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Sample records for institute launches lung

  1. Launching New Institutions: Solving the Chicken-or-Egg Problem in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a US college or university must be accredited to be eligible to receive federal financial aid. To get accredited, an institution must have already been serving students, but most students are dependent on federal financial aid. As a result, in order to launch a new college or university, there is an insurmountable problem: having…

  2. Lung-MAP Launches: First Precision Medicine Trial From National Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique public-private collaboration today announced the initiation of the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) trial, a multi-drug, multi-arm, biomarker-driven clinical trial for patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinom

  3. 76 FR 58025 - National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Gene Therapy Resource Program LentiVirus Vector Production. Date: October...: Tony L Creazzo, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  4. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Small Business Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W. Marek, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small companies working to develop products in the cardiovascular space face numerous challenges, from regulatory, intellectual property, and reimbursement barriers to securing funds to keep the lights on and reach the next development milestone. Most small companies that spin out from universities have the scientific knowledge, but product development expertise and business acumen are also needed to be successful. Other challenges include reduced interest in early-stage technologies and limited deal flow for cardiovascular products. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI small business program is a comprehensive ecosystem designed to address these critical challenges and to provide resources and expertise to assist early-stage companies developing cardiovascular and other products within the institute’s mission. This article describes steps that NHLBI has taken to enhance our small business program to more effectively translate basic discoveries into commercial products to benefit patients and public health, including enhancing internal expertise and developing nonfinancial resources to assist small businesses as they develop their products and seek private sector investment and partnership.

  5. 76 FR 11254 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel, New Strategies for Growing 3D Tissues... originally advertised for March 9-10, 2011. The meeting will take place on March 9, 2011 only. The meeting is...

  6. 76 FR 61720 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel, SBIR Topic 53 Phase II Review. Date: October 27, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...

  7. 77 FR 64818 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes. Date: November 14, 2012. Time: 6:00 p.m. to 9...

  8. 77 FR 59200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel Mentored Career Transition Scientist Award. Date: October 18-19, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: The William F. Bolger... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  9. 76 FR 68200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research. Date: November 29, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Hematology and Transfusion Medical Research Career Development...

  10. 77 FR 30542 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research Date: June 13, 2012... Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 17...

  11. 78 FR 7792 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Contract Proposal Passive MRI Guidewire. Date: February 27, 2013. Time: 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National... . Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Contract...

  12. 75 FR 28260 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Investigator and Research Scientist Career Development Awards... . Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Planning Grants... Mechanisms of Arterial Stiffening and Its Relationship to Development of Hypertension. Date: June 17, 2010...

  13. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Smailyte, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  14. 78 FR 27411 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Resource-Related Project for Stem Cells and Cardiomyopathy. Date: June 6, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837...

  15. 77 FR 1941 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research. Date: February 1, 2012. Time: 1 p.m... Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 6, 2012...

  16. 75 FR 36427 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., Career Enhancement Award for Stem Cell Research. Date: July 27, 2010. Time: 10:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Resource Related Research Project in National Biological Sample Data... Special Emphasis Panel, Resource Related Research Project in Lung Disease BioRepository. Date: July 15...

  17. 78 FR 7795 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Emphasis Panel; Review of a resource grant application in rat embryonic stem cell lines. Date: February 21..., National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  18. 78 FR 77477 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Emphasis Panel; Small Business Development of New Methods for Mitral Valve Repair. Date: January 10, 2014... Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated...

  19. 75 FR 50771 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Nanotechnology Administrative Centers Contract Review. Date: August 20, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...: Shelley S Sehnert, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

  20. Implementation of a lung radiosurgery program: technical considerations and quality assurance in an Australian institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Shankar; MacManus, Michael; Ball, David; Chesson, Brent; Aarons, Yolanda; Clements, Natalie; Kron, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre has established a stereotactic lung radiosurgery program for the treatment of isolated lung metastases. The aim of this study was to critically assess the technical feasibility of performing stereotactic lung radiosurgery in an Australian institution. A single 26-Gy fraction of radiotherapy was delivered to patients with positron emission tomography (PET) staged solitary lung metastases. Motion management was addressed using four-dimensional computed tomographic simulation, and cone beam CT (CBCT) online soft-tissue matching. Treatments were with multiple coplanar and non-coplanar asymmetric beams. Patients were immobilised in a dedicated stereotactic body cradle. Quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans with both ion chamber and film measurements was performed accounting for patient-specific respiratory motion. Between February 2010 and February 2011, nine patients received stereotactic lung radiosurgery. One grade 1 toxicity and one grade 2 toxicity were recorded after treatment. The mean planning target volume was 22.6 cc. A median of eight beams were delivered per treatment plan (range 7–10) with a median of two non-coplanar beams (range 0–6). At treatment plan QA, the difference between planned and delivered dose was ≤1.76% in all static and dynamic ion chamber recordings. A mid-treatment CBCT was performed at a median time of 21 min, with the mean displacement discrepancy from initial set-up being 0.4 mm (range 0–2 mm). Stereotactic radiosurgery to the lung was both feasible and tolerable at our institution. Intrafractional immobilisation within 2 mm was reproducible. Excellent concordance between planned and delivered treatments was achieved in the phantom QA.

  1. Prenatal and Perinatal Determinants of Lung Health and Disease in Early Life: A National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Tracy A; Levy, Philip T; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Jobe, Alan H; Blaisdell, Carol J

    2016-05-02

    Human lung growth and development begins with preconception exposures and continues through conception and childhood into early adulthood. Numerous environmental exposures (both positive and negative) can affect lung health and disease throughout life. Infant lung health correlates with adult lung function, but significant knowledge gaps exist regarding the influence of preconception, perinatal, and postnatal exposures on general lung health throughout life. On October 1 and 2, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a group of extramural investigators to develop their recommendations for the direction(s) for future research in prenatal and perinatal determinants of lung health and disease in early life and to identify opportunities for scientific advancement. They identified that future investigations will need not only to examine abnormal lung development, but also to use developing technology and resources to better define normal and/or enhanced lung health. Birth cohort studies offer key opportunities to capture the important influence of preconception and obstetric risk factors on lung health, development, and disease. These studies should include well-characterized obstetrical data and comprehensive plans for prospective follow-up. The importance of continued basic science, translational, and animal studies for providing mechanisms to explain causality using new methods cannot be overemphasized. Multidisciplinary approaches involving obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatric and adult pulmonologists, and basic scientists should be encouraged to design and conduct comprehensive and impactful research on the early stages of normal and abnormal human lung growth that influence adult outcome.

  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the translation of cardiovascular discoveries into therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, Zorina S; Black, Jodi B; Skarlatos, Sonia I

    2013-04-26

    The molecular causes of ≈4000 medical conditions have been described, yet only 5% have associated therapies. For decades, the average time for drug development through approval has taken 10 to 20 years. In recent years, the serious challenges that confront the private sector have made it difficult to capitalize on new opportunities presented by advances in genomics and cellular therapies. Current trends are disturbing. Pharmaceutical companies are reducing their investments in research, and biotechnology companies are struggling to obtain venture funds. To support early-stage translation of the discoveries in basic science, the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute have developed new approaches to facilitating the translation of basic discoveries into clinical applications and will continue to develop a variety of programs that create teams of academic investigators and industry partners. The goal of these programs is to maximize the public benefit of investment of taxpayer dollars in biomedical research and to lessen the risk required for industry partners to make substantial investments. This article highlights several examples of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-initiated translational programs and National Institutes of Health translational resources designed to catalyze and enable the earliest stages of the biomedical product development process. The translation of latest discoveries into therapeutic approaches depends on continued federal funding to enhance the early stages of the product development process and to stimulate and catalyze partnerships between academia, industry, and other sources of capital.

  3. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitalnik, Steven L.; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V.; Dzik, Walter H.; Eder, Anne F.; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Kor, Daryl J.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Roubinian, Nareg H.; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Hendrickson, Jeanne; Zimring, James C.; Yazdanbakhsh, Karina; Delaney, Megan; Ware, Russell E.; Tinmouth, Alan; Doctor, Allan; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Fergusson, Dean A.; Widness, John A.; Carson, Jeffrey L.; Hess, John; Roback, John D.; Waters, Jonathan H.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Ness, Paul M.; Rao, Sunil; Watkins, Timothy R.; Spinella, Philip C.; Kaufman, Richard M.; Slichter, Sherrill J.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Blumberg, Neil; Webert, Kathryn E.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Shander, Aryeh; Corash, Laurence M.; Murphy, Michael; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Dumont, Larry J.; Mitchell, W. Beau; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; de Kort, Wim

    2015-01-01

    On March 25 and 26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to

  4. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Haruhiko Nakamura, Hiroki Sakai, Hiroyuki Kimura, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hideki Marushima, Hisashi Saji Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution.Patients and methods: A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage, surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS, were evaluated.Results: A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001. Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001. The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001. When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014, the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001. The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%, followed by lobectomy (60%, combined resection (22%, and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Keywords: lung cancer, surgery, sublobar

  5. A multi-institutional study to assess adherence to lung stereotactic body radiotherapy planning goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerner, Andrew; Roeske, John C.; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Campana, Maria; Surucu, Murat, E-mail: msurucu@lumc.edu [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153 (United States); Fan, John [Edward Cancer Center, Naperville, Illinois 60540 (United States); Aydogan, Bulent; Koshy, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States); Laureckas, Robert; Vali, Faisal [Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, Illinois 60453 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: A multi-institutional planning study was performed to evaluate the frequency that current guidelines established by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocols and other literature for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments are followed. Methods: A total of 300 patients receiving lung SBRT treatments in four different institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The treatments were delivered using Linac based SBRT (160 patients) or image guided robotic radiosurgery (140). Most tumors were located peripherally (250/300). Median fractional doses and ranges were 18 Gy (8–20 Gy), 12 Gy (6–15 Gy), and 10 Gy (5–12 Gy) for three, four, and five fraction treatments, respectively. The following planning criteria derived from RTOG trials and the literature were used to evaluate the treatment plans: planning target volumes, PTV{sub V} {sub 100} ≥ 95% and PTV{sub V} {sub 95} ≥ 99%; conformality indices, CI{sub 100%} < 1.2 and CI{sub 50%} range of 2.9–5.9 dependent on PTV; total lung-ITV: V{sub 20Gy} < 10%, V{sub 12.5Gy} < 15%, and V{sub 5Gy} < 37%; contralateral lung V{sub 5Gy} < 26%; and maximum doses for spinal cord, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and heart and great vessels. Populations were grouped by number of fractions, and dosimetric criteria satisfaction rates (CSRs) were reported. Results: Five fraction regimens were the most common lung SBRT fractionation (46%). The median PTV was 27.2 cm{sup 3} (range: 3.8–419.5 cm{sup 3}). For all plans: mean PTV{sub V} {sub 100} was 94.5% (±5.6%, planning CSR: 69.8%), mean PTV{sub V} {sub 95} was 98.1% (±4.1%, CSR: 69.5%), mean CI{sub 100%} was 1.14 (±0.21, CSR: 79.1%, and 16.5% within minor deviation), and mean CI{sub 50%} was 5.63 (±2.8, CSR: 33.0%, and 28.0% within minor deviation). When comparing plans based on location, peripherally located tumors displayed higher PTV{sub V} {sub 100} and PTV{sub V} {sub 95} CSR (71.5% and 71.9%, respectively) than centrally located tumors (61

  6. A multi-institutional study to assess adherence to lung stereotactic body radiotherapy planning goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerner, Andrew; Roeske, John C.; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Campana, Maria; Surucu, Murat; Fan, John; Aydogan, Bulent; Koshy, Matthew; Laureckas, Robert; Vali, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A multi-institutional planning study was performed to evaluate the frequency that current guidelines established by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocols and other literature for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments are followed. Methods: A total of 300 patients receiving lung SBRT treatments in four different institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The treatments were delivered using Linac based SBRT (160 patients) or image guided robotic radiosurgery (140). Most tumors were located peripherally (250/300). Median fractional doses and ranges were 18 Gy (8–20 Gy), 12 Gy (6–15 Gy), and 10 Gy (5–12 Gy) for three, four, and five fraction treatments, respectively. The following planning criteria derived from RTOG trials and the literature were used to evaluate the treatment plans: planning target volumes, PTV_V _1_0_0 ≥ 95% and PTV_V _9_5 ≥ 99%; conformality indices, CI_1_0_0_% < 1.2 and CI_5_0_% range of 2.9–5.9 dependent on PTV; total lung-ITV: V_2_0_G_y < 10%, V_1_2_._5_G_y < 15%, and V_5_G_y < 37%; contralateral lung V_5_G_y < 26%; and maximum doses for spinal cord, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and heart and great vessels. Populations were grouped by number of fractions, and dosimetric criteria satisfaction rates (CSRs) were reported. Results: Five fraction regimens were the most common lung SBRT fractionation (46%). The median PTV was 27.2 cm"3 (range: 3.8–419.5 cm"3). For all plans: mean PTV_V _1_0_0 was 94.5% (±5.6%, planning CSR: 69.8%), mean PTV_V _9_5 was 98.1% (±4.1%, CSR: 69.5%), mean CI_1_0_0_% was 1.14 (±0.21, CSR: 79.1%, and 16.5% within minor deviation), and mean CI_5_0_% was 5.63 (±2.8, CSR: 33.0%, and 28.0% within minor deviation). When comparing plans based on location, peripherally located tumors displayed higher PTV_V _1_0_0 and PTV_V _9_5 CSR (71.5% and 71.9%, respectively) than centrally located tumors (61.2% and 57.1%, respectively). Overall, the planning criteria were met for all the

  7. Chronological changes in lung cancer surgery in a single Japanese institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronological changes in epidemiological factors and surgical outcomes in patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery in a single Japanese institution. Patients and methods A clinicopathological database of patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery with curative intent from January 1974 to December 2014 was reviewed. The chronological changes in various factors, including patient’s age, sex, histological type, tumor size, pathological stage (p-stage), surgical method, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, 30-day mortality, and postoperative overall survival (OS), were evaluated. Results A total of 1,616 patients were included. The numbers of resected patients, females, adenocarcinomas, p-stage IA patients, and age at the time of surgery increased with time, but tumor size decreased (all P<0.0001). Concerning surgical methods, the number of sublobar resections increased, but that of pneumonectomies decreased (P<0.0001). The mean operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and the postoperative 30-day mortality rate decreased (all P<0.0001). When the patients were divided into two groups (1974–2004 and 2005–2014), the 5-year OS rates for all patients and for p-stage IA patients improved from 44% to 79% and from 73% to 89%, respectively (all P<0.0001). The best 5-year OS rate was obtained for sublobar resection (73%), followed by lobectomy (60%), combined resection (22%), and pneumonectomy (21%; P<0.0001). Conclusion Changes in epidemiological factors, a trend toward less invasive surgery, and a remarkably improved postoperative OS were confirmed, which demonstrated the increasingly important role of surgery in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. PMID:28331339

  8. Launching partnership in optics and photonics education between University of Rochester and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute NRNU MEPhI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Zavestovskaya, Irina N.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Aleshchenko, Yury A.; Konov, Vitaly I.

    2017-08-01

    A collaboration in education between the oldest and one of the most comprehensive Optics schools in U.S., the Institute of Optics (IO), University of Rochester (UR), and one of the most recognized Russian university, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) was started in 2015 by signing an agreement on a double-Master's degree program in optics. It was based on earlier collaboration between research groups in both universities. In summer of 2016, nine UR Optics undergraduate students participated with MEPhI students at the International School on Optics and Laser Physics in MEPhI. During five days they were immersed into the world of cutting edge research, technologies and ideas that Russian, European and U.S. scientists offered them. This School also included tours of MEPhI Nanotechnologies and Lasers Centers and Nano-bioengineering Laboratory as well as of scientific laboratories of the leading institutes in optics, photonics and laser physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In December of 2015, one MEPhI Master student visited IO UR for one month for a research project with results presented later at a MEPhI conference. Samples prepared by MEPhI researchers are used in IO students teaching laboratories. One Master student from MEPhI is working now towards the Master's degree at the IO UR. In this paper benefits and pitfalls of a cross-border collaboration are discussed as well as different directions of such a collaboration to provide a high-quality specialization for the students of the 21 century which includes international cooperation.

  9. Multi-Institutional Experience of Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Stage I Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gajjar, Sameer R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Zhen, Weining [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Matthiesen, Chance L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Dilling, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Allen, Bryan G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Nichols, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: For inoperable stage I (T1-T2N0) small cell lung cancer (SCLC), national guidelines recommend chemotherapy with or without conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. The present multi-institutional cohort study investigated the role of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for this population. Methods and Materials: The clinical and treatment characteristics, toxicities, outcomes, and patterns of failure were assessed in patients with histologically confirmed stage T1-T2N0M0 SCLC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate the survival outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors of outcomes. Results: From 24 institutions, 76 lesions were treated in 74 patients (median follow-up 18 months). The median age and tumor size was 72 years and 2.5 cm, respectively. Chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation were delivered in 56% and 23% of cases, respectively. The median SABR dose and fractionation was 50 Gy and 5 fractions. The 1- and 3-year local control rate was 97.4% and 96.1%, respectively. The median disease-free survival (DFS) duration was 49.7 months. The DFS rate was 58.3% and 53.2% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year disease-specific survival was 52.3 months, 84.5%, and 64.4%, respectively. The median, 1-year, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 17.8 months, 69.9%, and 34.0% respectively. Patients receiving chemotherapy experienced an increased median DFS (61.3 vs 9.0 months; P=.02) and OS (31.4 vs 14.3 months; P=.02). The receipt of chemotherapy independently predicted better outcomes for DFS/OS on multivariate analysis (P=.01). Toxicities were uncommon; 5.2% experienced grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Post-treatment failure was most commonly distant (45.8% of recurrence), followed by nodal (25.0%) and “elsewhere lung” (20.8%). The median time to each was 5 to 7 months. Conclusions: From the findings of the largest report of SABR for stage T1-T2N0 SCLC to date, SABR (≥50

  10. SU-E-T-50: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Software Program for Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, D; Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Baba, H; Yamamoto, T; Kubo, Y; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Tachibana, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of dose distribution depends on treatment planning system especially in heterogeneity-region. The tolerance level (TL) of the secondary check using the independent dose verification may be variable in lung SBRT plans. We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the tolerance level of lung SBRT plans shown in the AAPM TG114. Methods: Five institutes in Japan participated in this study. All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA), Pencil Beam Convolution with modified Batho-method (PBC-B) and Adaptive Convolve (AC) were used for lung SBRT planning. A measurement using an ion-chamber was performed in a heterogeneous phantom to compare doses from the three different algorithms and the SMU to the measured dose. In addition to it, a retrospective analysis using clinical lung SBRT plans (547 beams from 77 patients) was conducted to evaluate the confidence limit (CL, Average±2SD) in dose between the three algorithms and the SMU. Results: Compared to the measurement, the AAA showed the larger systematic dose error of 2.9±3.2% than PBC-B and AC. The Clarkson-based SMU showed larger error of 5.8±3.8%. The CLs for clinical plans were 7.7±6.0 % (AAA), 5.3±3.3 % (AC), 5.7±3.4 % (PBC -B), respectively. Conclusion: The TLs from the CLs were evaluated. A Clarkson-based system shows a large systematic variation because of inhomogeneous correction. The AAA showed a significant variation. Thus, we must consider the difference of inhomogeneous correction as well as the dependence of dose calculation engine

  11. SU-E-T-50: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Software Program for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa-prefecture (Japan); Takahashi, R; Kamima, T [The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Koutou-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Baba, H [The National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa-city, Chiba prefecture (Japan); Yamamoto, T; Kubo, Y [Otemae Hospital, Chuou-ku, Osaka-city (Japan); Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Takahashi, H [St Lukes International Hospital, Chuou-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of dose distribution depends on treatment planning system especially in heterogeneity-region. The tolerance level (TL) of the secondary check using the independent dose verification may be variable in lung SBRT plans. We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the tolerance level of lung SBRT plans shown in the AAPM TG114. Methods: Five institutes in Japan participated in this study. All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA), Pencil Beam Convolution with modified Batho-method (PBC-B) and Adaptive Convolve (AC) were used for lung SBRT planning. A measurement using an ion-chamber was performed in a heterogeneous phantom to compare doses from the three different algorithms and the SMU to the measured dose. In addition to it, a retrospective analysis using clinical lung SBRT plans (547 beams from 77 patients) was conducted to evaluate the confidence limit (CL, Average±2SD) in dose between the three algorithms and the SMU. Results: Compared to the measurement, the AAA showed the larger systematic dose error of 2.9±3.2% than PBC-B and AC. The Clarkson-based SMU showed larger error of 5.8±3.8%. The CLs for clinical plans were 7.7±6.0 % (AAA), 5.3±3.3 % (AC), 5.7±3.4 % (PBC -B), respectively. Conclusion: The TLs from the CLs were evaluated. A Clarkson-based system shows a large systematic variation because of inhomogeneous correction. The AAA showed a significant variation. Thus, we must consider the difference of inhomogeneous correction as well as the dependence of dose calculation engine.

  12. 76 FR 27068 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, SBIR Contract Review. Date: June 2, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive...

  13. 76 FR 20358 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Emphasis Panel; Career Enhancement Award for Stem Cell Research. Date: May 4, 2011. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 3 p... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and...

  14. 75 FR 65498 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Emphasis Panel, Career Enhancement Awards for Stem Cell Research. Date: November 10, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases...

  15. 75 FR 80831 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...-Care Assay for Engraftment Potential of Umbilical Cord Stem Cells. Date: January 28, 2011. Time: 2 p.m... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research...

  16. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Asthma Education and Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 414–272–6071 www.aaaai.org American Academy ... www.aasa.org American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 847–427–1200 www.acaai.org American Lung ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung metastases as oligo-recurrence: a single institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung metastases as oligo-recurrence. From May 2003 to June 2014, records for 66 patients with 76 oligo-recurrences in the lungs treated with SBRT were retrospectively reviewed. Oligo-recurrence primary sites and patient numbers were as follows: lungs, 31; colorectal, 13; head and neck, 10; esophagus, 3; uterus, 3; and others, 6. The median SBRT dose was 50 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy) administered in a median of 5 (range, 5-9) fractions. All patients received SBRT, with no acute toxicity. Surviving patients had a median follow-up time of 36.5 months. The 3-year rates of local control, overall survival and disease-free survival were 90.6%, 76.0% and 53.7%, respectively. Longer disease-free interval from initial treatment to SBRT, and non-colorectal cancer were both associated with favorable outcomes. Disease progression after SBRT occurred in 31 patients, most with distant metastases (n = 24) [among whom, 87.5% (n = 21) had new lung metastases]. Among these 21 patients, 12 were judged as having a second oligo-recurrence. Additional SBRT was performed for these 12 patients, and all 12 tumors were controlled without disease progression. Three patients (4.5%) developed Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No other late adverse events of Grade ≥2 were identified. Thus, SBRT for oligo-recurrence achieved acceptable tumor control, with additional SBRT also effective for selected patients with a second oligo-recurrence after primary SBRT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. 78 FR 58321 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... discuss program policies and issues. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive... person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before...

  20. 78 FR 12766 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 80: Developing Fluorescent Nanodiamonds for Biological Imaging. Date: March 1, 2013. Time: 2:15 p.m. to 6:15 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals... evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room 7204...

  1. 76 FR 14674 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Emergency Medicine Career Development. Date: April 8, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research...

  2. 77 FR 1703 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel Program Project Grant Review in Vascular Medicine. Date: January 31, 2012... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837...

  3. 77 FR 60705 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI SBIR Phase II Contract Review. Date: October 26, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701...

  4. 76 FR 64360 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and..., Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes. Date: November 7, 2011...

  5. Twenty-years of lung transplantation in Taiwan: Effects of cumulative institutional experience on early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Although the results were undesirable in the first decade of the transplant program, the cumulative institutional experience led to significantly improved outcomes in the second decade of the transplant program.

  6. 76 FR 16631 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ..., and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Biology of the Artery Wall and Atherosclerosis. Date... Westin BWI, 1110 Old Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum, MD 21090. Contact Person: Charles Joyce, PhD...

  7. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  8. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Kehoe, M; Sasiadek, W; Hacking, D; Calvert, P

    2014-03-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is used to prevent the development of brain metastases in small cell lung carcinoma. PCI confers an overall survival (OS) benefit in both limited and extensive stage disease. We analyze the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a cohort of patients who received PCI, in a 5-year period. A retrospective review of all patients who had received PCI between 2006 and 2011 at the Whitfield Clinic was completed. Patient- and disease-related characteristics, the number of patients who developed brain metastases, PFS and OS data were collected. 24 patients were identified. 14 (58.3 %) patients were male, 10 (41.7 %) were female, with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 31-78). All patients were smokers. 12 (50 %) patients had limited stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 12 (50 %) had extensive stage disease. 2 (8.2 %) patients developed brain metastases post PCI (p = 0.478.) The median PFS for limited stage SCLC was 13 months (range 3-20) and 10 months (range 5-18) for extensive stage SCLC. Median OS was 15 months (range 4-29) in limited stage SCLC, and 11 months (range 5-29) in extensive stage SCLC. Our study demonstrated a low incidence of symptomatic brain metastases and favourable median PFS and OS in the patients that received PCI, when compared to published phase III data.

  9. Clinical results of stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I small-cell lung cancer. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Asai, Kaori; Terashima, Koutarou; Matsumoto, Keiji; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). From April 2003 to September 2009, a total of eight patients with Stage I SCLC were treated with SBRT in our institution. In all patients, the lung tumors were proven as SCLC pathologically. The patients' ages were 58-84 years (median: 74). The T-stage of the primary tumor was T1a in two, T1b in two and T2a in four patients. Six of the patients were inoperable because of poor cardiac and/or pulmonary function, and two patients refused surgery. SBRT was given using 7-8 non-coplanar beams with 48 Gy in four fractions. Six of the eight patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy using carboplatin (CBDCA) + etoposide (VP-16) or cisplatin (CDDP) + irinotecan (CPT-11). The follow-up period for all patients was 6-60 months (median: 32). Six patients were still alive without any recurrence. One patient died from this disease and one died from another disease. The overall and disease-specific survival rate at three years was 72% and 86%, respectively. There were no patients with local progression of the lesion targeted by SBRT. Only one patient had nodal recurrence in the mediastinum at 12 months after treatment. The progression-free survival rate was 71%. No Grade 2 or higher SBRT-related toxicities were observed. SBRT plus chemotherapy could be an alternative to surgery with chemotherapy for inoperable patients with Stage I small-cell lung cancer. However, further investigation is needed using a large series of patients. (author)

  10. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  11. 77 FR 59200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as sign language... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... program policies and issues. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive...

  12. 77 FR 22580 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... program policies and issues. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive... business or professional affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has..., hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus. Visitors will be asked to...

  13. 77 FR 1702 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ...: To discuss program policies and issues. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center... applicable, the business or professional affiliation of the interested person. In the interest of security..., including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be inspected before being allowed on campus. Visitors...

  14. 78 FR 28229 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...: June 19, 2013. Open: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To discuss program policies and issues. Place... of the interested person. In the interest of security, NIH has instituted stringent procedures for entrance onto the NIH campus. All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel, and airport shuttles will be...

  15. 76 FR 37134 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research. Date..., Short Term Research Training Program. Date: July 20, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research...

  16. 77 FR 59935 - National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Resource-Related Research Project for Stem Cells and Cardiomyopathy...; Excellence in Hemoglobinopathies Research. Date: October 22-23, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To.... 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research...

  17. 77 FR 5261 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...)(6), Title 5 U.S.C., as amended. The contract proposals and the discussions could disclose... concerning individuals associated with the contract proposals, the disclosure of which would constitute a... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Topic 68: Multi-Layer Coated Gratings for CT (Contract Review). Date...

  18. 75 FR 28032 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NHLBI DNA Resequencing and Genotyping (RS&G) Service: Administrative..., NHLBI DNA Resequencing and Genotyping (RS&G) Service: Laboratory Center(s). Date: June 4, 2010. Time: 2... Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases...

  19. 75 FR 70273 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial... Research Demonstration and Dissemination Projects. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda... Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular...

  20. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Maihle, Nita J; Rice, Treva K; Gonzalez, Juan E; Hess, Caryl A; Makala, Levi H; Jeffe, Donna B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Pace, Betty S; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-07-21

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants' perceptions of PRIDE's impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees' testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators.

  1. American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bruce G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Chambers, David A; Cloutier, Michelle M; Riekert, Kristin A; Rand, Cynthia S; Schatz, Michael; Thomson, Carey C; Wilson, Sandra R; Apter, Andrea; Carson, Shannon S; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn; Goss, Christopher H; Okelo, Sande O; Mularski, Richard A; Nguyen, Huong Q; Patel, Minal R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wilson, Kevin C; Freemer, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients' access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators' experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings.

  2. Local recurrence after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a recursive partitioning analysis of multi-institutional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Chris R; Higgins, Kristin A; Peterson, Bercedis L; Chino, Junzo P; Marks, Lawrence B; D'Amico, Thomas A; Varlotto, John M

    2013-10-01

    To define subgroups at high risk of local recurrence (LR) after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer using a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). This Institutional Review Board-approved study included patients who underwent upfront surgery for I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer at Duke Cancer Institute (primary set) or at other participating institutions (validation set). The 2 data sets were analyzed separately and identically. Disease recurrence at the surgical margin, ipsilateral hilum, and/or mediastinum was considered an LR. Recursive partitioning was used to build regression trees for the prediction of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) from standard clinical and pathological factors. LRFS distributions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The 1411 patients in the primary set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.81), and the 889 patients in the validation set had a 5-year LRFS rate of 76% (95% CI, 0.72-0.80). The RPA of the primary data set identified 3 terminal nodes based on stage and histology. These nodes and their 5-year LRFS rates were as follows: (1) stage I/adenocarcinoma, 87% (95% CI, 0.83-0.90); (2) stage I/squamous or large cell, 72% (95% CI, 0.65-0.79); and (3) stage II-IIIA, 62% (95% CI, 0.55-0.69). The validation RPA identified 3 terminal nodes based on lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and stage: (1) no LVI/stage IA, 82% (95% CI, 0.76-0.88); (2) no LVI/stage IB-IIIA, 73% (95% CI, 0.69-0.80); and (3) LVI, 58% (95% CI, 0.47-0.69). The risk of LR was similar in the primary and validation patient data sets. There was discordance between the 2 data sets regarding the clinical factors that best segregate patients into risk groups. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; O'Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-07-18

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  4. Audiovisual biofeedback breathing guidance for lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: a multi-institutional phase II randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Sean; O’Brien, Ricky; Makhija, Kuldeep; Hegi-Johnson, Fiona; Ludbrook, Jane; Rezo, Angela; Tse, Regina; Eade, Thomas; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val; Keall, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear link between irregular breathing and errors in medical imaging and radiation treatment. The audiovisual biofeedback system is an advanced form of respiratory guidance that has previously demonstrated to facilitate regular patient breathing. The clinical benefits of audiovisual biofeedback will be investigated in an upcoming multi-institutional, randomised, and stratified clinical trial recruiting a total of 75 lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. To comprehensively perform a clinical evaluation of the audiovisual biofeedback system, a multi-institutional study will be performed. Our methodological framework will be based on the widely used Technology Acceptance Model, which gives qualitative scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are fundamental determinants for user acceptance. A total of 75 lung cancer patients will be recruited across seven radiation oncology departments across Australia. Patients will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio, with 2/3 of the patients being recruited into the intervention arm and 1/3 in the control arm. 2:1 randomisation is appropriate as within the interventional arm there is a screening procedure where only patients whose breathing is more regular with audiovisual biofeedback will continue to use this system for their imaging and treatment procedures. Patients within the intervention arm whose free breathing is more regular than audiovisual biofeedback in the screen procedure will remain in the intervention arm of the study but their imaging and treatment procedures will be performed without audiovisual biofeedback. Patients will also be stratified by treating institution and for treatment intent (palliative vs. radical) to ensure similar balance in the arms across the sites. Patients and hospital staff operating the audiovisual biofeedback system will complete questionnaires to assess their experience with audiovisual biofeedback. The objectives of this

  5. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Luca F. [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie [National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pisters, Katherine M. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dexter, Elisabeth U. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Niland, Joyce C. [Department of Information Sciences, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kapadia, Nirav S., E-mail: Nirav.S.Kapadia@hitchcock.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  6. Variation in Definitive Therapy for Localized Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Luca F.; Jagsi, Reshma; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Zornosa, Carrie; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Pisters, Katherine M.; Dexter, Elisabeth U.; Niland, Joyce C.; Hayman, James A.; Kapadia, Nirav S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined practice patterns in the staging and treatment of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions. Secondary aims were to determine trends in the use of definitive therapy, predictors of treatment type, and acute adverse events associated with primary modalities of treatment. Methods and Materials: Data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Oncology Outcomes Database from 2007 to 2011 for US patients with stage I NSCLC were used. Main outcome measures included patterns of care, predictors of treatment, acute morbidity, and acute mortality. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients received surgery, 16% received definitive radiation therapy (RT), and 3% were not treated. Seventy-four percent of the RT patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and the remainder received nonstereotactic RT (NSRT). Among participating NCCN member institutions, the number of surgeries-to-RT course ratios varied between 1.6 and 34.7 (P<.01), and the SBRT-to-NSRT ratio varied between 0 and 13 (P=.01). Significant variations were also observed in staging practices, with brain imaging 0.33 (0.25-0.43) times as likely and mediastinoscopy 31.26 (21.84-44.76) times more likely for surgical patients than for RT patients. Toxicity rates for surgical and for SBRT patients were similar, although the rates were double for NSRT patients. Conclusions: The variations in treatment observed among NCCN institutions reflects the lack of level I evidence directing the use of surgery or SBRT for stage I NSCLC. In this setting, research of patient and physician preferences may help to guide future decision making.

  7. Cardiovascular genomics, personalized medicine, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: part I: the beginning of an era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics arrives at a remarkable time in the history of genetic research and cardiovascular medicine. Despite tremendous progress in knowledge gained, cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States,1 and it has overcome infectious diseases as the leading cause of death worldwide.2 In addition, rates of CVD remain higher in black and Hispanic populations in the United States.1 The recent Strategic Plan of the National Heart, Lung,and Blood Institute (NHLBI) emphasizes research areas to fill the significant knowledge gaps needed to improve the diagnosis,treatment, and control of known risk factors and clinically apparent disease. Simultaneously, the NHLBI Strategic Plan recognizes a tremendous opportunity that is available for use of genetic and genomic research to generate new knowledge that might reduce the morbidity and mortality from CVD in US populations.3 Public availability of vast amounts of detailed sequence information about the human genome, completed sequence data on dozens of other animal genomes, and private sector development of high-throughput genetic technologies has transformed in a few short years the conduct of cardiovascular genetics and genomics research from a primary focus on mendelian disorders to a current emphasis on genome-wide association studies (GWAS; Figure1). In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, summarize the evolving approaches and progress to date, and identify immediate-term research needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the NHLBI are supporting a portfolio of large-scale genetic and genomic programs in diverse US populations with the longer-term objective of translating knowledge into the prediction, prevention, and preemption of CVD, as well as lung, sleep, and blood disorders. Underlying this portfolio is a strong commitment to make available participant-level data and

  8. Researching asthma across the ages: insights from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee M; Wechsler, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups (ie, cross-age studies) can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences, and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health's Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into a single clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages the application of cross-age studies that involve participants from multiple age groups who are generally not studied together. The experience from AsthmaNet in the development of cross-age protocols highlights some of the issues in the evaluation of cross-age research in asthma. The aim of this review is to summarize these challenges, including the selection of parallel cross-age clinical interventions, identification of appropriate controls, measurement of meaningful clinical outcomes, and various ethical and logistic issues. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Summary: Enhancing Opportunities for Training and Retention of a Diverse Biomedical Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Lockett, Angelia; Villegas, Leah R; Almodovar, Sharilyn; Gomez, Jose L; Flores, Sonia C; Wilkes, David S; Tigno, Xenia T

    2016-04-01

    Committed to its mission of conducting and supporting research that addresses the health needs of all sectors of the nation's population, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI/NIH) seeks to identify issues that impact the training and retention of underrepresented individuals in the biomedical research workforce. Early-stage investigators who received grant support through the NIH Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health Related Research Program were invited to a workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland in June, 2015, in order to (1) assess the effectiveness of the current NHLBI diversity program, (2) improve its strategies towards achieving its goal, and (3) provide guidance to assist the transition of diversity supplement recipients to independent NIH grant support. Workshop participants participated in five independent focus groups to discuss specific topics affecting underrepresented individuals in the biomedical sciences: (1) Socioeconomic barriers to success for diverse research scientists; (2) role of the academic research community in promoting diversity; (3) life beyond a research project grant: non-primary investigator career paths in research; (4) facilitating career development of diverse independent research scientists through NHLBI diversity programs; and (5) effectiveness of current NHLBI programs for promoting diversity of the biomedical workforce. Several key issues experienced by young, underrepresented biomedical scientists were identified, and solutions were proposed to improve on training and career development for diverse students, from the high school to postdoctoral trainee level, and address limitations of currently available diversity programs. Although some of the challenges mentioned, such as cost of living, limited parental leave, and insecure extramural funding, are also likely faced by nonminority scientists, these issues are magnified among diversity

  10. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  11. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  12. Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hunt, Steven C; Tang, Weihong; Eckfeldt, John H; Province, Michael A; Ellison, R Curtis

    2006-02-01

    To assess whether dietary linolenic acid is associated with fasting insulin and glucose. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 3993 non-diabetic participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study 25 to 93 years of age. Linolenic acid was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and laboratory data were obtained after at least a 12-hour fast. We used generalized linear models to calculate adjusted means of insulin and glucose across quartiles of dietary linolenic acid. From the lowest to the highest sex-specific quartile of dietary linolenic acid, means +/- standard error for logarithmic transformed fasting insulin were 4.06 +/- 0.02 (reference), 4.09 +/- 0.02, 4.13 +/- 0.02, and 4.17 +/- 0.02 pM, respectively (trend, p continuous variable, the multivariable adjusted regression coefficient was 0.42 +/- 0.08. There was no association between dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose (trend p = 0.82). Our data suggest that higher consumption of dietary linolenic acid is associated with higher plasma insulin, but not glucose levels, in non-diabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed to assess whether higher intake of linolenic acid results in an increased insulin secretion and improved glucose use in vivo.

  13. Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N; North, Kari E; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. We studied in a cross-sectional design 4970 participants aged 25-93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general United States population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Matched-pair analysis of a multi-institutional cohort reveals that epidermal growth factor receptor mutation is not a risk factor for postoperative recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Shiono, Satoshi; Abe, Jiro; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Sakurada, Akira; Katahira, Masato; Machida, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Satomi; Okada, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    It is unclear whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status is a risk factor for postoperative recurrence of surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Therefore, we conducted a multi-institutional study employing matched-pair analysis to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with lung ADC according to EGFR mutation status. We collected the records of 909 patients who underwent surgical resection for lung ADC between 2005 and 2012 at five participating institutions and were also examined their EGFR mutation status. For each patient with an EGFR mutation, we selected one with the wild-type EGFR sequence and matched them according to institution, age, gender, smoking history, pathological stage (pStage), and adjuvant treatment. We compared RFS and OS of the matched cohort. The patients were allocated into groups (n=181 each) with mutated or wild-type EGFR sequences. Both cohorts had identical characteristics as follows: institution, median age (68 years), men (85, 47%), ever smokers (77, 43%), and pStage (IA, 108, 60%; IB, 48, 27%; II, 14, 8%; III, 11, 6%). The 3- and 5-year RFS rates of patients with mutated or wild-type EGFR sequence were 79%, 68% and 77%, 68%, respectively (p=0.557). The respective OS rates were 92%, 81%, and 89%, 79% (p=0.574). Matched-pair and multi-institutional analysis reveals that an EGFR mutation was not a significant risk factor for recurrence of patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-07-31

    We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Influence of Institutional Experience and Technological Advances on Outcome of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Oligometastatic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Juliane; Abbassi-Senger, Nasrin; Adebahr, Sonja; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Blanck, Oliver; Duma, Marciana; Eble, Michael J; Ernst, Iris; Flentje, Michael; Gerum, Sabine; Hass, Peter; Henkenberens, Christoph; Hildebrandt, Guido; Imhoff, Detlef; Kahl, Henning; Klass, Nathalie Desirée; Krempien, Robert; Lohaus, Fabian; Lohr, Frank; Petersen, Cordula; Schrade, Elsge; Streblow, Jan; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Wittig, Andrea; Sterzing, Florian; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Many technological and methodical advances have made stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) more accurate and more efficient during the last years. This study aims to investigate whether experience in SBRT and technological innovations also translated into improved local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). A database of 700 patients treated with SBRT for lung metastases in 20 German centers between 1997 and 2014 was used for analysis. It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) staging, biopsy confirmation, image guidance, immobilization, and dose calculation algorithm, as well as the influence of SBRT experience, on LC and OS. Median follow-up time was 14.3 months (range, 0-131.9 months), with 2-year LC and OS of 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 75.8%-85.7%) and 54.4% (95% CI 50.2%-59.0%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, all treatment technologies except FDG-PET staging did not significantly influence outcome. Patients who received pre-SBRT FDG-PET staging showed superior 1- and 2-year OS of 82.7% (95% CI 77.4%-88.6%) and 64.8% (95% CI 57.5%-73.3%), compared with patients without FDG-PET staging resulting in 1- and 2-year OS rates of 72.8% (95% CI 67.4%-78.8%) and 52.6% (95% CI 46.0%-60.4%), respectively (P=.012). Experience with SBRT was identified as the main prognostic factor for LC: institutions with higher SBRT experience (patients treated with SBRT within the last 2 years of the inclusion period) showed superior LC compared with less-experienced centers (P≤.001). Experience with SBRT within the last 2 years was independent from known prognostic factors for LC. Investigated technological and methodical advancements other than FDG-PET staging before SBRT did not significantly improve outcome in SBRT for pulmonary metastases. In contrast, LC was superior with increasing SBRT experience of the individual center. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical care costs incurred by patients with smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger Humberto; Ahumada-Curiel, Gabriel; Corona-Cruz, Jose Francisco; Correa-Acevedo, Elma; Zinser-Sierra, Juan; de la Mata-Moya, Dolores; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a public health problem in Mexico and worldwide; its economic impact on developing countries has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs attributable to smoking incurred by lung cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The study was conducted at INCan in 2009. We carried out a cost of illness (COI) methodology, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart review. A panel of experts developed a diagnostic-therapeutic guide that combined the hospital patient pathways and the infrastructure, human resources, technology, and services provided by the medical units at INCan. Cost estimates in Mexican pesos were adjusted by inflation and converted into US Dollars using the 2013 FIX exchange rate for foreign transactions (1 USD = 13.06 Mexican pesos). A 297 incident cases diagnosed with any type of lung cancer were analyzed. According to clinical stage, the costs per patient were 13,456; 35,648; 106,186; and 144,555 USD, for lung cancer stages I, II, III, and IV respectively. The weighted average annual cost/patient was and 139,801 USD and the average annual cost/patient that was attributable to smoking was 92,269 USD. This cost was independent of the clinical stage, with stage IV representing 96% of the annual cost. The total annual cost of smoking-related lung cancer at INCan was 19,969,781 USD. The medical care costs of lung cancer attributable to smoking represent a high cost both for INCan and the Mexican health sector. These costs could be reduced if all provisions established in the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization were implemented in Mexico.

  18. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  19. Launching technological innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren

    2009-01-01

    have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...

  20. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Badellino, Serena [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ceccarelli, Manuela [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Guarneri, Alessia [Radiation Oncology, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Franco, Pierfrancesco [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Cancer Epidemiology and CPO Piemonte, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Spadi, Rosella [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Racca, Patrizia [Medical Oncology, Colorectal Cancer Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials.

  1. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy as First Local Therapy for Lung Oligometastases From Colorectal Cancer: A Single-Institution Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Badellino, Serena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Guarneri, Alessia; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Monagheddu, Chiara; Spadi, Rosella; Ragona, Riccardo; Racca, Patrizia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) efficacy and its potential role as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty consecutive patients who received SABR as first local therapy at the time of lung progression were included, from 2004 to 2014. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and safety. Results: A single nodule was treated in 26 patients (65%), 2 nodules in 10 patients (25%), 3 in 3 patients (7.5%), and 4 in 1 patient (2.5%), for a total of 59 lesions. The median delivered biological effective dose was 96 Gy, in 1 to 8 daily fractions. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 3-72 months). Overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 5 years were, respectively, 84%, 73%, and 39%, with 14 patients (35%) dead. Median overall survival was 46 months. Progression occurred in 25 patients (62.5%), at a median interval of 8 months; failure at SABR site was observed in 3 patients (7.5%). Progression-free survival rates were 49% and 27% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Discussion: The results of this retrospective exploratory analysis suggest safety and efficacy of SABR in patients affected with colorectal cancer lung oligometastases and urge inclusion of SABR in prospective clinical trials

  2. Efficacy of icotinib in lung squamous-cell cancer: A real-world experience from single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangru; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a less common type of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which associates with a poor clinical prognosis and lacks specific therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has proven to be effective in EGFR-mutated NSCLC, in patients with lung squamous-cell cancer. Retrospective analysis was conducted in patients who had advanced lung squamous-cell cancer confirmed by cytology or histology. Patients were treated orally with icotinib (125 mg, three times daily) until event of unacceptable toxicity, disease progression or death. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall response rate and disease control rate. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 20 patients were enrolled and evaluated for the efficacy and safety of icotinib. Overall, the median overall survival and progression-free survival were 9.93 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.46-16.40) and 3.0 months (95% CI: 0.00-8.35), respectively. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 20% and 70%, respectively. For treatment-naive patients (n = 11), the overall survival and progression-free survival were 9.93 months (95% CI: 0.00-23.49) and 6.27 months (95% CI: 0.00-12.61); the response rate and disease control rate were 27.3% and 54.5%, respectively. The overall survival and progression-free survival of patients treated with second- or multiple-line icotinib treatment (n = 9) were 6.5 months (95% CI: 0.80-12.20) and 1.2 months (95% CI: 1.10-1.30). A total of 11 patients experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event, most of which were mild to moderate. The most common manifestations were rash (n = 6, 30%) followed by diarrhea (n = 2, 10%). Icotinib has demonstrated a favorable efficacy and safety profile in patients with advanced lung squamous-cell cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Spectrum of high resolution computed tomography findings in occupational lung disease: experience in a tertiary care institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna, Satija; Ojha, U C; Kumar, Sanyal; Gupta, Rajiv; Gothi, Dipti; Pal, R S

    2013-01-01

    To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD). Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans) gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total) demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5%) with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%). Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4%) with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a powerful and reliable tool not only for diagnosis, but also for

  4. Spectrum of High Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Occupational Lung Disease: Experience in a Tertiary Care Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satija Bhawna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012 of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. Results: There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5% with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%. Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4% with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Conclusions: Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a

  5. COSMOS Launch Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  6. AMS ready for launch

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 29 April, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will complete its long expedition to the International Space Station on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour is set to lift off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Station at 15:47 EST (21:47 CET).   Samuel Ting, principal investigator for the AMS project, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, visit the Kennedy Space Centre before the AMS launch.  Courtesy of NASA and Kennedy Space Center. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment, created by an internal collaboration of 56 institutes. It will be the first large magnetic spectrometer to be used in space, and has been designed to function as an external module on the ISS. AMS will measure cosmic rays without atmospheric interference, allowing researchers on the ground to continue their search for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. Data collected by AMS will be analysed in CERN’s new AMS Control Centre in Building 946 (due for completion in June 2011). The End...

  7. Reirradiation of recurrent node-positive non-small cell lung cancer after previous stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I disease. A multi-institutional treatment recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Ruysscher, Dirk de; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Mehta, Minesh P.; Cheung, Patrick; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Practice guidelines have been developed for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many common clinical scenarios still require individualized decision making. This is true for locoregional relapse after initial stereotactic radiotherapy (stereotactic body radiation therapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy; SBRT or SABR), an increasingly utilized curative treatment option for stage I NSCLC. A consortium of expert radiation oncologists was established with the aim of providing treatment recommendations. In this scenario, a case was distributed to six radiation oncologists who provided their institutions' treatment recommendations. In this case, a patient developed local and mediastinal relapse after SABR (45 Gy, 3 fractions), comparable to the tumor burden in de novo stage IIIA NSCLC. Treatment recommendations were tabulated and a consensus conclusion was developed. Three institutions recommended evaluation for surgery. If the patient was not a surgical candidate, and/or refused surgery, definitive chemoradiation was recommended, including retreating the primary to full dose. European participants were more in favor of a non-surgical approach. None of the participants were reluctant to prescribe reirradiation, but two institutions prescribed doses lower than 60 Gy. Platinum-based doublets together with intensity-modulated radiotherapy were preferred. The institutional recommendations reflect the questions and uncertainties discussed in current stage III guidelines. All institutions agreed that previous SABR is not a contraindication for salvage chemoradiation. In the absence of high-quality prospective trials for recurrent NSCLC, all treatment options recommended in current guidelines for stage III disease can be considered in clinical scenarios such as this. (orig.) [de

  8. Designing clinical trials to address the needs of childhood and adult asthma: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand; Busse, William W

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute announced its intent to support a new asthma network known as AsthmaNet. This clinical trials consortium, now in its fifth year, has been charged with developing and executing clinical trials to address the most important asthma management questions and identify new treatment approaches in pediatric and adult patients. This review will discuss the organization of AsthmaNet and the scientific context in which the network was developed and began its work, report the results of an internal priority-setting exercise designed to guide the network's scientific strategy, and highlight the portfolio of clinical trials, proof-of-concept studies, and mechanistic studies planned for the 7-year period of the network to update the global asthma community regarding the progress and processes of the network. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: david_sher@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liptay, Michael J. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Liptay, Michael J.; Fidler, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  12. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  13. Foreign launch competition growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  14. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  15. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  16. Big Bang launch

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Physicists from the University, along with scientists and engineers around the world, watched with fevered anticipation as the world's biggest scientific experiment was launched in September. (1/1 page)

  17. Lack of association of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lana Y H; Petrone, Andrew B; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; North, Kari E; Ellison, R Curtis; Hunt, Steven C; Rosenzweig, James L; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, is a major public health concern in the United States. The effects of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism on MetS are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 1551 participants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to assess the relation of Apo E polymorphism with the prevalence of MetS. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-International Diabetes Federation-World Health Organization harmonized criteria. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent MetS and the Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing in the secondary analysis. Our study population had a mean age (standard deviation) of 56.5 (11.0) years, and 49.7% had MetS. There was no association between the Apo E genotypes and the MetS. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.31-5.21), 0.89 (0.62-1.29), 1.13 (0.61-2.10), 1.13 (0.88-1.47) and 1.87 (0.91-3.85) for the Ɛ3/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ2, Ɛ2/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ4, Ɛ3/Ɛ4 and Ɛ4/Ɛ4 genotypes, respectively. In a secondary analysis, Ɛ2/Ɛ3 genotype was associated with 41% lower prevalence odds of low high-density lipoprotein [multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) = 0.59 (0.36-0.95)] compared with Ɛ3/Ɛ3 genotype. Our findings do not support an association between Apo E polymorphism and MetS in a multicentre population-based study of predominantly White US men and women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Small Business Program: A Comprehensive Ecosystem for Biomedical Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Kurt W

    2016-12-01

    Small companies working to develop products in the cardiovascular space face numerous challenges, from regulatory, intellectual property, and reimbursement barriers to securing funds to keep the lights on and reach the next development milestone. Most small companies that spin out from universities have the scientific knowledge, but product development expertise and business acumen are also needed to be successful. Other challenges include reduced interest in early stage technologies (Pharma & Biotech 2015 in Review, EP Vantage) and limited deal flow for cardiovascular products (Gormley B., Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2014). The NHLBI small business program is a comprehensive ecosystem designed to address these critical challenges and to provide resources and expertise to assist early stage companies developing cardiovascular and other products within the institute's mission. This article describes steps that NHLBI has taken to enhance our small business program to more effectively translate basic discoveries into commercial products to benefit patients and public health, including enhancing internal expertise and developing non-financial resources to assist small businesses as they develop their products and seek private sector investment and partnership.

  19. TU-A-12A-04: Quantitative Texture Features Calculated in Lung Tissue From CT Scans Demonstrate Consistency Between Two Databases From Different Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Castillo, R; Pham, N; Guerrero, T; Al-Hallaq, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the consistency of computed tomography (CT) scan texture features, previously identified as stable in a healthy patient cohort, in esophageal cancer patient CT scans. Methods: 116 patients receiving radiation therapy (median dose: 50.4Gy) for esophageal cancer were retrospectively identified. For each patient, diagnostic-quality pre-therapy (0-183 days) and post-therapy (5-120 days) scans (mean voxel size: 0.8mm×0.8mm×2.5mm) and a treatment planning scan and associated dose map were collected. An average of 501 32x32-pixel ROIs were placed randomly in the lungs of each pre-therapy scan. ROI centers were mapped to corresponding locations in post-therapy and planning scans using the displacement vector field output by demons deformable registration. Only ROIs with mean dose <5Gy were analyzed, as these were expected to contain minimal post-treatment damage. 140 texture features were calculated in pre-therapy and post-therapy scan ROIs and compared using Bland-Altman analysis. For each feature, the mean feature value change and the distance spanned by the 95% limits of agreement were normalized to the mean feature value, yielding normalized range of agreement (nRoA) and normalized bias (nBias). Using Wilcoxon signed rank tests, nRoA and nBias were compared with values computed previously in 27 healthy patient scans (mean voxel size: 0.67mm×0.67mm×1mm) acquired at a different institution. Results: nRoA was significantly (p<0.001) larger in cancer patients than healthy patients. Differences in nBias were not significant (p=0.23). The 20 features identified previously as having nRoA<20% for healthy patients had the lowest nRoA values in the current database, with an average increase of 5.6%. Conclusion: Despite differences in CT scanner type, scan resolution, and patient health status, the same 20 features remained stable (i.e., low variability and bias) in the absence of disease changes for databases from two institutions. Identification of

  20. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Oberije, Cary [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tsujino, Kayoko [Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Wiersma, Terry [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Moreno-Jimenez, Marta [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gy eonggi (Korea, Republic of); Marks, Lawrence B. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); De Petris, Luigi [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramella, Sara [Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); DeRuyck, Kim [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Dios, Núria Rodriguez [Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Warner, Andrew [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Palma, David A. [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  1. The long tail of molecular alterations in non-small cell lung cancer: a single-institution experience of next-generation sequencing in clinical molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Caterina; Vacirca, Davide; Rappa, Alessandra; Passaro, Antonio; Guarize, Juliana; Rafaniello Raviele, Paola; de Marinis, Filippo; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Casadio, Chiara; Viale, Giuseppe; Barberis, Massimo; Guerini-Rocco, Elena

    2018-03-13

    Molecular profiling of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) is essential to identify patients who may benefit from targeted treatments. In the last years, the number of potentially actionable molecular alterations has rapidly increased. Next-generation sequencing allows for the analysis of multiple genes simultaneously. To evaluate the feasibility and the throughput of next-generation sequencing in clinical molecular diagnostics of advanced NSCLC. A single-institution cohort of 535 non-squamous NSCLC was profiled using a next-generation sequencing panel targeting 22 actionable and cancer-related genes. 441 non-squamous NSCLC (82.4%) harboured at least one gene alteration, including 340 cases (63.6%) with clinically relevant molecular aberrations. Mutations have been detected in all but one gene ( FGFR1 ) of the panel. Recurrent alterations were observed in KRAS , TP53 , EGFR , STK11 and MET genes, whereas the remaining genes were mutated in <5% of the cases. Concurrent mutations were detected in 183 tumours (34.2%), mostly impairing KRAS or EGFR in association with TP53 alterations. The study highlights the feasibility of targeted next-generation sequencing in clinical setting. The majority of NSCLC harboured mutations in clinically relevant genes, thus identifying patients who might benefit from different targeted therapies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Proposed Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) Clinical Practice Recommendations: National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony; Mirsaidi, Niely; Patel, Bhumika; Viens, Laura; Forsyth, Edward; Li, Jonathan; Dang, Sophia; Dukes, Brittany; Giraldo, Jheison; Kim, Preston; Burns, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    High rates of respiratory symptoms (14%) and new-onset asthma in previously healthy soldiers (6.6%) have been reported among military personnel post-deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The term Iraq/Afghanistan War-Lung Injury (IAW-LI) is used to describe the constellation of respiratory diseases related to hazards of war, such as exposure to burning trash in burn pits, improvised explosive devices, and sandstorms. Burnpits360.org is a nonprofit civilian website which voluntarily tracks medical symptoms among soldiers post-deployment to the Middle East. Subsequent to initiation of the Burnpits360.org website, the Department of Veterans Affairs started the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit registry. This paper: (a) analyzes the latest 38 patients in the Burnpits360.org registry, validated by DD214 Forms; (b) compares strengths and weaknesses of both registries as outlined at the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine Burn Pits Workshop; (c) further characterizes the spectrum of disease in IAW-LI; (d) describes the risk factors of affected populations; (e) summarizes current practices regarding management of the condition; and (f) defines future research objectives.

  3. Accelerating Scientific Advancement for Pediatric Rare Lung Disease Research. Report from a National Institutes of Health-NHLBI Workshop, September 3 and 4, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa R; Trapnell, Bruce C; Mandl, Kenneth D; Swarr, Daniel T; Wambach, Jennifer A; Blaisdell, Carol J

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric rare lung disease (PRLD) is a term that refers to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders in children. In recent years, this field has experienced significant progress marked by scientific discoveries, multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations, and efforts of patient advocates. Although genetic mechanisms underlie many PRLDs, pathogenesis remains uncertain for many of these disorders. Furthermore, epidemiology and natural history are insufficiently defined, and therapies are limited. To develop strategies to accelerate scientific advancement for PRLD research, the NHLBI of the National Institutes of Health convened a strategic planning workshop on September 3 and 4, 2015. The workshop brought together a group of scientific experts, intramural and extramural investigators, and advocacy groups with the following objectives: (1) to discuss the current state of PRLD research; (2) to identify scientific gaps and barriers to increasing research and improving outcomes for PRLDs; (3) to identify technologies, tools, and reagents that could be leveraged to accelerate advancement of research in this field; and (4) to develop priorities for research aimed at improving patient outcomes and quality of life. This report summarizes the workshop discussion and provides specific recommendations to guide future research in PRLD.

  4. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  5. Reirradiation of recurrent node-positive non-small cell lung cancer after previous stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I disease. A multi-institutional treatment recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Ruysscher, Dirk de [MAASTRO Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Gaspar, Laurie E. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aurora, CO (United States); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Mehta, Minesh P. [Miami Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); Cheung, Patrick; Sahgal, Arjun [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    Practice guidelines have been developed for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, many common clinical scenarios still require individualized decision making. This is true for locoregional relapse after initial stereotactic radiotherapy (stereotactic body radiation therapy or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy; SBRT or SABR), an increasingly utilized curative treatment option for stage I NSCLC. A consortium of expert radiation oncologists was established with the aim of providing treatment recommendations. In this scenario, a case was distributed to six radiation oncologists who provided their institutions' treatment recommendations. In this case, a patient developed local and mediastinal relapse after SABR (45 Gy, 3 fractions), comparable to the tumor burden in de novo stage IIIA NSCLC. Treatment recommendations were tabulated and a consensus conclusion was developed. Three institutions recommended evaluation for surgery. If the patient was not a surgical candidate, and/or refused surgery, definitive chemoradiation was recommended, including retreating the primary to full dose. European participants were more in favor of a non-surgical approach. None of the participants were reluctant to prescribe reirradiation, but two institutions prescribed doses lower than 60 Gy. Platinum-based doublets together with intensity-modulated radiotherapy were preferred. The institutional recommendations reflect the questions and uncertainties discussed in current stage III guidelines. All institutions agreed that previous SABR is not a contraindication for salvage chemoradiation. In the absence of high-quality prospective trials for recurrent NSCLC, all treatment options recommended in current guidelines for stage III disease can be considered in clinical scenarios such as this. (orig.) [German] Fuer fruehe und lokal fortgeschrittene Stadien des nicht-kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms (NSCLC) wurden Behandlungsleitlinien publiziert

  6. NanoLaunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan; Harris, Lawanna

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both Earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low-Earth orbit for CubeSat-class payloads. The project will also serve as an early career personnel training opportunity with mentors to gain hands-on project experience.

  7. Midlife moderation-quantified healthy diet and 40-year mortality risk from CHD: the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, cross-checked dietary history interview at baseline (1969-1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P=0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality.

  8. Midlife moderation-quantified healthy diet and 40-year mortality risk from CHD: the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, crosschecked dietary history interview at baseline (1969–1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P = 0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality. PMID:27188259

  9. Paclitaxel-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting stents in diabetes mellitus: a report from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, William M; Vlachos, Helen A; Marroquin, Oscar C; Lee, Joon S; Smith, Conrad; Anderson, William D; Schindler, John T; Holper, Elizabeth M; Abbott, J Dawn; Williams, David O; Laskey, Warren K; Kip, Kevin E; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Mulukutla, Suresh R

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes is a powerful predictor of adverse events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents; however, controversy remains regarding which drug-eluting stents provides greater benefit in patients with diabetes. Accordingly, we compared the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) among diabetic patients in a contemporary registry. Using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry, we evaluated 2-year outcomes of diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions with SES (n=677) and PES (n=328). Clinical and demographic characteristics, including age, body mass index, insulin use, left ventricular function, and aspirin/clopidogrel use postprocedure, did not differ significantly between the groups except that PES-treated patients had a greater frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. At the 2-year follow-up, no significant differences were observed between PES and SES with regard to safety or efficacy end points. PES- and SES-treated patients had similar rates of death (10.7% versus 8.2%, P=0.20), death and myocardial infarction (14.9% versus 13.6%, P=0.55), repeat revascularization (14.8% versus 17.8%, P=0.36), and stent thrombosis (1.3% versus 1.3%, P=0.95). After adjustment, no significant differences between the 2 stent types in any outcome were observed. PES and SES are equally efficacious and have similar safety profiles in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions in clinical practice.

  10. Temporal changes in the outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute dynamic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Elizabeth M; Abbott, J Dawn; Mulukutla, Suresh; Vlachos, Helen; Selzer, Faith; McGuire, Darren; Faxon, David P; Laskey, Warren; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S; Marroquin, Oscar C; Jacobs, Alice K

    2011-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at higher risk for adverse outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To determine whether outcomes have improved over time, we analyzed data from 2,838 consecutive patients with medically treated DM, including 1,066 patients (37.6%) treated with insulin, in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry undergoing PCI registered in waves 1 (1997-1998), 2 (1999), 3 (2001-2002), 4 (2004), and 5 (2006). We compared baseline demographics and 1-year outcomes in the overall cohort and in analyses stratified by recruitment wave and insulin use. Crude mortality rates by chronological wave were 9.5%, 12.5%, 8.9%, 11.6%, and 6.6% (P value(trend) = .33) among those treated with insulin and, respectively, 9.7%, 6.5%, 4.1%, 5.4%, and 4.7% (P value(trend) = .006) among patients treated with oral agents,. The adjusted hazard ratios of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and overall major adverse cardiovascular events (death, MI, revascularization) in insulin-treated patients with DM in waves 2 to 5 as compared with wave 1 were either higher or the same. In contrast, the similar adjusted hazard ratios for oral agent-treated patients with DM were either similar or lower. Significant improvements over time in adverse events by 1 year were detected in patients with DM treated with oral agents. In insulin-treated diabetic patients, despite lower rates of repeat revascularization over time, death and MI following PCI have not significantly improved. These findings underscore the need for continued efforts at optimizing outcomes among patients with DM undergoing PCI, especially those requiring insulin treatment. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbidity and Karnofksy performance score are independent prognostic factors in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: an institutional analysis of patients treated on four RTOG studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic role of comorbidity in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated definitively with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 112 patients with clinical Stage III NSCLC (American Joint Commission on Cancer 1997) enrolled in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies (83-11, 84-03, 84-07, and 88-08 nonchemotherapy arms) at a single institution were analyzed retrospectively for overall survival (OS) and comorbidity. Of the 112 patients, 105 (94%) completed their assigned radiotherapy. The median assigned dose was 50.4 Gy to the lymphatics (range 45-50.4 Gy) and 70.2 Gy to the primary tumor (range 60-79.2 Gy). Comorbidity was rated retrospectively using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) and Charlson scales. Karnofsky performance scores (KPSs) and weight loss were prospectively recorded. Because only 8 patients had a KPS of 70). Results: The median survival was 10.39 months (range 7.87-12.91). The 2-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate was 20.5%, 12.5%, and 7.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, clinical stage (IIIA vs. IIIB) was found to be a statistically significant factor influencing OS (p=0.026), and the histologic features, grade, tumor size as measured on CT scans, age, tobacco use, weight loss ≥5%, and total dose delivered to the primary tumor were not. A KPS of ≤70 (p=0.001), the presence of a CIRS-G score of 4 (extremely severe; p=0.0002), and a severity index of >2 (p 2 were independently associated with inferior OS; clinical tumor stage was not found to be an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: KPS and comorbidity are important independent prognostic factors in Stage III NSCLC. Comorbidity should be included in protocols studying advanced stage NSCLC and used for stratification

  12. A multi-institutional phase II study of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: initial report of ECOG 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannehill, Scott P.; Froseth, Carrie; Wagner, Henry; Petereit, Dan P.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, acute toxicity, response and survival in a trial of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a t.i.d. regimen 5 days a week in an 8 hour schedule. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (pts) from 6 institutions were enrolled in this pilot trial. Pt characteristics: 24 male, 6 female; median age 67 yrs (range 47-84); ECOG PS 0 in 22 pts, 1 in 8 pts; weight loss >5% in 7 pts. Stage was II (inoperable) in 1 pt, IIIA in 12 pts, and IIIB in 17 pts. Radiation therapy (total 57.6 Gy/36 fx) encompassing gross disease and draining lymphatics to 36 Gy (1.5 Gy b.i.d., 8 hours apart) with daily off-cord concomitant boost to 21.6 Gy (1.8 Gy 4 hours after first fraction) was given over 12 treatment days (15 elapsed days). Results: (28(30)) (93%) pts completed radiation therapy on schedule without toxicity-related treatment interruptions. Two pts did not complete radiation therapy; 1 due to in-field progression and 1 due to fatal acute gastric bleed unrelated to therapy. Two additional pts died in the first 6 weeks: 1 due to a presumed acute cardiovascular event and another due to complications of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The major treatment-related toxicities were esophagitis in 6 pts (18%: 5 Grade 3 and 1 Grade 4) scored using a study specific esophagitis grading tool and 2 grade 3 dermatitis, in a total of 6 pts. Only 1 pt (3%) required hospitalization for IV hydration (Grade 4 esophagitis). Median weight loss at 6 weeks was 3 kg. Response data are pending in 2 pts and unavailable in 2 due to early death. Of the remaining 26 pts, local response analysis showed CR in 4, PR in 14, stable in 7 and progressive disease in 1 for an overall response rate of (18(26)) (69%). With a median potential follow-up of 13 months, the median survival has not yet been reached. The 1-yr actuarial survival is 63%. Exclusion of the 3 pts experiencing early death (in

  13. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  14. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  15. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  16. Launch Control Network Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  17. NIH Launches National COPD Action Plan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD Action Plan Follow us NIH Launches National COPD Action Plan Photo: National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... questions for NIH MedlinePlus magazine. Why was the COPD National Action Plan created? The staggering numbers associated ...

  18. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  19. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  20. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  1. Launch team training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the training, certification, recertification, and proficiency maintenance of the Shuttle launch team is proposed. Previous training approaches are first reviewed. Short term program goals include expanding current training methods, improving the existing simulation capability, and scheduling training exercises with the same priority as hardware tests. Long-term goals include developing user requirements which would take advantage of state-of-the-art tools and techniques. Training requirements for the different groups of people to be trained are identified, and future goals are outlined.

  2. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    FY13+ Phase I Buy Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112 Contract Number...Contract Name: FY13+ Phase I Buy Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112 Contract...FY12 EELV Launch Services (ELS5) Contractor: United Launch Services, LLC. Contractor Location: 9501 East Panorama Circle Centennial , CO 80112

  3. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  4. New Product Launching Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  5. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  6. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  7. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  8. Determinants of Local Progression After Computed Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Unresectable Lung Tumors: 9-Year Experience in a Single Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akira; Oyama, Yoshimasa; Hamamoto, Shinichi; Toyoshima, Masami; Nakamura, Kenji; Miki, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the local control rate and contributing factors to local progression after computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for unresectable lung tumor. This study included 138 lung tumors in 72 patients (56 men and 16 women; age 70.0 ± 11.6 years (range 31-94); mean tumor size 2.1 ± 1.2 cm [range 0.2-9]) who underwent lung RFA between June 2000 and May 2009. Mean follow-up periods for patients and tumors were 14 and 12 months, respectively. The local progression-free rate and survival rate were calculated to determine the contributing factors to local progression. During follow-up, 44 of 138 (32%) lung tumors showed local progression. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall local control rates were 61, 57, 57, and 38%, respectively. The risk factors for local progression were age (≥70 years), tumor size (≥2 cm), sex (male), and no achievement of roll-off during RFA (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥2 cm as the only independent factor for local progression (P = 0.003). For tumors <2 cm, 17 of 68 (25%) showed local progression, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall local control rates were 77, 73, and 73%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that age ≥70 years was an independent determinant of local progression for tumors <2 cm in diameter (P = 0.011). The present study showed that 32% of lung tumors developed local progression after CT-guided RFA. The significant risk factor for local progression after RFA for lung tumors was tumor size ≥2 cm.

  9. LHCb launches new website

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A new public website for the LHCb experiment was launched last Friday to coincide with CERN’s Open Day weekend. Designed to provide accessible information on all aspects of the experiment, the website contains images and key facts about the LHCb detector, its design and installation and the international team behind the project. "LHCb is going to be one of the most important b-physics experiments in the world when it starts taking data later this year", explains Roger Forty, the experiment’s deputy spokesperson. "We hope the website will be a valuable resource, enabling people to learn about this fascinating area of research." The new website can be found at: http://cern.ch/lhcb-public

  10. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  11. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  12. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  13. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  14. WE-D-207-00: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Medical Physicist: Moving Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, Lung Cancer is responsible for more cancer deaths than the next four cancers combined. In addition, the 5 year survival rate for lung cancer patients has not improved over the past 40 to 50 years. To combat this deadly disease, in 2002 the National Cancer Institute launched a very large Randomized Control Trial called the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). This trial would randomize subjects who had substantial risk of lung cancer (due to age and smoking history) into either a Chest X-ray arm or a low dose CT arm. In November 2010, the National Cancer Institute announced that the NLST had demonstrated 20% fewer lung cancer deaths among those who were screened with low-dose CT than with chest X-ray. In December 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended the use of Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT and a little over a year later (Feb. 2015), CMS announced that Medicare would also cover Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT. Thus private and public insurers are required to provide Lung Cancer Screening programs using CT to the appropriate population(s). The purpose of this Symposium is to inform medical physicists and prepare them to support the implementation of Lung Screening programs. This Symposium will focus on the clinical aspects of lung cancer screening, requirements of a screening registry for systematically capturing and tracking screening patients and results (such as required Medicare data elements) as well as the role of the medical physicist in screening programs, including the development of low dose CT screening protocols. Learning Objectives: To understand the clinical basis and clinical components of a lung cancer screening program, including eligibility criteria and other requirements. To understand the data collection requirements, workflow, and informatics infrastructure needed to support the tracking and reporting components of a screening program. To understand the role of the medical physicist in

  15. Clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and oligometastatic lung tumors: a single institutional study with almost uniform dose with different five treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Ono, Shuichi; Tsushima, Eiki; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized primary and oligometastatic lung tumors by assessing efficacy and safety of 5 regimens of varying fraction size and number. One-hundred patients with primary lung cancer (n = 69) or oligometastatic lung tumors (n = 31), who underwent SBRT between May 2003 and August 2010, were included. The median age was 75 years (range, 45–88). Of them, 98 were judged to have medically inoperable disease, predominantly due to chronic illness or advanced age. SBRT was performed using 3 coplanar and 3 non-coplanar fixed beams with a standard linear accelerator. Fraction sizes were escalated by 1 Gy, and number of fractions given was decreased by 1 for every 20 included patients. Total target doses were between 50 and 56 Gy, administered as 5–9 fractions. The prescribed dose was defined at the isocenter, and median overall treatment duration was 10 days (range, 5–22). The median follow-up was 51.1 months for survivors. The 3-year local recurrence rates for primary lung cancer and oligometastasis was 6 % and 3 %, respectively. The 3-year local recurrence rates for tumor sizes ≤3 cm and >3 cm were 3 % and 14 %, respectively (p = 0.124). Additionally, other factors (fraction size, total target dose, and BED 10 ) were not significant predictors of local control. Radiation pneumonia (≥ grade 2) was observed in 2 patients. Radiation-induced rib fractures were observed in 22 patients. Other late adverse events of greater than grade 2 were not observed. Within this dataset, we did not observe a dose response in BED 10 values between 86.4 and 102.6 Gy. SBRT with doses between 50 and 56 Gy, administered over 5–9 fractions achieved acceptable tumor control without severe complications

  16. Robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery, and open surgery for early stage lung cancer: comparison of costs and outcomes at a single institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellis, Pierluigi; Bottoni, Edoardo; Voulaz, Emanuele; Cariboni, Umberto; Testori, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Giordano, Laura; Dieci, Elisa; Granato, Lorenzo; Vanni, Elena; Montorsi, Marco; Alloisio, Marco; Veronesi, Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Robotic surgery is increasingly used to resect lung cancer. However costs are high. We compared costs and outcomes for robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), and open surgery, to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively assessed 103 consecutive patients given lobectomy or segmentectomy for clinical stage I or II NSCLC. Three surgeons could choose VATS or open, the fourth could choose between all three techniques. Between-group differences were assessed by Fisher's exact, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. P values open surgery. Age, physical status, pulmonary function, comorbidities, stage, and perioperative complications did not differ between the groups. Pathological tumor size was greater in the open than VATS and robotic groups (P=0.025). Duration of surgery was 150, 191 and 116 minutes, by robotic, VATS and open approaches, respectively (Popen groups. Estimated costs were 82%, 68% and 69%, respectively, of the regional health service reimbursement for robotic, VATS and open approaches. Robotic surgery for early lung cancer was associated with shorter stay and more extensive lymph node dissection than VATS and open surgery. Duration of surgery was shorter for robotic than VATS. Although the cost of robotic thoracic surgery is high, the hospital makes a profit.

  17. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  18. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  19. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  20. International research centre launched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Full text: The first scientific research and educational institution to be set up on a completely international basis was officially inaugurated in Trieste on 5 October 1964 by the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the first seminar of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics. As evidence of the international nature of the institution he noted that the scientists who would work and teach there during the first year represented sixteen different countries. By the end of 1964, the Centre building was nearing completion and three of the five floors were occupied. A successful symposium had been held on the subject of plasma physics, and a score of professors and fellows were at work, from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, India, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A dozen scientific papers had been issued as preprints. The main purpose of the Centre is to foster the advancement of theoretical physics through training and research; at first the chief subject will be high-energy and elementary particle physics. Plasma physics, low energy physics and solid-state physics will also be dealt with. Special attention is paid to the needs of the developing countries. Of the 25 fellows selected for the academic year 1964-65, more than half are from South America, Africa and Asia. In conjunction with the Research Centre, there is an Advanced School for theoretical Physics to provide graduate training for fellows who need such preparation before they embark upon research. The Centre works under the guidance of a Scientific Council comprising the president, Prof. M. Sandoval-Vallarta (Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico); Prof. A. Abragam (Saclay, France); Prof. R. Oppenheimer (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA); Dr. V. Soloviev (Dubna, USSR); Prof V.F. Weiskopf (Director General, CERN) ; Prof Abdus Salam (Imperial College, London) ; Prof. P. Budini (University of Trieste

  1. Diagnostic feasibility and safety of CT-guided core biopsy for lung nodules less than or equal to 8 mm. A single-institution experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ying-Yueh [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chen, Chun-Ku [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Yeh, Yi-Chen [National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); Wu, Mei-Han [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2018-02-15

    This retrospective study evaluated the diagnostic yield and safety of CT-guided core biopsy of pulmonary nodules ≤8 mm. We determined the diagnostic yield and safety profile of CT-guided lung biopsies for 125 pulmonary nodules ≤8 mm. Pathological diagnoses were made by a combination of histopathological examination and imprint cytology. Results were compared with biopsy results for 134 pulmonary nodules >8 and ≤10 mm. Final diagnoses were established in 94 nodules ≤8 mm. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided core biopsy for nodules ≤8 mm were 87.1 % (61/70 nodules), 100 % (24/24) and 90.4 % (85/94), respectively. Diagnostic failure rates were comparable for nodules ≤8 mm and nodules >8 mm and ≤10 mm (9/94, 9.6 % and 7/111, 6.3 %, respectively, P=0.385). The rate of tube thoracostomy for nodules ≤8 mm was comparable to that for nodules >8 and ≤10 mm (1.6 % vs. 0.7 %, P=0.611). Nodules ≤6 mm had a higher non-diagnostic result rate of 15.4 % (6/39) than did nodules >8 and ≤10 mm (3.7 %, 5/134, P=0.017). CT-guided pulmonary biopsy is feasible for lung nodules ≤8 mm, especially those >6 mm, and has an acceptable diagnostic yield and safety profile. (orig.)

  2. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  3. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  4. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  5. National Security Space Launch Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...technologies to the NASA Exploration Initiative (“…Moon, Mars and Beyond.”).1 EELV Technology Needs The Atlas V and Delta IV vehicles incorporate current... Mars and other destinations.” 46 National Security Space Launch Report Figure 6.1 U.S. Government Liquid Propulsion Rocket Investment, 1991–2005

  6. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  7. WE-D-207-03: CT Protocols for Screening and the ACR Designated Lung Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNitt-Gray, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, Lung Cancer is responsible for more cancer deaths than the next four cancers combined. In addition, the 5 year survival rate for lung cancer patients has not improved over the past 40 to 50 years. To combat this deadly disease, in 2002 the National Cancer Institute launched a very large Randomized Control Trial called the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). This trial would randomize subjects who had substantial risk of lung cancer (due to age and smoking history) into either a Chest X-ray arm or a low dose CT arm. In November 2010, the National Cancer Institute announced that the NLST had demonstrated 20% fewer lung cancer deaths among those who were screened with low-dose CT than with chest X-ray. In December 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended the use of Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT and a little over a year later (Feb. 2015), CMS announced that Medicare would also cover Lung Cancer Screening using low dose CT. Thus private and public insurers are required to provide Lung Cancer Screening programs using CT to the appropriate population(s). The purpose of this Symposium is to inform medical physicists and prepare them to support the implementation of Lung Screening programs. This Symposium will focus on the clinical aspects of lung cancer screening, requirements of a screening registry for systematically capturing and tracking screening patients and results (such as required Medicare data elements) as well as the role of the medical physicist in screening programs, including the development of low dose CT screening protocols. Learning Objectives: To understand the clinical basis and clinical components of a lung cancer screening program, including eligibility criteria and other requirements. To understand the data collection requirements, workflow, and informatics infrastructure needed to support the tracking and reporting components of a screening program. To understand the role of the medical physicist in

  8. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Shostrom, Valerie K. [Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Iskhanian, Adrian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Attia, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Decker, Roy H. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Simone, Charles B., E-mail: charlessimone@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Methods: Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Results: Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, P<.001). Patients treated daily also had higher rates of grade ≥2 pulmonary toxicities (P=.014). Patients with peripheral tumors (n=66) were more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction regimens than those with central tumors (n=26). No significant differences in grade ≥2 toxicities were identified according to tumor location (P>.05). Conclusions: From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities.

  10. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Shostrom, Valerie K; Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian; Braunstein, Steve E; Holland, John; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Iskhanian, Adrian; Jabbour, Salma K; Attia, Albert; Lee, Percy; Wang, Kyle; Decker, Roy H; McGarry, Ronald C; Simone, Charles B

    2017-03-15

    To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, Plocation (P>.05). From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Launch Pad in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James; Tamasy, Gabor; Mueller, Rob; Townsend, Van; Sampson, Jeff; Lane, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  12. Failure to Launch: Structural Shift and the New Lost Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Hanson, Andrew R.; Gulish, Artem

    2013-01-01

    The lockstep march from school to work and then on to retirement no longer applies for a growing share of Americans. Many young adults are launching their careers later, while older adults are working longer. As a result, the education and labor market institutions that were the foundation of a 20th century system are out of sync with the 21st…

  13. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  14. A Phase 2 Trial of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results and Reflections Following Early Closure of a Single-Institution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Pham, Dat; Cury, James D.; Bajwa, Abubakr [Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); D' Agostino, Harry [Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McCook, Barry [Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Nichols, Romaine C. [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy has been shown to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk (OAR) and could be used to safely escalate the radiation dose. We analyzed outcomes in a group of phase 2 study patients treated with dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From 2009 through 2013, LU02, a phase 2 trial of proton therapy delivering 74 to 80 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction with concurrent chemotherapy for stage 3 NSCLC, was opened to accrual at our institution. Due to slow accrual and competing trials, the study was closed after just 14 patients (stage IIIA, 9 patients; stage IIIB, 5 patients) were accrued over 4 years. During that same time period, 55 additional stage III patients were treated with high-dose proton therapy, including 7 in multi-institutional proton clinical trials, 4 not enrolled due to physician preference, and 44 who were ineligible based on strict entry criteria. An unknown number of patients were ineligible for enrollment due to insurance coverage issues and thus were treated with photon radiation. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 52 months. Results: Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 57% and 25%, respectively. Median lengths of overall survival and progression-free survival were 33 months and 14 months, respectively. There were no acute grade 3 toxicities related to proton therapy. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and pulmonary toxicity each occurred in 1 patient. Conclusions: Dose-escalated proton therapy with concurrent chemotherapy was well tolerated with encouraging results among a small cohort of patients. Unfortunately, single-institution proton studies may be difficult to accrue and consideration for pragmatic and/or multicenter trial design should be considered when developing future proton clinical trials.

  15. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  16. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  17. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  18. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  19. The launch of new-look Chishango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasse, D

    2002-09-01

    PSI/Malawi is a local affiliate of the non-profit NGO, Population Services International, which operates in over 50 countries worldwide. PSI/Malawi's mission is to "improve and sustain the health of all Malawians through cost-effective social marketing of needed and affordable health products". In this context, social marketing involves using a range of media channels to create demand for branded health products which are sold at subsidised prices through a wide range of distribution outlets (e.g. wholesalers/retailers, institutions, NGOs, the workplace, etc.). Chishango is PSI/Malawi's condom brand which was launched in 1994 to provide sexually active Malawians with an affordable means of protecting themselves and their partners from HIV transmission. In 2001, research indicated that the brand needed a 'face lift' to improve its relevance to modern Malawians and therefore lead to an increase in consistent condom use resulting in a further reduction in HIV transmission. The newly packaged and positioned Chishango was launched on the 13th May 2002. The speech below was given by the Resident Director of PSI/Malawi, Dr Desmond Chavasse at the relaunch of Chishango.

  20. Intervention with the hypoxic tumor cell sensitizer etanidazole in the combined modality treatment of limited stage small-cell lung cancer. A one-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtasun, Raul C.; Palmer, Martin; Kinney, Brenda; Belch, Andrew; Hewitt, Joanne; Hanson, John

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We report the toxicity, patterns of failure and survival of a cohort of patients with limited disease (LD) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy. During the course of thoracic irradiation, we added intravenous (i.v.) etanidazole (SR-2508, a third-generation 2-nitroimidazole) as a hypoxic cell sensitizer in an attempt to reduce the primary local failure rate and improve survival. Methods and Materials: Between July 1988 and August 1990, 30 consecutive patients with limited disease SCLC were enrolled and treated on a Phase II protocol receiving a standard combination chemotherapy regimen utilizing i.v. cisplatin 25 mg/m 2 /day x 3 days, i.v. etoposide 100 mg/m 2 /day x 3 days alternating with intravenous cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m 2 /day, intravenous doxorubicin 15 mg/m 2 , and intravenous vincristine 2 mg (CAV) to a total of six cycles every 3 weeks. Radiotherapy and etanidazole were started after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Etanidazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 2 g/m 2 three times per week for a total of 30 g/m 2 during the course of thoracic radiation that delivered 50.00 Gy tumor dose in 25 fractions in an overall time of 6 weeks. Results: The overall response rate of the primary lesion in the thorax was 96% (CR + PR), with 64% complete responses. The median time to treatment failure was 18 months. Of the patients that have relapsed, only 18% failed in the thorax (alone or concomitant with other sites). This is a marked improvement compared to the 40-50% rate reported in the literature. The 2-year crude survival was 46%. The 3- and 5-year crude survival rate with no evidence of disease was 33 and 30%, respectively. We have observed a 10% increase in the incidence of transient etanidazole related peripheral neuropathies compared to previous etanidazole studies not utilizing systemic chemotherapy. There was no increased incidence of radiation esophagitis, pulmonary toxicity, or nephro- or

  1. Space Launch System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  2. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  3. Reusable Military Launch Systems (RMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    shown in Figure 11. The second configuration is an axisymmetric, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) powered, SSTO vehicle, similar to the GTX...McCormick, D., and Sorensen, K., “Hyperion: An SSTO Vision Vehicle Concept Utilizing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Propulsion”, AIAA paper 99-4944...there have been several failedattempts at the development of reusable rocket or air-breathing launch vehicle systems. Single-stage-to-orbit ( SSTO

  4. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  5. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  6. Long term mortality from cardiac disease and lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective cohort study of 7 711 women treated and followed-up at Institute Gustave Roussy (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, H.; Rubino, C.; Le, M.; Giardini, M.; Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Paoletti, C.; Labbe, M.; Haouari, Z.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, Unite 605 INSERM, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Women who are treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant radiation have a decreased risk of local recurrence but an increased risk of mortality from heart disease and lung cancer. Patients with left -sided breast tumors receive a higher dose of radiation to the heart than patients with right-sided tumors. In a previous study of about 300000 women treated for breast cancer during 1973-2001 and followed-up prospectively for cause-specific mortality until January 1, 2002, Sarah Darby showed that for women diagnosed during 1973-1982 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio (left versus right tumor laterality) was 1.20 [1.04-1.38] less then 10 years afterwards, and 1.58 [1.29 - 1.95] after 15 years or more. Because radiation techniques have improved over time, such risks are expected to be reduced. A cohort was performed at Institute Gustave Roussy to investigate long term effects of breast cancer treatments. This cohort comprise 7711 women treated for beast cancer between 1954 and 1984. Mean age at the first treatment was 55 years [21 - 91], 61% were diagnosed before 1977 vs 39% after, 50.4% were left -sided breast cancer, 4832 (73.2 %) were recorded as having received external-beam radiotherapy as part of the initial treatment and 516 (8%) radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate long term mortality and effects of radiotherapy on mortality from cardiac disease and second cancers. The originality of our study comparing to similar others is the homogeneity of the population studied and the longer follow-up. Vital status and causes of death of women of the cohort were obtained as well as mortality rates in the general French population. The cut off date was January 1, 2001. External and internal analysis were performed. Persons years at risk have been calculated for the entire follow-up period, less then 10 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, and 30 or more years afterwards. To

  7. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  8. Long term mortality from cardiac disease and lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a prospective cohort study of 7 711 women treated and followed-up at Institute Gustave Roussy (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, H.; Rubino, C.; Le, M.; Giardini, M.; Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Paoletti, C.; Labbe, M.; Haouari, Z.; Vathaire, F. de

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Women who are treated for early breast cancer with adjuvant radiation have a decreased risk of local recurrence but an increased risk of mortality from heart disease and lung cancer. Patients with left -sided breast tumors receive a higher dose of radiation to the heart than patients with right-sided tumors. In a previous study of about 300000 women treated for breast cancer during 1973-2001 and followed-up prospectively for cause-specific mortality until January 1, 2002, Sarah Darby showed that for women diagnosed during 1973-1982 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio (left versus right tumor laterality) was 1.20 [1.04-1.38] less then 10 years afterwards, and 1.58 [1.29 - 1.95] after 15 years or more. Because radiation techniques have improved over time, such risks are expected to be reduced. A cohort was performed at Institute Gustave Roussy to investigate long term effects of breast cancer treatments. This cohort comprise 7711 women treated for beast cancer between 1954 and 1984. Mean age at the first treatment was 55 years [21 - 91], 61% were diagnosed before 1977 vs 39% after, 50.4% were left -sided breast cancer, 4832 (73.2 %) were recorded as having received external-beam radiotherapy as part of the initial treatment and 516 (8%) radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. The aim of the present study is to investigate long term mortality and effects of radiotherapy on mortality from cardiac disease and second cancers. The originality of our study comparing to similar others is the homogeneity of the population studied and the longer follow-up. Vital status and causes of death of women of the cohort were obtained as well as mortality rates in the general French population. The cut off date was January 1, 2001. External and internal analysis were performed. Persons years at risk have been calculated for the entire follow-up period, less then 10 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, and 30 or more years afterwards. To

  9. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  10. A Proposed Criterion for Launch Ramp Availability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalzell, J

    2003-01-01

    The project under which the present report was produced has as an objective the development of methods for the evaluation and comparison of stem-launch and side-launch systems for small boat deployment from USCG cutters...

  11. Launch of Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 (Spacecraft 103/Saturn 503) space vehicle launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 7:51 a.m., December 21, 1968. In this view there is water in the foreground and seagulls.

  12. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  13. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  14. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  15. Launch Environmental Test for KITSAT-3 FM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The satellite experiences the severe launch environment such as vibration, acceleration, shock, and acoustics induced by rocket. Therefore, the satellite should be designed and manufactured to endure such severe launch environments. In this paper, we describe the structure of the KITSAT-3 FM(Flight Model and the processes and results of the launch environmental test to ensure the reliability during launch period.

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  17. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  18. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  19. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Searing the early evening sky with its near sun-like rocket exhaust, the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2 on its way to the Mir space station. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  20. A multidisciplinary "think tank": the top 10 clinical trial opportunities in transfusion medicine from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored 2009 state-of-the-science symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Glynn, Simone A; Kleinman, Steve H; Blajchman, Morris A

    2011-04-01

    In September 2009, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened the State-of-the-Science Symposium in Transfusion Medicine to identify Phase II and/or III clinical trials that would provide important information to advance transfusion medicine. Seven multidisciplinary subcommittees developed proposals in the following areas: 1) platelet (PLT) product use, 2) neonatal and/or pediatric transfusion practice, 3) surgical transfusion practice, 4) intensive care unit and/or in trauma transfusion practice, 5) plasma and/or cryoprecipitate product use and therapeutic apheresis practice, 6) red blood cell (RBC) product use and/or blood conservation management, and 7) medical transfusion practice or blood donor studies. The committees consisted of transfusion medicine specialists, hematologists, cardiovascular surgeons, anesthesiologists, neonatologists, critical care physicians, and clinical trial methodologists. Proposals were presented and an external panel evaluated and prioritized each concept for scientific merit, clinical importance, and feasibility. Twenty-four concepts were presented by the subcommittees. Ten concepts addressed four areas deemed most important: 1) PLT transfusion strategies to prevent and/or mitigate bleeding in neonates and patients with hematologic malignancies, 2) RBC transfusion trigger strategies to improve overall outcomes in different patient populations, 3) evaluation of optimal plasma:PLT:RBC ratios in trauma resuscitation, and 4) pathogen inactivation of PLTs to improve PLT transfusion safety. The proposal themes not only represent inquiries about the indications for transfusion, but also epitomize the lack of consensus when clinical practice lacks a strong evidence base. Ultimately, the purpose of this publication is to provide a "blueprint" of ideas for further development rather than endorse any one specific clinical trial design. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Expression of EGFR and Molecules Downstream to PI3K/Akt, Raf-1-MEK-1-MAP (Erk1/2, and JAK (STAT3 Pathways in Invasive Lung Adenocarcinomas Resected at a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fabiola Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapies targeting EGFR are effective in treating tumors that harbor molecular alterations; however, there is heterogeneity in long-term response to these therapies. We retrospectively analyzed protein expression of EGFR, Stat3, phospho-Akt, and phospho-Erk1/2 by immunohistochemistry in a series of resected cases from a single institution, correlated with clinicopathological variables. There were 96 patients, with the majority of cases being of low stage tumors (17 pT1a, 23 pT1b, 30 pT2a, and 18 pT2b. Histologic subtypes were 45 acinar predominant, 2 cribriform, 25 solid, 7 papillary, 11 lepidic, and 4 mucinous tumors. The EGFR score was higher in tumors with vascular invasion (P=0.013, in solid and cribriform acinar histology, and in high stage tumors (P=0.006 and P=0.01. EGFR was more likely overexpressed in solid compared to lepidic tumors (P=0.02. Acinar tumors had the highest rate of ERK1/2 positivity (19%. There was a strong correlation among positivity for ERCC1 and other markers, including STAT3 (P=0.003, Akt (P=0.02, and ERK1/ERK2 (P=0.0005. Expression of molecules downstream to EGFR varied from 12% to 31% of tumors; however, the expression did not directly correlate to EGFR expression, which may suggest activation of the cascades through different pathways. The correlation of protein expression and the new lung adenocarcinoma classification may help in the understanding of activated pathways of each tumor type, which may act in the oncogenesis and drug resistance of these tumors.

  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell disease to improve treatment options and symptom management, with the goal of one day finding a widely available cure. Learn about our commitment to easing the burden of sickle cell disease ...

  3. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  4. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review-launch site boundary. 420.21 Section 420.21 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... travels given a worst-case launch vehicle failure in the launch area. An applicant must clearly and...

  5. Postmenopausal women with a history of irregular menses and elevated androgen measurements at high risk for worsening cardiovascular event-free survival: results from the National Institutes of Health--National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Azziz, Ricardo; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Sopko, George; Braunstein, Glenn D; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Kip, Kevin E; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, B Delia; Vaccarino, Viola; Reis, Steven E; Bittner, Vera; Hodgson, T Keta; Rogers, William; Pepine, Carl J

    2008-04-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a greater clustering of cardiac risk factors. However, the link between PCOS and cardiovascular (CV) disease is incompletely described. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the risk of CV events in 390 postmenopausal women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH-NHLBI) sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study according to clinical features of PCOS. A total of 104 women had clinical features of PCOS defined by a premenopausal history of irregular menses and current biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Hyperandrogenemia was defined as the top quartile of androstenedione (> or = 701 pg/ml), testosterone (> or = 30.9 ng/dl), or free testosterone (> or = 4.5 pg/ml). Cox proportional hazard model was fit to estimate CV death or myocardial infarction (n = 55). Women with clinical features of PCOS were more often diabetic (P < 0.0001), obese (P = 0.005), had the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.0001), and had more angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) (P = 0.04) compared to women without clinical features of PCOS. Cumulative 5-yr CV event-free survival was 78.9% for women with clinical features of PCOS (n = 104) vs. 88.7% for women without clinical features of PCOS (n = 286) (P = 0.006). PCOS remained a significant predictor (P < 0.01) in prognostic models including diabetes, waist circumference, hypertension, and angiographic CAD as covariates. Among postmenopausal women evaluated for suspected ischemia, clinical features of PCOS are associated with more angiographic CAD and worsening CV event-free survival. Identification of postmenopausal women with clinical features of PCOS may provide an opportunity for risk factor intervention for the prevention of CAD and CV events.

  6. Postmenopausal Women with a History of Irregular Menses and Elevated Androgen Measurements at High Risk for Worsening Cardiovascular Event-Free Survival: Results from the National Institutes of Health—National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Azziz, Ricardo; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Sopko, George; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Kip, Kevin E.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, B. Delia; Vaccarino, Viola; Reis, Steven E.; Bittner, Vera; Hodgson, T. Keta; Rogers, William; Pepine, Carl J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a greater clustering of cardiac risk factors. However, the link between PCOS and cardiovascular (CV) disease is incompletely described. Objective: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the risk of CV events in 390 postmenopausal women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health–National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH-NHLBI) sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study according to clinical features of PCOS. Methods: A total of 104 women had clinical features of PCOS defined by a premenopausal history of irregular menses and current biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Hyperandrogenemia was defined as the top quartile of androstenedione (≥701 pg/ml), testosterone (≥30.9 ng/dl), or free testosterone (≥4.5 pg/ml). Cox proportional hazard model was fit to estimate CV death or myocardial infarction (n = 55). Results: Women with clinical features of PCOS were more often diabetic (P < 0.0001), obese (P = 0.005), had the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.0001), and had more angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) (P = 0.04) compared to women without clinical features of PCOS. Cumulative 5-yr CV event-free survival was 78.9% for women with clinical features of PCOS (n = 104) vs. 88.7% for women without clinical features of PCOS (n = 286) (P = 0.006). PCOS remained a significant predictor (P < 0.01) in prognostic models including diabetes, waist circumference, hypertension, and angiographic CAD as covariates. Conclusion: Among postmenopausal women evaluated for suspected ischemia, clinical features of PCOS are associated with more angiographic CAD and worsening CV event-free survival. Identification of postmenopausal women with clinical features of PCOS may provide an opportunity for risk factor intervention for the prevention of CAD and CV events. PMID:18182456

  7. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  8. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  9. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  10. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  11. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the constuction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  13. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Liability Surgeons as Advocates Surgeons and Bundled Payment Models Surgeons as Institutional Employees Our Changing Health Care ... Lung Operation After Your Operation Your Discharge and Recovery Complete Video After Your Operation Guidance for after ...

  14. Trends in the commercial launch services industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Ethan E.

    2001-02-01

    The market for space launch services has undergone significant development in the last two decades and is poised to change even further. With the introduction of new players in the market, and the development of new vehicles by existing providers, competition has increased. At the same time, customer payloads have been changing as satellites grow in size and capability. Amidst these changes, launch delays have become a concern in the industry, and launch service providers have developed different solutions to avoid delays and satisfy customer needs. This analysis discusses these trends in the launch services market and their drivers. Focus is given to the market for medium, intermediate, and heavy launch services which generally includes launches of GEO communication satellites, large government payloads, and NGSO constellations. .

  15. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  16. Project LAUNCH: Bringing Space into Math and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauerbach, M.; Henry, D. P.; Schmidt, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Project LAUNCH is a K-12 teacher professional development program, which has been created in collaboration between the Whitaker Center for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education at Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU), and the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI). Utilizing Space as the overarching theme it is designed to improve mathematics and science teaching, using inquiry based, hands-on teaching practices, which are aligned with Florida s Sunshine State Standards. Many students are excited about space exploration and it provides a great venue to get them involved in science and mathematics. The scope of Project LAUNCH however goes beyond just providing competency in the subject area, as pedagogy is also an intricate part of the project. Participants were introduced to the Conceptual Change Model (CCM) [1] as a framework to model good teaching practices. As the CCM closely follows what scientists call the scientific process, this teaching method is also useful to actively engage institute participants ,as well as their students, in real science. Project LAUNCH specifically targets teachers in low performing, high socioeconomic schools, where the need for skilled teachers is most critical.

  17. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  18. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  19. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  20. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  1. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  2. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  3. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  4. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  5. Nuclear source term evaluation for launch accident environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1996-05-01

    When United States space missions involve launching vehicles carrying significant quantities of nuclear material, US law requires that prior to launch the mission be approved by the Office of the President. This approval is to be based on an evaluation of the nuclear safety risks associated with the mission and the projected benefits. To assist in the technical evaluation of risks for each mission, an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) is instituted to provide an independent assessment of the mission risks. INSRP`s assessment begins with a review of the safety analysis for the mission completed by the organization proposing the mission and documented in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). In addition, INSRP may execute other analyses it deems necessary. Results are documented and passed to the decision maker in a Safety Evaluation Report (SER). The INSRP review and evaluation process has been described in some detail in a number of papers.

  6. Nuclear source term evaluation for launch accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    When United States space missions involve launching vehicles carrying significant quantities of nuclear material, US law requires that prior to launch the mission be approved by the Office of the President. This approval is to be based on an evaluation of the nuclear safety risks associated with the mission and the projected benefits. To assist in the technical evaluation of risks for each mission, an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) is instituted to provide an independent assessment of the mission risks. INSRP's assessment begins with a review of the safety analysis for the mission completed by the organization proposing the mission and documented in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). In addition, INSRP may execute other analyses it deems necessary. Results are documented and passed to the decision maker in a Safety Evaluation Report (SER). The INSRP review and evaluation process has been described in some detail in a number of papers

  7. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  8. 14 CFR 417.111 - Launch plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classification and compatibility group as defined by part 420 of this chapter. (3) A graphic depiction of the... authorities, including the Federal Communications Commission. (g) Flight termination system electronic piece... for launch personnel control, handling of intruders, communications and coordination with launch...

  9. Pigeons' Discrimination of Michotte's Launching Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    We trained four pigeons to discriminate a Michotte launching animation from three other animations using a go/no-go task. The pigeons received food for pecking at one of the animations, but not for pecking at the others. The four animations featured two types of interactions among objects: causal (direct launching) and noncausal (delayed, distal,…

  10. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  11. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  12. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.

    2010-01-01

    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  13. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  14. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  15. Recommended Screening Practices for Launch Collision Aviodance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Brian A.; Hametz, Mark E.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine C.; Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to assess the value of launch collision avoidance (COLA) practices and provide recommendations regarding its implementation for NASA robotic missions. The scope of this effort is limited to launch COLA screens against catalog objects that are either spacecraft or debris. No modifications to manned safety COLA practices are considered in this effort. An assessment of the value of launch COLA can be broken down into two fundamental questions: 1) Does collision during launch represent a significant risk to either the payload being launched or the space environment? 2) Can launch collision mitigation be performed in a manner that provides meaningful risk reduction at an acceptable level of operational impact? While it has been possible to piece together partial answers to these questions for some time, the first attempt to comprehensively address them is documented in reference (a), Launch COLA Operations: an Examination of Data Products, Procedures, and Thresholds, Revision A. This report is the product of an extensive study that addressed fundamental technical questions surrounding launch collision avoidance analysis and practice. The results provided in reference (a) will be cited throughout this document as these two questions are addressed. The premise of this assessment is that in order to conclude that launch COLA is a value-added activity, the answer to both of these questions must be affirmative. A "no" answer to either of these questions points toward the conclusion that launch COLA provides little or no risk mitigation benefit. The remainder of this assessment will focus on addressing these two questions.

  16. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Hark, Frank; Al Hassan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty are rendered obsolete since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods.This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper shows how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.

  17. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  18. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  19. Launch Processing System. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F.; Doolittle, G. V.; Hockenberger, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a functional description of the Launch Processing System, which provides automatic ground checkout and control of the Space Shuttle launch site and airborne systems, with emphasis placed on the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem. Hardware and software modular design concepts for the distributed computer system are reviewed relative to performing system tests, launch operations control, and status monitoring during ground operations. The communication network design, which uses a Common Data Buffer interface to all computers to allow computer-to-computer communication, is discussed in detail.

  20. Diagram of Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  1. Comorbidities in interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Margaritopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosing lung disorders include a large number of diseases with diverse behaviour. Patients can die because of the progression of their illness, remain stable or even improve after appropriate treatment has been instituted. Comorbidities, such as acute and chronic infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive sleep apnoea, can pre-exist or develop at any time during the course of the disease and, if unidentified and untreated, may impair quality of life, impact upon the respiratory status of the patients, and ultimately lead to disease progression and death. Therefore, early identification and accurate treatment of comorbidities is essential.

  2. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  3. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  4. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  5. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  6. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  7. Air Launch from a Towed Glider

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort is exploring the concept of launching a rocket from a glider that is towed by an aircraft. The idea is to build a relatively inexpensive...

  8. The Expendable Launch Vehicle Commercialization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Department of Transportation will serve as the lead agency in the transfer of Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV) to the private sector. The roles of the FAA, Coast Guard and materials Transportation Bureau were discussed.

  9. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  10. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  11. Launching PPARC's five year strategy programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Over one hundred delegates from Parliament, Whitehall and Industry attended a reception on Tuesday night (25 November) to mark the launch the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's (PPARC) Five Year Plan" (1 page).

  12. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director of Shuttle Processing; and 1st Lieutenant Mindy Chavez, Launch Weather Officer-United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron are in attendance for this STS-114 Discovery launch readiness press conference. The discussion begins with Wayne Hale bringing to the table a low level sensor device for everyone to view. He talks in detail about all of the extensive tests that were performed on these sensors and the completion of these ambient tests. Chavez presents her weather forecast for the launch day of July 26th 2005. Michael Griffin and Wayne Hale answer questions from the news media pertaining to the sensors and launch readiness. The video ends with footage of Pilot Jim Kelly and Commander Eileen Collins conducting test flights in a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that simulates Space Shuttle landing.

  13. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  14. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  15. Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...

  16. Tyura Tam Space Launch Facility, Kazakhstan, CIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Located in Kazakhstan on the Syr Darya River, the Tyura Tam Cosmodrome has been the launch site for 72 cosmonaut crews. The landing runway of the Buran space shuttle can be seen in the left center. Further to the right, near the center is the launch site for the Soyuz. The mission control center is located 1,300 miles away near Moscow. In the lower right, is the city of Leninsk, seen as a dark region next to the river.

  17. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  18. GPM Ground Validation: Pre to Post-Launch Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walt; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, accumulation, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous (e.g., Level II orbit) and merged (e.g., IMERG) GPM products. Toward assessing precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of both ground and satellite-based estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation

  19. Progress Towards a 2012 Landsat Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jim; Sabelhaus, Phil; Masek, Jeff; Cook, Bruce; Dabney, Phil; Loveland, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is on schedule for a December 2012 launch date. The mission is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NASA leads the development and launch of the satellite observatory while leads ground system development. USGS will assume responsibility for operating the satellite and for collecting, archiving, and distributing the LDCM data following launch. When launched the satellite will carry two sensors into orbit. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will coincidently collect data for two thermal infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it?s manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The ground data processing system is in development at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite system, provide the status of system development, and present prelaunch performance data for OLI and TIRS. The USGS has committed to renaming the satellite as Landsat 8 following launch.

  20. Overview of GX launch services by GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Kondou, Yoshirou

    2006-07-01

    Galaxy Express Corporation (GALEX) is a launch service company in Japan to develop a medium size rocket, GX rocket and to provide commercial launch services for medium/small low Earth orbit (LEO) and Sun synchronous orbit (SSO) payloads with a future potential for small geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). It is GALEX's view that small/medium LEO/SSO payloads compose of medium scaled but stable launch market due to the nature of the missions. GX rocket is a two-stage rocket of well flight proven liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene booster and LOX/liquid natural gas (LNG) upper stage. This LOX/LNG propulsion under development by Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is robust with comparable performance as other propulsions and have future potential for wider application such as exploration programs. GX rocket is being developed through a joint work between the industries and GX rocket is applying a business oriented approach in order to realize competitive launch services for which well flight proven hardware and necessary new technology are to be introduced as much as possible. It is GALEX's goal to offer “Easy Access to Space”, a highly reliable and user-friendly launch services with a competitive price. GX commercial launch will start in Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007 2008.

  1. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  2. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  3. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O' Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ≥2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ≥2 among patients who received a low (≤20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  4. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, K G M M; Eckel, Robert H; Grundy, Scott M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Cleeman, James I; Donato, Karen A; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; James, W Philip T; Loria, Catherine M; Smith, Sidney C

    2009-10-20

    A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.

  5. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  6. Achieving a Launch on Demand Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to place payloads [satellites] into orbit as and when required, often referred to as launch on demand, continues to be an elusive and yet largely unfulfilled goal. But what is the value of achieving launch on demand [LOD], and what metrics are appropriate? Achievement of a desired level of LOD capability must consider transportation system thruput, alternative transportation systems that comprise the transportation architecture, transportation demand, reliability and failure recovery characteristics of the alternatives, schedule guarantees, launch delays, payload integration schedules, procurement policies, and other factors. Measures of LOD capability should relate to the objective of the transportation architecture: the placement of payloads into orbit as and when required. Launch on demand capability must be defined in probabilistic terms such as the probability of not incurring a delay in excess of T when it is determined that it is necessary to place a payload into orbit. Three specific aspects of launch on demand are considered: [1] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] and to keep up with the steady-state demand for placing satellites into orbit [this has been referred to as operability and resiliency], [2] the ability to respond to the requirement to launch a satellite when the need arises unexpectedly either because of an unexpected [random] on-orbit satellite failure that requires replacement or because of the sudden recognition of an unanticipated requirement, and [3] the ability to recover from adversity [i.e., a launch failure] during the placement of a constellation into orbit. The objective of this paper is to outline a formal approach for analyzing alternative transportation architectures in terms of their ability to provide a LOD capability. The economic aspect of LOD is developed by establishing a relationship between scheduling and the elimination of on-orbit spares while achieving the desired level of on

  7. IAEA To Launch Centre On Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is to launch a new centre this summer to address the growing problem of ocean acidification. Operated by the Agency's Monaco Environmental Laboratories, the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre will serve the scientific community - as well as policymakers, universities, media and the general public - by facilitating, promoting and communicating global actions on ocean acidification. Growing amounts of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere are being absorbed in the planet's oceans which increases their acidity. According to the experts, ocean acidification may render most regions of the ocean inhospitable to coral reefs by 2050 if atmospheric carbon dioxide levels continue to increase. This could lead to substantial changes in commercial fish stocks, threatening food security for millions of people as well as the multi-billion dollar fishing industry. International scientists have been studying the effect and possible responses, and the new centre will help coordinate their efforts. ''During the past five years, numerous multinational and national research projects on ocean acidification have emerged and significant research advances have been made,'' said Daud bin Mohamad, IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Sciences and Applications. ''The time is now ripe to provide international coordination to gain the greatest value from national efforts and research investments.'' The centre will be supported by several IAEA Member States and through the Peaceful Uses Initiative, and it will be overseen by an Advisory Board consisting of leading institutions, including the U.N. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco, the OA-Reference User Group, as well as leading scientists and economists in the field. The new centre will focus on international

  8. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  9. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  10. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  11. Low-Cost Launch Systems for the Dual-Launch Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pearson, Jerone; Zukauskas, Wally; Weeks, Thomas; Cass, Stein; Stytz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    .... Performing fewer engine tests, designing structures with lower structural margins, parallel processing, eliminating payload clean room requirements and extensive testing before launch, horizontal...

  12. Sentinel-1A - Launching the first satellite and launching the operational Copernicus programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2014-05-01

    The first Copernicus satellite, Sentinel-1A, is prepared for launch in April 2014. It will provide continuous, systematic and highly reliable radar images of the Earth. Sentinel-1B will follow around 18 months later to increase observation frequency and establish an operational system. Sentinel-1 is designed to work in a pre-programmed conflict-free operation mode ensuring the reliability required by operational services and creating a consistent long-term data archive for applications based on long time series. This mission will ensure the continuation and improvement of SAR operational services and applications addressing primarily medium- to high-resolution applications through a main mode of operation that features both a wide swath (250 km) and high geometric (5 × 20 m) and radiometric resolution, allowing imaging of global landmasses, coastal zones, sea ice, polar areas, and shipping routes at high resolution. The Sentinel-1 main operational mode (Interferometric Wide Swath) will allow to have a complete coverage of the Earth in 6 days in the operational configuration when the two Sentinel-1 spacecraft will be in orbit simultaneously. High priority areas like Europe, Canada and some shipping routes will be covered almost daily. This high global observation frequency is unprecedented and cannot be reached with any other current radar mission. Envisat, for example, which was the 'workhorse' in this domain up to April 2012, reached global coverage every 35 days. Sentinel-1 data products will be made available systematically and free of charge to all users including institutional users, the general public, scientific and commercial users. The transition of the Copernicus programme from the development to operational phase will take place at about the same time when the first Sentinel-1 satellite will be launched. During the operational phase, funding of the programme will come from the European Union Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) for the years 2014

  13. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  14. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  15. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  16. Quality function deployment in launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, P. L.; Tomei, E. J., Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The goal of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a more efficient launch capability that provides a highly reliable and operable system at substantially lower cost than current launch systems. Total Quality Management (TQM) principles are being emphasized throughout the ALS program. A continuous improvement philosophy is directed toward satisfying users' and customer's requirements in terms of quality, performance, schedule, and cost. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is interpreted as the voice of the customer (or user), and it is an important planning tool in translating these requirements throughout the whole process of design, development, manufacture, and operations. This report explores the application of QFD methodology to launch operations, including the modification and addition of events (operations planning) in the engineering development cycle, and presents an informal status of study results to date. QFD is a technique for systematically analyzing the customer's (Space Command) perceptions of what constitutes a highly reliable and operable system and functionally breaking down those attributes to identify the critical characteristics that determine an efficient launch system capability. In applying the principle of QFD, a series of matrices or charts are developed with emphasis on the one commonly known as the House of Quality (because of its roof-like format), which identifies and translates the most critical information.

  17. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  19. Lung Focused Resuscitation at a Specialized Donor Care Facility Improves Lung Procurement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie H; Kreisel, Daniel; Marklin, Gary F; Cook, Lindsey; Hachem, Ramsey; Kozower, Benjamin D; Balsara, Keki R; Bell, Jennifer M; Frederiksen, Christine; Meyers, Bryan F; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun

    2018-05-01

    Lung procurement for transplantation occurs in approximately 20% of brain dead donors and is a major impediment to wider application of lung transplantation. We investigated the effect of lung protective management at a specialized donor care facility on lung procurement rates from brain dead donors. Our local organ procurement organization instituted a protocol of lung protective management at a freestanding specialized donor care facility in 2008. Brain dead donors from 2001 to 2007 (early period) were compared with those from 2009 to 2016 (current period) for lung procurement rates and other solid-organ procurement rates using a prospectively maintained database. An overall increase occurred in the number of brain dead donors during the study period (early group, 791; late group, 1,333; p procurement rate (lung donors/all brain dead donors) improved markedly after the introduction of lung protective management (early group, 157 of 791 [19.8%]; current group, 452 of 1,333 [33.9%]; p procurement rate (total number of organs procured/donor) also increased during the study period (early group, 3.5 organs/donor; current group, 3.8 organs/donor; p = 0.006). Lung protective management in brain dead donors at a specialized donor care facility is associated with higher lung utilization rates compared with conventional management. This strategy does not adversely affect the utilization of other organs in a multiorgan donor. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  1. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  2. An Affordable, Low-Risk Approach to Launching Research Spacecraft as Tertiary Payloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranajaya, F.M.; Zee, R.E.; Thomsen, Per Lundahl

    2003-01-01

    among numerous parties and the handling of complex export control issues. In turn, this complicates mission scheduling and increases the risk of missing launch deadlines. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) has taken a leading role in addressing...

  3. UNESCO Launches Open Access Curriculum for Young and Early Career Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates the background of UNESCO Curriculum titled "Open Access for Researchers" which was launched on 16th March 2015. This Open Access Curriculum contains five modules for capacity building, awareness raising and sensitizing young and early career researchers affiliated to research laboratories or higher educational institutions across the world.

  4. The GPM Ground Validation Program: Pre to Post-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA GPM Ground Validation (GV) activities have transitioned from the pre to post-launch era. Prior to launch direct validation networks and associated partner institutions were identified world-wide, covering a plethora of precipitation regimes. In the U.S. direct GV efforts focused on use of new operational products such as the NOAA Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor suite (MRMS) for TRMM validation and GPM radiometer algorithm database development. In the post-launch, MRMS products including precipitation rate, types and data quality are being routinely generated to facilitate statistical GV of instantaneous and merged GPM products. To assess precipitation column impacts on product uncertainties, range-gate to pixel-level validation of both Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM microwave imager data are performed using GPM Validation Network (VN) ground radar and satellite data processing software. VN software ingests quality-controlled volumetric radar datasets and geo-matches those data to coincident DPR and radiometer level-II data. When combined MRMS and VN datasets enable more comprehensive interpretation of ground-satellite estimation uncertainties. To support physical validation efforts eight (one) field campaigns have been conducted in the pre (post) launch era. The campaigns span regimes from northern latitude cold-season snow to warm tropical rain. Most recently the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) took place in the mountains of North Carolina and involved combined airborne and ground-based measurements of orographic precipitation and hydrologic processes underneath the GPM Core satellite. One more U.S. GV field campaign (OLYMPEX) is planned for late 2015 and will address cold-season precipitation estimation, process and hydrology in the orographic and oceanic domains of western Washington State. Finally, continuous direct and physical validation measurements are also being conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility multi

  5. U.S. advanced launch vehicle technology programs : Quarterly Launch Report : special report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    U.S. firms and U.S. government agencies are jointly investing in advanced launch vehicle technology. This Special Report summarizes U.S. launch vehicle technology programs and highlights the changing : roles of government and industry players in pick...

  6. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  7. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  8. Control of the launch of attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Wang Xinlin; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    We propose an approach to steer the launch of attosecond (as) pulses with a high precision. We numerically demonstrate that by adding a weak second-harmonic (SH) field to the fundamental beam the ionization and recollision process of the electron will be perturbed, which can induce a variation of the emission time of high harmonics. Through modifying the relative intensity of the SH and fundamental fields, the launch of as pulses can be manipulated with a resolution less than 40 as. This will show significant potential for ultrafast optics

  9. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  10. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  11. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  12. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  13. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  14. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  15. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  16. Lung and oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrah-Davies, E.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses cancer of the lung and oesophagus. The author says lung cancer is increasing and there is no real improvement in the cure rates. It is natural to think of instituting some method of screening the population mostly at risk, in order to detect changes at an earlier stage of development. It seems to be tacitly agreed that screening methods so far known (mass radiography, sputum cytology, and possibly fibre-optic bronchoscopy) are likely to give a poor return, and would certainly be inordinately expensive. The recognition of air pollution as a major problem, and the attempts being made to deal with it, may help. Antismoking propaganda seems to have had little or no value, and it is unlikely that human nature will change and the public will stop smoking en masse. It also seems unlikely that any government will ever attempt to ban cigarettes when the tobacco tax is so lucrative. In short, the outlook at the moment is indeed pessimistic and one can only hope that some unexpected avenue of advance will appear soon

  17. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  18. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  19. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  20. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Self, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ares launch vehicles team, managed by the Ares Projects Office (APO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has completed the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle System Requirements Review and System Definition Review and early design work for the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. This paper provides examples of how Lean Manufacturing, Kaizen events, and Six Sigma practices are helping APO deliver a new space transportation capability on time and within budget, while still meeting stringent technical requirements. For example, Lean philosophies have been applied to numerous process definition efforts and existing process improvement activities, including the Ares I-X test flight Certificate of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process, risk management process, and review board organization and processes. Ares executives learned Lean practices firsthand, making the team "smart buyers" during proposal reviews and instilling the team with a sense of what is meant by "value-added" activities. Since the goal of the APO is to field launch vehicles at a reasonable cost and on an ambitious schedule, adopting Lean philosophies and practices will be crucial to the Ares Project's long-term SUCCESS.

  1. Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

    1996-03-01

    A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

  2. SMAP Post-launch Field Campaign Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...

  3. Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

  4. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  5. Launch and Recovery System Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    water. Goldie [21] suggests a sled or cart recovery system for use with UAV’s on the Littoral Combatant Ship (LCS) and other small deck navy ships...21. Goldie , J., “A Recovery System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aboard LCS and other Small-Deck Navy Ships,” ASNE Launch and Recovery of

  6. Air loads on solar panels during launch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of solar panels during launch is significantly affected by the thin layers of air trapped between the panels. For narrow gaps the air manifests itself not only as a considerable added mass, but its viscosity can result in a substantial amount of damping. A model has been

  7. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  8. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  9. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  10. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  11. Launching a world-class joint venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, James; Ernst, David; Fubini, David G

    2004-02-01

    More than 5,000 joint ventures, and many more contractual alliances, have been launched worldwide in the past five years. Companies are realizing that JVs and alliances can be lucrative vehicles for developing new products, moving into new markets, and increasing revenues. The problem is, the success rate for JVs and alliances is on a par with that for mergers and acquisitions--which is to say not very good. The authors, all McKinsey consultants, argue that JV success remains elusive for most companies because they don't pay enough attention to launch planning and execution. Most companies are highly disciplined about integrating the companies they target through M&A, but they rarely commit sufficient resources to launching similarly sized joint ventures or alliances. As a result, the parent companies experience strategic conflicts, governance gridlock, and missed operational synergies. Often, they walk away from the deal. The launch phase begins with the parent companies' signing of a memorandum of understanding and continues through the first 100 days of the JV or alliance's operation. During this period, it's critical for the parents to convene a team dedicated to exposing inherent tensions early. Specifically, the launch team must tackle four basic challenges. First, build and maintain strategic alignment across the separate corporate entities, each of which has its own goals, market pressures, and shareholders. Second, create a shared governance system for the two parent companies. Third, manage the economic interdependencies between the corporate parents and the JV. And fourth, build a cohesive, high-performing organization (the JV or alliance)--not a simple task, since most managers come from, will want to return to, and may even hold simultaneous positions in the parent companies. Using real-world examples, the authors offer their suggestions for meeting these challenges.

  12. Throttleable GOX/ABS launch assist hybrid rocket motor for small scale air launch platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Zachary S.

    Aircraft-based space-launch platforms allow operational flexibility and offer the potential for significant propellant savings for small-to-medium orbital payloads. The NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's Towed Glider Air-Launch System (TGALS) is a small-scale flight research project investigating the feasibility for a remotely-piloted, towed, glider system to act as a versatile air launch platform for nano-scale satellites. Removing the crew from the launch vehicle means that the system does not have to be human rated, and offers a potential for considerable cost savings. Utah State University is developing a small throttled launch-assist system for the TGALS platform. This "stage zero" design allows the TGALS platform to achieve the required flight path angle for the launch point, a condition that the TGALS cannot achieve without external propulsion. Throttling is required in order to achieve and sustain the proper launch attitude without structurally overloading the airframe. The hybrid rocket system employs gaseous-oxygen and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as propellants. This thesis summarizes the development and testing campaign, and presents results from the clean-sheet design through ground-based static fire testing. Development of the closed-loop throttle control system is presented.

  13. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  14. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  15. New U.S. LHC Web site launched

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2007-01-01

    On September 12, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science launched a new Web site, www.uslhc.us, to tell the story of the U.S. role in the LHC. The site provides general information for the public about the LHC and its six experiments, as well as detailed information about the participation of physicists, engineers and students from the United States. The U.S. site joins the UK's LHC site in providing information for a national audience, with sites from several more countries expected to launch within the next year. The US LHC site features news and information about the LHC, along with high-resolution images and resources for students and educators. The site also features blogs by four particle physicists, including ATLAS collaborators Monica Dunford from the University of Chicago and Peter Steinberg from Brookhaven National Laboratory. More than 1,300 scientists from over 90 U.S. institutions participate in the LHC and its experiments, representing universities and national laboratories from...

  16. A Low-Cost Launch Assistance System for Orbital Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the state of art of nonrocket launch assistance systems (LASs for spaceflight focusing on air launch options. The author proposes an alternative technologically feasible LAS based on a combination of approaches: air launch, high-altitude balloon, and tethered LAS. Proposed LAS can be implemented with the existing off-the-shelf hardware delivering 7 kg to low-earth orbit for the 5200 USD per kg. Proposed design can deliver larger reduction in price and larger orbital payloads with the future advances in the aerostats, ropes, electrical motors, and terrestrial power networks.

  17. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  18. Management Challenges of Launching Multiple Payloads for Multiple Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Callen, Dave

    1999-01-01

    Orbital has provided launch services for multiple satellites as a means to provide greater economy for access to space. These include satellites from NASA, 000, commercial companies, universities, and foreign governments. While satellite customers view shared launches as a means to achieve reduced launch costs, this approach adds many complexities that a traditional launch service provider does not have to address for a dedicated launch. This paper will discuss some of the challenges associat...

  19. Multicentre study with activity meters launched by PTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodloff, G.

    1992-01-01

    The German Pharmacopeia tolerates for most radionuclides deviations of up to 10% from the actual activity value. The evaluation of a multicentre study launched by the PTB (Federal Physicotechnical Institute) during the period between 1982 and 1987 revealed, however, that not all producers paid attention to these tolerance limits. Occasional values were reported to differ by more than 50% or even a factor of 2 from the PTB value. In order that those deviations are kept to a minimum it is necessary for both manufacturers and users to meet the requirements of the DIN 6852 industrial standard. Activity determinations for 99 Tc m eluates must additionally be carried out in accordance with the recommendations contained in DIN 6854. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a

  1. Reusable launch vehicle facts and fantasies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marshall H.

    2002-01-01

    Many people refuse to address many of the realities of reusable launch vehicle systems, technologies, operations and economics. Basic principles of physics, space flight operations, and business limitations are applied to the creation of a practical vision of future expectations. While reusable launcher concepts have been proposed for several decades, serious review of potential designs began in the mid-1990s, when NASA decided that a Space Shuttle replacement had to be pursued. A great deal of excitement and interest was quickly generated by the prospect of ``orders-of-magnitude'' reduction in launch costs. The potential for a vastly expanded space program motivated the entire space community. By the late-1990s, and after over one billion dollars were spent on the technology development and privately-funded concepts, it had become clear that there would be no new, near-term operational reusable vehicle. Many factors contributed to a very expensive and disappointing effort to create a new generation of launch vehicles. It began with overly optimistic projections of technology advancements and the belief that a greatly increased demand for satellite launches would be realized early in the 21st century. Contractors contributed to the perception of quickly reachable technology and business goals, thus, accelerating the enthusiasm and helping to create a ``gold rush'' euphoria. Cost, schedule and performance margins were all highly optimistic. Several entrepreneurs launched start up companies to take advantage of the excitement and the availability of investor capital. Millions were raised from private investors and venture capitalists, based on little more than flashy presentations and animations. Well over $500 million were raised by little-known start up groups to create reusable systems, which might complete for the coming market in launch services. By 1999, it was clear that market projections, made just two years earlier, were not going to be realized. Investors

  2. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  3. Surgical and survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Okumura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ayuko; Nakashima, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tomoaki

    2017-05-26

    Intratumoral lung abscess is a secondary lung abscess that is considered to be fatal. Therefore, surgical procedures, although high-risk, have sometimes been performed for intratumoral lung abscesses. However, no studies have examined the surgical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical and survival outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. Eleven consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, who had undergone pulmonary resection at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015, were retrospectively analysed. The post-operative prognoses were investigated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Ten of 11 patients were male and one patient was female. The median age was 64 (range, 52-80) years. Histopathologically, 4 patients had Stage IIA, 2 patients had Stage IIB, 2 patients had Stage IIIA, and 3 patients had Stage IV tumors. The median operative time was 346 min and the median amount of bleeding was 1327 mL. The post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 63.6% and 0.0%, respectively. Recurrence of respiratory infections, including lung abscesses, was not observed in all patients. The median post-operative observation period was 16.1 (range, 1.3-114.5) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.3%. No pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative prognostic factors were identified in the univariate analyses. Surgical procedures for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, although high-risk, led to satisfactory post-operative mortality rates and acceptable prognoses.

  4. Significance of single lung transplantation in the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Ryo; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Aoyama, Akihiro; Menju, Toshi; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Although bilateral lung transplantation is the procedure of choice internationally, single lung transplantation is preferred in Japan because of the severe donor shortage except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of single lung transplant recipients and outcomes of this procedure at one of the largest lung transplant centers in Japan. Between April 2002 and May 2015, 57 cadaveric lung transplantations (33 single and 24 bilateral) were performed in Kyoto University Hospital. The clinical characteristics of the lung transplant recipients and outcomes of these procedures, including overall survival and postoperative complications, were investigated. Overall, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 86, 77, and 72 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 1.9 years. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who underwent single lung transplantations and those who underwent bilateral lung transplantations (p = 0.92). The median waiting time was significantly shorter for single lung transplant patients than for bilateral lung transplant patients (p = 0.02). Native lung complications were seen in 14 out of 33 patients (42 %) who underwent single lung transplantation. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with and without postoperative native lung complications. Single lung transplantation has been performed with acceptable outcomes in our institution. In the current situation of severe donor shortage in Japan, single lung transplantation can remain the first choice of treatment except in cases of contraindications to single lung transplantation.

  5. The worldwide growth of launch vehicle technology and services : Quarterly Launch Report : special report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report will discuss primarily those vehicles being introduced by the newly emerging space nations. India, Israel, and Brazil are all trying to turn launch vehicle assets into profitable businesses. In this effort, they have found the technologic...

  6. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  7. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  8. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  9. A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Billows of smoke and steam surround Space Shuttle Discovery as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  10. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  11. Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.

  12. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  13. Evolution of the Florida Launch Site Architecture: Embracing Multiple Customers, Enhancing Launch Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloredo, Scott; Gray, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The impending conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program cancellation unveiled in the FY2011 President's budget created a large void for human spaceflight capability and specifically launch activity from the Florida launch Site (FlS). This void created an opportunity to re-architect the launch site to be more accommodating to the future NASA heavy lift and commercial space industry. The goal is to evolve the heritage capabilities into a more affordable and flexible launch complex. This case study will discuss the FlS architecture evolution from the trade studies to select primary launch site locations for future customers, to improving infrastructure; promoting environmental remediation/compliance; improving offline processing, manufacturing, & recovery; developing range interface and control services with the US Air Force, and developing modernization efforts for the launch Pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile launcher, and supporting infrastructure. The architecture studies will steer how to best invest limited modernization funding from initiatives like the 21 st elSe and other potential funding.

  14. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  15. National Security Space Launch at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    appropriations measure expire (i.e., at the start of FY2017). Rocket Engines: Goods or Services37 In the Commercial Space Act of 1998 (CSA),38...procured from commercial sources or whether the government may independently develop and manufacture rocket engines. The resolution to this question may...Space Act of 1998 ...) the DoD procures commercial launch services rather than rockets or engines used in those services.”43 Notably, the view

  16. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  17. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  18. Textile materials trading center formally launched online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile materials trading center was formally launched online in Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province. This is the first third-party electronic trading platform for spot trading in China textile materials professional market. The project will strive to build the most influential textile materials trading center of East China,the whole country and even the whole world China textile materials trading center will be

  19. Nuclear safety review requirements for launch approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Winchester, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Use of nuclear power systems in space requires approval which is preceded by extensive safety analysis and review. This careful study allows an informed risk-benefit decision at the highest level of our government. This paper describes the process as it has historically been applied to U.S. isotopic power systems. The Ulysses mission, launched in October 1990, is used to illustrate the process. Expected variations to deal with reactor-power systems are explained

  20. NASA's Space Launch System Takes Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2017-01-01

    Major hardware and software for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) began rolling off assembly lines in 2016, setting the stage for critical testing in 2017 and the launch of a major new capability for deep space human exploration. SLS continues to pursue a 2018 first launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). At NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, LA, Boeing completed welding of structural test and flight liquid hydrogen tanks, and engine sections. Test stands for core stage structural tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. neared completion. The B2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, completed major structural renovation to support core stage green run testing in 2018. Orbital ATK successfully test fired its second qualification solid rocket motor in the Utah desert and began casting the motor segments for EM-1. Aerojet Rocketdyne completed its series of test firings to adapt the heritage RS-25 engine to SLS performance requirements. Production is under way on the first five new engine controllers. NASA also signed a contract with Aerojet Rocketdyne for propulsion of the RL10 engines for the Exploration Upper Stage. United Launch Alliance delivered the structural test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage to MSFC for tests and construction was under way on the flight stage. Flight software testing at MSFC, including power quality and command and data handling, was completed. Substantial progress is planned for 2017. Liquid oxygen tank production will be completed at Michoud. Structural testing at Marshall will get under way. RS-25 hotfire testing will verify the new engine controllers. Core stage horizontal integration will begin. The core stage pathfinder mockup will arrive at the B2 test stand for fit checks and tests. EUS will complete preliminary design review. This paper will discuss the technical and programmatic successes and challenges of 2016 and look ahead to plans for 2017.

  1. Launching platforms for user-generated content

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Guilherme Luís Caroço

    2015-01-01

    Field lab: Entrepreneurial and innovative ventures This paper intends to discuss and absorb the Best Practices employed by successful User- Generated Content (UGC)1 platforms and constitute a guide on how to launch a platform without having a cyclical lack of content and users. Research shows that companies have resorted to integration with mature UGC platforms, and providing content by themselves, in an initial state. I conclude that integration possibilities should be explore...

  2. Globe hosts launch of new processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Launch of the quadecore processor chip at the Globe. On 14 November, in a series of major media events around the world, the chip-maker Intel launched its new 'quadcore' processor. For the regions of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, the day-long launch event took place in CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with over 30 journalists in attendance, coming from as far away as Johannesburg and Dubai. CERN was a significant choice for the event: the first tests of this new generation of processor in Europe had been made at CERN over the preceding months, as part of CERN openlab, a research partnership with leading IT companies such as Intel, HP and Oracle. The event also provided the opportunity for the journalists to visit ATLAS and the CERN Computer Centre. The strategy of putting multiple processor cores on the same chip, which has been pursued by Intel and other chip-makers in the last few years, represents an important departure from the more traditional improvements in the sheer speed of such chips. ...

  3. Benefits of Government Incentives for Reusable Launch Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.

  4. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  5. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  6. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer

  7. CryoSat: ready to launch (again)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last ten years the relationship between climate change and the cryosphere has become increasingly important. Evidence of change in the polar regions is widespread, and the subject of public discussion. During this same ten years ESA has been preparing its CryoSat mission, specifically designed to provide measurements to determine the overall change in the mass balance of all of the ice caps and of change in the volume of sea-ice (rather than simply its extent). In fact the mission was ready for launch in October 2005, but a failure in the launch vehicle led to a loss of the satellite some 6 minutes after launch. The determination to rebuild the satellite and complete the mission was widespread in the relevant scientific, industrial and political entities, and the decision to redirect financial resources to the rebuild was sealed with a scientific report confirming that the mission was even more important in 2005 than at its original selection in 1999. The evolution of the cryosphere since then has emphasised that conclusion. In order to make a meaningful measurement of the secular change of the surface legation of ice caps and the thickness of sea-ice, the accuracy required has been specified as about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry. Previous altimeter missions have pioneered the method: the CryoSat instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of these earlier missions. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along-track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will will allow detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular

  8. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  9. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview: Space Access Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steve

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch

  10. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  11. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  13. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rule out conditions such as asthma , cystic fibrosis , acid reflux, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, and immune deficiency. Various ... a lung infection. Acid-blocking medicines can prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A ...

  14. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab ( ...

  15. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  16. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  17. WE-B-207-02: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Medical Physicist: A Dosimetry Summary of CT Participants in the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  18. WE-B-207-01: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Medical Physicist: Background, Findings and Participant Dosimetry Summary of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  19. WE-B-207-02: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Medical Physicist: A Dosimetry Summary of CT Participants in the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  20. WE-B-207-01: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Medical Physicist: Background, Findings and Participant Dosimetry Summary of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, R. [Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  1. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from

  2. Structural Weight Estimation for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System [1], Orbit On Demand Vehicle [2], Venture Star [3], and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle[4]. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.

  3. Lung scintigraphy; Centellograma pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenz, Roberto

    1994-12-31

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies.

  4. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  5. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  6. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Navile Murali; Venkatraman Radhakrishnan; Trivadi S. Ganesan; Rejiv Rajendranath; Prasanth Ganesan; Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy; Rajaraman Swaminathan; Shirley Sundersingh; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Tenali Gnana Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 ye...

  7. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Among those attending the NIH MedlinePlus magazine launch on Capitol Hill were (l-r) NIH ...

  8. Cost Comparison Of Expendable, Hybrid and Reusable Launch Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gstattenbauer, Greg J

    2006-01-01

    .... This comparison was accomplished using top level mass and cost estimating relations (MERs, CERs). Mass estimating relationships were correlated to existing launch system data and ongoing launch system studies...

  9. Status of NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) continued to make significant progress in 2015 and 2016, completing hardware and testing that brings NASA closer to a new era of deep space exploration. Programmatically, SLS completed Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015. A team of independent reviewers concluded that the vehicle design is technically and programmatically ready to move to Design Certification Review (DCR) and launch readiness in 2018. Just five years after program start, every major element has amassed development and flight hardware and completed key tests that will lead to an accelerated pace of manufacturing and testing in 2016 and 2017. Key to SLS' rapid progress has been the use of existing technologies adapted to the new launch vehicle. The existing fleet of RS-25 engines is undergoing adaptation tests to prove it can meet SLS requirements and environments with minimal change. The four-segment shuttle-era booster has been modified and updated with a fifth propellant segment, new insulation, and new avionics. The Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage is a modified version of an existing upper stage. The first Block I SLS configuration will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). The vehicle architecture has a clear evolutionary path to more than 100t and, ultimately, to 130t. Among the program's major 2015-2016 accomplishments were two booster qualification hotfire tests, a series of RS-25 adaptation hotfire tests, manufacturing of most of the major components for both core stage test articles and first flight tank, delivery of the Pegasus core stage barge, and the upper stage simulator. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing was completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. This year will see the completion of welding for all qualification and flight EM-1 core stage components and testing of flight avionics, completion of core stage structural test stands, casting of the EM-1 solid rocket motors, additional testing

  10. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  11. Launching fast waves in large devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Kaye, A.; Brown, T.

    1994-01-01

    Design features of JET A2-antennae including that of remote location of ceramic are outlined. These antennae are being installed in preparation for the new divertor phase of JET that will commence in 1994. The experience of antenna design gained at JET is carried forward to present an outline in blanket/shield design of an antenna for launching fast waves in ITER for heating and current drive. Further, a new wide band antenna the so called 'violin antenna' is presented that features high plasma coupling resistance in selected bands in the 20-85 MHz frequency range. (author)

  12. Combline antennas for launching traveling fast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Gould, R.W.; Phelps, D.A.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The combline structure shows promise for launching traveling fast magnetosonic waves with adjustable n parallel (3 ≤ n parallel ≤ 6) for current drive. In this paper, the dispersion and damping properties of the combline antenna with and without a Faraday shield are given. The addition of a Faraday shield which eliminates the electrostatic coupling between current straps as well as between the straps and plasma offers the advantage of eliminating the need for the lumped capacitors which are otherwise required with this structure. The results of vacuum dispersion and damping measurements on a low power model antenna are also given. (author)

  13. NASA to launch second business communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The two stage Delta 3910 launch vehicle was chosen to place the second small business satellite (SBS-B) into a transfer orbit with an apogee of 36,619 kilometers and a perigee of 167 km, at an inclination of 27.7 degrees to Earth's equator. The firing and separation sequence and the inertial guidance system are described as well as the payload assist module. Facilities and services for tracking and control by NASA, COMSAT, Intelsat, and SBS are outlined and prelaunch operations are summarized.

  14. White certificate: how to launch the system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    White certificates are a supple and suitable economical system for the quest of diffuse energy saving. It relies on the energy distribution networks and is complementary to other existing system (fiscality, regulation, etc). It is an open system, based on a market logics in order to make energy savings where they are the less costly. This document gathers the synthesis of the conference about white certificates, held in Paris in October 2005, the presentations (transparencies) given by J. Percebois (Creden) about the French system of energy savings and by P. Guyonnet (ATEE) about the way to launch the system of white certificates. The debate with the audience is also reported. (J.S.)

  15. Launching a Two-sided Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Magnus Tovsen; Tovsen, Ole Kristoffer Solheim

    2017-01-01

    Two-sided platforms, such as Airbnb, Uber and eBay, have all revolutionized their industries. Despite having colossal potential, they are very difficult to launch. This is due to what s referred to as network effects, which imply that the value of the platform becomes larger as more people use it. Network effects lead to a chicken-or-egg-problem , where it is difficult to convince sellers to join if there are no buyers and vice versa, in addition to the need to reach a critical mass of users...

  16. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-47 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  17. Malfolded protein structure and proteostasis in lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William E; Sznajder, Jacob I; Budinger, Scott; Finley, Daniel; Laposky, Aaron D; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Benjamin, Ivor J; Barreiro, Esther; Morimoto, Richard I; Postow, Lisa; Weissman, Allan M; Gail, Dorothy; Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Croxton, Thomas; Gan, Weiniu

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries indicate that disorders of protein folding and degradation play a particularly important role in the development of lung diseases and their associated complications. The overarching purpose of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop on "Malformed Protein Structure and Proteostasis in Lung Diseases" was to identify mechanistic and clinical research opportunities indicated by these recent discoveries in proteostasis science that will advance our molecular understanding of lung pathobiology and facilitate the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of lung disease. The workshop's discussion focused on identifying gaps in scientific knowledge with respect to proteostasis and lung disease, discussing new research advances and opportunities in protein folding science, and highlighting novel technologies with potential therapeutic applications for diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  19. Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platform | News | NREL Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform May 23, 2017 More since the new Android version of the Alternative Fueling Station Locator App launched last week. The U.S

  20. Next Generation Launch Technology Program Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen; Tyson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In November 2002, NASA revised its Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP) to evolve the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to serve as a theme for two emerging programs. The first of these, the Orbital Space Plane (OSP), was intended to provide crew-escape and crew-transfer functions for the ISS. The second, the NGLT Program, developed technologies needed for safe, routine space access for scientific exploration, commerce, and national defense. The NGLT Program was comprised of 12 projects, ranging from fundamental high-temperature materials research to full-scale engine system developments (turbine and rocket) to scramjet flight test. The Program included technology advancement activities with a broad range of objectives, ultimate applications/timeframes, and technology maturity levels. An over-arching Systems Engineering and Analysis (SE&A) approach was employed to focus technology advancements according to a common set of requirements. Investments were categorized into three segments of technology maturation: propulsion technologies, launch systems technologies, and SE&A.

  1. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  2. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, announced in 2004, calls on NASA to finish constructing the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return to the Moon and go on the Mars. By exploring space, America continues the tradition of great nations who mastered the Earth, air, and sea, and who then enjoyed the benefits of increased commerce and technological advances. The progress being made today is part of the next chapter in America's history of leadership in space. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within the planned timeline and also within the allowable budget, NASA is building upon the best of proven space transportation systems. Journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. What America learns in reaching for the Moon will teach astronauts how to prepare for the first human footprints on Mars. While robotic science may reveal information about the nature of hydrogen on the Moon, it will most likely tale a human being with a rock hammer to find the real truth about the presence of water, a precious natural resource that opens many possibilities for explorers. In this way, the combination of astronauts using a variety of tools and machines provides a special synergy that will vastly improve our understanding of Earth's cosmic neighborhood.

  3. Launched electrons in plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Rochau, G.E.; Sweeney, M.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Quintenz, J.P.; Savage, M.E.; Lindman, E.L.; Kindel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma opening switches have provided a means to improve the characteristics of super-power pulse generators. Recent advances involving plasma control with fast and slow magnetic fields have made these switches more versatile, allowing for improved switch uniformity, triggering, and opening current levels that are set by the level of auxiliary fields. Such switches necessarily involve breaks in the translational symmetry of the transmission line geometry and therefore affect the electron flow characteristics of the line. These symmetry breaks are the result of high electric field regions caused by plasma conductors remaining in the transmission line, ion beams crossing the line, or auxilliary magnetic field regions. Symmetry breaks cause the canonical momentum of the electrons to change, thereby moving them away from the cathode. Additional electrons are pulled from the cathode into the magnetically insulated flow, resulting in an excess of electron flow over that expected for the voltage and line current downstream of the switch. We call these electrons ''launched electrons''. Unless they are recaptured at the cathode or else are fed into the load and used beneficially, they cause a large power loss downstream. This paper will show examples of SuperMite and PBFA II data showing these losses, explain the tools we are using to study them, and discuss the mechanisms we will employ to mitigate the problem. The losses will be reduced primarily by reducing the amount of launched electron flow. 7 refs., 9 figs

  4. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  5. Reliability of up-to-date risk factor between residential radon and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Quanfu, Sun; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The WHO launched an international radon project in January, 2005 because two major scientific articles on the residential-radon-and-lung-cancer risk have been published. Furthermore, the ICRP has just issued a new recommendation (Publ. 103). In the publication, radon issues have been mentioned using these references. They show that there is a significant correlation between radon exposures and lung cancer risks even with a somewhat lower radon concentration than an internationally recommended level (200 Bq m -3 ). In most cases, residential radon concentrations were measured by passive integrating radon monitors based on the alpha track detection techniques in their studies. We examined detection responses for the presence of thoron with some typical alpha track detectors (Kf K: Germany, Radtrak: USA and NRPB: UK), which were widely used in many epidemiological studies. In addition, we measured indoor radon and thoron concentrations in cave dwellings in Gansu Province, China, in which the National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted a large-scale epidemiological study. The NCI concluded that there was also a significant correlation between the two aforementioned parameters, which was a similar value to recently acceptable one. However, our results on radon concentrations were obviously different from them because there was much thoron in that area. The present study demonstrates whether these risk factors are really correct throughout our data or not. Tokonami (2005) has pointed out that some of popular alpha track detectors are sensitive to thoron ( 220 Rn). This finding implies that radon readings will be overestimated and consequently may lead to biased estimates of lung cancer risk. The present study describes thoron interference on accurate radon measurements from the viewpoint of both experimental studies and field experiences. (author)

  6. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  7. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  8. Institutional Collaboration on MOOCs in Education--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, René B.

    2017-01-01

    This literature review seeks to outline the state of the art regarding collaboration between educational institutions on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) launched in Europe and in the US for the past 10 years. The review explores enablers and barriers that influence national institutional MOOC collaboration, and looks into how existing…

  9. Evaluation of the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, Judith M.; Streib, Greg; Thomas, John Clayton; Rivera, Mark; Stevenson, Beth

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute, a groundbreaking initiative designed to enhance and invigorate school health in the nation's schools by training individual school health coordinators to act as change agents. The Institute consisted of three, week-long summer training…

  10. The African Institutions Initiative: Insights from the First Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gavin; Robin, Enora; Marjanovic, Sonja; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Hanlin, Rebecca; Kryl, David; Muchova, Lucia; Yaqub, Ohid; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Wellcome Trust launched a research capacity strengthening programme known as the "African Institutions Initiative" (AII). The AII is innovative in its methods and organization. The Initiative funded networked consortia (7 consortia involving 54 institutions in 18 African countries, and Northern partners). RAND Europe was…

  11. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  12. Motivation for Air-Launch: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W.; Rogers, Charles E.; Brierly, Gregory T.; Martin, J Campbell; Murphy, Marshall G.

    2017-01-01

    Air-launch is defined as two or more air-vehicles joined and working together, that eventually separate in flight, and that have a combined performance greater than the sum of the individual parts. The use of the air-launch concept has taken many forms across civil, commercial, and military contexts throughout the history of aviation. Air-launch techniques have been applied for entertainment, movement of materiel and personnel, efficient execution of aeronautical research, increasing aircraft range, and enabling flexible and efficient launch of space vehicles. For each air-launch application identified in the paper, the motivation for that application is discussed.

  13. 76 FR 33139 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... or near an electrified environment in or near a cloud. These changes will increase launch... sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may... Confidential Business Information Do not file in the docket information that you consider to be proprietary or...

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  15. Business Intelligence Modeling in Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-01-01

    This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation .based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations. process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined enterprise analysis environment. Significant emphasis is being placed on adapting root cause from existing Shuttle operations to exploration. Technical challenges include cost model validation, integration of parametric models with discrete event process and systems simulations. and large-scale simulation integration. The enterprise architecture is required for coherent integration of systems models. It will also require a plan for evolution over the life of the program. The proposed technology will produce

  16. Business intelligence modeling in launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Davis, Rodney D.

    2005-05-01

    The future of business intelligence in space exploration will focus on the intelligent system-of-systems real-time enterprise. In present business intelligence, a number of technologies that are most relevant to space exploration are experiencing the greatest change. Emerging patterns of set of processes rather than organizational units leading to end-to-end automation is becoming a major objective of enterprise information technology. The cost element is a leading factor of future exploration systems. This technology project is to advance an integrated Planning and Management Simulation Model for evaluation of risks, costs, and reliability of launch systems from Earth to Orbit for Space Exploration. The approach builds on research done in the NASA ARC/KSC developed Virtual Test Bed (VTB) to integrate architectural, operations process, and mission simulations for the purpose of evaluating enterprise level strategies to reduce cost, improve systems operability, and reduce mission risks. The objectives are to understand the interdependency of architecture and process on recurring launch cost of operations, provide management a tool for assessing systems safety and dependability versus cost, and leverage lessons learned and empirical models from Shuttle and International Space Station to validate models applied to Exploration. The systems-of-systems concept is built to balance the conflicting objectives of safety, reliability, and process strategy in order to achieve long term sustainability. A planning and analysis test bed is needed for evaluation of enterprise level options and strategies for transit and launch systems as well as surface and orbital systems. This environment can also support agency simulation based acquisition process objectives. The technology development approach is based on the collaborative effort set forth in the VTB's integrating operations, process models, systems and environment models, and cost models as a comprehensive disciplined

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours. New perspective in treatment of lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocijancic, K.; Kocijancic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique used to treat solid tumours. Because of its ability to produce large volume of coagulation necrosis in controlled fashion this technique has been progressively tested as a possible treatment of lung malignancies. Recent clinical studies have shown that RFA enables successful treatment of relatively small lung malignancies with high rate of complete response and acceptable morbidity and have suggested that the technique could represent a viable alternate or complementary method for patients with non-small cell lung cancer or lung metastases of favourable histotypes who are not candidates for surgical resection. Initial international studies as well as the clinical experience of Institute of Radiology in Clinical Center Ljubljana, although limited, indicated that RFA is mostly well tolerated by patients and also, that it can result in complete necrosis of targeted lesion. Pneumothorax is most common procedure related complication, occurring in up to 40% of cases, with approx. half of them requiring drainage. (author)

  18. A Shuttle Derived Vehicle launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.; Ewing, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) launch system presently being studied for the NASA by Martin Marietta Aerospace which capitalizes on existing Shuttle hardware elements to provide increased accommodations for payload weight, payload volume, or both. The SDV configuration utilizes the existing solid rocket boosters, external tank and the Space Shuttle main engines but replaces the manned orbiter with an unmanned, remotely controlled cargo carrier. This cargo carrier substitution more than doubles the performance capability of the orbiter system and is realistically achievable for minimal cost. The advantages of the SDV are presented in terms of performance and economics. Based on these considerations, it is concluded that an unmanned SDV offers a most attractive complement to the present Space Transportation System.

  19. The CERN & Society programme launches its newsletter

    CERN Multimedia

    Matteo Castoldi

    2016-01-01

    The newsletter will be issued quarterly. Sign up to remain informed about the latest initiatives of the CERN & Society programme!    The CERN & Society programme encompasses projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and creativity that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. The programme is funded primarily by the CERN & Society Foundation, a charitable foundation established by CERN and supported by individuals, trusts, organisations and commercial companies. The projects are inspired or enabled by CERN but lie outside of the Laboratory’s specific research mandate. We especially want to help young talent from around the world to flourish in the future. The programme is now launching its newsletter, which will be issued quarterly. Everybody who wants to be informed about CERN & Society’s activities, stay up-to-date with its latest in...

  20. Launch of technical training courses for programmers

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This autumn, two new technical training courses have been launched for scientists and engineers at CERN who undertake programming tasks, particularly in C and C++. Both courses are taught by Andrzej Nowak, an expert in next-generation and cutting-edge computing technology research.   The training courses are organised in cooperation with CERN openlab and are sponsored by the CERN IT department – there is only a nominal registration fee of 50 CHF. This is an opportunity not to be missed! Computer architecture and hardware-software interaction (2 days, 26-27 October) The architecture course offers a comprehensive overview of current topics in computer architecture and their consequences for the programmer, from the basic Von Neumann schema to its modern-day expansions. Understanding hardware-software interaction allows the programmer to make better use of all features of available computer hardware and compilers. Specific architectural ...

  1. Improving Conceptual Design for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, John R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities performed during the second year of a three year cooperative agreement between NASA - Langley Research Center and Georgia Tech. Year 1 of the project resulted in the creation of a new Cost and Business Assessment Model (CABAM) for estimating the economic performance of advanced reusable launch vehicles including non-recurring costs, recurring costs, and revenue. The current year (second year) activities were focused on the evaluation of automated, collaborative design frameworks (computation architectures or computational frameworks) for automating the design process in advanced space vehicle design. Consistent with NASA's new thrust area in developing and understanding Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), the goals of this year's research efforts were to develop and apply computer integration techniques and near-term computational frameworks for conducting advanced space vehicle design. NASA - Langley (VAB) has taken a lead role in developing a web-based computing architectures within which the designer can interact with disciplinary analysis tools through a flexible web interface. The advantages of this approach are, 1) flexible access to the designer interface through a simple web browser (e.g. Netscape Navigator), 2) ability to include existing 'legacy' codes, and 3) ability to include distributed analysis tools running on remote computers. To date, VAB's internal emphasis has been on developing this test system for the planetary entry mission under the joint Integrated Design System (IDS) program with NASA - Ames and JPL. Georgia Tech's complementary goals this year were to: 1) Examine an alternate 'custom' computational architecture for the three-discipline IDS planetary entry problem to assess the advantages and disadvantages relative to the web-based approach.and 2) Develop and examine a web-based interface and framework for a typical launch vehicle design problem.

  2. WE-B-207-00: CT Lung Cancer Screening Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  3. WE-B-207-00: CT Lung Cancer Screening Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was a multi-center randomized, controlled trial comparing a low-dose CT (LDCT) to posterior-anterior (PA) chest x-ray (CXR) in screening older, current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004 when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites in equal proportions. Funded by the National Cancer Institute this trial demonstrated that LDCT screening reduced lung cancer mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) cited NLST findings and conclusions in its deliberations and analysis of lung cancer screening. Under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the USPSTF favorable recommendation regarding lung cancer CT screening assisted in obtaining third-party payers coverage for screening. The objective of this session is to provide an introduction to the NLST and the trial findings, in addition to a comprehensive review of the dosimetry investigations and assessments completed using individual NLST participant CT and CXR examinations. Session presentations will review and discuss the findings of two independent assessments, a CXR assessment and the findings of a CT investigation calculating individual organ dosimetry values. The CXR assessment reviewed a total of 73,733 chest x-ray exams that were performed on 92 chest imaging systems of which 66,157 participant examinations were used. The CT organ dosimetry investigation collected scan parameters from 23,773 CT examinations; a subset of the 75,133 CT examinations performed using 97 multi-detector CT scanners. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated using a Monte Carlo code. An experimentally-validated CT scanner simulation was coupled with 193 adult hybrid computational phantoms representing the height and weight of the current U.S. population. The dose to selected organs was calculated using the organ dose library and the abstracted scan

  4. Enhancements of a mechanical lung simulator for ex vivo measuring of aerosol deposition in lungs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, T.; Forjan, M.; Kopp, T.; Bureš, Zbyněk; Drauschke, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.1 (2012), s. 799-802 ISSN 0013-5585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : aerosol measurement * lung simulator Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 1.157, year: 2012

  5. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  6. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  7. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  8. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  9. Europe looks forward to COROT launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    While CNES is completing preparations for the launch from Baikonur/Kazakhstan, ESA and a large number of European scientists involved in the mission are eagerly awaiting this event and the first scientific results to come through. What is COROT? COROT stands for ‘Convection Rotation and planetary Transits’. The name describes the mission’s scientific goals. ‘Convection and rotation’ refer to the satellite’s capability to probe stellar interiors, studying the acoustic waves that ripple across the surface of stars, a technique called asteroseismology. ‘Transit’ refers to the technique whereby the presence of a planet orbiting a star can be inferred from the dimming starlight caused when the planet passes in front of it. To achieve its twin scientific objectives, COROT will monitor some 120,000 stars with its 30-centimetre telescope. COROT will lead a bold new search for planets around other stars. In the decade since the first discovery in 1995 of an exoplanet (51 Pegasi b), more than 200 other such planets outside our solar system have been detected using ground-based observatories. The COROT space telescope promises to find many more during its two-and-a-half-year mission, expanding the frontiers of our knowledge towards ever-smaller planets. Many of the planets COROT will detect are expected to be 'hot Jupiters', gaseous worlds. An unknown percentage of those detected are expected to be rocky planets, maybe just a few times larger than the Earth (or smaller, even). If COROT finds such planets, they will constitute a new class of planet altogether. While it is looking at a star, COROT will also be able to detect 'starquakes', acoustic waves generated deep inside a star that send ripples across its surface, altering its brightness. The exact nature of the ripples allows astronomers to calculate the star's precise mass, age and chemical composition. COROT’s European dimension The COROT mission was first proposed by CNES back in 1996. A call for

  10. Venus Express set for launch to the cryptic planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    intimately coupled with the planet’s surface, that studying it will help provide clues about the features, status and evolution of the entire planet. Note to editors Venus Express is an almost identical twin spacecraft to Mars Express, but adapted to operate in the hot and harsh environment around Venus. It was built by EADS Astrium, Toulouse (France), leading a group of industrial partners throughout Europe. Completing the spacecraft took less than four years from concept to launch, making it the fastest-built ESA scientific satellite ever. Besides the spacecraft manufacturing and testing, industry will still be involved during the mission on a collaboration and consultancy basis for the ESA Venus Express Project team, led by the Project Manager, and for the Venus Express ground control team, led by the Spacecraft Operations Manager. On 4 July 2006, when the nominal science phase begins, the Venus Express Project Manager will hand over responsibility for the mission to an ESA Venus Express Mission Manager, leading the Venus Express Science Operations Centre (VSOC) in ESA’s European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. The VSOC performs the routine planning for scientific observations, in co-ordination with the Project Scientist and the instrument Principal Investigators. ESA’s investment in Venus Express amounts to about 220 million Euros, covering development of the spacecraft, launch and operations. This figure also includes 15 million Euros for instrument development, including support to several research institutes (Principal Investigators) for building the instruments. Venus Express is one of a family of missions in which costs are shared, the others being Rosetta and Mars Express.

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  12. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  13. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  14. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  15. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  16. Dutch Lung Surgery Audit: A National Audit Comprising Lung and Thoracic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Martijn Ten; Beck, Naomi; Heineman, David Jonathan; Damhuis, Ronald; Steup, Willem Hans; van Huijstee, Pieter Jan; Eerenberg, Jan Peter; Veen, Eelco; Maat, Alexander; Versteegh, Michel; van Brakel, Thomas; Schreurs, Wilhemina Hendrika; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus

    2018-04-21

    The nationwide Dutch Lung Surgery Audit (DLSA) started in 2012 to monitor and evaluate the quality of lung surgery in the Netherlands as an improvement tool. This outline describes the establishment, structure and organization of the audit by the Dutch Society of Lung Surgeons (NVvL) and the Dutch Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (NVT), in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). In addition, first four-year results are presented. The NVvL and NVT initiated a web-based registration including weekly updated online feedback for participating hospitals. Data verification by external data managers is performed on regular basis. The audit is incorporated in national quality improvement programs and participation in the DLSA is mandatory by health insurance organizations and the National Healthcare Inspectorate. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015, all hospitals performing lung surgery participated and a total of 19,557 patients were registered from which almost half comprised lung cancer patients. Nationwide the guideline adherence increased over the years and 96.5% of lung cancer patients were discussed in preoperative multidisciplinary teams. Overall postoperative complications and mortality after non-small cell lung cancer surgery were 15.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The audit provides reliable benchmarked information for caregivers and hospital management with potential to start local, regional or national improvement initiatives. Currently, the audit is further completed with data from non-surgical lung cancer patients including treatment data from pulmonary oncologists and radiation oncologists. This will ultimately provide a comprehensive overview of lung cancer treatment in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Reducing Health Inequities in the United States: Insights and Recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Health Inequities Think Tank Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K.A.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Cooper, Richard S.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Marks, James S.; Engelgau, Michael M.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Mishoe, Helena; Boulware, L. Ebony; Felix, Kaytura L.; Califf, Robert M.; Flack, John M.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gracia, J. Nadine; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Davidson, Karina W.; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Sanchez, Eduardo; Luban, Naomi L.; Vaccarino, Viola; Wong, Winston F.; Wright, Jackson T.; Meyers, David; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga G.; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Chambers, David A.; Belis, Deshirée; Bennett, Glen C.; Boyington, Josephine E; Creazzo, Tony L.; de Jesus, Janet M.; Krishnamurti, Chitra; Lowden, Mia R.; Punturieri, Antonello; Shero, Susan T.; Young, Neal S.; Zou, Shimian; Mensah, George A.

    2016-01-01

    The National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Think Tank meeting to obtain insight and recommendations regarding the objectives and design of the next generation of research aimed at reducing health inequities in the United States. The panel recommended several specific actions, including: 1) Embrace broad and inclusive research themes; 2) Develop research platforms that optimize the ability to conduct informative and innovative research, and promote systems science approaches; 3) Develop networks of collaborators and stakeholders, and launch transformative studies that can serve as benchmarks; 4) Optimize the use of new data sources, platforms, and natural experiments; and 5) develop unique transdisciplinary training programs to build research capacity. Confronting health inequities will require engaging multiple disciplines and sectors (including communities), using systems science, and intervening through combinations of individual, family, provider, health system, and community-targeted approaches. Details of the panel’s remarks and recommendations are provided in this report. PMID:27470459

  18. Proceedings: Regenerative Medicine for Lung Diseases: A CIRM Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyk, Lisa C; DeWitt, Natalie D; Gomperts, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    The mission of the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) is to accelerate treatments to patients with unmet medical needs. In September 2016, CIRM sponsored a workshop held at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss regenerative medicine approaches for treatment of lung diseases and to identify the challenges remaining for advancing such treatments to the clinic and market approval. Workshop participants discussed current preclinical and clinical approaches to regenerative medicine in the lung, as well as the biology of lung stem cells and the role of stem cells in the etiology of various lung diseases. The outcome of this effort was the recognition that whereas transient cell delivery approaches are leading the way in the clinic, recent advances in the understanding of lung stem cell biology, in vitro and in vivo disease modeling, gene editing and replacement methods, and cell engraftment approaches raise the prospect of developing cures for some lung diseases in the foreseeable future. In addition, advances in in vitro modeling using lung organoids and "lung on a chip" technology are setting the stage for high quality small molecule drug screening to develop treatments for lung diseases with complex biology. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1823-1828. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  1. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  2. Design options for advanced manned launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    1995-03-01

    Various concepts for advanced manned launch systems are examined for delivery missions to space station and polar orbit. Included are single-and two-stage winged systems with rocket and/or air-breathing propulsion systems. For near-term technologies, two-stage reusable rocket systems are favored over single-stage rocket or two-stage air-breathing/rocket systems. Advanced technologies enable viable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts. Although two-stage rocket systems continue to be lighter in dry weight than SSTO vehicles, advantages in simpler operations may make SSTO vehicles more cost-effective over the life cycle. Generally, rocket systems maintain a dry-weight advantage over air-breathing systems at the advanced technology levels, but to a lesser degree than when near-term technologies are used. More detailed understanding of vehicle systems and associated ground and flight operations requirements and procedures is essential in determining quantitative discrimination between these latter concepts.

  3. Reusable launch vehicle model uncertainties impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaye; Mu, Rongjun; Zhang, Xin; Deng, Yanpeng

    2018-03-01

    Reusable launch vehicle(RLV) has the typical characteristics of complex aerodynamic shape and propulsion system coupling, and the flight environment is highly complicated and intensely changeable. So its model has large uncertainty, which makes the nominal system quite different from the real system. Therefore, studying the influences caused by the uncertainties on the stability of the control system is of great significance for the controller design. In order to improve the performance of RLV, this paper proposes the approach of analyzing the influence of the model uncertainties. According to the typical RLV, the coupling dynamic and kinematics models are built. Then different factors that cause uncertainties during building the model are analyzed and summed up. After that, the model uncertainties are expressed according to the additive uncertainty model. Choosing the uncertainties matrix's maximum singular values as the boundary model, and selecting the uncertainties matrix's norm to show t how much the uncertainty factors influence is on the stability of the control system . The simulation results illustrate that the inertial factors have the largest influence on the stability of the system, and it is necessary and important to take the model uncertainties into consideration before the designing the controller of this kind of aircraft( like RLV, etc).

  4. STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman in white room before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is assisted by NASA and USA closeout crew members immediately preceding launch for the nearly 17-day Neurolab mission. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. Linnehan and six fellow crew members will shortly enter the orbiter at KSC's Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:19 p.m. EDT, April 17.

  5. Method for Producing Launch/Landing Pads and Structures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current plans for deep space exploration include building landing-launch pads capable of withstanding the rocket blast of much larger spacecraft that that of the Apollo days. The proposed concept will develop lightweight launch and landing pad materials from in-situ materials, utilizing regolith to produce controllable porous cast metallic foam brickstiles shapes. These shapes can be utilized to lay a landing launch platform, as a construction material or as more complex parts of mechanical assemblies.

  6. U.S. Secretary of State addresses launch team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In a firing room of the Launch Control Center, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright speaks to the launch team after the successful launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour at 3:35:34 a.m. EST. During the nearly 12-day mission of STS-88, the six-member crew will mate in space the first two elements of the International Space Station -- the already-orbiting Zarya control module and the Unity connecting module carried by Endeavour.

  7. Launch vehicle operations cost reduction through artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tom C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has attempted to develop AI methods in order to reduce the cost of launch vehicle ground operations as well as to improve the reliability and safety of such operations. Attention is presently given to cost savings estimates for systems involving launch vehicle firing-room software and hardware real-time diagnostics, as well as the nature of configuration control and the real-time autonomous diagnostics of launch-processing systems by these means. Intelligent launch decisions and intelligent weather forecasting are additional applications of AI being considered.

  8. Expandable External Payload Carrier for Existing Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous existing launch vehicles have excess performance that is not being optimized. By taking advantage of excess, unused, performance, additional NASA...

  9. Efficient Composite Repair Methods for Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymer matrix composites are increasingly replacing traditional metallic materials in NASA launch vehicles. However, the repair and subsequent inspection methods...

  10. Space Launch System Spacecraft and Payload Elements: Progress Toward Crewed Launch and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Smith, David Alan; Holcomb, Shawn; Hitt, David

    2017-01-01

    While significant and substantial progress continues to be accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already underway on preparations for the second flight - using an upgraded version of the vehicle - and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, SLS is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and is one of three programs being managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration Systems Development division. The Orion spacecraft program is developing a new crew vehicle that will support human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program is transforming Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a next-generation spaceport capable of supporting not only SLS but also multiple commercial users. Together, these systems will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton (t) Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. Encompassing hardware qualification, structural testing to validate hardware compliance and analytical modeling, progress is on track to meet the initial targeted launch date. In Utah and Mississippi, booster and engine testing are verifying upgrades made to proven shuttle hardware. At Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in Louisiana, the world's largest spacecraft welding tool is producing tanks for the SLS core stage. Providing the Orion crew capsule/launch vehicle interface and in-space propulsion via a cryogenic upper stage, the Spacecraft/Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) element serves a key role in achieving SLS goals and objectives. The SPIE element

  11. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  12. Abscess of residual lobe after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, Tommaso; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Abscess of the residual lobe after lobectomy is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Between January 1975 and December 2006, 1,460 patients underwent elective pulmonary lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer at our institution. Abscess of the residual lung parenchyma occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases (4 bilobectomies and 1 lobectomy). Postoperative chest radiography showed incomplete expansion and consolidation of residual lung parenchyma. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed persistent bronchial occlusion from purulent secretions and/or bronchial collapse. Computed tomography in 3 patients demonstrated lung abscess foci. Surgical treatment included completion right pneumonectomy in 3 patients and a middle lobectomy in one. Complications after repeat thoracotomy comprised contralateral pneumonia and sepsis in 1 patient. Residual lobar abscess after lobectomy should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, leukocytosis, bronchial obstruction and lung consolidation despite antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy and bronchoscopy. Computed tomography is mandatory for early diagnosis. Surgical resection of the affected lobe is recommended.

  13. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norihisa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Yasushi; Takayama, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masato; Mizowaki, Takashi; Yano, Shinsuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Since 1998, we have treated primary and oligometastatic lung tumors with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The term 'oligometastasis' is used to indicate a small number of metastases limited to an organ. We evaluated our clinical experience of SBRT for oligometastatic lung tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 patients with oligometastatic lung tumors were included in this study. The primary involved organs were the lung (n = 15), colorectum (n = 9), head and neck (n = 5), kidney (n = 3), breast (n = 1), and bone (n = 1). Five to seven, noncoplanar, static 6-MV photon beams were used to deliver 48 Gy (n = 18) or 60 Gy (n = 16) at the isocenter, with 12 Gy/fraction within 4-18 days (median, 12 days). Results: The overall survival rate, local relapse-free rate, and progression-free rate at 2 years was 84.3%, 90.0%, and 34.8%, respectively. No local progression was observed in tumors irradiated with 60 Gy. SBRT-related pulmonary toxicities were observed in 4 (12%) Grade 2 cases and 1 (3%) Grade 3 case. Patients with a longer disease-free interval had a greater overall survival rate. Conclusion: The clinical result of SBRT for oligometastatic lung tumors in our institute was comparable to that after surgical metastasectomy; thus, SBRT could be an effective treatment of pulmonary oligometastases

  14. Bacterial microbiome of lungs in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze MA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc A Sze,1 James C Hogg,2 Don D Sin1 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart-Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third leading cause of death in the world. Although smoking is the main risk factor for this disease, only a minority of smokers develop COPD. Why this happens is largely unknown. Recent discoveries by the human microbiome project have shed new light on the importance and richness of the bacterial microbiota at different body sites in human beings. The microbiota plays a particularly important role in the development and functional integrity of the immune system. Shifts or perturbations in the microbiota can lead to disease. COPD is in part mediated by dysregulated immune responses to cigarette smoke and other environmental insults. Although traditionally the lung has been viewed as a sterile organ, by using highly sensitive genomic techniques, recent reports have identified diverse bacterial communities in the human lung that may change in COPD. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the lung microbiota in COPD and its potential implications for pathogenesis of the disease. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bacterial microbiome, lungs

  15. Space Shuttle Launch Probability Analysis: Understanding History so We Can Predict the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant R.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was launched 135 times and nearly half of those launches required 2 or more launch attempts. The Space Shuttle launch countdown historical data of 250 launch attempts provides a wealth of data that is important to analyze for strictly historical purposes as well as for use in predicting future launch vehicle launch countdown performance. This paper provides a statistical analysis of all Space Shuttle launch attempts including the empirical probability of launch on any given attempt and the cumulative probability of launch relative to the planned launch date at the start of the initial launch countdown. This information can be used to facilitate launch probability predictions of future launch vehicles such as NASA's Space Shuttle derived SLS. Understanding the cumulative probability of launch is particularly important for missions to Mars since the launch opportunities are relatively short in duration and one must wait for 2 years before a subsequent attempt can begin.

  16. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Integrated Commodities Consumption for a Launch Campaign of the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel; Parsons, Jeremy W.; Cates, Grant

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013, NASA's GSDO Program requested a study to develop a discrete event simulation (DES) model that analyzes the launch campaign process of the Space Launch System (SLS) from an integrated commodities perspective. The scope of the study includes launch countdown and scrub turnaround and focuses on four core launch commodities: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. Previously, the commodities were only analyzed individually and deterministically for their launch support capability, but this study was the first to integrate them to examine the impact of their interactions on a launch campaign as well as the effects of process variability on commodity availability. The study produced a validated DES model with Rockwell Arena that showed that Kennedy Space Center's ground systems were capable of supporting a 48-hour scrub turnaround for the SLS. The model will be maintained and updated to provide commodity consumption analysis of future ground system and SLS configurations.

  17. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  18. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  19. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  20. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  1. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of CT image reconstruction algorithms for the lung tissue research consortium (LTRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Cynthia; Zhang, Jie; Bruesewitz, Michael; Bartholmai, Brian

    2006-03-01

    To create a repository of clinical data, CT images and tissue samples and to more clearly understand the pathogenetic features of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) launched a cooperative effort known as the Lung Tissue Resource Consortium (LTRC). The CT images for the LTRC effort must contain accurate CT numbers in order to characterize tissues, and must have high-spatial resolution to show fine anatomic structures. This study was performed to optimize the CT image reconstruction algorithms to achieve these criteria. Quantitative analyses of phantom and clinical images were conducted. The ACR CT accreditation phantom containing five regions of distinct CT attenuations (CT numbers of approximately -1000 HU, -80 HU, 0 HU, 130 HU and 900 HU), and a high-contrast spatial resolution test pattern, was scanned using CT systems from two manufacturers (General Electric (GE) Healthcare and Siemens Medical Solutions). Phantom images were reconstructed using all relevant reconstruction algorithms. Mean CT numbers and image noise (standard deviation) were measured and compared for the five materials. Clinical high-resolution chest CT images acquired on a GE CT system for a patient with diffuse lung disease were reconstructed using BONE and STANDARD algorithms and evaluated by a thoracic radiologist in terms of image quality and disease extent. The clinical BONE images were processed with a 3 x 3 x 3 median filter to simulate a thicker slice reconstructed in smoother algorithms, which have traditionally been proven to provide an accurate estimation of emphysema extent in the lungs. Using a threshold technique, the volume of emphysema (defined as the percentage of lung voxels having a CT number lower than -950 HU) was computed for the STANDARD, BONE, and BONE filtered. The CT numbers measured in the ACR CT Phantom images were accurate for all reconstruction kernels for both manufacturers. As expected, visual evaluation of the

  3. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  4. Resultados y enfoque de la metastasectomía pulmonar en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de Cuba Results and approach of lung metastasectomy in the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Collado Otero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de esta presentación fue identificar los factores pronósticos relacionados con mayor supervivencia tras la metastasectomía pulmonar, para todo tipo de tumor primario, practicada en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de Cuba. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio ambispectivo, no aleatorizado. El universo de estudio estuvo integrado por pacientes con metástasis pulmonares de origen intra o extrapulmonar. RESULTADOS. En el análisis univariado resultaron indicadores positivos predictivos de mayor intervalo libre de enfermedad y supervivencia global a los 3 años, el número (p = 0,004 y el tamaño (p = 0,02 de las metástasis, así como el tiempo libre de enfermedad (p = 0,012. La vía de abordaje, así como la técnica de resección empleada, no influyeron en la supervivencia global a los 3 años ni en el intervalo libre de enfermedad, siempre que todas las metástasis fueran resecadas (p > 0,05. La técnica de resección permitió la exéresis de todas las lesiones detectables, con un margen de tejido sano, y se preservó al máximo el parénquima pulmonar. El volumen adecuado y la técnica de resección dependieron del número, tamaño y localización de las lesiones. El tiempo de seguimiento mínimo fue de 3 años. CONCLUSIONES. El intervalo libre de enfermedad fue identificado como el factor más importante para el pronóstico. El análisis de supervivencia nos permitió estratificar a los pacientes en grupos de riesgo según la progresión del tumor y sobre la base del tamaño y número de las lesiones y del intervalo libre de la enfermedad tras la escisión del tumor primario.INTRODUCTION. The aim of this paper was to identify the prognostic factors related to higher survival after lung metastasectomy for all types of primary tumor performed in the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology of Cuba. METHODS. An ambispective nonrandomized study was undertaken. The study group was composed of

  5. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  6. CubeSat Launch Initiative Overview and CubeSat 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results. This presentation will also provide high level CubeSat 101 information for prospective CubeSat developers, describing the development process from concept through mission operations while highlighting key points that developers need to be mindful of.

  7. A Reference Model for Virtual Machine Launching Overhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao; Ren, Shangping; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Timm, Steven; Bernabeu, Gerard; Chadwick, Keith; Noh, Seo-Young

    2016-07-01

    Cloud bursting is one of the key research topics in the cloud computing communities. A well designed cloud bursting module enables private clouds to automatically launch virtual machines (VMs) to public clouds when more resources are needed. One of the main challenges in developing a cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on system operational data obtained from FermiCloud, a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows, the VM launching overhead is not a constant. It varies with physical resource utilization, such as CPU and I/O device utilizations, at the time when a VM is launched. Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launching overhead reference model is needed. In this paper, we first develop a VM launching overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud. Second, we apply the developed reference model on FermiCloud and compare calculated VM launching overhead values based on the model with measured overhead values on FermiCloud. Our empirical results on FermiCloud indicate that the developed reference model is accurate. We believe, with the guidance of the developed reference model, efficient resource allocation algorithms can be developed for cloud bursting process to minimize the operational cost and resource waste.

  8. 14 CFR 417.113 - Launch safety rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) The flight safety system must terminate flight when valid, real-time data indicate the launch... criteria for ensuring that: (i) The flight safety system is operating to ensure the launch vehicle will... terminate flight when all of the following conditions exist: (i) Real-time data indicate that the...

  9. 46 CFR 28.310 - Launching of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Launching of survival craft. 28.310 Section 28.310... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.310 Launching of survival craft. A gate or other... each survival craft which weighs more than 110 pounds (489 Newtons), to allow the survival craft to be...

  10. 46 CFR 28.805 - Launching of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Launching of survival craft. 28.805 Section 28.805... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.805 Launching of survival craft. In addition to the survival craft requirements in subpart B, each vessel must have a gate or other opening in the...

  11. Nodule management protocol of the NELSON randomised lung cancer screening trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Dong Ming; Gietema, Hester; de Koning, Harry; Vernhout, Rene; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Prokop, Mathias; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Groen, Harry; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Klaveren, Rob

    In December 2003, the Dutch-Belgian NELSON trial, a Dutch acronym for "Nederlands-Leuvens Longkanker Screenings ONderzoek", has been launched. Primary objective of the NELSON trial is to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by 16-detector multi-slice CT with 16 mm x 0.75 mm collimation and

  12. Distributed Web-Based Expert System for Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The simulation and modeling of launch operations is based on a representation of the organization of the operations suitable to experiment of the physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The virtual test bed consists of a weather expert system to advice on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, and the risk impact on human health. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  13. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  14. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  15. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  16. Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  18. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  19. Drug induced lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Eisenhuber, Edith

    2010-01-01

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  1. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  2. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  3. Modeling the Virtual Machine Launching Overhead under Fermicloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Ren, Shangping [IIT, Chicago; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2014-11-12

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows. The Cloud Bursting module of the FermiCloud enables the FermiCloud, when more computational resources are needed, to automatically launch virtual machines to available resources such as public clouds. One of the main challenges in developing the cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on FermiCloud’s system operational data, the VM launching overhead is not a constant. It varies with physical resource (CPU, memory, I/O device) utilization at the time when a VM is launched. Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launch overhead reference model is needed. The paper is to develop a VM launch overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud and uses the reference model to guide the cloud bursting process.

  4. Assessing Upper-Level Winds on Day-of-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    On the day-or-launch. the 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers (LWOS) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). During launch operations, the payload launch team sometimes asks the LWO if they expect the upper level winds to change during the countdown but the LWOs did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or display the upper-level observations and compare them to the numerical weather prediction model point forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a capability in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that would allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center Doppler Radar Wind Profilers and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station rawinsondes and then overlay model point forecast profiles on the observation profiles to assess the performance of these models and graphically display them to the launch team. The AMU developed an Excel-based capability for the LWOs to assess the model forecast upper-level winds and compare them to observations. They did so by creating a GUI in Excel that allows the LWOs to first initialize the models by comparing the O-hour model forecasts to the observations and then to display model forecasts in 3-hour intervals from the current time through 12 hours.

  5. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  6. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  7. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  8. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  9. Lungs in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be done in the hospital under general anesthesia. In general, lung biopsy is not required to ... be helpful for some LAM patients who have asthma like symptoms of wheezing and intermittent shortness of ...

  10. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  11. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  12. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  13. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  14. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  15. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  16. Safety Practices Followed in ISRO Launch Complex- An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurty, V.; Srivastava, V. K.; Ramesh, M.

    2005-12-01

    The spaceport of India, Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is located at Sriharikota, a spindle shaped island on the east coast of southern India.SDSC SHAR has a unique combination of facilities, such as a solid propellant production plant, a rocket motor static test facility, launch complexes for different types of rockets, telemetry, telecommand, tracking, data acquisition and processing facilities and other support services.The Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB) located at SDSC SHAR produces composite solid propellant for rocket motors of ISRO. The main ingredients of the propellant produced here are ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer), fine aluminium powder (fuel) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (binder).SDSC SHAR has facilities for testing solid rocket motors, both at ambient conditions and at simulated high altitude conditions. Other test facilities for the environmental testing of rocket motors and their subsystems include Vibration, Shock, Constant Acceleration and Thermal / Humidity.SDSC SHAR has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellites into low earth orbit, polar orbit and geo-stationary transfer orbit. The launch complexes provide complete support for vehicle assembly, fuelling with both earth storable and cryogenic propellants, checkout and launch operations. Apart from these, it has facilities for launching sounding rockets for studying the Earth's upper atmosphere and for controlled reentry and recovery of ISRO's space capsule reentry missions.Safety plays a major role at SDSC SHAR right from the mission / facility design phase to post launch operations. This paper presents briefly the infrastructure available at SDSC SHAR of ISRO for launching sounding rockets, satellite launch vehicles, controlled reentry missions and the built in safety systems. The range safety methodology followed as a part of the real time mission monitoring is presented. The built in safety systems

  17. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  18. KSC facilities status and planned management operations. [for Shuttle launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.; Omalley, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A status report is presented on facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center with reference to Space Shuttle launch activities. The facilities are essentially complete, with all new construction and modifications to existing buildings almost finished. Some activity is still in progress at Pad A and on the Mobile Launcher due to changes in requirements but is not expected to affect the launch schedule. The installation and testing of the ground checkout equipment that will be used to test the flight hardware is now in operation. The Launch Processing System is currently supporting the development of the applications software that will perform the testing of this flight hardware.

  19. Mars Sample Return - Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/cache rover in 2018, an orbiter with an Earth return vehicle in 2022, and a fetch rover and ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits exist at 457 and 572 km which provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  20. Mars Sample Return: Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/ caching rover in 2018, an Earth return orbiter in 2022, and a fetch rover with ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a nearly coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which would facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits existat 457 and 572 km which would provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  1. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  2. Diagram of the Saturn V Launch Vehicle in Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear metric detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering, 111 meter, Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  3. NASA Lewis Launch Collision Probability Model Developed and Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D

    1999-01-01

    There are nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the earth. These objects encompass manned objects, active and decommissioned satellites, spent rocket bodies, and debris. They range from a few centimeters across to the size of the MIR space station. Anytime a new satellite is launched, the launch vehicle with its payload attached passes through an area of space in which these objects orbit. Although the population density of these objects is low, there always is a small but finite probability of collision between the launch vehicle and one or more of these space objects. Even though the probability of collision is very low, for some payloads even this small risk is unacceptable. To mitigate the small risk of collision associated with launching at an arbitrary time within the daily launch window, NASA performs a prelaunch mission assurance Collision Avoidance Analysis (or COLA). For the COLA of the Cassini spacecraft, the NASA Lewis Research Center conducted an in-house development and analysis of a model for launch collision probability. The model allows a minimum clearance criteria to be used with the COLA analysis to ensure an acceptably low probability of collision. If, for any given liftoff time, the nominal launch vehicle trajectory would pass a space object with less than the minimum required clearance, launch would not be attempted at that time. The model assumes that the nominal positions of the orbiting objects and of the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time, and therefore, that any tracked object that comes within close proximity of the launch vehicle can be identified. For any such pair, these nominal positions can be used to calculate a nominal miss distance. The actual miss distances may differ substantially from the nominal miss distance, due, in part, to the statistical uncertainty of the knowledge of the objects positions. The model further assumes that these position uncertainties can be described with position covariance matrices

  4. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  5. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... (prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovary). In addition, cancer incidence, stage shift, and case survival are... Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance... for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the...

  6. Farmer's lung is now in decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arya, A

    2012-02-03

    Farmer\\'s lung incidence in Ireland was constant until 1996, even though hay making methods were revolutionised in late 1980\\'s. We undertook this study to find out the incidence of farmer\\'s lung in Ireland from 1982-2002 and its correlation with rainfall and the effect of changing farm practices. The primary cases of farmer\\'s lung were identified from Hospital in Patients Enquiry (HIPE) unit of the national Economic & Social Research Institute (ESRI) Dublin. Rainfall data were obtained from Met Eireann whereas population, hay production and silage production were obtained from the Central Statistics Office, Dublin. As the farming population is in decline, we used the annual working unit (AWU), which reflects the true population at risk. An AWU is the equivalent of 1800 hours per farm worker per year. The incidence rates were constant from 1982-1996, but from 1997-2002 a marked decline was observed. There was strong positive correlation with hay production (r = 0.81) and strong negative correlation with silage production (r = -0.82). This study indicates that the incidence of farmer\\'s lung is now in decline.

  7. LauncherOne Small Launch Vehicle Propulsion Advancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Virgin Orbit, LLC (“Virgin Orbit”) is currently well into the development for our LauncherOne (L1) small satellite launch vehicle. LauncherOne is a dedicated small...

  8. BLDC technology and its application in weapon system launching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Motors and Drives are profoundly used in military and strategic weapon ... electric field by means of a split physical commutator and brushes. ... Figure 3.1: Akash Missile Launching Platform on Wheeled Vehicle (downloaded from internet). 4.

  9. Awareness campaign. Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma launches awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma is a 25-bed inpatient and outpatient center with one focus: Orthopedics. To acquaint people with its services and build brand awareness to drive market share, the hospital launched a print campaign featuring actual patients.

  10. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  11. On the economics of staging for reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael D.; Claybaugh, William R.

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent discussion concerning possible replacement systems for the current U.S. fleet of launch vehicles, including both the shuttle and expendable vehicles. Attention has been focused upon the feasibility and potential benefits of reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch systems for future access to low Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we assume the technical feasibility of such vehicles, as well as the benefits to be derived from system reusability. We then consider the benefits of launch vehicle staging from the perspective of economic advantage rather than performance necessity. Conditions are derived under which two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch systems, utilizing SSTO-class vehicle technology, offer a relative economic advantage for access to LEO.

  12. The Next Great Ship: NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Most Capable U.S. Launch Vehicle; Liquid engines Progress; Boosters Progress; Stages and Avionics Progress; Systems Engineering and Integration Progress; Spacecraft and Payload Integration Progress; Advanced Development Progress.

  13. Optimal Non-Coplanar Launch to Quick Rendezvous

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sears, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of launching a Delta Clipper-like vehicle on an optimal, non-coplanar trajectory to rendezvous with an earth orbiting object in one orbit or less...

  14. STS-37 Breakfast / Ingress / Launch & ISO Camera Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-37 mission was to deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory. The mission was launched at 9:22:44 am on April 5, 1991, onboard the space shuttle Atlantis. The mission was led by Commander Steven Nagel. The crew was Pilot Kenneth Cameron and Mission Specialists Jerry Ross, Jay Apt, and Linda Godwing. This videotape shows the crew having breakfast on the launch day, with the narrator introducing them. It then shows the crew's final preparations and the entry into the shuttle, while the narrator gives information about each of the crew members. The countdown and launch is shown including the shuttle separation from the solid rocket boosters. The launch is reshown from 17 different camera views. Some of the other camera views were in black and white.

  15. Electromagnetic Cavity Effects from Transmitters Inside a Launch Vehicle Fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Dawn H.; Wahid, Parveen F.; Stanley, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the difficult analytical issue for launch vehicles and spacecraft that has applicability outside of the launch industry. Radiation from spacecraft or launch vehicle antennas located within enclosures in the launch vehicle generates an electromagnetic environment that is difficult to accurately predict. This paper discusses the test results of power levels produced by a transmitter within a representative scaled vehicle fairing model and provides preliminary modeling results at the low end of the frequency test range using a commercial tool. Initially, the walls of the fairing are aluminum and later, layered with materials to simulate acoustic blanketing structures that are typical in payload fairings. The effects of these blanketing materials on the power levels within the fairing are examined.

  16. GPS Attitude Determination for Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...

  17. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Gregory W; Borraccini, Joseph P; Fitzpatrick, Brian K; Lynch, William A; McGinnis, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    .... A study to analyze the machinery technologies capable of meeting this requirement identified a near term solution based on electric linear motor technology derived from the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS...

  18. Launch of physics journals boosts open-access club

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Open-access publisher BioMed Central is launching three new physics journals under the sister brand-name PhysMath Central. they will sit alongside the company's portfolio of 176 biomedical titles." (1/4 page)

  19. STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  20. STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  1. STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) waves after donning his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  2. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the third time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby pulls on his glove, part of his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  3. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  4. Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrens, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    Launching satellites into orbit, once the exclusive domain of the U.S. and Soviet governments, today is an industry in which companies in the United States, Europe, China, Russia, Ukraine, Japan, and India compete...

  5. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Low-Cost, Scalable, Hybrid Launch Propulsion Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration Purdue University, proposes to develop a novel launch propulsion technology for rapid insertion of nano/micro...

  7. Design Optimization of Space Launch Vehicles Using a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayley, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    .... A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost...

  8. Nytrox Oxidizers for NanoSat Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Propulsion Group, Inc. proposes to conduct systems studies to quantify the performance and cost advantages of Nytrox oxidizers for small launch vehicles. This...

  9. Hypervelocity launch capabilities to over 10 km/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Very high pressure and acceleration is necessary to launch flier plates to hypervelocities. In addition, the high pressure loading must be uniform, structured, and shockless, i.e., time-dependent to prevent the flier plate from either fracturing or melting. In this paper, a novel technique is described which allows the use of megabar level loading pressures, and 10 9 g acceleration to launch intact flier plates to velocities of 12.2 km/s. 32 refs., 2 figs

  10. Analysis of Suborbital Launch Trajectories for Satellite Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    4 3. Specialty areas related to trajectory ition ............... 6 I 4. Comparison of a two stage launch vehicle versus a SSTO ...the point where a Single-Stage-To- Orbit ( SSTO ) vehicle may be practical. The flight characteristics of a hypersonic SSTO vehicle would allow a...a two stage launch vehicle versus a SSTO vehicle to de-3 termine the ideal staging velocity (14:4-5). 3 Several studies have been presented that

  11. Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    directive issued on January 14, 2004—called the new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE)—set out goals for future exploration of the solar system using...of the solar system using manned spacecraft. Among those goals was a proposal to return humans to the moon no later than 2020. The ultimate goal...U.S. launch capacity exclude the Sea Launch system operated by Boeing in partnership with RSC- Energia (based in Moscow), Kvaerner ASA (based in Oslo

  12. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  13. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  14. Apollo 6 Transported to Launch Pad at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 6, the second and last of the unmarned Saturn V test flights, is slowly transported past the Vehicle Assembly Building on the way to launch pad 39-A. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  15. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  16. Apollo 11 Cmdr Neil Armstrong watches STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  17. Development of a Virtual Environment for Catapult Launch Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the duties of a launch officer. Analysis of the data gathered from the job task analysis produced a flowchart that can be represented as a finite...duties of a launch officer. Analysis of the data gathered from the job task analysis produced a flowchart that can be represented as a finite state...pass through when learning a skill as shown in Table 3.1. These skill levels are: novice, advanced beginner , competence, proficiency, expertise

  18. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  19. A Roadmap for Offering MOOC from an LMIC Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Hani; Pasha, Aamna; Moran, Greg; Ali, Syed

    2017-01-01

    MOOCs are massive open online courses that are globally accessible, free of charge. Given their cost-free and open accessibility, it is surprising that only a few institutions have offered MOOCs from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pakistan recently made this short list of LMICs as the first two MOOCs were launched from the country, in…

  20. [A Swiss medical-social institution and the Snoezelen concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Terrail, Caroline; Kemken, Lucie Marigo; Makamwe, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with six student nurses from the Geneva Haute École de Santé, the Les Franchises medical-social institution in Geneva has launched an innovative project: the integration of the Snoezelen concept into its care programme, which will benefit residents with moderate or advanced dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.