and Knowledge into the Teaching of Newton's Theory of Gravitation: An Instructional Sequence for Teachers' and Students' Nature of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the…

  8. Uncertainty quantification using evidence theory in multidisciplinary design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Harish; Renaud, John E.; Preston, Evan L.; Padmanabhan, Dhanesh

    2004-01-01

    Advances in computational performance have led to the development of large-scale simulation tools for design. Systems generated using such simulation tools can fail in service if the uncertainty of the simulation tool's performance predictions is not accounted for. In this research an investigation of how uncertainty can be quantified in multidisciplinary systems analysis subject to epistemic uncertainty associated with the disciplinary design tools and input parameters is undertaken. Evidence theory is used to quantify uncertainty in terms of the uncertain measures of belief and plausibility. To illustrate the methodology, multidisciplinary analysis problems are introduced as an extension to the epistemic uncertainty challenge problems identified by Sandia National Laboratories. After uncertainty has been characterized mathematically the designer seeks the optimum design under uncertainty. The measures of uncertainty provided by evidence theory are discontinuous functions. Such non-smooth functions cannot be used in traditional gradient-based optimizers because the sensitivities of the uncertain measures are not properly defined. In this research surrogate models are used to represent the uncertain measures as continuous functions. A sequential approximate optimization approach is used to drive the optimization process. The methodology is illustrated in application to multidisciplinary example problems

  9. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  10. Spherical perturbations of hairy black holes in designer gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battarra, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We study the spectrum of the scalar l = 0 quasi-normal frequencies of anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in four- and five-dimensional designer gravity theories of the Einstein-scalar type, arising as consistent truncations of N= 8 gauged supergravity. In the dual field theory, such hairy black holes represent thermal states in which the operator corresponding to the bulk scalar field is condensed, due to the multi-trace deformation associated with non-standard boundary conditions. We show that, in a particular class of models, the effective potential describing the vacua of the deformed dual theory can be identified, at large values of the condensate, with the deformation plus the conformal coupling of the condensate to the curvature of the boundary geometry. In this limit, we show that the least damped quasi-normal frequency of the corresponding hairy black holes can be accurately predicted by the curvature of the effective potential describing the field theory at finite entropy. (paper)

  11. Learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences for continuing engineering education instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles Edward, Jr.

    A literature search revealed very little information on how to teach working engineers, which became the motivation for this research. Effective training is important for many reasons such as preventing accidents, maximizing fuel efficiency, minimizing pollution emissions, and reducing equipment downtime. The conceptual framework for this study included the development of a new instructional design framework called the Multimedia Cone of Abstraction (MCoA). This was developed by combining Dale's Cone of Experience and Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. An anonymous survey of 118 engineers from a single Midwestern manufacturer was conducted to determine their demographics, learning strategy preferences, verbal-visual cognitive styles, and multimedia preferences. The learning strategy preference profile and verbal-visual cognitive styles of the sample were statistically significantly different than the general population. The working engineers included more Problem Solvers and were much more visually-oriented than the general population. To study multimedia preferences, five of the seven levels in the MCoA were used. Eight types of multimedia were compared in four categories (types in parantheses): text (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), non-interactive dynamic graphics (animation and video), and interactive dynamic graphics (simulated virtual reality and real virtual reality). The first phase of the study examined multimedia preferences within a category. Participants compared multimedia types in pairs on dual screens using relative preference, rating, and ranking. Surprisingly, the more abstract multimedia (text, drawing, animation, and simulated virtual reality) were preferred in every category to the more concrete multimedia (narration, photograph, video, and real virtual reality), despite the fact that most participants had relatively little prior subject knowledge. However, the more abstract graphics were only slightly

  12. Teaching Interaction Design and Children: Understanding the Relevance of Theory for Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Bekker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the challenge of teaching interaction design for children’s products especially pertaining to bridging the gap between child development theories and interaction design issues. We describe our experiences from developing a one-week course on interaction design and children, that is part of a competency based Masters program in design. We conclude that key elements in this course, to support learning how to incorporate theoretical knowledge in design, are a providing design tool that covers a child developmental model of four domains (cognitive, social, emotional and physical , such as the Developmentally Situated Design cards for creating child personas and design concepts b using a design exercise c giving students the possibility to work on several iterations d giving students more than one age-group to work with in the project, and e providing the students with an evaluation protocol.

  13. There Is More Variation "within" than "across" Domains: An Interview with Paul A. Kirschner about Applying Cognitive Psychology-Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Verschaffel, Lieven; Star, Jon; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-01-01

    In this interview we asked Paul A. Kirschner about his comments and reflections regarding the idea to apply cognitive psychology-based instructional design principles to mathematics education and some related issues. With a main focus on cognitive psychology, educational psychology, educational technology and instructional design, this…

  14. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, Vincenzo, E-mail: vguarino@unina.it; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, Department of Chemical Sciences & Materials Technology, National Research Council of Italy, V.le Kennedy 54, Naples (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial’s manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell–biomaterial and cell– cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.

  15. KEEFEKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN MODEL DESIGNED STUDENT-CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN REPRESENTASI PESERTA DIDIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Alisa Narulita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui (1 apakah kemampuan representasi matematika peserta didik kelas VIII yang diberi pembelajaran dengan model Designed Student-Centered Instructional (DSCI pada mencapai ketuntasan belajar atau tidakdan (2 apakah kemampuan representasi matematika peserta didik kelas VIII yang diberi pembelajaran dengan model DSCI lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran dengan model ekspositori. Hal tersebut yang akan menentukan apakah model DSCI efektif digunakan dalam meningkatkan kemampuan representasi matematika atau tidak.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan populasi seluruh peserta didik kelas VIII SMP Negeri 3 Cilacap tahun ajaran 2012/2013. Sampel diambil secara acak melalui teknik area (cluster sampling sehingga diperoleh kelas VIII A sebagai kelompok eksperimen dan dan kelas VIII B sebagai kelompok kontrol. Setelah dilakukan penelitian diperoleh simpulan bahwa (1 rata-rata kemampuan representasi peserta didik kelas VIII yang diberi pembelajaran dengan model DSCI mencapai ketuntasan belajar dan (2 rata-rata kemampuan representasi peserta didik kelas VIII yang diberi pembelajaran dengan model DSCI lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran dengan model ekspositori.

  16. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial’s manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell–biomaterial and cell– cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues

  17. Electro fluido dynamic techniques to design instructive biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Altobelli, Rosaria; Cirillo, Valentina; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    A large variety of processes and tools is continuously investigated to discover new solutions to design instructive materials with controlled chemical, physical and biological properties for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among them, electro fluido dynamic techniques (EFDTs) are emerging as an interesting strategy, based on highly flexible and low-cost processes, to revisit old biomaterial's manufacturing approach by utilizing electrostatic forces as the driving force for the fabrication of 3D architectures with controlled physical and chemical functionalities to guide in vitro and in vivo cell activities. By a rational selection of polymer solution properties and process conditions, EFDTs allow to produce fibres and/or particles at micro and/or nanometric size scale which may be variously assembled by tailored experimental setups, thus giving the chance to generate a plethora of different 3D devices able to incorporate biopolymers (i.e., proteins, polysaccharides) or active molecules (e.g., drugs) for different applications. Here, we focus on the optimization of basic EFDTs - namely electrospinning, electrospraying and electrodynamic atomization - to develop active platforms (i.e., monocomponent, protein and drug loaded scaffolds and µ-scaffolds) made of synthetic (PCL, PLGA) or natural (chitosan, alginate) polymers. In particular, we investigate how to set materials and process parameters to impart specific morphological, biochemical or physical cues to trigger all the fundamental cell-biomaterial and cell- cell cross-talking elicited during regenerative processes, in order to reproduce the complex microenvironment of native or pathological tissues.

  18. Theory, analysis and design of RF interferometric sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2012-01-01

    Theory, Analysis and Design of RF Interferometric Sensors presents the theory, analysis and design of RF interferometric sensors. RF interferometric sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require every fine resolution and accuracy as well as fast speed. The book also presents two millimeter-wave interferometric sensors realized using RF integrated circuits. The developed millimeter-wave homodyne sensor shows sub-millimeter resolution in the order of 0.05 mm without correction for the non-linear phase response of the sensor's quadrature mixer. The designed millimeter-wave double-channel homodyne sensor provides a resolution of only 0.01 mm, or 1/840th of the operating wavelength, and can inherently suppress the non-linearity of the sensor's quadrature mixer. The experimental results of displacement and velocity measurement are presented as a way to demonstrate the sensing ability of the RF interferometry and to illustrate its many possible applications in sensing. The book is succinct, ye...

  19. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL INTERACTIONS IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova, N.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of a continuum of regulation being also important to understanding Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development which clearly suggests that communicative collaboration with adults or more skilled peers contributes to the development of self-regulation, that is, the capacity for independent problem solving and self-directed activity. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the language classroom, using sociocultural theory and its tenets as a framework, we would see a highly interactive classroom, where the students’ zone of proximal development is identified through strategies such as portfolios, and dialogue journals. Necessity of compiling a textbook based on the above-mentioned principles is stressed.

  20. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  1. Using the van Hiele K-12 Geometry Learning Theory to Modify Engineering Mechanics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Janet M.; Zachary, Loren W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering students use spatial thinking when examining diagrams or models to study structure design. It is expected that most engineering students have solidified spatial thinking skills during K-12 schooling. However, according to what we know about geometry learning and teaching, spatial thinking probably needs to be explicitly taught within…

  2. Learning Designs using Flipped Classroom Instruction | Conception d’apprentissage à l’aide de l’instruction en classe inversée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Danielle Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent

  3. THE NEW URBAN DESIGN – A SOCIAL THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Cuthbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last ten years and 1000 pages of text, I outlined a unified field theory which I refer to as The New Urban Design. Possessing the same structure, the three books can be read in series or in parallel, and may best be described as a matrix of possibilities (Cuthbert 2003, 2006, 2011. In this paper I revisit some of the ideas in these texts that need to be more fully developed. Important among them are the undeniable effects of this new field for architecture and urban planning, and an expanded brief on the use of Marxian modes of production to support social analysis in these disciplines. From this perspective we can at least develop some truth as to the historical progress of urban form. In redefining urban design as an independent field, architecture and urban planning subsequently become different regions of thought from what they had previously entertained, namely during the period when they colonised urban design and shared the spoils between them. Extending this argument even further, it is clear that neither discipline, nor the resulting mainstream urban design (i.e. one produced by architects and planners - have had resort to a social theory of their own existence. All so called theories of architecture and urban planning, have failed with good reason. Architecture has relied almost exclusively on aesthetics and technology for its self awareness. Despite the fact that social theory began to penetrate planning theory in the 1970’s, this did not change the idea that planning can have no internally generated theory other than the trivial, since it is an epiphenomenon of the state. It is not an independent factor in urbanisation, and therefore can have no consciousness of its own that is any more than ideological in the Marxist use of the term. In conclusion, the paper suggests that if the weltanshuung of the New Urban Design is persuasive, this has wide ranging implications for education, practice and the development

  4. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  5. Human Factors Considerations in the Design of Systems of Computer Managed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.

    1978-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate that a significant portion of the wide variance in the success of the implementation of the Wisconsin System for Instructional Management is attributable to the psychological type of the user. (Author/IRT)

  6. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  7. Design and Evaluation of Health Literacy Instructional Video for Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Santanello, PhD; Lakesha M Butler, PharmD, BCPS; Radhika Devraj, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) To describe the development of a health literacy video tailored for pharmacy students. 2) To compare the use of a health literacy video as an instructional method to a previously used health literacy instructional strategy by using both and: a) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their ability to communicate with low health literacy patients and b) assessing pharmacy students' perceptions of their overall understanding of the role of health literacy in a pharmacy settin...

  8. Multimedia messages in genetics: design, development, and evaluation of a computer-based instructional resource for secondary school students in a Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gason, Alexandra A; Aitken, MaryAnne; Delatycki, Martin B; Sheffield, Edith; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2004-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder, for which carrier screening programs exist worldwide. Education for those offered a screening test is essential in facilitating informed decision-making. In Melbourne, Australia, we have designed, developed, and evaluated a computer-based instructional resource for use in the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program for secondary school students attending Jewish schools. The resource entitled "Genetics in the Community: Tay Sachs disease" was designed on a platform of educational learning theory. The development of the resource included formative evaluation using qualitative data analysis supported by descriptive quantitative data. The final resource was evaluated within the screening program and compared with the standard oral presentation using a questionnaire. Knowledge outcomes were measured both before and after either of the educational formats. Data from the formative evaluation were used to refine the content and functionality of the final resource. The questionnaire evaluation of 302 students over two years showed the multimedia resource to be equally effective as an oral educational presentation in facilitating participants' knowledge construction. The resource offers a large number of potential benefits, which are not limited to the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program setting, such as delivery of a consistent educational message, short delivery time, and minimum financial and resource commitment. This article outlines the value of considering educational theory and describes the process of multimedia development providing a framework that may be of value when designing genetics multimedia resources in general.

  9. An analysis of program planning in schools with emerging excellence in science instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen Marie

    Science educators agree on many of the program elements that characterize exemplary science instructional programs, but it has not been clear how the processes of planning and implementation lead to excellence in program design. This study focuses on two K--12 school clusters located in unified school districts and one K--12 school cluster spanning two non-unified districts that are in the midst of building new science programs. The clusters were selected for support by an organization of educators, scientists, and businesspersons because they were recognized as likely to produce good programs. The investigation centers on three research questions: (1) To what extent have schools engaged in science education reform achieved excellence? (2) How did schools engaged in science program improvement go about achieving their goals, and (3) What contextual factors are most closely related to the realization of quality program elements? The degree to which each program studied met indicators of quality suggested by the National Science Education Standards (NSES) are described according to an Innovation Configuration (IC) Chart. Using a Stream Diagnostic method of analysis, levels of practice were associated with contextual factors categorized as Social, Organizing, and Resource. Findings reveal the importance of a balanced and synchronized function of all components, including administrative commitment, teacher participation, and favorable logistical aspects. Individual reform projects were more likely to be successful if they included exemplary program elements and mechanisms for program managers to access district personnel and procedures needed to implement programs. A review of the cluster case histories also revealed the positive impact of cooperation between the funding organization and the project, the degree to which professional development is directly related to the new program, and the availability of resources and support for each exemplary program element.

  10. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  11. Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Improving Learning of Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Shin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Students attending object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from requirements analysis to logical design and then to physical design. Concept maps have been widely used in studies of user learning. The study reported here, based on the relationship of concept maps to learning theory and…

  12. The Identification, Implementation, and Evaluation of Critical User Interface Design Features of Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs in Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, You-Jin; Woo, Honguk

    2010-01-01

    Critical user interface design features of computer-assisted instruction programs in mathematics for students with learning disabilities and corresponding implementation guidelines were identified in this study. Based on the identified features and guidelines, a multimedia computer-assisted instruction program, "Math Explorer", which delivers…

  13. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  14. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e., behavior therapy framework.

  15. Constructal Theory Of Design In Engineering And Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bejan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief introduction to an engineering theory on the origin and generation of geometric form in all flow systems: the animate, the inanimate and the engineered. The theory is named constructal, and is based on the thought that it is natural for currents to construct for themselves in time paths of greater flow access. It is shown that this process of flow path optimization can be reasoned on the basis of principle: the maximization of global performance subject to finite-size constraints. One example is the generation of tree-shaped flow patterns, as paths of least resistance between one point (source, sink and an infinity of points (area, volume, as in the circulatory, respiratory and nervous systems. An other is the generation of regular spacings in heat generating volumes, such as swarms of honeybees. The optimized tree-flow geometries account for allometric laws, e. g., the relationship between the total tube contact area and the body size, the proportionality between metabolic rate and body size raised to the power 3/4, the proportionality between breathing and heartbeating times and body size raised to the power 1/4, and the proportionality between the cruising speed of flying bodies (insects, birds, airplanes and body mass raised to the power 1/6. The optimized flow structures constitute robust designs, and robustness improves as the complexity of the system increases. Flow architectures that are more efficient look more natural.

  16. What learning theories can teach us in designing neurofeedback treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eStrehl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Popular definitions of neurofeedback point out that neurofeedback is a process of operant conditioning which leads to self-regulation of brain activity. Self-regulation of brain activity is considered to be a skill. The aim of this paper is to clarify that not only operant conditioning plays a role in the acquisition of this skill. In order to design the learning process additional references have to be derived from classical conditioning, two-process-theory and in particular from skill learning and research into motivational aspects. The impact of learning by trial and error, cueing of behavior, feedback, reinforcement, and knowledge of results as well as transfer of self-regulation skills into everyday life will be analyzed in this paper. In addition to these learning theory basics this paper tries to summarize the knowledge about acquisition of self-regulation from neurofeedback studies with a main emphasis on clinical populations. As a conclusion it is hypothesized that learning to self-regulate has to be offered in a psychotherapeutic, i.e. behavior therapy framework.

  17. Combining theory and experiment in electrocatalysis: Insights into materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seh, Zhi Wei; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Electrocatalysis plays a central role in clean energy conversion, enabling a number of sustainable processes for future technologies. This review discusses design strategies for state-of-the-art heterogeneous electrocatalysts and associated materials for several different electrochemical transformations involving water, hydrogen, and oxygen, using theory as a means to rationalize catalyst performance. By examining the common principles that govern catalysis for different electrochemical reactions, we describe a systematic framework that clarifies trends in catalyzing these reactions, serving as a guide to new catalyst development while highlighting key gaps that need to be addressed. Here, we conclude by extending this framework to emerging clean energy reactions such as hydrogen peroxide production, carbon dioxide reduction, and nitrogen reduction, where the development of improved catalysts could allow for the sustainable production of a broad range of fuels and chemicals.

  18. Designing modular manufacturing systems using mass customisation theories and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Hvilshøj, Mads; Madsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Today, manufacturing systems are developed as engineered to order (ETO) solutions tailored to produce a specific product or a limited product mix. However, such dedicated systems are not consistent with the current market demands for rapid product changes, high product variety, and customisation....... In response, modular manufacturing systems (MMS) are evolving, which are aimed to possess the required responsiveness and to be the manufacturing paradigm of mass customisation (MC). Hereby, MMS brings the development process of manufacturing systems against configured to order (CTO). Up to now, research...... in MMS has primarily focused on potential benefits, basic principles, and enabling technologies, while the approaches of actually designing and creating modular architectures have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying MC theories and methods is identified based...

  19. Market Mechanism Design for Renewable Energy based on Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Bo, Wang; Jichun, Liu; Wenjiao, Zai; Pingliang, Zeng; Haobo, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is an efficient market means for transforming supply structure of electric power into sustainable development pattern. But the trading is hampered by the output fluctuations of renewable energy and the cost differences between renewable energy and thermal power at present. In this paper, the external environmental cost (EEC) is defined and the EEC is introduced into the generation cost. At same time, the incentive functions of renewable energy and low-emission thermal power are designed, which are decreasing functions of EEC. On these bases, for the market risks caused by the random variability of EEC, the decision-making model of generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is constructed according to the risk theory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by simulation results.

  20. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yih Shyu

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available 無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI courseware for educators, instructional designers and CAI industry developers.

  1. Cognitive State Monitoring and the Design of Adaptive Instruction in Digital Environments: Lessons Learned from Cognitive Workload Assessment using a Passive Brain-Computer Interface Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eGerjets

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Cognitive Load Theory, one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners’ current working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners’ WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing EEG data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work.

  2. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  3. Comprehension with Instructional Media for Middle School Science: Holistic Performative Design Strategy and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew Owen

    This study identifies three distinct levels of text-image integration in page design in a linear relationship of lesser to greater integration: prose primary, prose subsumed, and fully integrated strategies. Science textbook pages were redesigned according to these holistic design strategies for 158 7th-grade students. There were three separate treatment tests, as well as a pre-test and post-test, and pilot tests with both undergraduate students and the subjects themselves. Subjects found the fully integrated strategy to produce the most visually interesting designs and the prose primary strategy to produce the least interesting, with prose subsumed definitively in between (according to 95% confidence intervals). The strategy employed significantly altered interest in science subject matter in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0446), where a Student's t-test revealed that the prose subsumed strategy produced higher interest in subject matter than prose primary. The strategy employed significantly altered comprehension of abstract relationships in one of three treatments (ANOVA, P=0.0202), where a Student's t-test revealed that the fully integrated strategy resulted in greater comprehension than prose primary. For the same treatment condition significant differences were found through ANOVA for factual-level knowledge (P=0.0289) but not conceptual-level knowledge ( P=0.0586). For factual-level knowledge prose primary resulted in lesser comprehension than both prose subsumed and fully integrated. Comprehension is defined according to cognitive load theory. No strategy impact on perception of task difficulty was found. This study was approved by North Carolina State University's Institutional Review Board and Wake County Public School System's Research Review Committee.

  4. The Use of a Well-Designed Instructional Guideline in Online MBA Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesing, Robert J.; Ling, Juan; Yang, Jiaqin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the positive impact of a teaching practice on student learning outcomes in an online MBA program. An instructional project guideline was developed to help online students enhance their achieving required learning objectives corresponding to five categories of Bloom's Taxonomy. The course learning objectives are based on…

  5. Three worlds of instructional design: State of the art and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merriënboer, J.J.G. van; Kirschner, P.A.

    Three worlds of ID are distinguished. The World of Knowledge stresses the analysis of learning outcomes in knowledge structures and the selection of instructional strategies for particular outcomes; the World of Learning focuses on particular learning processes and the synthesis of strategies that

  6. Meeting 2020 Workforce Goals: The Role of Industry-College Collaboration and Goals for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, federal programs for workforce training have aimed to transform the role of community colleges from narrow contract training to a broader role that encompasses strategic instructional program planning and innovation to support lifelong learning for a changing workforce and economic development (Jacobs & Teahen, 1996). Yet, to…

  7. Making It Happen: Using Differentiated Instruction, Retrofit Framework, and Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Barbara; Reeves, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    When children of diverse disabilities and students with ELL rulings are included in traditional classrooms, regular education teachers face a dilemma: How to teach the standard curriculum and teach the new inclusion students? How do they teach students with different heritages and linguistic backgrounds? Differentiated Instruction (DI) is content,…

  8. Click, Clack, Moo: Designing Effective Reading Instruction for Children in Preschool and Early Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    As teachers have struggled to implement scientifically based instructional practices in reading, some researchers have begun to focus on ways to "boost the value of reading aloud to young children". Such studies seek ways to promote oral language as well as comprehension and vocabulary through read-aloud experiences. Interactive read-alouds…

  9. Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in…

  10. Playing, Debugging, Learning: A Proposal between Game and Instructional Designs via Extended Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of open and participative development (e.g. beta testing, Kickstarter projects)--i.e. extended prototyping--in digital entertainment as a potential source of insights for instructional interventions. Despite the increasing popularity of this practice and the potential implications for educators and…

  11. Improving the development of instructional software : Three building-block solutions to interrelate design and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, E.W.; Merrienboer, J.J.G. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is a focus on authentic tasks as the driving force for learning in integrated e-learning systems. This sets new criteria for instructional software, which should become much more flexible and allow for domain modeling and pedagogical modeling. A theoretical analysis and a survey (n

  12. A Study in Instructional Design: A Multi-Modal Approach to Business Logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    Pennsylvania State University provided financial grants and support services to faculty members for improvement of instruction. Funds were provided for released time for faculty, audiovisual production materials, and research and evaluation. An extension course in business logistics was developed using these funds. Lecture presentations were…

  13. Promoting Students' Emotions and Achievement--Instructional Design and Evaluation of the ECOLE-Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser-Zikuda, Michaela; Fuss, Stefan; Laukenmann, Matthias; Metz, Kerstin; Randler, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Emotions such as interest and anxiety are part of the learning process as well as cognition and motivation. In view of this, educational science should take emotional aspects of instruction into account. The "ECOLE"-approach ("Emotional and Cognitive Aspects of Learning") presented in this paper is a theoretically guided…

  14. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  15. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  16. Theory and optical design of x-ray echo spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a space-domain counterpart of neutron spin echo, is a recently proposed inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique. X-ray echo spectroscopy relies on imaging IXS spectra and does not require x-ray monochromatization. Due to this, the echo-type IXS spectrometers are broadband, and thus have a potential to simultaneously provide dramatically increased signal strength, reduced measurement times, and higher resolution compared to the traditional narrow-band scanning-type IXS spectrometers. The theory of x-ray echo spectrometers presented earlier [Yu. Shvyd'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 080801 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.080801] is developed here further with a focus on questions of practical importance, which could facilitate optical design and assessment of the feasibility and performance of the echo spectrometers. Among others, the following questions are addressed: spectral resolution, refocusing condition, echo spectrometer tolerances, refocusing condition adjustment, effective beam size on the sample, spectral window of imaging and scanning range, impact of the secondary source size on the spectral resolution, angular dispersive optics, focusing and collimating optics, and detector's spatial resolution. Examples of optical designs and characteristics of echo spectrometers with 1-meV and 0.1-meV resolutions are presented.

  17. Paradigms in the theory and practice of education and training design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher-Voerman, Irene; Gustafson, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Over the years, many authors have tried to describe, conceptualize, and visualize the instructional design or development processes via a variety of process models. Most descriptions imply a rather homogeneous view of design, depicting it as an overall problem-solving process following general

  18. Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

    2010-05-01

    The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.

  19. Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

  20. Is it Possible to Design a Math-Art Instructional Practice? Cases of Pre-service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıkhan UĞUREL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To many people, establishing relationships between mathematics and art is difficult or surprising. However, these two disciplines are quite interrelated. Today, the literature of mathematics reveals that there has been an increasing interest in interaction between these two disciplines. As also observed in our country, the studies on relationships between mathematics and art have gained more popularity in mathematics education. There is a course entitled, “Mathematics and Art” offered as one of elective courses and taught for ten years to juniors of the Department of Secondary Mathematics Education, Dokuz Eylül University. The course covers a wide range of activities derived from relationships between mathematics and music to activities derived from those between mathematics and handicraft. In this study, cases of pre-service teachers attending this course were analysed. They were asked to do an instructional design integrating mathematics into art at secondary education level. Their designs were analyzed based on the use of art in which contexts and for what purposes. Furthermore, their designs were analyzed in terms of whether they enhance learning. This qualitative study had a case study design. The participants were 43 pre-service mathematics teachers voluntarily selected from students taking the course. Descriptive analysis was done to analyze the data. As a consequence of the analysis, math-art instructional practices developed by pre-service teachers were clustered under three primary categories (good, average and inadequate. The majority of math-art instructional practices were categorized under the average category. In the study, these categories were described and cases in each category were discussed.

  1. ASIE Model: An Innovative Instructional Design Model for Teachers in Enhancing and Sustaining the Quality of the 21st Century Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Md Zain

    2017-01-01

    An effective and systematic design of instruction will determine the quality of learning and teaching practices. Hence, instructional design models are required, to move from just adopting a standard approach to developing models that have an impact on learners' profiles, creating a much better learning experience, skills, and knowledge both in the classroom and online. The 21st Century Learning Framework requires learners to develop their thinking skills, communication skills, collaborating ...

  2. The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy. Eighteen novice medical students received 1 h of self-directed virtual reality simulation training of the mastoidectomy procedure randomized for standard instructions (control) or cognitive load theory-based instructions with a worked example followed by a problem completion exercise (intervention). Participants then completed two post-training virtual procedures for assessment and comparison. Cognitive load during the post-training procedures was estimated by reaction time testing on an integrated secondary task. Final-product analysis by two blinded expert raters was used to assess the virtual mastoidectomy performances. Participants in the intervention group had a significantly increased cognitive load during the post-training procedures compared with the control group (52 vs. 41 %, p  = 0.02). This was also reflected in the final-product performance: the intervention group had a significantly lower final-product score than the control group (13.0 vs. 15.4, p  virtual reality surgical simulation training of novices.

  3. Professionality of Junior High School (SMP) Science Teacher in Preparing Instructional Design of Earth and Space Sciences (IPBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, L.; Liliasari; Tjasyono, B.; Hendayana, S.

    2017-02-01

    The teacher is one important factor in the provision of education in schools. Therefore, improving the quality of education means we need to enhance the quality and the professionalism of teachers. We offer a solution through education and training of junior high school science teachers in developing the instructional design of Earth and Space Sciences (IPBA). IPBA is part of the science subjects which is given to students from elementary school to college. This research is a preliminary study of junior high school science teacher professionalism in creating instructional design IPBA. Mixed method design is used to design the research. Preliminary studies conducted on junior high school science teacher in one MGMPs in South Sumatera, and the respondent are 18 teachers from 13 schools. The educational background of science teachers who teach IPBA not only from physical education but also biology and agriculture. The result of preliminary study showed that the ratio of teachers who teach IPBA are 56% from physic education, 39% from biology, and 5% from agriculture. The subjects of IPBA that considered difficult by teachers are the distribution of sun, moon, and satellite motion; specific processes in lithosphere and atmosphere; and the correlation between lithosphere and atmosphere with the environment. The teachers also face difficulty in preparing media, choosing the right methods in teaching IPBA.

  4. General Systems Theory: Application To The Design Of Speech Communication Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond K.

    1971-01-01

    General systems theory can be applied to problems in the teaching of speech communication courses. The author describes general systems theory as it is applied to the designing, conducting and evaluation of speech communication courses. (Author/MS)

  5. Animating Instructional Materials in Computer Education: An Approach to Designing and Teaching Concepts in Data Structures Using LATEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Osikoya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animation gives a different perception on what is being visually presented. Research has shown that students are likely to understand what is being taught from the combination of animation and text than just with text. Students easily understand scientific concepts in narrative and animated forms. Data structure is a way of storing and arranging data. The efficacy of searching these stored data is very important, so is it vital that they are stored with the right algorithm. This paper presents animations designed to support teaching in computer education. Our main focus is to present controlled animated instructional materials in teaching topics in data structures. We have created three scientifically animated instructional materials in data structures consisting of the Stacks, Queues and Trees. These scientific spheres have been chosen to demonstrate the basic ideas of this work, because of its simplicity in representing the animations. We hope to develop reasonable sets of instructional material of different subject areas that will be stored in a database repository. These are intended to be delivered to students through an e-learning website and/or Mobile phones to support them with additional learning opportunities.

  6. New Perspective on Visual Communication Design Education: An Empirical Study of Applying Narrative Theory to Graphic Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Visual communication design (VCD) is a form of nonverbal communication. The application of relevant linguistic or semiotic theories to VCD education renders graphic design an innovative and scientific discipline. In this study, actual teaching activities were examined to verify the feasibility of applying narrative theory to graphic design…

  7. Augmenting Conceptual Design Trajectory Tradespace Exploration with Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Patrick D.; Zwack, Mathew R.; Steffens, Michael; Edwards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Within conceptual design changes occur rapidly due to a combination of uncertainty and shifting requirements. To stay relevant in this fluid time, trade studies must also be performed rapidly. In order to drive down analysis time while improving the information gained by these studies, surrogate models can be created to represent the complex output of a tool or tools within a specified tradespace. In order to create this model however, a large amount of data must be collected in a short amount of time. By this method, the historical approach of relying on subject matter experts to generate the data required is schedule infeasible. However, by implementing automation and distributed analysis the required data can be generated in a fraction of the time. Previous work focused on setting up a tool called multiPOST capable of orchestrating many simultaneous runs of an analysis tool assessing these automated analyses utilizing heuristics gleaned from the best practices of current subject matter experts. In this update to the previous work, elements of graph theory are included to further drive down analysis time by leveraging data previously gathered. It is shown to outperform the previous method in both time required, and the quantity and quality of data produced.

  8. Feasibility of combining linear theory and impact theory methods for the analysis and design of high speed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, D.; Vondrasek, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic influence coefficients calculated using an existing linear theory program were used to modify the pressures calculated using impact theory. Application of the combined approach to several wing-alone configurations shows that the combined approach gives improved predictions of the local pressure and loadings over either linear theory alone or impact theory alone. The approach not only removes most of the short-comings of the individual methods, as applied in the Mach 4 to 8 range, but also provides the basis for an inverse design procedure applicable to high speed configurations.

  9. Game design research: an introduction to theory & practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoski, Petri; Holopainen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Design research is an active academic field covering disciplines such as architecture, graphic, product, service, interaction, and systems design. Design research aims to understand not only the designed end products but also how design as an activity unfolds. The book demonstrates different approaches to design research in game design research.

  10. A Proposed Multimedia Cone of Abstraction: Updating a Classic Instructional Design Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Floyd B.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced multimedia techniques offer significant learning potential for students. Dale (1946, 1954, 1969) developed a Cone of Experience (CoE) which is a hierarchy of learning experiences ranging from direct participation to abstract symbolic expression. This paper updates the CoE for today's technology and learning context, specifically focused…

  11. Aligning the Quantum Perspective of Learning to Instructional Design: Exploring the Seven Definitive Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J.; Perry, Beth; Edwards, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds upon a foundational paper (under review) which explores the rudiments of the quantum perspective of learning. The quantum perspective of learning uses the principles of exchange theory or borrowed theory from the field of quantum holism pioneered by quantum physicist David Bohm (1971, 1973) to understand learning in a new way.…

  12. Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students

  13. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  14. Evolution of the Instructional Design in a Series of Online Workshops | L’évolution d’un design pédagogique dans le développement d’ateliers en ligne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Patry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case recounts the story of the design and production of a series of online workshops for French-speaking healthcare professionals in Canada. The project spans a couple of years and, despite encountering some challenges, succeeds in large part because of its strong foundation: the instructional design. This case study features an instructional designer from a central Canadian university and three SMEs. The main design issues highlighted are the target population’s limited availability for continuing education, the SME’s lack of knowledge of the instructional design process, the magnitude of this project with its national scope but limited time frame and human resources, as well as personnel changes among the SMEs and the instructional design team. This case outlines how the project team deals with these challenges to produce a series of online workshops that provide high quality training in French to healthcare professionals across Canada.

  15. Cognitive Load Theory and the Use of Worked Examples as an Instructional Strategy in Physics for Distance Learners: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Guan SAW

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the cognitive load theory to explore the use of worked examples to teach a selected topic in a higher level undergraduate physics course for distance learners at the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. With a break of several years from receiving formal education and having only minimum science background, distance learners need an appropriate instructional strategy for courses that require complex conceptualization and mathematical manipulations. As the working memory is limited, distance learners need to acquire domain specific knowledge in stages to lessen cognitive load. This article charts a learning task with a lower cognitive load to teach Fermi-Dirac distribution and demonstrates the use of sequential worked examples. Content taught in stages using worked examples can be presented as a form of didactic conversation to reduce transactional distance. This instructional strategy can be applied to similar challenging topics in other well-structured domains in a distance learning environment.

  16. The Need for a Contemporary Theory of Job Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Joseph T.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a critique of Taylor's scientific management theory and the negative consequences of work simplification. Compares this method with Maslow's, Herzberg's, and Thorsrud's theories of motivation, and contrasts the experiences of General Motors' application of Taylor's model and General Foods' application of Thorsrud's. (SK)

  17. Flaws in current human training protocols for spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: lessons learned from instructional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eLotte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill while the computer learns to automatically recognize these EEG patterns, using signal processing. Most research so far was focused on signal processing, mostly neglecting the human in the loop. However, how well the user masters the BCI skill is also a key element explaining BCI robustness. Indeed, if the user is not able to produce stable and distinct EEG patterns, then no signal processing algorithm would be able to recognize them. Unfortunately, despite the importance of BCI training protocols, they have been scarcely studied so far, and used mostly unchanged for years.In this paper, we advocate that current human training approaches for spontaneous BCI are most likely inappropriate. We notably study instructional design literature in order to identify the key requirements and guidelines for a successful training procedure that promotes a good and efficient skill learning. This literature study highlights that current spontaneous BCI user training procedures satisfy very few of these requirements and hence are likely to be suboptimal. We therefore identify the flaws in BCI training protocols according to instructional design principles, at several levels: in the instructions provided to the user, in the tasks he/she has to perform, and in the feedback provided. For each level, we propose new research directions that are theoretically expected to address some of these flaws and to help users learn the BCI skill more efficiently.

  18. Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Actively Follow Simple Instructions and Perform Designated Occupational Activities According to Simple Instructions with Battery-Free Wireless Mice by Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study extended Battery-free wireless mouse functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated simple occupational activities according to simple instructions by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed…

  19. Embracing Student Experience in Inclusive Design Education through Learner-Centred Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Burçak; Ballice, Gülnur; Bengisu, Ebru; Alkan-Korkmaz, Sevinç; Paykoç, Eda

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the process and outcome of using learner-centred methods to develop students' empathic design abilities during an educational workshop on inclusive design. In the first section of the paper, we suggest the significance of incorporating inclusive design within the education of design disciplines. Then, we introduce a workshop on…

  20. The design of patient decision support interventions: addressing the theory-practice gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; Stiel, M.; Durand, M.A.; Boivin, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although an increasing number of decision support interventions for patients (including decision aids) are produced, few make explicit use of theory. We argue the importance of using theory to guide design. The aim of this work was to address this theory-practice gap and to examine how a

  1. Impact of Concreteness on Comprehensibility, Interest, and Memory for Text: Implications for Dual Coding Theory and Text Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensibility, interestingness, familiarity, and memorability of concrete and abstract instructional texts were studied in 4 experiments involving 221 college students. Results indicate that concreteness (ease of imagery) is the variable overwhelmingly most related to comprehensibility and recall. Dual coding theory and schema theory are…

  2. Theory and design of broadband matching networks applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    1976-01-01

    Theory and Design of Broadband Matching Networks centers on the network theory and its applications to the design of broadband matching networks and amplifiers. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with a description of the foundation of network theory. Chapter 2 gives a fairly complete exposition of the scattering matrix associated with an n-port network. Chapter 3 considers the approximation problem along with a discussion of the approximating functions. Chapter 4 explains the Youla's theory of broadband matching by illustrating every phase of the theory with fully worked out examp

  3. Microwave field-efffect transistors theory, design, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Pengelly, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    This book covers the use of devices in microwave circuits and includes such topics as semiconductor theory and transistor performance, CAD considerations, intermodulation, noise figure, signal handling, S-parameter mapping, narrow- and broadband techniques, packaging and thermal considerations.

  4. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  5. Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development and Its Implication for Instructional Management at Pre-Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional management focuses on planning, execution and evaluation of learning experiences. For teachers in pre-secondary schools to plan, execute and evaluate learning experiences effectively, they need to have good understanding of the process of cognitive development in children. Piaget has postulated that children progress through a series…

  6. The Multiple Influences on Nonformal Instructional Practices in Rural Mozambique: Exploring the Limits of World Culture Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from 12 months of ethnographic observations of nonformal adult education classes offered by an internationally funded nonprofit, referred to in this article as Comunidades de Poder (CDP). The primary objective of this article is to examine the various contextual factors that influenced CDP teachers' instruction and…

  7. Optimising ICT effectiveness in instruction and learning: Multilevel transformation theory and a pilot project in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Specific combinations of educational and ICT conditions including computer use may optimise learning processes, particularly for learners at risk. This position paper asks which curricular, instructional, and ICT characteristics can be expected to optimise learning processes and outcomes,and how to

  8. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Acceptance of Disability: Understanding Intentions to Request Instructional Accommodations in Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Graduating high-school students with disabilities are making the decision to pursue a post-secondary education in greater numbers. While many students with disabilities self-identify at enrollment as having a disability and thereby qualify for instructional accommodations, few of them request accommodations to assist with meeting course…

  9. The design of patient decision support interventions: addressing the theory-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Stiel, Mareike; Durand, Marie-Anne; Boivin, Jacky

    2011-08-01

    Although an increasing number of decision support interventions for patients (including decision aids) are produced, few make explicit use of theory. We argue the importance of using theory to guide design. The aim of this work was to address this theory-practice gap and to examine how a range of selected decision-making theories could inform the design and evaluation of decision support interventions. We reviewed the decision-making literature and selected relevant theories. We assessed their key principles, theoretical pathways and predictions in order to determine how they could inform the design of two core components of decision support interventions, namely, information and deliberation components and to specify theory-based outcome measures. Eight theories were selected: (1) the expected utility theory; (2) the conflict model of decision making; (3) prospect theory; (4) fuzzy-trace theory; (5) the differentiation and consolidation theory; (6) the ecological rationality theory; (7) the rational-emotional model of decision avoidance; and finally, (8) the Attend, React, Explain, Adapt model of affective forecasting. Some theories have strong relevance to the information design (e.g. prospect theory); some are more relevant to deliberation processes (conflict theory, differentiation theory and ecological validity). None of the theories in isolation was sufficient to inform the design of all the necessary components of decision support interventions. It was also clear that most work in theory-building has focused on explaining or describing how humans think rather than on how tools could be designed to help humans make good decisions. It is not surprising therefore that a large theory-practice gap exists as we consider decision support for patients. There was no relevant theory that integrated all the necessary contributions to the task of making good decisions in collaborative interactions. Initiatives such as the International Patient Decision Aids Standards

  10. Instruction in Divergent Thinking for Conceptual Design: A Case Study Based on a Corkscrew

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Chieh Liu; Chin-Yu Kao; Amaresh Chakrabarti

    2015-01-01

    Abstraction is a powerful tool for designers in the conceptual design stage. Such abstractions take various forms, and little is known as to how a particular method of abstraction would support designers in specific design cases. A method is proposed which includes a deliberate step for divergent thinking. The method presents learners with an abstract representation of an existing artifact, and encourages them to explore potential concepts that are different in style but are based on the same...

  11. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  12. An anthology of theories and models of design philosophy, approaches and empirical explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Blessing, Lucienne

    2014-01-01

    While investigations into both theories and models has remained a major strand of engineering design research, current literature sorely lacks a reference book that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date anthology of theories and models, and their philosophical and empirical underpinnings; An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design fills this gap. The text collects the expert views of an international authorship, covering: ·         significant theories in engineering design, including CK theory, domain theory, and the theory of technical systems; ·         current models of design, from a function behavior structure model to an integrated model; ·         important empirical research findings from studies into design; and ·         philosophical underpinnings of design itself. For educators and researchers in engineering design, An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design gives access to in-depth coverage of theoretical and empirical developments in this area; for pr...

  13. Mechanism design: theory and application to welfare-to-work programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, Leonid Hurwicz , Eric Maskin, and Roger Myerson won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory". My aim is to give you a flavor of what mechanism design theory is and how we can apply it in practice. More in particular, I will

  14. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  15. Instructional designing the STEM education model for fostering creative thinking abilities in physics laboratory environment classes

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    Chanthala, Chumpon; Santiboon, Toansakul; Ponkham, Kamon

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of students' activity-based on learning approaching management through the STEM Education Instructional Model for fostering their creative thinking abilities of their learning achievements in physics laboratory classroom environments with the sample size consisted of 48 students at the 10th grade level in two classes in Mahasarakham University Demonstration School(Secondary Division) in Thailand. Students' creative thinking abilities were assessed with the with the 24-item GuilfordCreative Thinking Questionnaire (GCTQ). Students' perceptions of their physics classroom learning environments were obtained using the 35-item Physics Laboratory Environment Inventory (PLEI). Associations between students' learning achievements of their post-test assessment indicated that 26% of the coefficient predictive value (R2) of the variance in students' creative thinking abilities was attributable to their perceptions for the GCTQ. Students' learning outcomes of their post-test assessment, the R2value indicated that 35% of the variances for the PLEI, the R2value indicated that 63% of the variances for their creative thinking abilities were attributable to theiraffecting the activity-based on learning for fostering their creative thinking are provided.

  16. Implementation of an active instructional design for teaching the concepts of current, voltage and resistance

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    Orlaineta-Agüero, S.; Del Sol-Fernández, S.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; García-Salcedo, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we show the implementation of a learning sequence based on an active learning methodology for teaching Physics, this proposal tends to promote a better learning in high school students with the use of a comic book and it combines the use of different low-cost experimental activities for teaching the electrical concepts of Current, Resistance and Voltage. We consider that this kind of strategy can be easily extrapolated to higher-education levels like Engineering-college/university level and other disciplines of Science. To evaluate this proposal, we used some conceptual questions from the Electric Circuits Concept Evaluation survey developed by Sokoloff and the results from this survey was analysed with the Normalized Conceptual Gain proposed by Hake and the Concentration Factor that was proposed by Bao and Redish, to identify the effectiveness of the methodology and the models that the students presented after and before the instruction, respectively. We found that this methodology was more effective than only the implementation of traditional lectures, we consider that these results cannot be generalized but gave us the opportunity to view many important approaches in Physics Education; finally, we will continue to apply the same experiment with more students, in the same and upper levels of education, to confirm and validate the effectiveness of this methodology proposal.

  17. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

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    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  18. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

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    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  19. Seismic design of RC buildings theory and practice

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    Manohar, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a textbook for engineering courses on earthquake resistant design. The book covers important attributes for seismic design such as material properties, damping, ductility, stiffness and strength. The subject coverage commences with simple concepts and proceeds right up to nonlinear analysis and push-over method for checking building adequacy. The book also provides an insight into the design of base isolators highlighting their merits and demerits. Apart from the theoretical approach to design of multi-storey buildings, the book highlights the care required in practical design and construction of various building components. It covers modal analysis in depth including the important missing mass method of analysis and tension shift in shear walls and beams. These have important bearing on reinforcement detailing. Detailed design and construction features are covered for earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete as well as confined and reinforced masonry structures. Th...

  20. Making Communication Matter: Integrating Instruction, Projects and Assignments to Teach Writing and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William T.; Courtney, Jennifer; Constans, Eric; Dahm, Kevin; Harvey, Roberta; von Lockette, Paris

    2010-01-01

    An integrated technical writing and design course has been developed at Rowan University. This course was developed using aspects of project-based learning and recent discussions about design education, as well as pedagogical approaches from the write-to-learn and the writing in the disciplines (WID) movements. The result is a course where the…