WorldWideScience

Sample records for insertion polymorphism rbip

  1. Prediction of retrotransposons and assessment of genetic variability based on developed retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) markers in Pyrus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuang; Zong, Yu; Yue, Xiaoyan; Postman, Joseph; Teng, Yuanwen; Cai, Danying

    2015-02-01

    Interspecific hybridization has been considered the major mode of evolution in Pyrus (pear), and thus, the genetic relationships within this genus have not been well documented. Retrotransposons are ubiquitous components of plant genomes and 42.4 % of the pear genome was reported to be long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, implying that retrotransposons might be significant in the evolution of Pyrus. In this study, 1,836 putative full-length LTR retrotransposons were isolated and 196 retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) primers were developed, of which 24 pairs to the Ppcr1 subfamily of copia retrotransposons were used to analyze genetic diversity among 110 Pyrus accessions from Eurasia. Our results showed that Ppcr1 replicated many times in the development of cultivated Asian pears. The genetic structure analysis and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram indicated that all accessions could be divided into Oriental and Occidental groups. In Oriental pears, wild pea pears clustered separately into independent groups in accordance with their morphological classifications. Cultivars of P. ussuriensis Maxim, P. pyrifolia Nakai, and P. pyrifolia Chinese white pear were mingled together, which inferred that hybridization events occurred during the development of the cultivated Asian pears. In Occidental pears, two clades were obtained in the UPGMA dendrogram in accordance with their geographical distribution; one contained the European species and the other included species from North Africa and West Asia. New findings in this study will be important to further understand the phylogeny of Pyrus and origins of cultivated pears.

  2. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  3. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  4. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  5. Lack of association of insertion/deletion polymorphism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gene with nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients in Punjabi population of Pakistan. ... polymorphism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, in a case control study ... We also compared different clinical and biochemical characteristics of the ...

  6. Insertion and deletion polymorphisms of the ancient AluS family in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryatova, Maria S; Steranka, Jared P; Burns, Kathleen H; Payer, Lindsay M

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic Alu elements account for 17% of structural variants in the human genome. The majority of these belong to the youngest AluY subfamilies, and most structural variant discovery efforts have focused on identifying Alu polymorphisms from these currently retrotranspositionally active subfamilies. In this report we analyze polymorphisms from the evolutionarily older AluS subfamily, whose peak activity was tens of millions of years ago. We annotate the AluS polymorphisms, assess their likely mechanism of origin, and evaluate their contribution to structural variation in the human genome. Of 52 previously reported polymorphic AluS elements ascertained for this study, 48 were confirmed to belong to the AluS subfamily using high stringency subfamily classification criteria. Of these, the majority (77%, 37/48) appear to be deletion polymorphisms. Two polymorphic AluS elements (4%) have features of non-classical Alu insertions and one polymorphic AluS element (2%) likely inserted by a mechanism involving internal priming. Seven AluS polymorphisms (15%) appear to have arisen by the classical target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT) retrotransposition mechanism. These seven TPRT products are 3' intact with 3' poly-A tails, and are flanked by target site duplications; L1 ORF2p endonuclease cleavage sites were also observed, providing additional evidence that these are L1 ORF2p endonuclease-mediated TPRT insertions. Further sequence analysis showed strong conservation of both the RNA polymerase III promoter and SRP9/14 binding sites, important for mediating transcription and interaction with retrotransposition machinery, respectively. This conservation of functional features implies that some of these are fairly recent insertions since they have not diverged significantly from their respective retrotranspositionally competent source elements. Of the polymorphic AluS elements evaluated in this report, 15% (7/48) have features consistent with TPRT-mediated insertion

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical manifestations of KD include per- sistent fever, non-purulent conjunctivitis, diffuse muco- sal inflammation, polymorphous skin rashes, indurative angioedema of the hands and feet, and non-suppurative cervical lymphadenopathy3. In about 20% of patients vasculitis will lead to coronary artery lesions as detect-.

  8. Human Retrotransposon Insertion Polymorphisms Are Associated with Health and Disease via Gene Regulatory Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The human genome hosts several active families of transposable elements (TEs, including the Alu, LINE-1, and SVA retrotransposons that are mobilized via reverse transcription of RNA intermediates. We evaluated how insertion polymorphisms generated by human retrotransposon activity may be related to common health and disease phenotypes that have been previously interrogated through genome-wide association studies (GWAS. To address this question, we performed a genome-wide screen for retrotransposon polymorphism disease associations that are linked to TE induced gene regulatory changes. Our screen first identified polymorphic retrotransposon insertions found in linkage disequilibrium (LD with single nucleotide polymorphisms that were previously associated with common complex diseases by GWAS. We further narrowed this set of candidate disease associated retrotransposon polymorphisms by identifying insertions that are located within tissue-specific enhancer elements. We then performed expression quantitative trait loci analysis on the remaining set of candidates in order to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions that are associated with gene expression changes in B-cells of the human immune system. This progressive and stringent screen yielded a list of six retrotransposon insertions as the strongest candidates for TE polymorphisms that lead to disease via enhancer-mediated changes in gene regulation. For example, we found an SVA insertion within a cell-type specific enhancer located in the second intron of the B4GALT1 gene. B4GALT1 encodes a glycosyltransferase that functions in the glycosylation of the Immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody in such a way as to convert its activity from pro- to anti-inflammatory. The disruption of the B4GALT1 enhancer by the SVA insertion is associated with down-regulation of the gene in B-cells, which would serve to keep the IgG molecule in a pro-inflammatory state. Consistent with this idea, the B4GALT1 enhancer

  9. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and essential hypertension (EH) is not well understood. Both conditions result from an interaction of multiple genetic (ethnic) and environmental (geographical) factors. One possible genetic determinant is the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion ...

  10. A rapid detection method for PAI-1 promoter insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annichino-Bizzacchi Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is an important inhibitor of fibrinolysis, and increased levels of PAI-1 are associated with atheroma and myocardial infarction. A common 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the promoter region of PAI-1 gene has been described associated with PAI-1 activity in plasma levels. Genotyping of this polymorphism is commonly conducted with an allele-specific oligonucleotide melting technique. In the present study, we describe a quick, easy method for genotyping 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene.

  11. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman, H; Klungel, O H; van Duijn, C M; Witteman, J C M; Hofman, A; de Boer, A; Stricker, B H Ch

    AIMS: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. METHODS: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who started ACE

  12. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and adherence to ACE inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schelleman (Hedi); O.H. Klungel (Olaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. de Boer (Anton); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAims: We investigated whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene modified the adherence to ACE inhibitors as measured by the discontinuation of an ACE inhibitor, or addition of another antihypertensive drug. Methods: This was a cohort study among 239 subjects who

  13. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

  14. Ty1-copia elements reveal diverse insertion sites linked to polymorphisms among flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-12-07

    Initial characterization of the flax genome showed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are abundant, with several members being recently inserted, and in close association with genes. Recent insertions indicate a potential for ongoing transpositional activity that can create genomic diversity among accessions, cultivars or varieties. The polymorphisms generated constitute a good source of molecular markers that may be associated with phenotype if the insertions alter gene activity. Flax, where accessions are bred mainly for seed nutritional properties or for fibers, constitutes a good model for studying the relationship of transpositional activity with diversification and breeding. In this study, we estimated copy number and used a type of transposon display known as Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphisms (SSAPs), to characterize six families of Ty1-copia elements across 14 flax accessions. Polymorphic insertion sites were sequenced to find insertions that could potentially alter gene expression, and a preliminary test was performed with selected genes bearing transposable element (TE) insertions. Quantification of six families of Ty1-copia elements indicated different abundances among TE families and between flax accessions, which suggested diverse transpositional histories. SSAPs showed a high level of polymorphism in most of the evaluated retrotransposon families, with a trend towards higher levels of polymorphism in low-copy number families. Ty1-copia insertion polymorphisms among cultivars allowed a general distinction between oil and fiber types, and between spring and winter types, demonstrating their utility in diversity studies. Characterization of polymorphic insertions revealed an overwhelming association with genes, with insertions disrupting exons, introns or within 1 kb of coding regions. A preliminary test on the potential transcriptional disruption by TEs of four selected genes evaluated in three different tissues, showed one case of significant

  15. Identification and insertion polymorphisms of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in Brassica genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Naveed, M.

    2018-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) are abundant in plant genomes including members of Brassicaceae. Of the retroposons, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are more copious followed by short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The SINEs are short elements and ranged from 100-500 bps flanked by variable sized target site duplications, 5' tRNA region with polymerase III promoter, internal tRNA unrelated region, 3' LINEs derived region and a poly adenosine tail. Different computational approaches were used for the identification and characterization of SINEs, while PCR was used to detect the SINEs insertion polymorphisms in various Brassica genotypes. Ten previously unidentified families of SINEs were identified and characterized from Brassica genomes. The structural features of these SINEs were studied in detail, which showed typical SINE features displaying small sizes, target site duplications, head regions, internal regions (body) of variable sizes and a poly (A) tail at the 3' terminus. The elements from various families ranged from 206-558 bp, where BoSINE2 family displayed smallest SINE element (206 bp), while larger members belonged to BoSINE9 family (524-558 bp). The distribution and abundance of SINEs in various Brassica species and genotypes (40) at a particular site/locus were investigated by SINEs based PCR markers. Various SINE insertion polymorphisms were detected from different genotypes, where higher PCR bands amplified the SINE insertions, while lower bands amplified the pre-insertion sites (flanking regions). The analysis of Brassica SINEs copy numbers from 10 identified families revealed that around 860 and 1712 copies of SINEs were calculated from B. rapa and B. oleracea Whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) respectively. Analysis of insertion sites of Brassica SINEs revealed that the members from all 10 SINE families had shown an insertion preference in AT rich regions. The present

  16. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200 within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands" of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D and X (i.e. S200 X6.1 chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism: association with ethnic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, J; Blackwood, A; Carter, N D; Crews, D E; Cruickshank, J K; Jeffery, S; Ogunlesi, A O; Sagnella, G A

    1994-08-01

    To determine the distribution of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene in several ethnic groups: Caucasian Europeans, Black Nigerians, Samoan Polynesians and Yanomami Indians. The ratio of the frequencies of the II, ID and DD genotypes were 1:2:1 in the Europeans, but there was a tendency towards a higher frequency of the D allele in the Nigerians. In contrast, the Samoans and the Yanomami Indians displayed a much higher frequency of the I allele than of the D allele. The relationship between ACE genotype and disease in these latter groups is still not known, but the present results clearly suggest that ethnic origin should be carefully considered in the increasing number of studies on the association between I/D ACE genotype and disease aetiology.

  18. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, and cancer: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Knaap (Ronald); C. Siemes (Claire); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism all influence serum angiotensin II action. Because angiotensin II levels have been associated with cancer, the objective of the current

  20. Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and white matter hyperintensities in dementia: A pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Davidson, Y.; Gibbons, L.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.; Mann, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphism and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients with dementia. DESIGN: Observational pilot study with adjustment for potential confounders using analysis of covariance.

  1. Exploring the Link between ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D Polymorphism and Uterine Leiomyomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Shahbazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uterine leiomyomas arise from the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. ACE gene encodes a convertase enzyme mainly secreted in vascular endothelial cells which is involved in the renin–angiotensin system and blood pressure controlling. This gene has an insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism correlates to serum and tissue ACE levels. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between ACE gene variation and the development of myom. Methods: The samples of 55 uterine leiomyoma patients and 78 healthy women were studied. After obtaining informed consent, blood samples were collected and DNA extraction was performed by Salting-out method. Genotyping was performed using PCR reaction. The amplified products were two bands of 190 and 490 bp, which represents D allele and I allele, respectively. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The D allele frequency was 0.55 in the patient group and 0.51 in the control group. The I allele frequencies in the two groups were 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. The results showed that taking the II genotype into account as reference genotype; homozygous DD individuals were at increased risk of uterine myoma (Odds ratio: 1.37. However, heterozygous ID showed a similar risk with the II genotype as the reference group. Conclusion: High blood pressure is significantly associated with uterine fibroids. It has been shown that atherosclerotic damage of uterine blood vessels and the inflammatory process caused by it may play an important role in the development of uterine myoma. This study indicates a positive relationship between the ACE (I/D polymorphism and the risk of uterine myoma. This finding is evidence of the important role of the renin–angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of myoma

  2. Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms and Serum Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Levels in Iranian Patients with Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAVADI, Alireza; SHAMAEI, Masoud; ZAREI, Masoud; REZAEIAN, Lida; KIANI, Arda; ABEDINI, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown origin with characterization of small granulomas. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a pathophysiologic marker of sarcoidosis. We present the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in correlation with serum ACE level in Iranian patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: From Jan 2014 to Jan 2015, 102 Iranian patients who histopathologically diagnosed for sarcoidosis and 192 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. PCR was used for detection of I/D polymorphism in ACE gene. Results: Frequency of II/ID/DD genotype in sarcoidosis disease was 17%, 35.5%, and 47.1%, respectively. The frequency of D allele was 0.65. A significant association between I/D genotypes and mean of sACE level was seen (DD=85.2±22.9, P<0.001). More frequent genotype in sarcoidosis patients was DD (47%), ID genotype (45.9%) was found more in controls. Logistic regression analysis adjusting age and sex showed that ID to II (OR=0.35, 95%CI=0.17–0.73, P=0.005) and DD to II (OR=2.11, 95%CI=0.98–4.54, P=0.05) could be considered as a predictor factor for the disease activity. No significant model for men in sarcoidosis group was seen, while women with II/ID were associated with a reduced risk for the disease. Conclusion: Although more regional studies with appropriate statistical scale must be done to provide a better diagnosis and prognostic tool for this disease, this study demonstrates that ID and DD genotype could be predictive factors for sarcoidosis. PMID:28032065

  3. Association between NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism and risk of intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Xiutian; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Jin; You, Chao

    2013-08-01

    Growing evidence indicates that vascular inflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Nuclear factor kappa B is a key molecule that is involved in the vascular inflammation of IA. We hypothesized that an insertion/deletion (ins/del) ATTG polymorphism located between two putative key promoter regulatory elements in the NFKB1 gene may be related to the risk of IA. We performed a case-control study, including 164 patients with IA and 525 healthy controls in a Chinese population using a polymerase chain reaction-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay. A significantly decreased risk of IA was observed in the ATTG1/ATTG2 and ATTG2/ATTG2 genotypes compared with the ATTG1/ATTG1 genotype (ATTG1/ATTG2 vs. ATTG1/ATTG1: odds ratio [OR]=0.58, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.39-0.87, p=0.007; ATTG2/ATTG2 vs. ATTG1/ATTG1: OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.06-0.23, p41, 95% CI=0.32-0.54, pIA.

  4. Transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons in Eucalyptus genus are differentially expressed and insertionally polymorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2015-08-14

    In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.

  5. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Alaşehirli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drugs on migraine attack frequency have been shown. We aimed to study the relationship between the angiotensin converting enzyme gene and migraine pathophysiology. METHODS: In the present study, to assess whether the angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D gene polymorphisms have an effect on migraine attacks, we studied the angiotensin converting enzyme genotypes of 102 migraine patients (35 cases of migraine with aura and 67 of migraine without aura and 75 age-and sex-matched normal volunteers. Frequency and age of onset of migraine attacks were also assessed according to angiotensin converting enzyme genotypes. RESULTS: Patients with migraine with and without aura were comparable with each other and the control group with respect to angiotensin converting enzyme genotypes (respectively; p= 0.88 and p= 0.76, p= 0.624. We could not determine a relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme genotypes and attack frequency (p= 0.125, but cases with angiotensin converting enzyme-II genotype showed a significantly younger age for onset of migraine attacks in comparison with the I/D genotype patients (p= 0.021. CONCLUSION: We believe that further angiotensin converting enzyme gene studies are warranted in younger age groups of patients with migraine and also in different populations

  6. Genetic differentiation and origin of the Jordanian population: an analysis of Alu insertion polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Raoudha; El Moncer, Wifak; Al-Batayneh, Khalid; Sadiq, May; Esteban, Esther; Moral, Pedro; Chaabani, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    Although much of Jordan is covered by desert, its north-western region forms part of the Fertile Crescent region that had given a rich past to Jordanians. This past, scarcely described by historians, is not yet clarified by sufficient genetic data. Thus in this paper we aim to determine the genetic differentiation of the Jordanian population and to discuss its origin. A total of 150 unrelated healthy Jordanians were investigated for ten Alu insertion polymorphisms. Genetic relationships among populations were estimated by a principal component (PC) plot based on the analyses of the R-matrix software. Statistical analysis showed that the Jordanian population is not significantly different from the United Arab Emirates population or the North Africans. This observation, well represented in PC plot, suggests a common origin of these populations belonging respectively to ancient Mesopotamia, Arabia, and North Africa. Our results are compatible with ancient peoples' movements from Arabia to ancient Mesopotamia and North Africa as proposed by historians and supported by previous genetic results. The original genetic profile of the Jordanian population, very likely Arabian Semitic, has not been subject to significant change despite the succession of several civilizations.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for hypertension in SLE nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Vir S; Devaraju, Panneer; Gulati, Reena

    2015-09-01

    SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease with high prevalence of hypertension. Around 40-75 % of SLE patients develop nephritis, a major cause of hypertension and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) maintains the blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 of ACE gene was reported to influence the development of hypertension, nephritis, and cardiovascular diseases in different ethnic populations. Despite compelling evidence for the high prevalence of hypertension in individuals with SLE, underlying factors for its development are not well studied. With this background, we analyzed the influence of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE, development of nephritis and hypertension, other clinical features and autoantibody phenotype in South Indian SLE patients. Three hundred patients with SLE and 460 age and sex similar ethnicity matched individuals were included as patients and healthy controls, respectively. The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed by PCR. Insertion (I) and deletion (D) alleles were observed to be equally distributed among patients (57 and 43 %) and controls (59 and 41 %), respectively. The mutant (D) allele did not confer significant risk for SLE (II vs. ID: p = 0.4, OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.8-1.6; II vs. DD: p = 0.34, OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.8-1.85). There was no association of the ACE genotype or the allele with development of lupus nephritis (II vs. ID: p = 0.19, OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.84-2.36; II vs. DD: p = 0.41, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.38-1.41) or hypertension (II vs. ID: p = 0.85, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.43-1.8; II vs. DD: p = 0.66, OR 1.217, 95 % CI 0.5-2.8). The presence of mutant allele (D) was not found to influence any clinical features or autoantibody phenotype. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is not a genetic risk factor for SLE and does not influence development of hypertension or lupus nephritis in South Indian

  8. Lack of Association between Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH 19-bp Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Risk of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour shakiba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interaction between genetic and environmental factors is considered as major factors in Schizophrenia (SCZ. It has been shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission dysfunction play an essential role in the SCZ pathogenesis.This study aimed to find the impact of functional 19-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del polymorphism in dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH gene on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population.Method: This case-control study was conducted on 109 SCZ patients and 116 matched healthy subjects. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cells using salting out method. Genotyping of 19-bp ins/del DBH polymorphism was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method.Results: Neither the overall chi-square comparison of cases and controls (

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism studies in Asian Indian pregnant women biochemically identifies gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran A; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2014-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been widely investigated in Asian Indian populations with different ethnic origins. The present study examined possible association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. A total of 200 pregnant women (100 GDM and 100 non-GDM) were recruited in this study and I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gel electrophoresis. The distribution of the variants like II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene showed differences between normal GDM versus non-GDM subjects, and the frequency of the ID+ DD Vs II genotype was significant (p=0.0002) in the GDM group. ACE gene polymorphism was associated with GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype, Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Saphenous Vein Graft Atherosclerosis in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Zeinali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interactions among Angiotensin-I converting enzyme genotype, insertion/deletion polymorphism and atherosclerosis of vein grafts in Iranian patients, and characterize their clinical and demographic profile. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery more than five years ago, were included for angiographic analysis. Atherosclerosis was determined by quantitative angiography and adjusted Gensini score. The gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients participated in this study. Eighty-four patients were male. The frequency distribution of DD, ID and II polymorphism were 23.6%, 62.7% and 13.7% respectively. There were no differences among genotypic groups in age, sex, number of risk factors, number of vein grafts and months since bypass surgery. According to adjusted Gensini score [0.18±0.12 (II vs. 0.11±0.09 (ID and 0.1±0.09 (DD P=0.021] the II genotype was associated with severity of vein graft atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Although there are conflicting results about gene angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and the degree of venous bypass graft degeneration, this study suggests an association between ACE genotype II and atherosclerosis of saphenous vein grafts, however, large samples considering clinical, demographic and ethnic profile are necessary to confirm these results.

  11. Alu insertion/deletion of ACE gene polymorphism might not affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widodo

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... a Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya ... Subjects and methods: The serum bradykinin and I/D polymorphism have been ..... Japanese hypertensive patients receiving an ACE inhibitor.

  12. ACE Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy: Clinical Implications of Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kyu Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20–40% of diabetic patients develop nephropathy which is the leading cause of ESRD in developed countries. The ACE I/D polymorphism is thought to be a marker for functional polymorphism which regulates circulating and tissue ACE activity. While the initial study found a protective effect of the II genotype on the development of nephropathy in IDDM patients, subsequent studies have addressed the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. RAAS blockers are the first line drugs for the treatment hypertension associated with diabetes and have been widely used in everyday clinical practice for the purpose of reducing proteinuria in patients with various renal diseases. However, the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers is variable and the percentage of reducing proteinuria is in the range of 20–80%. The antiproteinuric effect of RAAS blockers may be related to a number of factors: the type or the dose of RAAS blockers, the duration of therapy, the level of sodium intake, and the type of patient’s ACE I/D genotype. Besides the nongenetic factors, drug responses, can be influenced by ACE gene polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy and therapeutic response of RAAS blockers.

  13. Association of the UCP2 45-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essam Hussain Jiffri

    2012-05-19

    May 19, 2012 ... The study genotyped for the UCP2 ins/del polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction, evaluated ... diabetes type 2 and obesity using a case-control analysis in the Saudi ..... [25] Elhadd TA, Al-Amoudi AA, Alzahrani AS.

  14. Association of the UCP2 45-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) regulates insulin secretion and may play an important role in linking obesity to diabetes type 2 (T2D) that represents a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the 45-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) in 3'UTR exon 8 within the ...

  15. Alu insertion polymorphisms in the African Sahel and the origin of Fulani pastoralists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, M.; Hofmanová, Z.; Mokhtar, M. G.; Janoušek, V.; Diallo, I.; Munclinger, P.; Černý, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2017), s. 537-545 ISSN 0301-4460 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Alu insertions * Fulani nomads * Western African pastoralism * African Sahel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  16. Renin angiotensin system blockage associates with insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with hypertensive emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela-Martin, José F; Vaz-de-Melo, Renan O; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana N; Kuniyoshi, Cristina H; Yugar-Toledo, Juan C; Pinhel, Marcela A S; de Souza, Gisele F; Souza, Dorotéia R S; Pimenta, Eduardo; Moreno, Heitor; Cipullo, José P

    2013-09-01

    Hypertensive crisis (HC) stands out as a form of acute elevation of blood pressure (BP). It can manifest itself as hypertensive emergency (HE) or hypertensive urgency (HU), which is usually accompanied with levels of diastolic BP ≥120 mmHg. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism may influence manifestations of HC. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of ACE I/D polymorphism in individuals with HC. A total of 187 patients admitted with HC (HU [n=69] and HE [n=118]) and 75 normotensive individuals were included in the study. Peripheral blood was drawn for a biochemical and genetic analysis of the ACE I/D polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction. HC group showed higher systolic BP, body mass index (BMI), glycemia, creatinine, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with normotensive individuals. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers was more frequent in the HU group than in the HE group (p=0.020). The II genotype was more predominant in normotensive and HU individuals than among HE individuals (18.7%, 11.6%, and 2.5%, respectively; p=0.004). Higher BMI and glycemia were associated with HC in the logistic regression model. ACE II genotype (odds ratio [OR] 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.51) and HDL cholesterol were protective for the development of HE. ACE II genotype was present in the HU group, compared with the HE group (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.04-0.88). This study shows an association between the low prevalence of ACE I/D polymorphism II genotype and a greater occurrence of HE in Brazilian individuals. The lower blockage of RAS, which was detected in the HE group, may interact with the low frequency of II genotype, conferring an increased risk for HE.

  17. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Small Vessel Cerebral Stroke in Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is an established risk factor for small-vessel cerebral stroke and the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the maintenance of blood pressure. We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism to the risk of small-vessel stroke in south Indian population. Materials and Methods. We investigated 128 patients diagnosed with small-vessel stroke and 236 age, and gender-matched healthy controls. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results. Hypertension was significantly more prevalent in the patient group and was associated with 6-fold increase in risk for stroke. ACE genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both patients and controls. Prevalence of DD, ID, and II genotypes in cases (34.4%, 43.7%, and 28% did not differ significantly from controls (31.8%, 43.2%, and 25%. The polymorphism was not associated with small-vessel stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.52–1.55. However, diastolic blood pressure was associated with the ACE I/D genotypes in the patients. (DD; 90.2±14.2> ID; 86.2±11.9> II; 82.3±7.8 mm Hg,  P=0.047. Conclusion. Our study showed that hypertension, but not ACE I/D polymorphism, increased the risk of small-vessel stroke.

  18. Genotyping of the 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of beta-hydroxylase gene by dissociation analysis of allele-specific PCR products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The 19-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' flank of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We have developed a simple, reliable and inexpensive closed-tube assay for genotyping of this polymorphism based upon T(m) determination of amplified...... and a conventional approach based upon agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified fragments revealed complete concordance between the two procedures. The insights obtained in this study may be utilized to develop assays based upon dissociation analysis of PCR products for genotyping of other insertion...

  19. A method for the analysis of 32 X chromosome insertion deletion polymorphisms in a single PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Iva

    2012-01-01

    population samples and revealed high forensic efficiency, as measured by the accumulated power of discrimination (0.9999990 was the lowest value in males and 0.999999999998 was the highest in females) and mean exclusion chance varied between 0.998 and 0.9996 in duos and between 0.99997 and 0.999998 in trios......-Indel multiplex system amplifying 32 biallelic markers in one single PCR. The multiplex includes X-Indels shown to be polymorphic in the major human population groups and follows a short amplicon strategy. The set was applied in the genetic characterization of sub-Saharan African, European and East Asian...

  20. A fast and easy real-time PCR genotyping method for the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurisic, S; Sørensen, A E; Hviid, T V F

    2012-01-01

    and reliable method to screen for the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism using an optimized real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol. The genotyping assay has been validated by comparison with conventional methods. As results can be obtained within a few hours, the assay will have a potential...

  1. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme gene is associated with coronary heart disease in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Cambien, Francois; Rossing, P

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with diabetic nephropathy have a highly increased morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. An insertion (I) /deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been shown to be associated with coronary heart disea...

  2. The ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Cerebrovascular Diseases in Uzbek Patients with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza U. Makhkamova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the development of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE in Uzbek patients with hypertension (HT. Materials and methods: The study included 91 male patients aged from 32 to 74 years (mean age 52.5±9.2 with HT Grade 1, 2 and 3 (ESH/ESC, 2013 [4] and presence of HE. All patients were checked on office BP using Korotkov’s method and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery was measured by a 7.5MHz high-resolution ultrasound. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using the DiatomTM DNA Prep 200 Kit according to the manufacturer's protocol. ACE gene I/D polymorphism genotypes were determined by PCR. Results: Among HT patients with HE, we have identified a statistically significant predominance of ID genotype carriers (65.9% against carriers of the II genotype (18.75 and DD genotype (15.4% (P=0.000; the frequency of I and D alleles was 51.6% and 48.4%, respectively (P>0.05. Comparative analysis showed a possible association between the ID genotype/D allele and HE development in HT patients, according to the general model (OR = 6.36; 95% CI 3.04 -13.31; p=0.000 and multiplicative model (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.25 -3.27; p=0.004 of inheritance. High grades of HT were predominant in carriers of the DD genotype. IMT was significantly higher in carriers of the DD genotype than in carriers of the II and ID genotypes. The carriage of D allele was associated with the highest levels of TC, TG, and VLDL-C. Carriers of the DD genotype were characterized by higher values of daytime SBP, nighttime SBP variability and nighttime SBP load.

  3. Computational and Statistical Analyses of Insertional Polymorphic Endogenous Retroviruses in a Non-Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs are a class of transposable elements found in all vertebrate genomes that contribute substantially to genomic functional and structural diversity. A host species acquires an ERV when an exogenous retrovirus infects a germ cell of an individual and becomes part of the genome inherited by viable progeny. ERVs that colonized ancestral lineages are fixed in contemporary species. However, in some extant species, ERV colonization is ongoing, which results in variation in ERV frequency in the population. To study the consequences of ERV colonization of a host genome, methods are needed to assign each ERV to a location in a species’ genome and determine which individuals have acquired each ERV by descent. Because well annotated reference genomes are not widely available for all species, de novo clustering approaches provide an alternative to reference mapping that are insensitive to differences between query and reference and that are amenable to mobile element studies in both model and non-model organisms. However, there is substantial uncertainty in both identifying ERV genomic position and assigning each unique ERV integration site to individuals in a population. We present an analysis suitable for detecting ERV integration sites in species without the need for a reference genome. Our approach is based on improved de novo clustering methods and statistical models that take the uncertainty of assignment into account and yield a probability matrix of shared ERV integration sites among individuals. We demonstrate that polymorphic integrations of a recently identified endogenous retrovirus in deer reflect contemporary relationships among individuals and populations.

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with increased adiposity and blood pressure in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Vinícius A F; Neves, Ana Luísa; Guazzelli, Isabel C; Frazzatto, Eliana; Nicolau, Christiane; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Velho, Gilberto; Villares, Sandra M F

    2013-12-15

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism in the gene encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D) was associated with arterial hypertension and obesity in adults, but the data in children are scarce and yielded contrasting results. We assessed the impact of the ACE I/D on blood pressure and obesity related traits in a Brazilian cohort of obese children and adolescents. ACE I/D was genotyped in 320 obese children and adolescents (64% of girls) aged 7-16years, referred for a weight-loss program. We observed an association of the D-allele with blood pressure and with pre-hypertension/hypertension in boys (odds ratio 2.44, 95% C.I. 1.34-4.68, p=0.005 for a codominant model). The D-allele, insulin resistance and body fat mass had independent and additive effects and explained 14% of the variance of pre-hypertension/hypertension. The BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass were significantly higher in DD/ID boys than in II boys (pblood pressure. No genotype associations were observed in girls. The D-allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with arterial hypertension and with obesity related traits in boys, but not in girls, in a cohort of obese children and adolescents. These associations were independent of each other, as well as of the effects of other confounding traits such as insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Our results are in agreement with experimental evidences suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. © 2013.

  5. Effect of ACE insertion/deletion and 12 other polymorphisms on clinical outcomes and response to treatment in the life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kontula, Kimmo; Benn, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and 12 other previously well-characterized polymorphisms of hypertension susceptibility genes affected blood pressure reduction, heart rate reduction, cardiovascular events, and/or response to treatment...... in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension study do not depend on ACE and 12 other polymorphisms of hypertension susceptibility genes........ These polymorphisms were chosen because they could affect blood pressure control or the pharmacological action of losartan or atenolol. METHODS: We genotyped 3503 patients, 1774 on losartan and 1729 on atenolol. RESULTS: ACE and the 12 other genotypes did not affect the reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic...

  6. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written i...

  7. Association between insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Akihisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous meta-analysis reported a positive association between an insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE and the risk of acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Here, we updated this meta-analysis and additionally assessed the association of this polymorphism with ALI/ARDS mortality. Methods We searched electronic databases through October 2011 for the terms “angiotensin-converting enzyme gene”, “acute lung injury”, and “acute respiratory distress syndrome,” and reviewed all studies that reported the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with ALI/ARDS in humans. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 532 ALI/ARDS patients, 3032 healthy controls, and 1432 patients without ALI/ARDS. We used three genetic models: the allele, dominant, and recessive models. Results The ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to ALI/ARDS for any genetic model. However, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asian subjects ( Pallele Pdominant = 0.001, Precessive = 0.002. This finding remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions There is a possible association between the ACE I/D polymorphism genotype and the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asians.

  8. Detection of a 4-bp Insertion/deletion Polymorphism within the Promoter of EGLN2 Using Mismatch PCR-RFLP and Its Association with Susceptibility to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Sattarifard, Hedieh; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Bahari, Gholamreza

    2018-04-25

    It has been shown that a 4-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism of EGLN2 influences the risk of several cancers. However, to date, no study has inspected the impact of the 4-bp ins/del polymorphism on breast cancer (BC) risk. A case-control study, including 134 breast cancer patients and 154 healthy women, was here conducted to examine the possible association between EGLN2 4-bp ins/del polymorphism and BC risk in a southeast Iranian population. A mismatched polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was designed for genotyping of the variant. Our findings did not support any association between the 4-bp ins/del polymorphism and the risk of BC in the codominant, dominant, recessive and allele inheritance models tested. When links between the EGLN2 4-bp ins/del polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were evaluate the variant was only associated with HER2 status. More studies with larger sample sizes and diverse ethnicities are warranted to verify our finding. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Distribution of Angiotensin-1 Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and α-Actinin-3 Codon 577 Polymorphisms in Turkish Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Ulucan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE gene and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3 gene polymorphisms are considered to be the most important candidate genes for genetic predisposition to human athletic performance. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the distribution of ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms for the first time in male Turkish soccer players. In this prospective study, our cohort consisted of 25 professional players, all with Turkish ancestry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction length polymorphism was used for the characterization of the genotype of ACTN3 and single PCR for ACE . For ACE genotype, 16%, 44%, and 40% of the players had insertion/insertion (II, insertion/deletion (ID, and deletion/deletion (DD genotypes, respectively, whereas 20% had XX, 36% had RX, and 44% had RR genotypes for ACTN3 . When we examined the allelic percentages, for ACE , D allele was recorded as 62 and I as 38, and for ACTN3 , R allele was 62 and X was 38. Our results were in agreement with the previous reports, indicating the presence of ACTN3 D and ACE X allele in soccer players. We suggest that ACE and ACTN3 genotypes are important biomarkers for genetic counseling for the individuals who are prone to be successful soccer players.

  10. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE gene in females with peripartum cardiomyopathy: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Irfan; Tramboo, Nisar A; Bhat, Irfan A; Pandith, Arshad; Beig, Jahangir R; Hafeez, Imran; Lone, Aijaz A; Shah, Tariq R; Samreen, Sumera

    The role of polymorphism of Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and ACE activity in etiopathogenesis, prognosis, and many other clinical parameters in the various form of the cardiovascular disease has been established to some degree of certainty. The pathophysiology of Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) remains an area of active research. The main aim of our study was to see pattern of ACE- Insertion/Deletion (I/D) allele in PPCM and its implications on left ventricular performance indices. This single-center case-control study included 45 cases and 70 controls. The diagnosis of PPCM was established clinically and echocardiographically. ACE genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in all subjects. The II, ID, and DD genotype was present in 16, 18 and 11 of subjects with PPCM and 48, 19 and 3 of controls respectively. The odds ratio for ACE-II genotype in cases vs. controls was 0.253 (95% CI=0.114-0.558; p=0.007), for that of II genotype was 1.93 (95% CI=0.86-4.3; p=0.107) and for DD genotype was 7.225 (95% CI; 1.88-27.6; p=0.0039). Overall frequency of D allele in cases was significantly higher than controls (odds=4.25; 95% CI=2.01-6.7; p=0.0001). Moreover, ejection fraction, left ventricular volume and linear dimensions were worse in patients with DD genotype. ACE DD genotype and overall frequency of D allele is significantly higher in patients with PPCM. Also, the presence of DD genotype is associated with worse systolic performance indices measured echocardiographically. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of ACE insertion/deletion and 12 other polymorphisms on clinical outcomes and response to treatment in the life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kontula, Kimmo; Benn, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pharmacogenetics substudy from the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in Hypertension study in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) treated with the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan versus the beta-blocker atenolol for 4.8 years tested...... whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and 12 other previously well-characterized polymorphisms of hypertension susceptibility genes affected blood pressure reduction, heart rate reduction, cardiovascular events, and/or response to treatment....... These polymorphisms were chosen because they could affect blood pressure control or the pharmacological action of losartan or atenolol. METHODS: We genotyped 3503 patients, 1774 on losartan and 1729 on atenolol. RESULTS: ACE and the 12 other genotypes did not affect the reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic...

  12. The angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and differences in fasting plasma glucose in Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: the population-based SUNSET-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Stronks, Karien; Hahntow, Ines N.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Holleman, Frits

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism and glycemic state. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and mean fasting glucose were not associated with genotype among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and Dutch

  13. The -271 G>A polymorphism of kinase insert domain-containing receptor gene regulates its transcription level in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, She-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Su, Jian; Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Jia-Ying; Wu, Yi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) plays a critical role in the metastasis of cancer and is used as a molecular target in cancer therapy. We investigated the characteristics of the -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene to gain information that may benefit the development of individualized therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene in 106 lung cancer patients and 203 healthy control individuals was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate KDR mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively, in frozen tumor specimens. The -271 G>A polymorphism was associated with the mRNA expression level of the KDR gene in tumor tissues (t = 2.178, P = 0.032, independent samples t-test). Compared with the AG/GG genotype, the AA genotype was associated with higher KDR mRNA expression in tumor tissues. We found no relationship between the genotype and the KDR protein expression level and no significant difference in the distribution of the KDR gene polymorphism genotypes between lung cancer patients and the control group (χ 2 = 1.269, P = 0.264, Fisher's exact test). This study is the first to show that the -271 G>A polymorphism of the KDR gene may be a functional polymorphism related to the regulation of gene transcription. These findings may have important implications for therapies targeting KDR in patients with NSCLC

  14. Susceptibility to gastric cancer and polymorphisms of insertion/deletion at the intron 3 of the XRCC4 and VNTR at the promoter region of the XRCC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Pashaei, Samira; Amerizade, Foroozan

    2015-07-01

    The genes encoding X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4; OMIM: 194363) and 5 (XRCC5; OMIM: 194364) are involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks. To investigating the associations between polymorphisms of Insertion/Deletion (I/D, rs28360071) in the intron 3 of the XRCC4 and VNTR in the promoter region of the XRCC5 and risk of gastric cancer, the present study was carried out. We included 159 (56 females, 103 males) with gastric cancer and 242 (75 females, 167 males) healthy blood donors frequency matched for age and gender. Using PCR-based methods, the genotypes of the study polymorphisms were determined. The alleles of VNTR XRCC5 polymorphism divided into two groups: L (0 and 1 repeats) and H (2 and 3 repeats) alleles. For the I/D XRCC4 polymorphism, after stratification of the subjects according to their family history (FH) of cancer, either the ID (OR = 3.19, 95%CI: 1.35-7.50, P = 0.008) or the DD genotypes (OR = 4.62, 95%CI: 1.63-13.0, P = 0.004) among positive FH persons, increased the risk of gastric cancer compared with the reference group (persons who have negative FH and II genotype). For the VNTR XRCC5 polymorphism, the LH + HH genotypes among positive FH persons, increased the risk of gastric cancer compared with the reference group (persons who have negative FH and LL genotype) (OR = 2.88, 95%CI: 1.34-6.18, P = 0.006). Sensitivity analysis showed that the above mentioned associations were not occurred due to the maldistribution of the genotypes among missing data. The present study suggests that both polymorphisms of the XRCC4 and XRCC5 might be risk factors for gastric cancer development especially among persons with positive FH.

  15. Lack of relationship between an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene and diabetic nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Cambien, Francois; Rossing, P

    1995-01-01

    Genotypic abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been suggested as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy. We studied the relationship between an insertion(I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene...... (40%) had proliferative retinopathy, and 67 patients (17%) had no diabetic retinopathy. There was no difference in genotype distribution between IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy and those with normalbuminuria: 63 (32%)/95 (48%)/40 (20%) vs. 67 (35%)/77 (41%)/46 (24%) had DD/ID/II genotypes...... by ACE/ID polymorphism, mean arterial blood pressure, and glomerular filtration rate (r2 = 0.30, P retinopathy and those without diabetic retinopathy: 52 (34%)/74 (48%)/29 (19%) vs. 26 (39%)/25 (37...

  16. Quantitative assessment of the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yang, S; Guo, F H; Mao, X; Zhou, H; Dong, Y Q; Wang, Z M; Luo, F

    2015-11-13

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with digestive system cancer; however, the results from previous studies have been conflicting. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancer using a meta-analysis of previously published studies. Databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies published prior to December 2014. We estimated the pooled OR with its 95%CI to assess the association. The meta-analysis consisted of thirteen case-control studies that included 2557 patients and 4356 healthy controls. Meta-analysis results based on all the studies showed no significant association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancer (DD vs II: OR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.59-1.24; DI vs II: OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.78-1.15; dominant model: OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81- 1.15; recessive model: OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.76-1.48). Subgroup analyses by race and cancer type did not detect an association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk. However, when the analyses were restricted to smaller studies (N digestive system cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism association with obesity and some related disorders in Egyptian females: a case-control observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Motawi, Tarek K.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Shahin, Nancy N.; Ahmed, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the WHO report in 2015, obesity is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevalence of Egyptian female obesity is 37.5?%. Since obesity is highly influenced by genetics, and adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system is over-activated in obesity, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on obesity and related disorders was studied in several populations, because of its effect on ACE activity. Our objective was t...

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible relation to proliferative nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Yahia, S; Laimon, W; Hamed, S M; Shouma, A; Shalaby, N M; Abdel-Hady, D; Ghanem, R; El-Farahaty, R M; El-Bassiony, S R; Hammad, E M

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is crucial in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus through angiotensin II which regulates vascular tone and endothelial functions. Objectives To study the frequency of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus and its possible relation to the renal pathology in cases with lupus nephritis. Subjects and methods The frequency of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism genotypes was determined in 78 Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus and compared to a matched group of 140 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction. Results The DD genotype of the ACE gene was higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( Plupus erythematosus patients in comparison to controls ( P lupus nephritis group, the DD genotype was significantly higher in those with proliferative lupus nephritis when compared to those with non-proliferative lupus nephritis ( P = 0.02; OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.4-1.6). Also, patients with proliferative lupus nephritis showed a higher frequency of the D allele ( P lupus erythematosus and occurrence of proliferative nephritis in Egyptian children.

  19. Associations between clinical characteristics and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in Moroccan population with Type-2 diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the severe complications of Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and a major cause of end-stage renal disease in these patients. Results from published studies on the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE insertion/ deletion (I/D gene polymorphism and patients with DN are still conflicting. We compared the clinical characteristics and the genotype frequencies of ACE polymorphism in 130 T2DM Moroccan patients with DN and 85 T2DM Moroccan patients without DN (controls using specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction. The degenerative complications of diabetes were significantly higher in the group with nephropathy. The distribution of the I/D genotypes was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The D allele was the most frequent allele in the Moroccan population in both groups studied (P = 0.68, however, there was no significant difference between the genotypes in T2DM patients with or without DN (P = 0.78. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of DN in the Moroccan population.

  20. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The insertion-deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with increased blood pressure in women at the end of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny A; Akulova, Ludmila Y; Dobrodomova, Irina S; Dvornyk, Volodymyr Y; Polonikov, Alexey V; Churnosov, Mikhail I

    2015-09-01

    Malfunctioning of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy may be responsible for adverse effects on the 'mother-fetus' system. The cardiovascular system of a pregnant woman develops adaptation to the increased load. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is known to play an important role in the adaptation. The present study was designed to investigate whether the insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with the level of arterial blood pressure in women before and during pregnancy. The level of blood pressure was measured in 591 Russian women (Central Russia) before and during (37-40 weeks term) pregnancy. The women were divided into three groups which were hypertensive, hypotensive, and normotensive according to blood pressure level. Genotyping of the ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism assay. Women with genotype DD showed the highest blood pressure level both during and at the end of pregnancy (pACE gene is associated with high blood pressure level at the end of pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageen Hussain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is one of the classic examples of autoimmune diseases among human beings and is a rare disease in Pakistani population. Clinically it is a quite diverse and complicated autoimmune disease in a sense that it involves multiple organs of the body and mimics with other diseases as well. This study focused on the distribution of HLA alleles in SLE patients with ACE I/D Polymorphism. A total of 122 individuals were enrolled in this study, 61 were the SLE patients who fulfilled revised ACR criteria and 61 were the healthy controls. Mean age of SLE patients at diagnosis was 30.35 ± 1.687 years (12-68 years. ACE gene I/D polymorphism was performed by nested PCR and DNA based HLA typing technique was used. ACE gene I/D polymorphism of Intron16 was studied and found to be involved in the activity of SLE. There is high frequency of HLA-A*01, HLA-B*40, HLA-DRB1*01 alleles in SLE patients with ACE DD genotype. The distribution of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles was analyzed in SLE patients with various disease phenotypes. HLA-A*01 and HLA-B*40 was the most common allele found in SLE patients with the involvement of skin. HLA-A*01, -A*03, HLA-B*13 and -B*46 were common in SLE patients with arthritis while HLA-A*26 and -A*69 were commonly found in Lupus nephritis cases. SLE patients involving both skin and kidney had an allele HLA-DRB1*01 common in them.

  3. The -2549 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of VEGF is associated with the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Bahari, Gholamreza; Tabasi, Farhad; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem affecting women of reproductive age. Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) has been associated with spontaneous abortion. The present case-control study aimed to evaluate the impact of the 18-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs35569394) in the promoter region of the VEGF gene on idiopathic RSA. Genomic DNA from 93 patients with RSA and 93 healthy fertile women of southeastern Iran was isolated using the salting-out method. Genotyping of the rs35569394 variant was performed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The findings indicated that the VEGF 18-bp ins/del variant significantly increased the risk of RSA under codominant (ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.31-6.22, P=0.019), dominant (del/ins+ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.20-4.01, P=0.015) and allelic (ins vs. del; OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.25-2.88, P=0.003) inheritance models. In summary, the findings propose a significant association between the VEGF 18-bp ins/del polymorphism and risk of RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. Further studies on larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate the present findings.

  4. Research of the origin of a particular Tunisian group using a physical marker and Alu insertion polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wifak El Moncer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show how, in some particular circumstances, a physical marker can be used along with molecular markers in the research of an ancient people movement. A set of five Alu insertions was analysed in 42 subjects from a particular Tunisian group (El Hamma that has, unlike most of the Tunisian population, a very dark skin, similar to that of sub-Saharans, and in 114 Tunisian subjects (Gabes sample from the same governorate, but outside the group. Our results showed that the El Hamma group is genetically midway between sub-Saharan populations and North Africans, whereas the Gabes sample is clustered among North Africans. In addition, The A25 Alu insertion, considered characteristic to sub-Saharan Africans, was present in the El Hamma group at a relatively high frequency. This frequency was similar to that found in sub-Saharans from Nigeria, but significantly different from those found in the Gabes sample and in other North African populations. Our molecular results, consistent with the skin color status, suggest a sub-Saharan origin of this particular Tunisian group.

  5. Retroelement insertional polymorphisms, diversity and phylogeography within diploid, D-genome Aegilops tauschii (Triticeae, Poaceae) sub-taxa in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-04-01

    The diploid goat grass Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14) is native to the Middle East and is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat. The aim of this study was to measure the diversity of different subspecies and varieties of wild Ae. tauschii collected across the major areas where it grows in Iran and to examine patterns of diversity related to the taxa and geography. Inter-retroelement amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were used to analyse the biodiversity of DNA from 57 accessions of Ae. tauschii from northern and central Iran, and two hexaploid wheats. Key Results Eight IRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 171 distinct DNA fragments between 180 and 3200 bp long from the accessions, of which 169 were polymorphic. On average, about eight fragments were amplified with each primer combination, with more bands being amplified from accessions from the north-west of the country than from other accessions. The IRAP markers showed high levels of genetic diversity. Analysis of all accessions together did not allow the allocation of individuals to taxa based on morphology, but showed a tendency to put accessions from the north-west apart from others regions. It is speculated that this could be due to different activity of retroelements in the different regions. Within the two taxa with most accessions, there was a range of IRAP genotypes that could be correlated closely with geographical origin. This supports suggestions that the centre of origin of the species is towards the south-east of the Caspian Sea. IRAP is an appropriate marker system to evaluate genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships within the taxa, but it is too variable to define the taxa themselves, where more slowly evolving morphological, DNA sequence or chromosomal makers may be more appropriate.

  6. Role of the 2 adenine (g.11293_11294insAA) insertion polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the factor VII (FVII) gene: molecular characterization of a patient with severe FVII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, F; Garagiola, I; Palla, R; Marziliano, N; Mannucci, P M

    2005-11-01

    Polymorphic variants in the gene encoding factor VII (F7) affect the plasma levels of this coagulation protein and modify the clinical phenotype of FVII deficiency in some patients. In this study we report the in vitro functional analysis of a novel polymorphic variant located in the 3' untranslated region of F7: g.11293_11294insAA. To determine whether this variant regulates FVII expression, we initially compared an expression vector containing FVII cDNA with g.11293_11294insAA with the FVII wild-type (WT) construct. The kinetics of mRNA production showed that the insertion decreases the steady-state FVII mRNA levels. To assess whether the insertion influences the phenotype of FVII-deficient patients, we evaluated its effect on the expression of FVII in a patient with severe FVII deficiency (undetectable FVII activity and antigen) carrying two additional homozygous missense variations (p.Arg277Cys and p.Arg353Gln). The two substitutions alone reduced the expression of FVII activity and antigen in vitro, but with the insertion polymorphism in our expression vector the patient's phenotype of undetectable plasma FVII was recapitulated. The insertion polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of F7 is another modifier of FVII expression that might explain the poor genotype-phenotype correlation in some FVII-deficient patients. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the

  8. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na

  9. An NFKB1 promoter insertion/deletion polymorphism influences risk and outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome among Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednan K Bajwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is required for transcription of many pro-inflammatory genes and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We hypothesized that a known functional polymorphism in the promoter of the NFKB1 gene may affect susceptibility to and outcome from ARDS.A case control study was conducted among a cohort of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU with risk factors for the development of ARDS. 379 patients with ARDS and 793 at-risk controls were studied. Patients were followed for 60 days with development of ARDS as a primary outcome; ARDS-related mortality and organ dysfunction were secondary outcomes.Patients homozygous for the 4 base pair deletion in the promoter of NFKB1 (del/del did not have an increased odds ratio (OR of developing ARDS in unadjusted analysis but were more likely to develop ARDS in the presence of a significant interaction between the del/del genotype and age (OR 5.21, 95% CI 1.35-20.0. In multivariate analysis, patients with ARDS and the del/del genotype also had increased 60 day mortality (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01-2.36 and more severe daily organ dysfunction (P<.001 when compared to ARDS patients with other genotypes.The del/del genotype is associated with an age-dependent increase in odds of developing ARDS. Patients with the del/del genotype and ARDS also have increased hazard of 60 day mortality and more organ failure.

  10. Prevalence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in South Indian population with hypertension and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shanmuganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Aim: This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I and deletion (D polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD with and without hypertension (HT. Settings and Design: Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT were chosen followed by informed consent. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd′s ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. Results: The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 1 (3.33% in control, II, 1 (3.33%; DD, 5 (16.67% and ID, 24 (80% in HT, II, 4 (13.33%; DD, 24 (80% and ID, 2 (6.67% in CKD and II, 0 (0%; DD, 2 (6.67% and ID, 28 (93.33% in CKD-HT group. Conclusions: D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive.

  11. Prevalence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in South Indian population with hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, R; Kumaresan, R; Giri, P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) leading to death. Hypertension plays a key role in the progression of renal failure and is also a chief risk factor for the occurrence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). This study investigates the possible association of insertion (I) and deletion (D) polymorphism of ACE gene in patients of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with and without hypertension (HT). Total 120 participants with 30 members in each group (Control, HT, CKD and CKD-HT) were chosen followed by informed consent. Blood samples were collected and subjected to biochemical analyses and nested PCR amplification was performed to genotype the DNA, for ACE I/D using specific primers. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 13. Allele and genotypic frequency was calculated by direct gene counting method. Comparison of the different genotypes was done by using Chi square test. Odd's ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval limit. The ACE genotype were distributed as II, 27 (90%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 1 (3.33%) in control, II, 1 (3.33%); DD, 5 (16.67%) and ID, 24 (80%) in HT, II, 4 (13.33%); DD, 24 (80%) and ID, 2 (6.67%) in CKD and II, 0 (0%); DD, 2 (6.67%) and ID, 28 (93.33%) in CKD-HT group. D allele of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying CKD and hypertension. This result suggest that CKD patients should be offered analysis for defects in ACE I/D polymorphisms, especially if they are hypertensive.

  12. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases) and 221 normotensives (controls) were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension. Results The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II) of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97), and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92), DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73), respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18)) was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH. PMID:24098401

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism association with obesity and some related disorders in Egyptian females: a case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawi, Tarek K; Shaker, Olfat G; Shahin, Nancy N; Ahmed, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO report in 2015, obesity is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevalence of Egyptian female obesity is 37.5 %. Since obesity is highly influenced by genetics, and adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system is over-activated in obesity, the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on obesity and related disorders was studied in several populations, because of its effect on ACE activity. Our objective was to study the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with obesity and certain related disorders, namely hypertension, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, in Egyptian females. Eighty female volunteers were recruited, blood pressure and body measurements were recorded and a fasting blood sample was obtained for the quantitation of glucose, lipid profile, insulin, leptin and identification of ACE I/D polymorphs. Subjects were grouped based on hypertension and obesity states. Comparisons of continuous parameters were made with independent sample t -test between two groups. The frequencies of ACE genotypes and alleles, and the association between gene polymorphism and metabolic parameters were assessed using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all groups. Genotype distribution did not differ significantly between controls and cases of all the studied disorders. Although DD carriers had apparently higher parameters of blood pressure, lipid profile and insulin resistance, only diastolic blood pressure was almost significant ( p  = 0.057). I-carriers were significantly less susceptible to hypertension than DD carriers having normal waist/hip ratio ( p  = 0.007, OR = 17.29, CI = 1.81-164.96) and normal conicity index ( p  = 0.024, OR = 7.00, CI = 1.36-35.93). In DD genotype carriers, a significant association was found between insulin resistance and high body mass index ( p  = 0.004, OR = 8.89, CI

  14. Does the Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism modify the response to ACE inhibitor therapy? – A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perna Annalisa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. Methods Our systematic review involved searching six electronic databases, then contacting the investigators (and pharmaceutical industry representatives responsible for the creation of these databases. Two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized, placebo-controlled trials and abstracted from each study details on characteristics and quality. Results Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Despite repeated efforts to contact authors, only four of the eleven studies provided sufficient data to quantify the effect modification by genotypes. We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. Pooling of the results was inappropriate, due to heterogeneity in ethnicity, clinical domains and outcomes. Conclusion Lack of sufficient genetic data from the reviewed studies precluded drawing any convincing conclusions. Better reporting of genetic data are needed to confirm our preliminary observations concerning better response to ACE inhibitors among Caucasian DD carriers as compared to II carriers.

  15. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of real-time PCR of sex-independent insertion-deletion polymorphisms to determine fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sherry Sze Yee; Barrett, Angela; Thadani, Henna; Asibal, Cecille Laureano; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of sex-linked disorders requires invasive procedures, carrying a risk of miscarriage of up to 1%. Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) present in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from maternal plasma offers a non-invasive source of fetal genetic material for analysis. Detection of Y-chromosome sequences in cfDNA indicates presence of a male fetus; in the absence of a Y-chromosome signal a female fetus is inferred. We aimed to validate the clinical utility of insertion-deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) to confirm presence of a female fetus using cffDNA. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the Y-chromosome-specific sequence, SRY, was performed on cfDNA from 82 samples at 6-39 gestational weeks. In samples without detectable SRY, qPCRs for eight INDELs were performed on maternal genomic DNA and cfDNA. Detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in cfDNA negative for SRY confirmed a female fetus. Fetal sex was correctly determined in 77/82 (93.9%) cfDNA samples. SRY was detected in all 39 samples from male-bearing pregnancies, and none of the 43 female-bearing pregnancies (sensitivity and specificity of SRY qPCR is therefore 100%; 95% CI 91%-100%). Paternally inherited fetal alleles were detected in 38/43 samples with no SRY signal, confirming the presence of a female fetus (INDEL assay sensitivity is therefore 88.4%; 95% CI 74.1%-95.6%). Since paternally inherited fetal INDELs were not used in women bearing male fetuses, the specificity of INDELs cannot be calculated. Five cfDNA samples were negative for both SRY and INDELS. We have validated a non-invasive prenatal test to confirm fetal sex as early as 6 gestational weeks using cffDNA from maternal plasma.

  17. QualitySNP: a pipeline for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions in EST data from diploid and polyploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voorrips Roeland E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are important tools in studying complex genetic traits and genome evolution. Computational strategies for SNP discovery make use of the large number of sequences present in public databases (in most cases as expressed sequence tags (ESTs and are considered to be faster and more cost-effective than experimental procedures. A major challenge in computational SNP discovery is distinguishing allelic variation from sequence variation between paralogous sequences, in addition to recognizing sequencing errors. For the majority of the public EST sequences, trace or quality files are lacking which makes detection of reliable SNPs even more difficult because it has to rely on sequence comparisons only. Results We have developed a new algorithm to detect reliable SNPs and insertions/deletions (indels in EST data, both with and without quality files. Implemented in a pipeline called QualitySNP, it uses three filters for the identification of reliable SNPs. Filter 1 screens for all potential SNPs and identifies variation between or within genotypes. Filter 2 is the core filter that uses a haplotype-based strategy to detect reliable SNPs. Clusters with potential paralogs as well as false SNPs caused by sequencing errors are identified. Filter 3 screens SNPs by calculating a confidence score, based upon sequence redundancy and quality. Non-synonymous SNPs are subsequently identified by detecting open reading frames of consensus sequences (contigs with SNPs. The pipeline includes a data storage and retrieval system for haplotypes, SNPs and alignments. QualitySNP's versatility is demonstrated by the identification of SNPs in EST datasets from potato, chicken and humans. Conclusion QualitySNP is an efficient tool for SNP detection, storage and retrieval in diploid as well as polyploid species. It is available for running on Linux or UNIX systems. The program, test data, and user manual are available at

  18. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Chrudimska, J; Macek, M

    2018-01-01

    (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes. Moreover, LHCGR and CYP19a1 together with oestradiol and inhibin-B were significantly increased in -/insLQ compared to the -/- genotype. The homozygous insLQ genotype showed strong significant......The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected...... from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II...

  19. Ethnic differences in the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and peripheral vascular disease: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Han

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: ACE I/D polymorphism might be associated with susceptibility to PVD in the Asian population, but there was no clear evidence indicating a similar significant relationship among Caucasians.

  20. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and the risk of hypertension among residents of two cities, South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Esien Kooffreh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The I/D polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene was a risk factor for hypertension in the sample population of Calabar and Uyo. This research will form baseline information for subsequent molecular studies in this population.

  1. Prevalence of alpha actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) R577X and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion / deletion gene polymorphisms in national and amateur Turkish athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroğlu, Onur; Zileli, Rayif; Nalbant, M Ali; Ulucan, Korkut

    2018-04-30

    Studies to date showed the importance of alpha- actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ID polymorphisms on determining athletic performance. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine polymorphisms given to Turkish athletes and compare them with sedentary individuals. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood by using commercially available DNA isolation kit (Macherey-Nagel, NucleoSpin®, Germany). For this study, a total of 84 volunteers (23 national athletes, 27 amateur athletes and 34 sedentary controls) was recruited.  ACE ID genotypes were determined by conventional polymerase chain reaction, and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology.   In ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, RX was the dominating genotype, and we detected no RR genotype in national athletes. (no RR genotype was detected in national athletes) X allele is more frequent in national athletes and R allele was more frequent in both amateur athletes and control group. II genotype was more frequent in national athletes and in control group, whereas DD genotype was more frequent in amateur athletes for ACE ID polymorphism. When we consider alleles, D allele was found more frequently in amateur athletes and control group whereas I allele was more frequent in national athletes in ACE ID polymorphism. For ACTN3, X allele was superior to R allele. ACTN3 R577X and ACE ID polymorphisms were important biomarkers in determining athletic performance. However, our results in Turkish athletes suggest that ACE D allele and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to athletes potentially, regardless of the distance they perform.

  2. Association of the insertion allele of the common ACE gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serri, Ahmad; Ismael, Fatma G; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A; Al-Rashdan, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    The D allele of the common angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D gene polymorphism (rs4646994) predisposes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, results on which allele predisposes to disease susceptibility remain controversial in Asian populations. This study was performed to evaluate the association of the common ACE I/D gene polymorphism with both T2DM and CVD susceptibility in an Arab population. We genotyped the ACE I/D polymorphisms by direct allele-specific PCR in 183 healthy controls and 400 CVD patients with diabetes (n=204) and without (n=196). Statistical analysis comparing between the different groups were conducted using R statistic package "SNPassoc". Two genetic models were used: the additive and co-dominant models. The I allele was found to be associated with T2DM (OR=1.84, p=0.00009) after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. However, there was no association with CVD susceptibility (p>0.05). The ACE I allele is found to be associated with T2DM; however, no association was observed with CVD. The inconsistency between studies is suggested to be attributed to genetic diversity due to the existence of sub-populations found in Asian populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Detecting deletions, insertions, and single nucleotide substitutions in cloned β-globin genes and new polymorphic nucleotide substitutions in β-globin genes in a Japanese population using ribonuclease cleavage at mismatches in RNA: DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability of ribonuclease (RNase) cleavage at mismatches in RNA:DNA duplexes (the RNase cleavage method) for determining nucleotide variant rates was examined in a Japanese population. DNA segments of various lengths obtained from four different regions of one normal and three thalassemic cloned human β-globin genes were inserted into transcription vectors. Sense and antisense RNA probes uniformly labeled with 32 P were prepared. When RNA probes of 771 nucleotides (nt) or less were hybridized with cloned DNAs and the resulting duplexes were treated with a mixture of RNases A and T1, the length of products agreed with theoretical values. Twelve possible mismatches were examined. Since both sense and antisense probes were used, uncleavable mismatches such as G:T and G:G which were made from one combination of RNA and DNA strands could be converted to the cleavable C:A and C:C mismatches, respectively, by using the opposite combination. Deletions and insertions of one (G), four(TTCT), five (ATTTT), and 10 (ATTTTATTTT) nt were easily detected. A polymorphic substitution of T to C at position 666 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2-666) of the β-globin gene was detected using genomic DNAs from cell lines established from the peripheral B lymphocytes of 59 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima or those amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of the gene with C at the IVS2-666 (allele C) was 0.48 and that of the gene with T (allene T) was 0.52. Two new polymorphic substitutions of C to A and A to T were detected at nucleotide positions 1789 and 1945 from the capping site, respectively, using genomic DNAs amplified by PCR. We conclude that it would be feasible to use the RNase cleavage method combined with PCR for large-scale screening of variation in chromosomal DNA. (J.P.N.)

  4. Relationship between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility of Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Biao Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Africans: D: =.81, DD: =.49. Furthermore, the II genotype seemed not to play a protective role against MCNS risk for Asians, Caucasians and Africans (=.12, =.09, =.76, resp.. Interestingly, there was also significant association between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and MCNS susceptibility in overall populations (D: =.007, DD: =.04, II: =.03. Conclusion. D allele or DD genotype might be a significant genetic molecular marker for MCNS susceptibility in Asians and overall populations, but not for Caucasians and Africans. More larger and rigorous genetic epidemiological investigations are required to further explore this association.

  5. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  6. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson L S; Chu, Tanya T W; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a population of Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese. A total of 1767 (843 male, 924 female) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit. ACE I/D genotype distribution was compared by chi-square test, the correlation between ACE I/D polymorphism and serum ACE activity was analysed by ANOVA test and gender difference of serum ACE activity of different genotypes was compared by independent sample t-test. No statistically significant difference of genotype distribution between male and female subjects was found. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE genotype. Overall, there was no gender difference of serum ACE activity; however, when sub-grouping the subjects by ACE I/D genotype, male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. No significant gender difference of genotype distribution was found in elderly Chinese. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE I/D polymorphism in elderly Chinese. Male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Association between the SERPINE1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G insertion/deletion promoter polymorphism (rs1799889) and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlu; Bracken, Michael B; Dewan, Andrew T; Chen, Suzan

    2013-03-01

    The SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G promoter region insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799889) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE), but the genetic association has been inconsistently replicated. To derive a more precise estimate of the association, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. This study conformed to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and HuGE Literature Finder literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the allelic comparison (4G versus 5G) and genotypic comparisons following the co-dominant (4G/4G versus 5G/5G and 4G/5G versus 5G/5G), dominant (4G/4G+4G/5G versus 5G/5G) and recessive (4G/4G versus 4G/5G+5G/5G) genetic models. Between-study heterogeneity was quantified by I(2) statistics and publication bias was appraised with funnel plots. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the robustness of meta-analysis findings. Meta-analysis of 11 studies involving 1297 PE cases and 1791 controls found a significant association between the SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and PE for the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13-1.64, P = 0.001), a robust finding according to sensitivity analysis. A low level of between-study heterogeneity was detected (I(2) = 20%) in this comparison, which may be explained by ethnic differences. Funnel plot inspection did not reveal evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive examination of the available literature on the association between SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G and PE. Meta-analysis results support this polymorphism as a likely susceptibility variant for PE.

  8. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  9. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Intron 16 Insertion/Deletion and Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor A1166C Gene Polymorphisms with Preeclampsia in South East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Salimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that a variety of genetic factors contributed in pathogenesis of the preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D and angiotensin II type1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms with preeclampsia. This study was performed in 125 preeclamptic pregnant women and 132 controls. The I/D Polymorphism of the ACE gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction and the A1166C Polymorphism of the AT1R gene was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype and allele frequencies of I/D polymorphism differed between two groups. The risk of preeclampsia was 3.2-fold in pregnant women with D allele (OR, 3.2 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3.8]; P=0.01. The distribution of the AT1R gene A1166C polymorphism was similar in affected and control groups. Our results supported that presence of the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene is a marker for the increased risk of preeclampsia.

  10. Polymorphism Sequence - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us JSNP Polymorphism Sequence Data detail Data name Polymorphism Sequence DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nb...dc00114-001 Description of data contents Information on polymorphisms (SNPs and insertions/deletions) and th...se Name database name JSNP_SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism JSNP_InsDel_IND: insertion/deletion JSNP_InsD...ved allele observed 3' Flanking Sequence 3' flanking sequence Offset in Flanking Sequence position of the polymorphism...uence Accession No. accession No. of the sequence for polymorphism screening Offset in Record position of the polymorphism

  11. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  12. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  13. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  14. Association between the DRD2-141C Insertion/Deletion polymorphism and schizophrenia Associação entre o polimorfismo -141C Ins/Del do gene do DRD2 e esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Cordeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is an important risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. The genes that codify the different compounds of the dopaminergic system have created interest for molecular investigations in patients with schizophrenia because the antipsychotic drugs, especially those of first generation, act on this cerebral system. Thus the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between the -141 Ins/Del (rs1799732 polymorphism of the dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2 and schizophrenia. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a sample of 229 patients and 733 controls. There were statistical differences in the allelic (χ2=9.78; p=0.001 and genotypic genotypic (χ2=12.74; p=0.001 distributions between patients and controls. Thus the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism of the DRD2 gene (allele Ins was associated to the SCZ phenotype in the investigated sample.Estudos epidemiológicos têm demonstrado que o componente genético é um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia. Os genes que codificam os diferentes componentes do sistema dopaminérgico passaram a despertar interesse para os estudos moleculares em pacientes com esquizofrenia, devido ao fato dos antipsicóticos, em especial os de primeira geração, exercerem sua ação nesse sistema. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a possível associação entre polimorfismo -141C Ins/Del (rs1799732 do gene do receptor dopaminérgico tipo 2 (DRD2 e esquizofrenia. Um total de 229 pacientes e 733 controles pareados para sexo e idade foi selecionado com o objetivo de investigar a distribuição dos alelos e genótipos do polimorfismo investigado entre os grupos de pacientes e controles. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante nas distribuições alélica (χ2=9,78; p=0,001 e genotípica (χ2=12,74; p=0,001 entre pacientes e

  15. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  16. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism in cystic fibrosis patients. Sabrine Oueslati Sondess Hadj Fredj Hajer Siala Amina Bibi Hajer Aloulou Lamia Boughamoura Khadija Boussetta Sihem Barsaoui Taieb Messaoud. Research Note Volume 95 Issue 1 March 2016 pp 193-196 ...

  18. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  20. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  1. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  2. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  3. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  4. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  5. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  6. Fuel insert shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  7. Fuel assembly insertion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  8. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  9. Polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme (insertion/deletion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells: neuronal (nNOS, type I), inducible (iNOS, type II) and endothelial ... was detected on 2% agarose gel containing ethidium bro- mide. .... Gender, male N (%). 329 (40.5%) .... ischemic heart disease in Japanese diabetic subjects. Diabetes.

  10. Analysis of three polymorphisms in Bidayuh ethnic of Sarawak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insertion/deletion polymorphism of YAP (DYS287), M96 and M120 polymorphisms in Bidayuh ethnic populations of Sarawak, Malaysia were analyzed in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 180 buccal samples and amplified by Hot-Start PCR method. The amplified PCR products were separated by using 2% ...

  11. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  12. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  13. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  15. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  16. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  17. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  18. Efficient DNA Fingerprinting Based on the Targeted Sequencing of Active Retrotransposon Insertion Sites Using a Bench-Top High-Throughput Sequencing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LI...

  19. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  20. ACE I/D polymorphism in Indian patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Dhandapany, Perundurai Subramaniam; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).......The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)....

  1. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  2. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Metabolism and gene polymorphisms of the folate pathway in Brazilian women with history of recurrent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Wendell Vilas; Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; Costa, Olívia Lúcia Nunes; Goncalves, Marilda Souza

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes involved in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). We investigated the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofalate reductase gene (MTHFR), the A2756G polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene (MS) and the 844ins68 insertion of the cystathionine beta synthetase gene (CBS). The PCR technique followed by RFLP was used to assess the polymorphisms; the serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate were investigated by chemiluminescence. The EPI Info Software version 6.04 was used for statistical analysis. Parametric variables were compared by Student's t-test and nonparametric variables by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The frequencies of gene polymorphisms in 89 women with a history of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and 150 controls were 19.1 and 19.6% for the C677T, insertion, 20.8 and 26% for the A1298C insertion, 14.2 and 21.9% for the A2756G insertion, and 16.4 and 18% for the 844ins68 insertion, respectively. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in any of the gene polymorphisms investigated. However, the frequency of the 844ins68 insertion in the CBS gene was higher among women with a history of loss during the third trimester of pregnancy (p=0.003). Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels id not differ between the polymorphisms studied in the case and control groups. However, linear regression analysis showed a dependence of serum folate levels on the maintenance of tHcy levels. The investigated gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels were not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in the present study. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the role of the CBS 844ins68 insertion in recurrent miscarriage.

  4. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  5. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  6. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  7. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  8. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  9. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  10. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  11. Association of GSTP1 gene polymorphisms with performance traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sony

    The genetic variants were determined by PCR-SSCP technique. Two unique SSCP patterns were observed in fragment 1, 3, 5 and 6 of GSTP1 gene. Sequence analysis with reference to GenBank. Acc. no AC_000186.1 revealed polymorphisms at position 210, 746, 2438, 2439, 2443, 2507, 2695 and insertions between ...

  12. Screening of polymorphisms in the folate pathway in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilara Fatma Akin

    2017-04-05

    Apr 5, 2017 ... The deletion/insertion was determined based on the length of PCR products. Primers used in for DHFR and CBS polymorphisms are as follows: DHFR 19-bp deletion; for- ward primer-1: 50-CCA CCG TCG GGG TAC CTG GG-30; forward primer-2: 50-ACG GTC GGG GTG GCC GAC TC-30; reverse primer:.

  13. Characterization of the relationship between APOBEC3B deletion and ACE Alu insertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wang

    Full Text Available The insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, commonly associated with many diseases, is believed to have affected human adaptation to environmental changes during the out-of-Africa expansion. APOBEC3B (A3B, a member of the cytidine deaminase family APOBEC3s, also exhibits a variable gene insertion/deletion polymorphism across world populations. Using data available from published reports, we examined the global geographic distribution of ACE and A3B genotypes. In tracking the modern human dispersal routes of these two genes, we found that the variation trends of the two I/D polymorphisms were directly correlated. We observed that the frequencies of ACE insertion and A3B deletion rose in parallel along the expansion route. To investigate the presence of a correlation between the two polymorphisms and the effect of their interaction on human health, we analyzed 1199 unrelated Chinese adults to determine their genotypes and other important clinical characteristics. We discovered a significant difference between the ACE genotype/allele distribution in the A3B DD and A3B II/ID groups (P = 0.045 and 0.015, respectively, indicating that the ACE Alu I allele frequency in the former group was higher than in the latter group. No specific clinical phenotype could be associated with the interaction between the ACE and A3B I/D polymorphisms. A3B has been identified as a powerful inhibitor of Alu retrotransposition, and primate A3 genes have undergone strong positive selection (and expansion for restricting the mobility of endogenous retrotransposons during evolution. Based on these findings, we suggest that the ACE Alu insertion was enabled (facilitated by the A3B deletion and that functional loss of A3B provided an opportunity for enhanced human adaptability and survival in response to the environmental and climate challenges arising during the migration from Africa.

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of SARS coronavirus genome polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović-Lažetić Gordana M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have compared 38 isolates of the SARS-CoV complete genome. The main goal was twofold: first, to analyze and compare nucleotide sequences and to identify positions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, insertions and deletions, and second, to group them according to sequence similarity, eventually pointing to phylogeny of SARS-CoV isolates. The comparison is based on genome polymorphism such as insertions or deletions and the number and positions of SNPs. Results The nucleotide structure of all 38 isolates is presented. Based on insertions and deletions and dissimilarity due to SNPs, the dataset of all the isolates has been qualitatively classified into three groups each having their own subgroups. These are the A-group with "regular" isolates (no insertions / deletions except for 5' and 3' ends, the B-group of isolates with "long insertions", and the C-group of isolates with "many individual" insertions and deletions. The isolate with the smallest average number of SNPs, compared to other isolates, has been identified (TWH. The density distribution of SNPs, insertions and deletions for each group or subgroup, as well as cumulatively for all the isolates is also presented, along with the gene map for TWH. Since individual SNPs may have occurred at random, positions corresponding to multiple SNPs (occurring in two or more isolates are identified and presented. This result revises some previous results of a similar type. Amino acid changes caused by multiple SNPs are also identified (for the annotated sequences, as well as presupposed amino acid changes for non-annotated ones. Exact SNP positions for the isolates in each group or subgroup are presented. Finally, a phylogenetic tree for the SARS-CoV isolates has been produced using the CLUSTALW program, showing high compatibility with former qualitative classification. Conclusions The comparative study of SARS-CoV isolates provides essential information for genome

  15. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  16. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  17. Polymorphic Embedding of DSLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus; Rendel, Tillmann

    2008-01-01

    propose polymorphic embedding of DSLs, where many different interpretations of a DSL can be provided as reusable components, and show how polymorphic embedding can be realized in the programming language Scala. With polymorphic embedding, the static type-safety, modularity, composability and rapid...

  18. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  19. Recent advances in insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskin, E.; Moog, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for more and better insertion devices (IDs) at new third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities has led to significant advances in ID technology at different laboratories around the world. In this overview of this progress, focus is on those results that apply to IDs in general rather than one specific ID or laboratory. The advances fall into two general categories: those that reduce the net effect that the ID has on the particle beam, and those that enhance the quality of the emitted light spectrum. The need for these advances, factors that are most important inaachieving them, and the current state of the art are discussed

  20. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  1. Human-specific HERV-K insertion causes genomic variations in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Shin

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV sequences account for about 8% of the human genome. Through comparative genomics and literature mining, we identified a total of 29 human-specific HERV-K insertions. We characterized them focusing on their structure and flanking sequence. The results showed that four of the human-specific HERV-K insertions deleted human genomic sequences via non-classical insertion mechanisms. Interestingly, two of the human-specific HERV-K insertion loci contained two HERV-K internals and three LTR elements, a pattern which could be explained by LTR-LTR ectopic recombination or template switching. In addition, we conducted a polymorphic test and observed that twelve out of the 29 elements are polymorphic in the human population. In conclusion, human-specific HERV-K elements have inserted into human genome since the divergence of human and chimpanzee, causing human genomic changes. Thus, we believe that human-specific HERV-K activity has contributed to the genomic divergence between humans and chimpanzees, as well as within the human population.

  2. Insertion and crossing region design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  3. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  4. The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, HHS; Sayed-Tabatabaei, FA; Hofman, A; Oudkerk, M; van Duijn, CM; Witteman, JCM

    Background: An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been associated with serum ACE levels. The association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary heart disease is unclear. Electron-beam-computed tomography (EBT) is a technique to

  5. RelocaTE2: a high resolution transposable element insertion site mapping tool for population resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Transposable element (TE polymorphisms are important components of population genetic variation. The functional impacts of TEs in gene regulation and generating genetic diversity have been observed in multiple species, but the frequency and magnitude of TE variation is under appreciated. Inexpensive and deep sequencing technology has made it affordable to apply population genetic methods to whole genomes with methods that identify single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms. However, identifying TE polymorphisms, particularly transposition events or non-reference insertion sites can be challenging due to the repetitive nature of these sequences, which hamper both the sensitivity and specificity of analysis tools. Methods We have developed the tool RelocaTE2 for identification of TE insertion sites at high sensitivity and specificity. RelocaTE2 searches for known TE sequences in whole genome sequencing reads from second generation sequencing platforms such as Illumina. These sequence reads are used as seeds to pinpoint chromosome locations where TEs have transposed. RelocaTE2 detects target site duplication (TSD of TE insertions allowing it to report TE polymorphism loci with single base pair precision. Results and Discussion The performance of RelocaTE2 is evaluated using both simulated and real sequence data. RelocaTE2 demonstrate high level of sensitivity and specificity, particularly when the sequence coverage is not shallow. In comparison to other tools tested, RelocaTE2 achieves the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. In particular, RelocaTE2 performs best in prediction of TSDs for TE insertions. Even in highly repetitive regions, such as those tested on rice chromosome 4, RelocaTE2 is able to report up to 95% of simulated TE insertions with less than 0.1% false positive rate using 10-fold genome coverage resequencing data. RelocaTE2 provides a robust solution to identify TE insertion sites and can be

  6. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  7. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  8. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  9. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  10. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  11. Polymorphs and polymorphic cocrystals of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Jagadeesh; Reddy, L Sreenivas; Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Nangia, Ashwini

    2008-07-07

    Crystal polymorphism in the antitumor drug temozolomide (TMZ), cocrystals of TMZ with 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (BPNO), and solid-state stability were studied. Apart from a known X-ray crystal structure of TMZ (form 1), two new crystalline modifications, forms 2 and 3, were obtained during attempted cocrystallization with carbamazepine and 3-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide. Conformers A and B of the drug molecule are stabilized by intramolecular amide N--HN(imidazole) and N--HN(tetrazine) interactions. The stable conformer A is present in forms 1 and 2, whereas both conformers crystallized in form 3. Preparation of polymorphic cocrystals I and II (TMZBPNO 1:0.5 and 2:1) were optimized by using solution crystallization and grinding methods. The metastable nature of polymorph 2 and cocrystal II is ascribed to unused hydrogen-bond donors/acceptors in the crystal structure. The intramolecularly bonded amide N-H donor in the less stable structure makes additional intermolecular bonds with the tetrazine C==O group and the imidazole N atom in stable polymorph 1 and cocrystal I, respectively. All available hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors are used to make intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the stable crystalline form. Synthon polymorphism and crystal stability are discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond reorganization.

  12. Efficient DNA fingerprinting based on the targeted sequencing of active retrotransposon insertion sites using a bench-top high-throughput sequencing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Yuki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Shindo, Akiko; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    In many crop species, DNA fingerprinting is required for the precise identification of cultivars to protect the rights of breeders. Many families of retrotransposons have multiple copies throughout the eukaryotic genome and their integrated copies are inherited genetically. Thus, their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars are useful for DNA fingerprinting. In this study, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting based on the insertion polymorphisms of active retrotransposon families (Rtsp-1 and LIb) in sweet potato. Using 38 cultivars, we identified 2,024 insertion sites in the two families with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Of these insertion sites, 91.4% appeared to be polymorphic among the cultivars and 376 cultivar-specific insertion sites were identified, which were converted directly into cultivar-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using these insertion sites, which corresponded well with known pedigree information, thereby indicating their suitability for genetic diversity studies. Thus, the genome-wide comparative analysis of active retrotransposon insertion sites using the bench-top MiSeq sequencing platform is highly effective for DNA fingerprinting without any requirement for whole genome sequence information. This approach may facilitate the development of practical polymerase chain reaction-based cultivar diagnostic system and could also be applied to the determination of genetic relationships. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  13. Lithium insertion into Fe 2(SO 4) 3 frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, A.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1989-05-01

    The two polymorphs of Fe 2(SO 4) 3 consist of framework structures built up of tetrahedra sharing corners with octahedra and vice versa. One is rhombohedral, the other is monoclinic. Two moles of lithium insert rapidly into both structures at room temperature. However, lithium insertion into the rhombohedral phase is topotactic without any change of symmetry of the framework, whereas the monoclinic modification is converted to an orthorombic Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 phase via a displacement transition; the existence of a two-phase region between Fe 2(SO 4) 3 and Li 2Fe 2(SO 4) 3 results in a flat OCV of 3.6 V versus lithium, which is 600 mV higher than is found for Li xFFe 2(WO 4) 3 or Li xFe 2(MoO 4) 3. This difference is discussed in terms of the influence of the counter cation on the solid-state Fe {3+}/{2+} redox couple.

  14. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  15. Genotyping of a tri-allelic polymorphism by a novel melting curve assay in MTHFD1L: an association study of nonsyndromic Cleft in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minguzzi, Stefano

    2012-04-20

    AbstractBackgroundPolymorphisms within the MTHFD1L gene were previously associated with risk of neural tube defects in Ireland. We sought to test the most significant MTHFD1L polymorphisms for an association with risk of cleft in an Irish cohort. This required the development of a new melting curve assay to genotype the technically challenging MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406).MethodsMelting curve analysis was used to genotype the MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs17080476 in an Irish cohort consisting of 981 Irish case-parent trios and 1,008 controls. Tests for association with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate included case\\/control analysis, mother\\/control analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Tests of case-parent trios.ResultsA successful melting curve genotyping assay was developed for the deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (rs3832406). The TDT analysis initially showed that the rs3832406 polymorphism was associated with isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate. However, corrected p-values indicated that this association was not significant.ConclusionsMelting Curve Analysis can be employed to successfully genotype challenging polymorphisms such as the MTHFD1L triallelic deletion\\/insertion polymorphism (DIP) reported here (rs3832406) and is a viable alternative to capillary electrophoresis. Corrected p-values indicate no association between MTHFD1L and risk of cleft in an Irish cohort.

  16. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  17. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  18. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  19. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  20. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  1. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  2. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  3. Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: surgical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Yael; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron Shagra; Karpf, Ronen; Massarwe, Sabri; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition among athletes and joggers. One fifth of the injuries involves the insertion of the tendon. The etiology is either due to mechanical overuse related to sports activity, or a systemic inflammatory disease. The clinical appearance includes pain and movement restriction. The primary treatment is conservative. The surgery referred to in this study (Calcaneal Osteotomy) is performed by decompression of the posterior ...

  4. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  5. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...

  6. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Ghodsian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (P<0.05. Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population.

  7. Test manufacture of the canister insert 135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy, in June 2004 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the second trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the third test manufacture of insert by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties of the cast material. The measured ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified in the upper part of the cast. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The cast contained slag (dross). Avoiding the dross formation will be the most demanding challenge of the forthcoming development of the cast procedure. (orig.)

  8. Test manufacture of a canister insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2004-11-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Paper Oy, Jyvaeskylae Foundry, in 2003 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the first trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the second test manufacture of insert by Metso Paper. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties and metallurgical structure of the cast material. The measured tensile strength, ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The nodulizing of the graphite was not occurred during the casting process according to the requirements. (orig.)

  9. Observation of crystalline changes of titanium dioxide during lithium insertion by visible spectrum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Park, Jongseok; Park, Soomin; Bae, Seongjun; Yoo, Young Geun; Han, Jeong Woo; Yi, Jongheop

    2017-05-24

    Real-time analysis of changes in the atomic environment of materials is a cutting edge technology that is being used to explain reaction dynamics in many fields of science. Previously, this kind of analysis was only possible using heavy nucleonic equipment such as XANES and EXAFS, or Raman spectroscopy on a moderate scale. Here, a new methodology is described that can be used to track changes in crystalline developments during complex Li insertion reactions via the observation of structural color. To be specific, the changes in atomic crystalline and nanostructure are shown during Li insertion in a complex TiO 2 polymorph. Structural color corresponds to the refractive indices of materials originating from their atomic bonding nature and precise wave interferences in accordance with their nanostructure. Therefore, this new analysis simultaneously reveals changes in the nanostructure as well as changes in the atomic bonding nature of materials.

  10. ACE gene polymorphism and losartan treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cooper, Mark E.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Liu, Nancy; Lunceford, Jared; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Wong, Peggy H.; Lyle, Paulette A.; Rossing, Peter; Brenner, Barry M.

    Losartan treatment reduced renal outcomes in proteinuric patients with type 2 diabetes in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study. It is unknown whether an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene

  11. Quantifying the Number of Independent Organelle DNA Insertions in Genome Evolution and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazkani-Covo, Einat; Martin, William F

    2017-05-01

    Fragments of organelle genomes are often found as insertions in nuclear DNA. These fragments of mitochondrial DNA (numts) and plastid DNA (nupts) are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. They are, however, often edited out during the genome assembly process, leading to systematic underestimation of their frequency. Numts and nupts, once inserted, can become further fragmented through subsequent insertion of mobile elements or other recombinational events that disrupt the continuity of the inserted sequence relative to the genuine organelle DNA copy. Because numts and nupts are typically identified through sequence comparison tools such as BLAST, disruption of insertions into smaller fragments can lead to systematic overestimation of numt and nupt frequencies. Accurate identification of numts and nupts is important, however, both for better understanding of their role during evolution, and for monitoring their increasingly evident role in human disease. Human populations are polymorphic for 141 numt loci, five numts are causal to genetic disease, and cancer genomic studies are revealing an abundance of numts associated with tumor progression. Here, we report investigation of salient parameters involved in obtaining accurate estimates of numt and nupt numbers in genome sequence data. Numts and nupts from 44 sequenced eukaryotic genomes reveal lineage-specific differences in the number, relative age and frequency of insertional events as well as lineage-specific dynamics of their postinsertional fragmentation. Our findings outline the main technical parameters influencing accurate identification and frequency estimation of numts in genomic studies pertinent to both evolution and human health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  13. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN gene in different horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81 and in the Thoroughbred (0.51, whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  14. RERTR-12 Insertion 1 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Lillo, M.A.; Chang, G.S.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.; Roth, G.A.; Wachs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications. RERTR-12 insertion 1 includes the capsules irradiated during the first two irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, X1, X2 and X3 capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  15. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Chang, G.S.; Wachs, D.M.; Roth, G.A.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  16. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  17. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  18. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  19. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  20. Polymorphs of Pridopidine Hydrochloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, A.; Frostrup, B.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    of both polymorphs contain N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot interactions, and the polymorphism can be viewed as alternative orientations (parallel or antiparallel) of comparable molecular columns while retaining the center dot...... center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot motif between columns. Forms I and II have melting points of 199 and 210 degrees C, respectively. Following melting of form I, a kinetically controlled crystallization...

  1. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  2. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  3. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  4. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  5. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  6. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  7. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  9. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vaughan

    Full Text Available A silencer region (I-allele within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle.Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER, serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS, were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc.Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09. The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and -3%, respectively. Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon.The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of glucose import and oxidation in working skeletal muscle. ACE-DD genotypes thereby transit into a pre-diabetic state with exhaustive exercise, which relates to a lowered muscle capillarisation, and deregulation of mitochondria-associated metabolism.

  10. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292-0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India through West Asian corridor.

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: An Egyptian case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The finding of higher frequency of DD genotype among HCM patients compared to healthy volunteers, particularly so, in sporadic cases suggests that HCM expression is possibly influenced by a genetically predisposed milieu partially determined by the ACE I/D variants. Despite the lack of significant correlation between I/D variants and clinicopathologic characteristics of the HCM patients, however, the higher prevalence of D allele among TNNT2 and MYH7 mutation carriers may contribute to the variable disease outcome among sarcomeric gene positive cases, such a correlation can only be proven through long term follow up studies.

  12. Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Y.; Sakatani, M.; Takami, S.; Tachibana, T.; Higaki, J.; Ogihara, T.; Miki, T.; Katsuya, T.; Tsuchiyama, T.; Yoshida, A.; Yu, H.; Tanio, Y.; Ueda, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SA...

  13. Maternal homozygocity for a 14 basepair insertion in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene and carriage of HLA class II alleles restricting HY immunity predispose to unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage and low birth weight in children born to these patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Dahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Homozygous carriage of a 14 base pair (bp) insertion in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene may be associated with low levels of soluble HLA-G and recurrent miscarriage (RM). We investigated the G14bp insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism in 339 women with unexplained RM and 125 control women. In all...

  14. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  15. Symplectic models for general insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations

  16. Agitation within Mk-42 insert caused by air sparge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution of Rocky Flats Pu alloys and Pu metal using a ''nested insert'' configuration (One Well Insert (S-3352) inside the Mk-42 Insert) will require a Nuclear Safety Study, a major assumption of which will be that the annular dissolver is well-mixed. The ''well-mixed'' assumption was theoretically and experimentally supported for alloy dissolution using the Three Well Insert, but the present situation differs significantly. In the former case, the insert was directly exposed to the agitation induced by air sparging; in the case under consideration, the One Well Insert would be shielded by the Mk-42 Insert. In an effort to determine if the ''nested insert'' approach should be pursued, the past studies and technical literature have been surveyed and an attempt made to predict the extent of mixing and bulk circulation for a ''nested insert'' configuration in the presence of air sparging

  17. Live insertion method used for main renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solkowitz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric's pilot project using the live insertion method to replace a cast iron main provided excellent results. Its use on Eastern Avenue, a major state highway, was cost effective, provided gas service to customers during the work, required relatively short construction time and resulted in only minor traffic disruptions. Gas service transfers to the new main were done at customer convenience and resulted in outages of only a few hours per customer. This paper reports that the project involved inserting a 6-in. plastic line inside an existing 10-in. cast iron main. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, supplier of the Insertec left-angle R right-angle live insertion method was contracted for the job. Miller technicians assisted BG and E forces by providing a load analysis of the main, a pushing machine and related supplies, foaming equipment and pipe cutting tools. Company forces were responsible for all preparatory work, including opening all excavations, installing bypasses, and fusing and testing the plastic pipe. Service transfers and renewals were also completed by company employees

  18. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... of SNPs. This will allow acquisition of more information from the sample materials and open up for new possibilities as well as new challenges....

  20. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Marcos; Ulloa, Marcos; López-Goñi, Ignacio; Moriyón, Ignacio; María Zárraga, Ana

    2011-08-03

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated). Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  1. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriyón Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated. Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. Results We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Conclusions Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  2. A meta-analysis of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of pre-eclampsia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, A P; Sultana, A; Bammidi, V K; Sampathirao, K; Jamil, K

    2011-10-01

    A meta-analyses of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia was performed. We shortlisted 33 studies (17 for ACE; 16 for eNOS gene polymorphisms), of which 29 articles (16 for ACE and 15 for eNOS) were analysed. Overall, 1,620 cases with pre-eclampsia and 2,158 controls were analysed for intron 16 insertion-deletion polymorphism in ACE gene. A total of 1,610 subjects with pre-eclampsia and 2,875 controls were analysed for the Glu298Asp in eNOS gene. Overall, the random-effects odds ratio (OR) with Glu298Asp in eNOS gene was 0.958 (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.747-1.228, p > 0.05), and for the insertion-deletion/ACE polymorphism was 0.987 (95% CI 0.698-1.395, p > 0.05). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the studies that evaluated polymorphisms in ACE (Q value = 55.6; I(2) = 73; p value = 0.000); and eNOS (Q value = 37.2; I(2) = 62.4; p value = 0.001) polymorphisms. No significant risk of pre-eclampsia was observed in both eNOS and ACE genes with these polymorphisms.

  3. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and seven ivermectin-tolerant family members of the Border Collie. When compared to the wild-type Beagle sequence, that of the ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie was found to have one insertion mutation and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene. While the eight SNPs were also found in the family members' sequences, the insertion mutation was found only in the ivermectin-sensitive dog. These results suggest the possibility that the SNPs are species-specific features of the ABCB1 gene in Border Collies, and that the insertion mutation may be related to ivermectin intolerance.

  4. Genotyping of PCR-based polymorphisms and linkage-disequilibrium analysis at the NF1 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purandare, S.M.; Viskochil, D.H.; Cawthon, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Six polymorphism across the NF1 gene have been adapted for genotyping through application of PCR-based assays. Three exon-based polymorphisms - at positions 702, 2034, and 10647 in the NF1 cDNA - were genotyped by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR). A fourth polymorphism, DV1.9, is an L1 insertion element in intron 30, and the other two polymorphisms, GXAlu and EVI-20, are short tandem repeats in intron 27b. All the polymorphisms were evaluated in a cohort of 110 CEPH individuals who previously had been analyzed by use of eight RFLPs at the NF1 locus. Pairwise linkage-disequilibrium analyses with the six PCR-based polymorphisms and their flanking markers demonstrated disequilibrium between all tested loci. Genotypes of the four diallelic polymorphisms (702, 2034, 10647, and DV1.9) were also evaluated in cohorts from the CEPH, African, and Japanese populations. The CEPH and Japanese cohorts showed similar heterozygosities and linkage-disequilibrium coefficients. The African cohort showed a higher degree of heterozygosity and lower linkage-disequilibrium values, compared with the CEPH and Japanese cohorts. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  6. Atomistic Galois insertions for flow sensitive integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Several program verification techniques assist in showing that software adheres to the required security policies. Such policies may be sensitive to the flow of execution and the verification may be supported by combinations of type systems and Hoare logics. However, this requires user assistance...... and to obtain full automation we shall explore the over-approximating nature of static analysis. We demonstrate that the use of atomistic Galois insertions constitutes a stable framework in which to obtain sound and fully automatic enforcement of flow sensitive integrity. The framework is illustrated...

  7. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Saleem

    Full Text Available In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.04-3.36] and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620], while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR.

  8. Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Saba; Azam, Aisha; Maqsood, Sundus Ijaz; Muslim, Irfan; Bashir, Shaheena; Fazal, Nosheen; Riaz, Moeen; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Qamar, Raheel; Azam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098–4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR). PMID:26658948

  9. Insertion of a solo LTR retrotransposon associates with spur mutations in 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.

  10. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  11. Effect of deletion polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme gene on progression of diabetic nephropathy during inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jacobsen, P; Tarnow, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept that an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene predicts the therapeutic efficacy of inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme on progression of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Observational follow up study of patients with insu...

  12. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  13. Targeted gene insertion for molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Katrin; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2008-11-01

    Genomic insertion of a functional gene together with suitable transcriptional regulatory elements is often required for long-term therapeutical benefit in gene therapy for several genetic diseases. A variety of integrating vectors for gene delivery exist. Some of them exhibit random genomic integration, whereas others have integration preferences based on attributes of the targeted site, such as primary DNA sequence and physical structure of the DNA, or through tethering to certain DNA sequences by host-encoded cellular factors. Uncontrolled genomic insertion bears the risk of the transgene being silenced due to chromosomal position effects, and can lead to genotoxic effects due to mutagenesis of cellular genes. None of the vector systems currently used in either preclinical experiments or clinical trials displays sufficient preferences for target DNA sequences that would ensure appropriate and reliable expression of the transgene and simultaneously prevent hazardous side effects. We review in this paper the advantages and disadvantages of both viral and non-viral gene delivery technologies, discuss mechanisms of target site selection of integrating genetic elements (viruses and transposons), and suggest distinct molecular strategies for targeted gene delivery.

  14. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  15. Safety analysis for reactivity insertion on ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia S.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, an accelerator driven system (ADS) has been studied to fuel regeneration, partitioning and transmutation using fuel removed from LWR-spent fuel. This spent fuel was reprocessed by GANEX and then spiked with thorium. Monteburns 2.0 (MCNP5/ORIGEN 2.1) code was used to simulate burnup and neutronic parameters of the systems. However, these systems might be interrupted for some technical problems during few days or long periods to perform maintenance of accelerator systems without shutdown the fission system. Therefore, in this work, the aim was to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution in three different cases with reactivity insertions and variations in the functionality of the ADS. The evaluation has been performed for a burnup of 3 years, which are the most dangerous years in case of reactivity insertions. Therefore, in the first case the ADS during its burnup the external source (spallation source) is cutting off from the system several times during the first year of burnup. In the second case, it is simulated the reactor at different power from 0 (shutdown) to 1.5 times the 515MWt. The results shows the safety limits of the ADS for different situation. (author)

  16. Serotonin transporter (SERT gene polymorphism in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Özkaya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence of about 2% in persons older than 65 years of age. Neurodegenerative process in PD is not restricted to the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra but also affects serotoninergic neurons. It has been shown that PD brains with Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra also had Lewy bodies in the raphe nuclei. The re-uptake of 5HT released into the synaptic cleft is mediated by the 5HT transporter (SERT. The SERT gene has been mapped to the chromosome of 17q11.1-q12 and has two main polymorphisms: intron two VNTR polymorphism and promoter region 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. Objective: In this study we investigated whether two polymorphic regions in the serotonin transporter gene are associated with PD. Material and Method: After obtaining informed consent, blood samples were collected from 76 patients and 54 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes using standard methods. The SERT gene genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Results: Based on the intron 2 VNTR polymorphism of SERT gene, the distribution of 12/12, 12/10 and 10/10 genotypes were found as, 56.6 %, 35.5 %, 7.9 % in patients whereas this genotype distribution in control group was 40.7 %, 46.3 % and 13 %, respectively. According to 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, the distribution of L/L, L/S and S/S genotypes were found as 27.6 % 51.3 % and 21.1 % in patients whereas this genotype distribution in control group was 33.4 %, 50.0 % and 16.6 %, respectively. Despite the fact that the genotype distribution of SERT gene polymorphism in patients and control group seemed to be different from each other, this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: This finding suggests that polymorphisms within the SERT gene do not play a major role in PD susceptibility in the Turkish population.

  17. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  18. Hand-actuated spring clip insertion tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    A hand-actuated insertion tool includes a handle assembly, an elongated hollow tubular outer support tube, an elongated inner pull rod, and a coupling arrangement. The handle assembly has a first handle member and a second handle member pivoted to a member for movement between unactuated and actuated positions. The tube is attached in a fixed relation to a handle member. The rod is mounted within the tube for sliding movement relative thereto between home and retracted positions. The coupling arrangement pivotally connects the rod to the second handle member such that the rod will undergo sliding movement from the home position to the retracted positions relative to the tube as the second handle member is moved from the unactuated position to the actuated position adjacent to the first handle member. (author)

  19. MORPH INSERTION AND ALLOMORPHY IN OPTIMALITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Bonet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare two different hypotheses about the insertion of morphs and allomorphy in Optimality Theory. One of them, the Morphs through Constraifits Hypothesis (MCH claims that the phonological realization of morphemes (morphs is introduced through language-particular constraints. The other hypothesis, the Morphs in the Input Hypothesis (MIH claims that the inputs to GEN contain al1 the relevant phonological information. It is shown that the MIH is clearly superior to the MCH in accounting for voicing neutralization in languages like Catalan. The two hypotheses seem to fare even in dealing with other phenomena, such as phonologically-conditioned allomorphy or OCP-triggered epenthesis vs. haplology in English possessives and plurals. Finally, although the MCH seems to be a simpler hypothesis for lexical exceptions, it is shown that, when certain aspects are taken into account, it runs into problems.

  20. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...... turning point in the field of arrhythmia management. However, their role in the detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after cryptogenic strokes has yet to evolve. This will be the main focus of this review. Issues surrounding patient selection, clinical relevance and determination of cost......-effectiveness for prolonged cardiac monitoring require further studies. Furthermore, insertable cardiac monitoring has not only the potential to augment diagnostic capabilities but also to improve the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation....

  1. Cassini-Huygens Nears Saturn Orbit Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    After nearly 7 years and a 3.5-billion-km, circuitous journey from Earth, the $3-billion Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan-an international effort by NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency-now is just days away from its critical Saturn orbit insertion. Scheduled for 30 June, this will begin the 4-years part of the mission to study the Saturnian system. At a 3 June briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., Robert Mitchell, the Cassini program manager with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, said that scientists involved with the program are feeling excited, relieved, and also a bit anxious as the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft draws near to the ringed planet and its system.

  2. Insertion Device Upgrade Plans at the NSLS

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Harder, David; Lehecka, Michael; Rakowsky, George; Skaritka, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W80) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-18) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, in-vacuum undulator (MGU-13.5), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both MGU’s will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement methods in low temperature will be discussed.

  3. Quench Performance of the LHC Insertion Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lasheras, N C; Siemko, A; Ostojic, R; Kirby, G

    2009-01-01

    After final installation in the LHC tunnel, the MQM and MQY quadrupole magnets of the LHC insertions are now being commissioned to their nominal currents. These two types of magnets operate at 1.9 K and 4.5 K and with nominal currents ranging from 3600 A to 5390 A. From the very first acceptance tests of the bare magnets coming from the manufacturers, they have been powered using different cycles, in different configurations, at different temperatures and in different tests facilities. In this paper we present the global results of these powering tests. We aim at separating common from individual features of these groups of magnets. Temperature dependence of the training, temperature margin, and ultimate current can be extracted from these tests. As these magnets are used to match the optics and the dispersion in the machine, the projected ultimate current at which they can be operated is critical in view of operation of LHC.

  4. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  5. A NOS3 polymorphism determines endothelial response to folate in children with type 1 diabetes or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Esko J; Peña, Alexia S; MacKenzie, Karen; Bose-Sundernathan, Tulika; Gent, Roger; Couper, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of polymorphisms in NOS3 and folate pathway enzymes on vascular function and folate status and endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity. A total of 244 subjects (age 13.8 ± 2.8 years, 125 males) were studied for NOS3 and/or folate pathway polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism, including at baseline: 139 with type 1 diabetes; 58 with obesity; and 47 controls. The effect of NOS3 genotype on endothelial response to folate (5 mg) was assessed in 85 subjects with diabetes and 28 obese subjects who received active treatment during intervention trials. Vascular function (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD] and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation), clinical, and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks in folate intervention studies. Folate pathway enzyme and NOS3 polymorphisms did not significantly affect baseline vascular function. The polymorphism in intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase altered endothelial response to folate significantly: in subjects with diabetes FMD improved by 6.4 ± 5% (insertion carriers) vs 2.3 ± 6.6% (deletion carriers), P = .01; in obese subjects FMD improved by 1.8 ± 5.4% (insertion carriers) and deteriorated by -3.2 ± 7.2% (deletion carriers), P = .05. More subjects carrying the insertion normalized FMD after folate supplementation (insertion 64% vs deletion 28%, χ(2) = 10.14, P = .001). A NOS3 polymorphism predicts endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity, with implications for vascular risk and folate intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene: increased frequency of the insertion allele in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S H; Kang, B Y; Park, W H; Kim, J Q; Lee, C C

    1997-01-01

    In view of the clinical importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as a major marker for cardiovascular diseases, we investigated insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene in Koreans. Genotype frequencies were examined by polymerase chain reaction in 171 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 120 healthy subjects. Allele frequencies of ACE polymorphism in Koreans were not significantly different between patient and control groups. In addition, association between ACE genotypes and the number of stenosed coronary arteries was not detected. ACE genotypes in the CAD group were not associated with body mass index and plasma lipid levels. Thus, our results suggest that, at least in Koreans, I/D polymorphism of the gene is unlikely to be a useful marker for CAD subjects. However, the I allele frequency of Koreans (0.58) was higher than that of Caucasian populations (0.47) but lower than that of Samoan (0.91) and Yanomami (0.85) populations. Here, we discuss the clinical and ethnic importance of ACE polymorphism.

  7. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-1 gene polymorphisms and expression in benign and malignant breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Brinckerhoff, Constance; Lubert, Susan; Yang, Kui; Saini, Jasmine; Hooke, Jeffrey; Mural, Richard; Shriver, Craig; Somiari, Stella

    2013-01-01

    A guanine insertion polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter (MMP-1 2G) is linked to early onset and aggressiveness in cancer. We determined the role of MMP-1 2G on the level of MMP-1 expression and breast cancer severity in benign breast disease, atypical hyperplasia, invasive and non invasive (in situ) breast cancer. We observed no significant difference in genotype distribution among the different breast disease groups. However, the level of MMP-1 expression was significantly higher in atypical ductal hyperplasia compared to benign breast disease; and in invasive breast cancer compared to in situ breast cancer. MMP-1 2G insertion polymorphism in the invasive group also correlated significantly with the expression of MMP-1 and breast cancer prognostic markers HER2 and P53. PMID:22011282

  8. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion at Neiguan (PC 6) on cardiovascular function: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shaoli; Zhao, Lihua; Xu, Lingjun; Huang, Yu; Pang, Yong; Huang, Dingjian

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion. With cross-over design, 100 healthy young subjects (half male and half female) aged from 19 to 23 years were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table, 50 cases in each one. At the first stage, subjects in the group A were treated with slow twisting needle insertion while, subjects in,the group B were treated with tubing needle insertion. One week later, the procedure of second stage was performed alternately. The needle was inserted into Neiguan (PC 6) with two methods by one acupuncturist. The needle was retained for 5 min before removal. Five min before needle insertion as well as needle withdrawal and 30 min after needle withdrawal, ZXG-E automatic cardiovascular diagnostic apparatus was used to test cardiovascular function. At the tim of needle withdrawal, slow twisting needle insertion could improve effect work of kinetics (EWK), effective blood volume (BV) and reduce elastic expansion coefficient of blood vessel (FEK) and left ventricular spray blood impedance (VER), which was significantly different from tubing needle insertion (all P 0.05). The slow twisting needle insertion is significantly superior to tubing needle insertion on lowering vascular tension and VER, improving EWK and BV.

  10. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  11. A nurse led peripherally inserted central catheter line insertion service is effective with radiological support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Jonathan M.; Booth, Doris M.; King, Julia A.; Chakraverty, Sam

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used as a route of chemotherapy administration. Our aims were to assess a collaborative approach to PICC placement, with radiological support for a nurse led line insertion service in a minority of cases, and to determine whether PICC provided a safe and reliable method of chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on 100 consecutive patients undergoing PICC placement for chemotherapy were collected. Lines were inserted by ward based nurses or under ultrasound guidance by radiologists. End points were successful completion of treatment or patient death. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four lines were placed for 118 courses of chemotherapy. 107 (74%) were placed by nurses and 37 (26%) by radiologists. Ninety-five percent of patients completed therapy with either one or two lines. Seventy percent of lines were removed on achieving the primary end points. In two additional patients PICC could not be placed radiologically. Twelve patients were unable to complete treatment with PICC alone, nine of these required an alternative administration route. The catheter related sepsis rate was 4.9%. CONCLUSION: The majority of PICC can be successfully placed by trained nurses, reserving image guidance only for more difficult cases. PICC have an acceptable complication profile, and decrease the need for tunnelled central lines. Barber, J.M. et al. (2002)

  12. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding...... in the ACE gene; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa...... proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...

  13. Insertion mechanics of bioinspired needles into soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Seyedvahid; Jezler, Kyle; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2017-12-22

    Most studies to date confirm that any increase in the needle insertion force increases the damage to the tissue. When it comes to brain tissue, even minor damage can cause a long-lasting traumatic brain injury. Thus there is a great demand for innovative minimally invasive needles among the medical community. In our previous studies a novel bioinspired needle design with specially designed barbs was used to perform insertion tests into Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tissue-mimicking gels, in which it decreased the insertion force by as much as 25%. In this work, bioinspired needles were designed using a CAD software, and were then manufactured using a 3 D printer. The insertion tests into bovine brain and liver were then performed to further investigate the performance of our bioinspired needles in real tissues. Our results show that there was a 10-25% decrease in the insertion force for insertions into bovine brain, and a 35-45% reduction in the insertion force for insertions into bovine liver using the proposed bioinspired needles. The reduction in the insertion force is due to the decrease in the friction force of the bioinspired needle with the bovine tissues, and its results are consistent with our previous results.

  14. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can...... be obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  15. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of collimator insert for linac based stereotactic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.R.R.; Brindha, S.; Ravindran, B.P.; Rajshekhar, V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop collimator inserts of various sizes which are either not commercially available or are expensive to import. The dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and output factor of the developed collimator insert are compared with that of the commercial collimator insert (Radionics). In order to check the suitability of the collimator insert developed locally for clinical use and to standardize the method of development, a collimator insert of 15 mm identical to the one supplied by Radionics is developed with low-melting alloy (Cerrobend). Moreover for the clinical use of the developed collimator insert, certain acceptance tests are performed which include a collimator concentricity test, beam size check and radiation leakage test. The dose verification is carried out with a thermoluminescent dosimeter ( 7 LiF rods) and an FBX chemical dosimeter in a human-head-shaped Perspex phantom filled with water. The variation between the calculated and measured dose is found to be within +2.4% for 7 LiF rods and -2.0% for the FBX chemical dosimeter thus ensuring the suitability of the developed collimator insert for clinical use. This has encouraged us to standardize the method adapted to develop the collimator insert and to develop collimator inserts of different field sizes. (author)

  17. A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.

  18. Endogenous retroviral insertion in Cryge in the mouse No3 cataract mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Nabanita; Peterson, Katherine; Wyatt, Keith; Hess, Sonja; Ray, Sugata; Favor, Jack; Bogani, Debora; Lyon, Mary; Wistow, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    No3 (nuclear opacity 3) is a novel congenital nuclear cataract in mice. Microsatellite mapping placed the No3 locus on chromosome 1 between D1Mit480 (32cM) and D1Mit7 (41cM), a region containing seven crystallin genes; Cryba2 and the Cryga-Crygf cluster. Although polymorphic variants were observed, no candidate mutations were found for six of the genes. However, DNA walking identified a murine endogenous retrovirus (IAPLTR1: ERVK) insertion in exon 3 of Cryge, disrupting the coding sequence for γE-crystallin. Recombinant protein for the mutant γE was completely insoluble. The No3 cataract is mild compared with the effects of similar mutations of γE. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that γE/F mRNA levels are reduced in No3, suggesting that the relatively mild phenotype results from suppression of γE levels due to ERVK insertion. However, the severity of cataract is also strain dependent suggesting that genetic background modifiers also play a role in the development of opacity. PMID:17223009

  19. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  20. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  1. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain according to Alu insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Lois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain, with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. Results The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in

  2. Ultrasonic Guided Insertion of Central Venous Catheter in Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: ultrasound is licensed for application of regional blocks and insertion of vascular access. We aimed to compare ultrasonic guided (USG) and anatomical landmark technique (ALT) for insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) as regard success rate and rate of complications in infants and children.

  3. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  4. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  5. Forward and reverse genetics: The LORE1 retrotransposon insertion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Malolepszy, Anna; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) transposes in the germ line of Lotus japonicus plants that carry an active element. This feature of LORE1 has been exploited for generation of a large non-transgenic insertion mutant population, where insertions have been annotated using next-generat...

  6. Treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with inserting biliary double stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guangzhi; Zhang Zidong; Wang Xuejing; Yin Hua; Li Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inserting technique of biliary double stents in treating hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: 6 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Bismuth IV) were treated by percutaneous transhepatic insertion of biliary stents. Double stents were inserted in each patient. Different inserting methods were adopted according to the branch angles formed by left and right hepatic ducts. Results: The jaundice of all patients alleviated or disappeared obviously after stent implantation. The average difference between post-and pre-operation in the serum total bilirubin level was (104 ± 29) μmol/L (P<0.01). Stent obstruction was found in 2 cases after 4 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion: Double stents implantation is effective for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Beware of the angulation between main hepatic duct and adopting different inserting methods. (authors)

  7. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  8. Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.

    2017-09-12

    A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of famotidine polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ravouru; Prathusha, Ande Penchala; Subhash Chandra Bose, Penjury; Kaza, Rajesh; Bharathi, Koganti

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of drug release among the famotidine polymorphs prepared by using various additives and solvents, by solvent evaporation method. The famotidine polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymorphs with different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were prepared by using solvent evaporation method. In these polymorphs of different concentrations 1% w/v polymorphs showed better release. Similarly, famotidine polymorphs of Tween 80 with different concentrations, polyethylene glycol 1% w/v and methanol was prepared. Famotidine polymorphs prepared the PVP (1% w/v) showed better drug release and solubility. DSC, FTIR, SEM and XRD studies were carried out. DSC studies revealed that PVP polymorphs were found to stable compared to other polymorphs. FTIR studies of the polymorphs prepared indicated that there was an interaction found in all polymorphs except PVP polymorphs indicating the absence of drug-additive interaction. SEM studies of PVP and methanol polymorphs revealed that they are tabular and prismatic and columnar respectively. These changes in morphology were due to variations in face dimensions and also properties of additives and solvent used in the preparation. XRD studies revealed that there is an increase in crystallinity in methanol polymorphs when compared to PVP polymorphs and pure drug. The mechanism of drug release was determined using zero order, first order and Hixon-Crowel equations. From the drug release kinetics these polymorphs followed first order and Hixon-Crowel release kinetics, exhibited fair linearity in their dissolution data. Further, in vivo studies were carried out for the evaluation of antiulcer activity. Based upon the drug release pattern and its kinetics only two of the prepared polymorphs of famotidine i.e. famotidine PVP polymorphs and famotidine methanol polymorphs were selected for animal studies. Antiulcer studies were carried out using pylorus ligation model and estimation of antioxidant

  10. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim

    2010-01-01

    . There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms. Conclusions A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role......-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1) -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491), pregnane X...... and Health study of 57,053 persons. Results Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10-1.92). There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red...

  11. [Polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions HVR I and HVR II in Changdu Tibetan in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianmin; Kang, Longli; Bian, Liqiang; La, Zong

    2008-10-01

    To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II in Tibetan population in Changdu area of Tibet. mtDNAs obtained from 97 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. One hundred and eleven variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, insertions and deletions. In HVR I region (nt16024-nt16365), sixty-eight polymorphic sites and 92 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9985. In HVR II region (nt73-nt340), forty-three polymorphic sites and 91 haplotypes were detected, and the genetic diversity was 0.9882. The random match probability of HVR I and HVR II regions were 0.0120 and 0.0118, respectively. When the sequence analysis of HVR I and HVR II regions were combined, ninety-seven different haplotypes were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0103. There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Changdu Tibetan population. The results suggest that there are significant difference in the genetic structure in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region between Changdu Tibetans and other Asian populations and Caucasians. Sequence polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II can be used as a genetic marker for forensic individual identification and genetic analysis.

  12. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers based on Biparental Resequencing for Fine Mapping Seed Weight in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a complement to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, biallelic insertions and deletions (InDels represent powerful molecular markers with desirable features for filling the gap in current genetic linkage maps. In this study, 28,908 small InDel polymorphisms (1–5 base pair, bp distributed genome-wide were identified and annotated by comparison of a whole-genome resequencing data set from two soybean [ (L. Merr.] genotypes, cultivar Zhonghunag13 (ZH and line Zhongpin03-5373 (ZP. The physical distribution of InDel polymorphisms in soybean genome was uneven, and matched closely with the distribution of previously annotated genes. The average density of InDel in the arm region was significantly higher than that in the pericentromeric region. The genomic regions that were fixed between the two elites were elucidated. With this information, five InDel markers within a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL for seed weight (SW, , were developed and used to genotype 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross of ZP × ZH. Adding these five InDel markers to previously used SNP and SSR markers facilitated the discovery of further recombination events allowing fine-mapping the QTL to a 0.5 Mbp region. Our study clearly underlines the high value of InDel markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in soybean.

  13. Automatic needle insertion diminishes pain during growth hormone injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jørgensen, J T; Hertel, N T

    1995-01-01

    prototype pens for GH administration, providing either manual or automatic sc needle insertion, using a combined visual analogue/facial scale and a five-item scale in 18 children. With the automatic pen there was a significantly lower maximum pain score compared with the manual pen (median 28.5 versus 52.......0 mm) as well as a lower mean pain score (mean 13.7 versus 23.5 mm). The five-item scale revealed that automatic needle insertion was significantly less painful than manual insertion and 13 patients chose to continue treatment with the automatic pen. In conclusion, pain during GH injection can...

  14. Lithium insertion mechanism in SnS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre-Devos, I.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.; Lavela, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study lithium insertion in SnS 2 by means of 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Sn L I,III , and S K edges, and theoretical electronic structures (calculated in the density-functional theory framework). An insertion mechanism is derived according to the Li amount. It shows the influence of the SnS 2 -layered structure on the Sn reduction, particularly the possibility of an intermediate oxidation state between Sn IV and Sn II , which is not observed during Li insertion in three-dimensional sulfides

  15. Association of AGTR1 (A1166C and ACE (I/D Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukriti Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Renin angiotensin system (RAS comprising Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, Angiotensin II (Ang II and its receptor Angiotensin II receptor type I (AGTR1, plays a critical role in several diseases including cancer. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP A1166C located in 3′ untranslated region (UTR of AGTR1 and an insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism present in intron 16 of ACE gene have been associated with many diseases, but their association with Breast cancer (BCa is still debatable. Here, we for the first time investigated the association of these polymorphisms in a North Indian BCa cohort including 161 patients and 152 healthy women. The polymorphisms were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP respectively. The association between these polymorphisms and BCa risk was estimated by calculating Odds Ratio (OR and chi-square (χ2 test. The DD genotype/D allele of ACE (I/D polymorphism and “AC and CC” genotype/C allele of AGTR1 (A1166C polymorphism were associated with higher risk of BCa when evaluated independently. Furthermore, interaction analysis of “AC and CC” and DD genotype and combination of “C and D” alleles of both polymorphisms revealed significantly greater BCa risk than that observed independently. Conclusively, women harboring “AC or CC” genotype/C allele for AGTR1 (A1166C polymorphism and DD genotype/D allele for ACE (I/D polymorphisms have a predisposition to develop more aggressive disease with advanced staging and larger tumor size. Our study indicates importance of genetic screening based on these polymorphisms for women, who may have higher risk of BCa.

  16. Net-bottom Cage Inserts for Water Bird Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available My Bright Idea is a net-bottomed cage insert, which is used to support pelagic avian casualties. The idea was designed and modified by the International Bird Rescue in California (Bird Rescue.

  17. Wireless cardiac action potential transmission with ultrasonically inserted silicon microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C J; Ramkumar, A; Lal, A; Gilmour, R F Jr

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of ultrasonically inserted horn-shaped cardiac probes with wireless transmission of 3D cardiac action potential measurement for applications in ex vivo preparations such as monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ultrasonically inserted silicon horn probes permit reduced penetration force during insertion, allowing silicon, a brittle material, to penetrate cardiac tissue. The probes also allow recording from multiple sites that are lithographically defined. An application-specific integrated circuit has been designed with a 40 dB amplifying stage and a frequency modulating oscillator at 95 MHz to wirelessly transmit the recorded action potentials. This ultrasonically inserted microprobe wireless system demonstrates the initial results in wireless monitoring of 3D action potential propagation, and the extraction of parameters of interest including the action potential duration and diastolic interval

  18. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  19. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a

  20. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  1. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Boffa, Giusi; Sá nchez, Sheila Ortega; Caporaso, Lucia; Grassi, Alfonso; Mecking, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively

  2. Zero insertion force socket for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic operating zero insertion force socket for use in a photoactivatable reagent treatment system wherein photoactivatable agents, in contact with patient blood cells, are irradiated extracorporeally and then returned to the patient

  3. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  4. Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or

  5. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  6. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.

    1987-01-01

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law [fr

  7. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2010-09-08

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Report on converging insert moulding with µ-IM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    moulding with µ-IM  Task 5.2.1 and COTECH demonstrator: guide line for 5PRC production based on the concept of Task 5.2.1 Information and results provided by this deliverable will be directly used for one of the COTECH demonstrators production which will call for convergent insert moulding with µ......Task 5.2.1 deals with the technical feasibility of converging the state-of-the-art µ IM process with insert moulding to offer a wide range of multi-material µ components. The main objective of this deliverable is to summarize state-of-the-art information and to make the guideline needed...... for the convergence. In particular the following aspects are summed up in the deliverable:  Need for converging insert moulding with µ-IM  Objectives and expected outcome from task 5.2.1  State-of-the-art micro insert moulding and different scenario of micro insert moulding  Challenges ahead of converging insert...

  9. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grkovski, Milan, E-mail: milan.grkovski@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Brzezinski, Karol [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Cindro, Vladimir [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Clinthorne, Neal H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kagan, Harris [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lacasta, Carlos [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Mikuž, Marko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Solaz, Carles [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Studen, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Weilhammer, Peter [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Žontar, Dejan [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-07-11

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm{sup 2} pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2–4.8 mm) filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm)

  10. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  11. InDel polymorphisms in quantitative posttransplant chi merism evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Barkhatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of minimal residual disease to undetectable levels is the key criterion for efficiency of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT, along with engraftment of transplanted cells with complete replacement of recipient hematopoiesis, i. e., full posttransplant chimerism. Among different approaches, molecular genetic techniques are preferable, being based on the analysis of highly polymorphic DNA sequences (short tandem repeats, STRs. However, this approach, despite its high specificity, has a limited sensitivity. In this regard, it seems appropriate to introduce more sensitive diagnostic solutions, in particular, analysis of insertion/deletion (InDel polymorphisms, followed by real-time detection of PCR products. The data obtained upon analysis of several genetic markers have shown higher sensitivity of this method. However, the deviations in the range of 10 to 90 % in evaluation of the cell ratios indicates the feasibility of using this approach just to evaluate the residual populations of recipient cells.

  12. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MARBLING QUALITY IN LOCAL SHEEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme that plays in metabolism and transport lipoprotein andtherefore has an influence on blood triglyceride levels. LPL controls triacylglycerol partitioning betweenadipose tissue and muscle that increases fat storage or provides energy in the form of fatty acids formuscle growth. The research was aimed to explore Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of LPL gene andto associate SNP with marbling quality. A total of 66 genomic DNAs consisted of sumatera thin-tail edsheep (50 heads and garut sheep (16 heads were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction wasused to amplify genomic DNA and direct sequencing method was to identify polymorphism sequences.The sequences were analyzed with Bio Edit and MEGA 5.2. The BLAST sequence was obtained fromgene bank X.68308.1. The association between the genotype and marbling quality was analyze by oneway ANOVA and further between mean differences were tested using least sgnificant difference. Theresults showed that 3 novel SNPs i.e. insertion g.26>C; insertion g.27> G and c.192T>C on garut sheepand a SNP insertion g.26>C/G on sumatera thin-tail ed sheep. The diversity of LPL gene at c.192T>Cwas associated with heneicosanoic acid, whereas TT genotype (0.04% was higher than CC (0.03% andCT (0.02%.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 cleavages in budding yeast reveal templated insertions and strand-specific insertion/deletion profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Brenda R; Kaplan, Adam C; Bae, Ji Eun; Ferrazzoli, Alexander E; Kuo, James; Anand, Ranjith P; Waterman, David P; Haber, James E

    2018-02-27

    Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 technology provides an unprecedented ability to modify genomic loci via DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair. We analyzed nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair induced by Cas9 in budding yeast and found that the orientation of binding of Cas9 and its guide RNA (gRNA) profoundly influences the pattern of insertion/deletions (indels) at the site of cleavage. A common indel created by Cas9 is a 1-bp (+1) insertion that appears to result from Cas9 creating a 1-nt 5' overhang that is filled in by a DNA polymerase and ligated. The origin of +1 insertions was investigated by using two gRNAs with PAM sequences located on opposite DNA strands but designed to cleave the same sequence. These templated +1 insertions are dependent on the X-family DNA polymerase, Pol4. Deleting Pol4 also eliminated +2 and +3 insertions, which are biased toward homonucleotide insertions. Using inverted PAM sequences, we also found significant differences in overall NHEJ efficiency and repair profiles, suggesting that the binding of the Cas9:gRNA complex influences subsequent NHEJ processing. As with events induced by the site-specific HO endonuclease, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated NHEJ repair depends on the Ku heterodimer and DNA ligase 4. Cas9 events are highly dependent on the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, independent of Mre11's nuclease activity. Inspection of the outcomes of a large number of Cas9 cleavage events in mammalian cells reveals a similar templated origin of +1 insertions in human cells, but also a significant frequency of similarly templated +2 insertions.

  14. Polymorphisms in promoter sequences of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes in normal Japanese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Ohsaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to identify sequence polymorphisms of gene promoter regions in patients and control subjects, including normal individuals, and to determine the influence of these polymorphisms on transcriptional regulation in cells that express wild-type or mutant p53. In this study we isolated genomic DNA from whole blood of healthy Japanese individuals and sequenced the promoter regions of the MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a genes. We identified polymorphisms comprising 3 nucleotide substitutions at exon 1 and intron 1 regions of the MDM2 gene and 1 nucleotide insertion at a poly(C nucleotide position in the p53 gene. The Japanese individuals also exhibited p16INK4a polymorphisms at several positions, including position -191. Reporter gene analysis by using luciferase revealed that the polymorphisms of MDM2, p53, and p16INK4a differentially altered luciferase activities in several cell lines, including the Colo320DM, U251, and T98G cell lines expressing mutant p53. Our results indicate that the promoter sequences of these genes differ among normal Japanese individuals and that polymorphisms can alter gene transcription activity.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms of the TYMS gene are not associated with congenital cardiac septal defects in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yuan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical research indicates that periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce the occurrence of congenital cardiac septal defects (CCSDs. The vital roles of folate exhibits in three ways: the unique methyl donor for DNA expression regulation, the de novo biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine for DNA construction, and the serum homocysteine removal. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS is the solo catalysis enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP, which is the essential precursor of DNA biosynthesis and repair process. To examine the role of TYMS in Congenital Cardiac Septal Defects (CCSDs risk, we investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS gene associated with the CCSDs in a Han Chinese population. METHOD: Polymorphisms in the noncoding region of TYMS were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated individuals composed of half CCSDs and half control subjects. Nine SNPs and two insertion/deletion polymorphisms were genotyped from two independent case-control studies involving a total of 529 CCSDs patients and 876 healthy control participants. The associations were examined by both single polymorphism and haplotype tests using logistic regression. RESULT: We found that TYMS polymorphisms were not related to the altered CCSDs risk, and even to the changed risk of VSDs subgroup, when tested in both studied groups separately or in combination. In the haplotype analysis, there were no haplotypes significantly associated with risks for CCSDs either. CONCLUSION: Our results show no association between common genetic polymorphisms of the regulatory region of the TYMS gene and CCSDs in the Han Chinese population.

  16. Unilateral versus bilateral stent insertion for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gang; Xia, Feng-Fei; Li, Hong-Fu; Niu, Su; Xu, Yuan-Shun

    2017-11-01

    To determine the clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes between unilateral and bilateral stent insertion in patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction. From August 2012 to February 2016, 63 consecutive patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction were treated with unilateral or bilateral stent insertion at our center. The bilateral stents were inserted using the side-by-side technique. The clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Unilateral and bilateral stent insertions were successfully performed in 31 of 33 and 27 of 30 patients, respectively (P = 0.912). No procedure-related complication occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 29 of 31 patients in the unilateral stent group and in 26 of 27 patients in the bilateral stent group (P = 0.637). During the follow-up, re-obstruction of stent occurred in five patients in the unilateral stent group and in three patients in the bilateral stent group (P = 0.58). The significant differences were not observed in the stent patency time (368 vs. 387 days, P = 0.685) and survival (200 vs. 198 days, P = 0.751) between two groups. Based on the univariate and multivariate analyses, the independent risk factors for decreasing the survival time included higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P = 0.018), higher alanine aminotransferase level (P = 0.009), and absence of anticancer treatment after stent insertion (P = 0.002). Compared to bilateral stent insertion for malignant hilar biliary obstruction, unilateral stent insertion can provide comparable clinical efficiency and long-term outcomes.

  17. Methanol Formation via Oxygen Insertion Chemistry in Ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, Jennifer B. [Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 10 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Öberg, Karin I.; Rajappan, Mahesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We present experimental constraints on the insertion of oxygen atoms into methane to form methanol in astrophysical ice analogs. In gas-phase and theoretical studies this process has previously been demonstrated to have a very low or nonexistent energy barrier, but the energetics and mechanisms have not yet been characterized in the solid state. We use a deuterium UV lamp filtered by a sapphire window to selectively dissociate O{sub 2} within a mixture of O{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} and observe efficient production of CH{sub 3}OH via O({sup 1}D) insertion. CH{sub 3}OH growth curves are fit with a kinetic model, and we observe no temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant at temperatures below the oxygen desorption temperature of 25 K. Through an analysis of side products we determine the branching ratio of ice-phase oxygen insertion into CH{sub 4}: ∼65% of insertions lead to CH{sub 3}OH, with the remainder leading instead to H{sub 2}CO formation. There is no evidence for CH{sub 3} or OH radical formation, indicating that the fragmentation is not an important channel and that insertions typically lead to increased chemical complexity. CH{sub 3}OH formation from O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} diluted in a CO-dominated ice similarly shows no temperature dependence, consistent with expectations that insertion proceeds with a small or nonexistent barrier. Oxygen insertion chemistry in ices should therefore be efficient under low-temperature ISM-like conditions and could provide an important channel to complex organic molecule formation on grain surfaces in cold interstellar regions such as cloud cores and protoplanetary disk midplanes.

  18. Methanol Formation via Oxygen Insertion Chemistry in Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Jennifer B.; Öberg, Karin I.; Rajappan, Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    We present experimental constraints on the insertion of oxygen atoms into methane to form methanol in astrophysical ice analogs. In gas-phase and theoretical studies this process has previously been demonstrated to have a very low or nonexistent energy barrier, but the energetics and mechanisms have not yet been characterized in the solid state. We use a deuterium UV lamp filtered by a sapphire window to selectively dissociate O2 within a mixture of O2:CH4 and observe efficient production of CH3OH via O(1D) insertion. CH3OH growth curves are fit with a kinetic model, and we observe no temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant at temperatures below the oxygen desorption temperature of 25 K. Through an analysis of side products we determine the branching ratio of ice-phase oxygen insertion into CH4: ˜65% of insertions lead to CH3OH, with the remainder leading instead to H2CO formation. There is no evidence for CH3 or OH radical formation, indicating that the fragmentation is not an important channel and that insertions typically lead to increased chemical complexity. CH3OH formation from O2 and CH4 diluted in a CO-dominated ice similarly shows no temperature dependence, consistent with expectations that insertion proceeds with a small or nonexistent barrier. Oxygen insertion chemistry in ices should therefore be efficient under low-temperature ISM-like conditions and could provide an important channel to complex organic molecule formation on grain surfaces in cold interstellar regions such as cloud cores and protoplanetary disk midplanes.

  19. Allelic variation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) gene: detection of polymorphisms, analysis of the promoter region, and extended haplotype estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.H.; Lange, Marianne; Lillevang, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    The human chromosome region 2q33 including the three costimulatory molecules CD28, CTLA-4 and ICOS, has been subject to much attention due to its linkage to a number of autoimmune diseases. The search for the causal relationship of this linkage has revealed several polymorphisms, but no variations...... in the amino acid sequences except for one polymorphism in, the leader sequence of CTLA-4. In the present study, we examined the ICOS gene of an unrelated group of healthy donors from the Danish population. We were able to report 16 intronic SNP, one intronic G-insert and two repeat regions in intron 4......, consistent with the [T](n) and the [GT](n) regions reported in a Japanese study. Putative haplotypes for the established SNP and repeat polymorphisms have been estimated by computational analysis. Sequencing of similar to3500 by of the upstream region of ICOS revealed an additional eight SNP of which two...

  20. Patterns of transposable element expression and insertion in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Clayton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human transposable element (TE activity in somatic tissues causes mutations that can contribute to tumorigenesis. Indeed, TE insertion mutations have been implicated in the etiology of a number of different cancer types. Nevertheless, the full extent of somatic TE activity, along with its relationship to tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully explored. Recent developments in bioinformatics software make it possible to analyze TE expression levels and TE insertional activity directly from transcriptome (RNA-seq and whole genome (DNA-seq next-generation sequence data. We applied these new sequence analysis techniques to matched normal and primary tumor patient samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA in order to analyze the patterns of TE expression and insertion for three cancer types: breast invasive carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma. Our analysis focused on the three most abundant families of active human TEs: Alu, SVA and L1. We found evidence for high levels of somatic TE activity for these three families in normal and cancer samples across diverse tissue types. Abundant transcripts for all three TE families were detected in both normal and cancer tissues along with an average of ~80 unique TE insertions per individual patient/tissue. We observed an increase in L1 transcript expression and L1 insertional activity in primary tumor samples for all three cancer types. Tumor-specific TE insertions are enriched for private mutations, consistent with a potentially causal role in tumorigenesis. We used genome feature analysis to investigate two specific cases of putative cancer-causing TE mutations in further detail. An Alu insertion in an upstream enhancer of the CBL tumor suppressor gene is associated with down-regulation of the gene in a single breast cancer patient, and an L1 insertion in the first exon of the BAALC gene also disrupts its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our results are

  1. Preprocedural ultrasound examination versus manual palpation for thoracic epidural catheter insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hasanin

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Preprocedural ultrasound imaging increased the incidence of first pass success in thoracic epidural catheter insertion and reduced the catheter insertion time compared to manual palpation method.

  2. Genetic Polymorphism of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk: An Updated Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wook Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE gene and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been examined in many previous studies. However, their results were controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between the ACE gene and the risk of COPD. Fourteen case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled p value, odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association. The meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ACE polymorphisms were not related to the risk of COPD (p>0.05 in each model. In further analyses based on ethnicity, we observed an association between insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene and risk of COPD in the Asian population (codominant 2, OR = 3.126, 95% CI = 1.919–5.093, p0.05 in each model. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicated that the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene may be associated with susceptibility to COPD in the Asian population but not in the Caucasian population. However, the results of the present meta-analysis need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

  3. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Franco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  4. Analysis of generic insertions made of two symmetric triplets

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, T E

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the study undertaken to explore the capabilities of a symmetric triplet to achieve the optics constraints required by the inner triplet of an insertion and more generally of a co mplete insertion made of two symmetric triplets to match a double focus to a FODO lattice. It is based on analytical treatment formulating a number of constraints equal to the parameters available. Th is thorough and systematic analysis made it possible to establish for an inner triplet as well as for a complete insertion the existence of solutions and to explicitly find out all the solutions, with out resorting to unguided numerical searches. As a by-product, a lattice transformer, made of a single triplet, that matches two different FODO cells has been singled out and studied in details. The r esults should be profitable in a number of cases. Here, the method is applied to an insertion of the type of an experimental LHC insertion in order to investigate its domain of validity and tunability .

  5. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  6. Insertion compounds of transition-metal and uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chippindale, A.M.; Dickens, P.G.; Powell, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Several transition-metal and actinide oxides, in which the metal occurs in a high oxidation state, have open covalent structures and are capable of incorporating alkali and other electropositive metals under mild conditions to form insertion compounds A x MO n . These are solids which have several features in common: Over a range of compositions, A x MO n exists as one or more stable or metastable phases in which the structure of the parent oxide MO n is largely retained and the insertion element A is accommodated interstitially. Insertion is accompanied by a redox process A=A i . + e - M in which M is reduced and the electronic properties of the parent oxide change to those typical of a mixed-valence compound. The insertion process xA + MO n = A x MO n can be reversed, at least to some extent, by chemical or electrochemical reaction, with retention of structure (topotactic reaction). This review concentrates on methods of synthesis, characterisation, crystal structure and thermochemistry of these insertion compounds. It updates and extends previous work. (author)

  7. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  8. Guide tube insert assembly for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an internals assembly for a nuclear reactor of the type including an upper support plate and an upper core plate, each having apertures for conducting control rod assemblies into an out of fuel assemblies with the apertures of the upper support plate being aligned with the apertures of the upper core plate, a guide tube insert assembly comprising: an elongated tubular body extending between at least one of the aligned apertures formed in the upper support plate and the upper core plate; guide plates within the elongated tubular body, each of the guide plates having a planar surface extending substantially perpendicular to an axial direction of the tubular body; at least one interconnecting means for interconnecting the guide plates into a guide tube insert assembly such that the guide plates are simultaneously mountable within and removable from the elongated body, and the periphery of each of the guide plates is spaced apart from the inner walls of the elongated tubular body at every point when the insert assembly is mounted within the tubular body, and a stabilizing means for securing the lowermost guide plate of the guide tube insert assembly within the elongated tubular body to prevent rotational and lateral movement between the guide tube insert assembly and the tubular body

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  10. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  11. Structural insertion/deletion variation in IRF5 is associated with a risk haplotype and defines the precise IRF5 isoforms expressed in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozyrev, Sergey V; Lewén, Susanna; Reddy, Prasad M V Linga

    2007-01-01

    -alpha. The SNP most strongly associated with SLE was SNP no. rs2070197 (P=5.2x10(-11)), which is a proxy of the risk haplotype, but does not appear to be functional. CONCLUSION: None of the functional variants investigated in this study is strongly associated with SLE, with the exception of the exon 1B donor......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific isoforms of IRF5 are transcribed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have risk genotypes in the exon 1B donor splice site at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no. rs2004640. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained...... interaction domain. The insertion segregates in the risk haplotype with the high expression allele of a poly(A) site SNP no. rs10954213 and the exon 1B donor splice allele of the 5'-UTR SNP no. rs2004640. The poly(A) polymorphism correlated with levels of IRF5 in cells stimulated with interferon...

  12. Relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and cardio-brain complications in patients with NIDDM (type 2 diabetes mellitus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qinfang; Zhu Yan; Ding Mingwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and cardio-brain complications in patients with NIDDM. Methods: The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in 174 patients with NIDDM and 62 controls were examined with PCR. Results: ACE gene I/D polymorphism was closely related to coronary heart disease (angina, cardiac infarction) and cerebral infarction in diabetic patients but not with hypertension. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels in complicated diabetic patients with ACE D/D gene were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.01). Their aldosterone and endothelin contents were not significantly different. Conclusion: Examination of ACE gene I/D polymorphism was useful for the primary prevention of cardio-brain complications in diabetic patients and helpful in the early diagnosis and therapy of coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction

  13. Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M

    2000-12-01

    A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.

  14. Drug-gene interaction between the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and antihypertensive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman, Hedi; Klungel, Olaf H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hofman, Albert; de Boer, Anthonius; Stricker, Bruno H Ch

    BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a variety of effective drugs, inadequate control of blood pressure is common. There are some indications that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene modifies the response to antihypertensive drugs, but the results have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To

  15. Insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE gene in females with peripartum cardiomyopathy: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Yaqoob

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: ACE DD genotype and overall frequency of D allele is significantly higher in patients with PPCM. Also, the presence of DD genotype is associated with worse systolic performance indices measured echocardiographically.

  16. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR relates folate/homocysteine pathway genes and ACE gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Rizwan; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD) are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality in heart patients. As genes of the folate/homocysteine pathway have been linked with the vascular disease, we investigated association of these gene polymorphisms with CAD/myocardial infarction (MI) using the novel approach of tetraprimer ARMS-PCR. A total of 230 participants (129 MI cases, 101 normal subjects) were recruited. We genotyped rs1801133 and rs1801131 SNPs in 5'10' methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), rs1805087 SNP in 5' methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), rs662 SNP in paroxanse1 (PON1), and rs5742905 polymorphism in cystathionine beta synthase (CBS). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism was detected through conventional PCR. Covariates included blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum cholesterol, and creatinine concentrations. Our results showed allele frequencies at rs1801133, rs1801131, rs1805087 and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism varied between cases and controls. Logistic regression, after adjusting for covariates, demonstrated significant associations of rs1801133 and rs1805087 with CAD in the additive, dominant, and genotype model. In contrast, ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly related with CAD where recessive model was applied. Gene-gene interaction against the disease status revealed two polymorphism groups: rs1801133, rs662, and rs1805087; and rs1801131, rs662, and ACE I/D. Only the latter interaction maintained significance after adjusted for covariates. Our study concludes that folate pathway variants exert contributory influence on susceptibility to CAD. We further suggest that tetraprimer ARMS-PCR successfully resolves the genotypes in selected samples and might prove to be a superior technique compared to the conventional approach.

  17. Polymorphic integrations of an endogenous gammaretrovirus in the mule deer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Daniel; Kim, Oekyung; Padhi, Abinash; Bankert, Jason G; Simeonov, Ivan; Schuster, Stephan C; Wittekindt, Nicola E; Motameny, Susanne; Poss, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Endogenous retroviruses constitute a significant genomic fraction in all mammalian species. Typically they are evolutionarily old and fixed in the host species population. Here we report on a novel endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ; for cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus) in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that is insertionally polymorphic among individuals from the same geographical location, suggesting that it has a more recent evolutionary origin. Using PCR-based methods, we identified seven CrERVγ proviruses and demonstrated that they show various levels of insertional polymorphism in mule deer individuals. One CrERVγ provirus was detected in all mule deer sampled but was absent from white-tailed deer, indicating that this virus originally integrated after the split of the two species, which occurred approximately one million years ago. There are, on average, 100 CrERVγ copies in the mule deer genome based on quantitative PCR analysis. A CrERVγ provirus was sequenced and contained intact open reading frames (ORFs) for three virus genes. Transcripts were identified covering the entire provirus. CrERVγ forms a distinct branch of the gammaretrovirus phylogeny, with the closest relatives of CrERVγ being endogenous gammaretroviruses from sheep and pig. We demonstrated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) DNA contain proviruses that are closely related to mule deer CrERVγ in a conserved region of pol; more distantly related sequences can be identified in the genome of another member of the Cervidae, the muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak). The discovery of a novel transcriptionally active and insertionally polymorphic retrovirus in mammals could provide a useful model system to study the dynamic interaction between the host genome and an invading retrovirus.

  18. [Correlation analysis between single nucleotide polymorphism of FGF5 gene and wool yield in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia

    2008-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 and 3 of fibroblast growth factor (FGF5) gene was studied by DNA sequencing in Yingjing angora rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. A frameshift mutation (TCT insert) at base position 217 (site A) of exon 1 and a T/C missense mutation at base position 59 (site B) of exon 3 were found in Yingjing angora rabbit with a high frequency; a T/C same-sense mutation at base position 3 (site C) of exon 3 was found with similar frequency in three rabbit breeds. Least square analysis showed that different genotypes had no significant association with wool yield in site A, and had high significant association with wool yield in site B (Plink with the major gene, and polymorphic loci B and C may be used as molecular markers for im-proving wool yield in angora rabbits.

  19. The strategic use of inserts in the Brazilian presidential elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Borba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the communication strategies of presidential candidates during the elections held in 2006 and 2010. The focus is on the strategic component of electoral inserts and the methodology consists of investigating how candidates choose to distribute these inserts in the programming of television networks. The results indicate that the candidates pursue different strategies influenced basically by three variables: electoral legislation, their standing in polls and the difference of resources available. In parallel, the article debates the role of the regulation of electoral advertising and how this set of rules influences the level of information of campaigns, the occurrence of attacks, and party strategies. Overall, 2,993 electoral inserts were examined.

  20. Variation in the insertion of the palmaris longus tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vinutha; Rajanna, Shubha; Gitanjali; Kadaba, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The palmaris longus is harvested as a tendon graft in various surgical procedures. We herein report the variations in the insertion of the palmaris longus tendon. During a routine dissection, a rare variation in the insertion of the palmaris longus tendon was observed. In the left forearm, the palmaris longus tendon bifurcated, while in the right forearm, the palmaris longus tendon trifurcated, giving rise to an accessory muscle, which passed superficial to the ulnar artery and ulnar nerve. The accessory muscle was supplied by a deep branch of the ulnar nerve, and the ulnar artery was observed to be tortuous. During reconstructive surgeries, surgeons should bear in mind the accessory muscle. Also, since the palmaris longus muscle provides a very useful graft in tendon surgery, every surgeon should be aware of the variations in the insertion of the palmaris longus tendon. PMID:25640108

  1. Indentation and needle insertion properties of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G

    2014-07-01

    Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (Phuman eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching.

  2. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Piotr, E-mail: ppopov@kent.edu; Mann, Elizabeth K. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Lacks, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Jákli, Antal [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242-0001 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  3. Master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaehyun; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-12-01

    Bilateral control of a master-slave robotic system is a challenging issue in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. It requires the knowledge on contact interaction between a surgical (slave) robot and soft tissues. This paper presents a master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion. This master-slave robotic system is able to characterize the contact interaction between the robotic needle and soft tissues. A bilateral controller is implemented using a linear motor for robotic needle indentation and insertion. A new nonlinear state observer is developed to online monitor the contact interaction with soft tissues. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed master-slave robotic system for robotic needle indentation and needle insertion.

  4. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  5. The association of ACE gene polymorphism with diabetic kidney disease and renoprotective efficacy of valsartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the associations between the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD; and the efficacy of valsartan in reducing the urine protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Materials and methods: We enrolled 128 T2DM patients in this study, including 54 cases with DKD (DKD+ and 74 controls (DKD–. The ACE polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the genotype distribution and allele frequency were analyzed. The DKD+ group was subdivided into the DD, ID and II subgroups, based on their genotypes. In addition, patients with DKD received valsartan treatment for 12 weeks. We determined changes in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR and serum creatinine (SCr. Results: The frequencies of the genotypes DD and ID were higher in the DKD+ than in the DKD– group. The frequency of allele D was higher, and of allele I was lower, in the DKD+ than in DKD– group (p < 0.05. Following valsartan treatment, albuminuria was significantly decreased in subgroups DD and ID (p < 0.05. Conclusions: In T2DM patients, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with onset of DKD. Furthermore, the ACE I/D polymorphism influenced the renoprotective response to valsartan: Patients with the DD genotype benefitted the most from this treatment.

  6. Assessment of the relationship between ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Lu, Yi; Chen, Xue-Xia; Xian, Wen-Feng; Tu, Wei-Feng; Li, Hong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival after renal transplantation from the published reports are still debatable. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival after renal transplantation using meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library on 1 November 2014, and eligible studies were recruited and synthesized using a meta-analysis methodology. Twelve investigations were included in this meta-analysis for the assessment of the relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and renal allograft survival. In this meta-analysis, the ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation for overall populations, Caucasians, Brazilians and Africans. Interestingly, the ACE D allele and DD genotype were associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation in the Asian population. ACE D allele and DD genotype were associated with renal allograft survival after renal transplantation in the Asian population. However, more studies should be performed to confirm this association. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The association of ACE gene polymorphism with diabetic kidney disease and renoprotective efficacy of valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuying; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Qiao, Huibo; Wang, Li; Xu, Zhigang; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the associations between the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD); and the efficacy of valsartan in reducing the urine protein in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We enrolled 128 T2DM patients in this study, including 54 cases with DKD (DKD+) and 74 controls (DKD-). The ACE polymorphism was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the genotype distribution and allele frequency were analyzed. The DKD+ group was subdivided into the DD, ID and II subgroups, based on their genotypes. In addition, patients with DKD received valsartan treatment for 12 weeks. We determined changes in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine (SCr). The frequencies of the genotypes DD and ID were higher in the DKD+ than in the DKD- group. The frequency of allele D was higher, and of allele I was lower, in the DKD+ than in DKD- group (p ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with onset of DKD. Furthermore, the ACE I/D polymorphism influenced the renoprotective response to valsartan: Patients with the DD genotype benefitted the most from this treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Relationship between major depressive disorder and ACE gene I/D polymorphism in a Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Inanir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder (MDD is a complex disease and a significant health problem that is prevalent across the world. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE has an important role in renin-angiotensin system (RAS and converts inactive angiotensin I to a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide angiotensin II. Levels of ACE in plasma vary according to the insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the influence ACE gene I/D variations on the risk of MDD. Methods In the present case-control study, we analyzed ACE I/D polymorphism in 346 MDD patients and 210 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction technique. Results Comparing the two groups, no significant difference was observed with regard to either genotype distributions or allele frequencies of the I/D polymorphism of ACE gene. Discussion Our findings suggest that the ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with MDD in Turkish case-control study. Further studies are still needed.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor I 4G/5G polymorphism in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armangil, Didem; Yurdakök, Murat; Okur, Hamza; Gürgey, Aytemiz

    2011-08-01

    Fibrin monomers inhibit surfactant function. 4G/5G insertion/deletion polymorphism plays an important role in the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression. To examine the genotype distribution of PAI-1 polymorphism in 60 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 53 controls, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. The proportion of 4G/4G, 4G/5G, and 5G/5G genotypes did not differ statistically between the RDS and control groups (P > .05). Having PAI-1 4G/4G genotype polymorphism appears to increase the risk of RDS (odds ratio [OR] =1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-4.3), although it was not statistically significant. No relation was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms and RDS, but there was an increased risk associated with the 4G variant of the PAI-1 gene. We believe that our findings of increased 4G allele of the PAI-1 gene in infants with RDS would also help to clarify the pathogenesis of RDS.

  10. Fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion using suture button technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanter, Nathan J; Davis, Edward W; Baker, Champ L

    2012-09-01

    In the operative treatment of Achilles insertional tendinopathy, no guidelines exist concerning which form of fixation of the Achilles tendon insertion is superior. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage does not place any major plantar structures at risk, and the addition of a Krackow stitch and suture button to the fixation technique provides a significant increase in ultimate load to failure in Achilles tendon insertional repairs. Controlled laboratory study. The Achilles tendon insertions in 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric ankles were detached, and transcalcaneal drill pins were passed. Plantar dissection took place to evaluate the drill pin relationship to the plantar fascia, lateral plantar nerve and artery, flexor digitorum longus tendon, and master knot of Henry. The Achilles tendons were then repaired with a double-row suture anchor construct alone or with a suture button and Krackow stitch added to the double-row suture anchor construct. The repairs were then tested to maximum load to failure at 20 mm/min. The mode of failure was recorded, and the mean maximum load to failure was assessed using the Student t test for distributions with equal variance. Transcalcaneal drill pin passage did not place any selected anatomic structures at risk. The mean maximum load to failure for the suture bridge group was 239.2 N; it was 391.4 N for the group with the suture button (P = .014). The lateral plantar artery was the structure placed at greatest risk from drill pin placement, with a mean distance of 22.7 mm (range, 16.5-29.2 mm) between the pin and artery. In this laboratory study, transcalcaneal drill pin passage appeared to be anatomically safe, and the use of suture button technology with a Krackow stitch for Achilles tendon insertional repair significantly increased repair strength. Achilles tendon insertional repair with suture button fixation and a Krackow stitch may facilitate the earlier institution of postoperative rehabilitation and improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Mammographic and Ultrasonographic Findings of the Chemoport Insertion Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seun Jung; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Jung; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Lee, Ji Hye

    2010-01-01

    To describe mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of previous chemoport insertion sites. We included patients who had abnormal findings at chemoport insertion sites on mammography and ultrasonography from 224 patients who underwent chemoport insertion and breast imaging at our institution between January, 2005, and December, 2007. Abnormal findings were identified in 16 mammographies and 14 ultrasonographies in 10 patients. The mean age was 50.9 years and the age range was from 44 to 67 years. Abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed according to ACR/BI-RADS. All cases were followed up with imaging studies for 2 years to confirm changes after chemoport insertion. Of the abnormal findings identified on mammography, focal asymmetry (7/16) was the most common. Other abnormal findings included mass (6/16), skin retraction (2/16), residual chemoport tip (1/16), and trabecular thickening (1/16). Of the abnormal findings seen on ultrasonography, skin thickening (12/14) was the most common. Other abnormal findings included mass (5/14), diffuse increased echogenicity of subcutaneous tissue (1/14), and a localized skin nodule (1/14). Abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography were located in the upper outer quadrant in 5 patients, upper inner quadrant in 3 patients, and mid upper portion in 1 patient. In 1 patient, the abnormal finding was only identified in the mediolateral oblique view of her mammography. Radiologists should be aware of potential abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography following chemoport insertion. In particular, ultrasonography is a very useful modality for detecting skin complications after chemoport insertion

  12. Bedside prediction of right subclavian venous catheter insertion length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Ji Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The present study aimed to evaluate whether right subclavian vein (SCV catheter insertion depth can be predicted reliably by the distances from the SCV insertion site to the ipsilateral clavicular notch directly (denoted as I-IC, via the top of the SCV arch, or via the clavicle (denoted as I-T-IC and I-C-IC, respectively. Method: In total, 70 SCV catheterizations were studied. The I-IC, I-T-IC, and I-C-IC distances in each case were measured after ultrasound-guided SCV catheter insertion. The actual length of the catheter between the insertion site and the ipsilateral clavicular notch, denoted as L, was calculated by using chest X-ray. Results: L differed from the I-T-IC, I-C-IC, and I-IC distances by 0.14±0.53, 2.19±1.17, and -0.45 ±0.68 cm, respectively. The mean I-T-IC distance was the most similar to the mean L (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.89. The mean I-IC was significantly shorter than L, while the mean I-C-IC was significantly longer. Linear regression analysis provided the following formula: Predicted SCV catheter insertion length (cm = -0.037 + 0.036 × Height (cm + 0.903 × I-T-IC (cm (adjusted r2 =0.64. Conclusion: The I-T-IC distance may be a reliable bedside predictor of the optimal insertion length for a right SCV cannulation.

  13. Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

    2012-07-01

    A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. Copyright

  14. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  15. Insertion sequence ISRP10 inactivation of the oprD gene in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinghui; Ba, Zhaofen; Wu, Guoying; Wang, Wei; Lin, Shuxiang; Yang, Hongjiang

    2016-05-01

    Carbapenem resistance mechanisms were investigated in 32 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates recovered from hospitalised children. Sequence analysis revealed that 31 of the isolates had an insertion sequence element ISRP10 disrupting the porin gene oprD, demonstrating that ISRP10 inactivation of oprD conferred imipenem resistance in the majority of the isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to discriminate the isolates. In total, 11 sequence types (STs) were identified including 3 novel STs, and 68.3% (28/41) of the tested strains were characterised as clone ST253. In combination with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, the imipenem-resistant isolates displayed a relatively high degree of genetic variability and were unlikely associated with nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis AL Saif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  17. Can femoral dialysis catheter insertion cause a life threatening complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkay Katrancıoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous catheter (VC insertion may be necessary for the patients with renal failure facing vascular access problem. Femoral VCs are commonly used for their lower complication rates especially in emergency clinics. The incidence of bleeding associated with VC is reported 0.5-1.6%, however, life threatening hemorrhage and complications requiring surgical intervention are very rare. In this manuscript, we aimed to present a case with hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated with retroperitoneal hematoma after femoral VC insertion. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 472-474

  18. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2016-10-14

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively in-chain anhydride groups are formed by terpolymerization with carbic anhydride. Combined experimental and theoretical DFT studies reveal the key for this direct approach to telechelics to be a match of the comonomers’ different electronics and bulk. Identified essential features of the comonomer are that it is an electron-rich olefin that forms an insertion product stabilized by an additional interaction, namely a π–η3 interaction for the case of VF.

  19. Using PATIMDB to create bacterial transposon insertion mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jonathan M; Wei, Tao; Liberati, Nicole; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wu, Gang; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-04-01

    PATIMDB is a software package for facilitating the generation of transposon mutant insertion libraries. The software has two main functions: process tracking and automated sequence analysis. The process tracking function specifically includes recording the status and fates of multiwell plates and samples in various stages of library construction. Automated sequence analysis refers specifically to the pipeline of sequence analysis starting with ABI files from a sequencing facility and ending with insertion location identifications. The protocols in this unit describe installation and use of PATIMDB software.

  20. Allelic prevalence of intron 3 insertion/deletion genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leila Fallahzadeh-Abarghooei

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... Tabriz (East Azerbaijan province; belong to Azaris), and Yasuj (Kohgiluyeh va Boyer-Ahmad pro- vince; belong to Lurs), respectively. Genotypic analysis of the Ins/Del XRCC4 polymorphism was detected by the PCR method. Results: The prevalence of the Del allele in Shiraz, Abarku, Tabriz, and Yasuj was ...

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... The aim of this work was to study the role of the ACE gene. I/D polymorphism in the ... PCR conditions were similar to those used for I/D detec- tion. ... in cystic fibrosis in various English and Tunisian studies. (Arkwright et al.

  2. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  3. The supermodule insertion tool of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and the first trial insertion of a supermodule.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first trial insertion of a complete Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) "supermodule" (1700 lead-tungstate crystals, with support structures, light detectors (avalanche photodiodes), readout electronics and cooling system) was performed on 1st March. This delicate operation - sliding a 2-tonne 3m-long object onto support rails (in real life these are attached to the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL)) - made use of a custom designed "squirrel cage". The rotatable squirrel cage allows the insertion of any supermodule into any of the 18 positions, including very fine (sub-mm) adjustments. The first supermodule will be inserted into the real HCAL later this month in preparation for the "magnet test and cosmic-ray challenge" (MTCC). In the first image the supermodule is in the centre and the alignment disks are highlighted by the flash.

  4. Experience with UIDC insertion outside of menses in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 ...

  5. Prototype ISR Superconducting Quadrupole for the low beta insertion.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The four coils are provisionally kept together by aluminium clamps while epoxy-glass bands are wrapped around them to form a number of spacer rings.Stainless steel spacers were then inserted between these rings and the yoke quadrants. The persons are Michel Bouvier(left) and Pierre Pugin. See also7702690X.

  6. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  7. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  8. High aspect ratio catalytic reactor and catalyst inserts therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Kelly, Sean M.

    2018-04-10

    The present invention relates to high efficient tubular catalytic steam reforming reactor configured from about 0.2 inch to about 2 inch inside diameter high temperature metal alloy tube or pipe and loaded with a plurality of rolled catalyst inserts comprising metallic monoliths. The catalyst insert substrate is formed from a single metal foil without a central supporting structure in the form of a spiral monolith. The single metal foil is treated to have 3-dimensional surface features that provide mechanical support and establish open gas channels between each of the rolled layers. This unique geometry accelerates gas mixing and heat transfer and provides a high catalytic active surface area. The small diameter, high aspect ratio tubular catalytic steam reforming reactors loaded with rolled catalyst inserts can be arranged in a multi-pass non-vertical parallel configuration thermally coupled with a heat source to carry out steam reforming of hydrocarbon-containing feeds. The rolled catalyst inserts are self-supported on the reactor wall and enable efficient heat transfer from the reactor wall to the reactor interior, and lower pressure drop than known particulate catalysts. The heat source can be oxygen transport membrane reactors.

  9. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  10. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  11. Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask airway using dexmedetomidine sedation. P Dhar, TR Tedore. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2003.10872999.

  12. Monoblock versus modular polyethylene insert in uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial...

  13. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  14. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereau, T.; Bennett, W.F.D.; Pfaendtner, J.; Deserno, M.; Karttunen, M.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural

  15. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereau, T.; Bennett, W.F.D. Drew; Pfaendtner, J.; Deserno, M.; Karttunen, M.

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural

  16. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  17. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA) n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence

  18. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltsner, M A; Ferrier, N J; Thomadsen, B R

    2007-01-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy

  19. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms

  20. Insertion of lithium in Nb2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.C.M.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.; Castro, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electrode process during the reduction and oxidation of Nb sub(2) O sub(5) by cyclic voltametry was characterized. The surface analysis by X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy allowed characterize the surface processes, that happening during the insertion reaction. (author)

  1. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Vibeke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491, pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2 A-24381C (rs1523127, C8055T (rs2276707, A7635G (rs6785049, liver X receptor (LXR-β, NR1H3 C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons. Results Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.10-1.92. There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09 whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03. PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms. Conclusions A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology.

  2. Polymorphisms in NFkB, PXR, LXR and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective study of Danes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors and nuclear receptors constitute a link between exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from meat and tobacco smoke and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in nuclear factor kappa-B, pregnane X receptor, and liver X receptor were associated with risk of CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The polymorphisms nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB, NFKB1) -94 insertion/deletion ATTG (rs28362491), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) A-24381C (rs1523127), C8055T (rs2276707), A7635G (rs6785049), liver X receptor (LXR-β, NR1H3) C-rs1405655T, T-rs2695121C were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 756 random participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study of 57,053 persons. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 1.45-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous carriers of the insertion allele (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.10-1.92). There was interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Carriers of NFkB -94deletion were at 3% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (95% CI: 0.98-1.09) whereas homozygous carriers of the insertion were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.03). PXR and LXR polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was no interaction between use of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or smoking status and NFkB, PXR or LXR polymorphisms. A polymorphism in NFkB was associated with CRC risk and there was interaction between this polymorphism and meat intake in relation to CRC risk. This study suggests a role for NFkB in CRC aetiology

  3. Extra-anatomical complications of antegrade double-J insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion of a double-J (JJ stent is a common procedure often carried out in the retrograde route by the urologists and the antegrade route by the radiologists. Reported complications include stent migration, encrustation, and fracture. Extra-anatomic placement of an antegrade JJ stent is a rare but infrequently recognized complication. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of 165 antegrade JJ stent insertions performed over three consecutive years by a single interventional radiologist. All renal units were hydronephrotic at the time of nephrostomy. All procedures were performed under local anaesthetic with antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Antegrade stent insertion was carried out simultaneously at the time of nephrostomy in 55 of the 165 cases (33%. The remainder were inserted at a mean of 2 weeks following decompression. In five (3% patients, who had delayed antegrade stenting following nephrostomy, the procedure was complicated by silent ureteric perforation and an extra-anatomic placement of the stent. These complications had delayed manifestations, which included two retroperitoneal abscesses, a pelvic urinoma, a case each of ureterorectal fistula, and ureterovaginal fistula. Risk factors for ureteric perforation include previous pelvic malignancy, pelvic surgery, pelvic radiation, and a history of ureteric manipulation. Conclusion: Antegrade ureteric JJ stenting is a procedure not without complications. Extra-anatomic placement of the antegrade stent is a hitherto the infrequently reported complication but needs a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed. Risk factors for ureteric perforation at the time of stent insertion have to be considered to prevent this potential complication.

  4. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  6. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Species-specific markers for the differential diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli and polymorphisms detection in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Keila Adriana Magalhães; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Baptista, Rodrigo P; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo; Pedrosa, André Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are kinetoplastid parasites which are able to infect humans in Central and South America. Misdiagnosis between these trypanosomes can be avoided by targeting barcoding sequences or genes of each organism. This work aims to analyze the feasibility of using species-specific markers for identification of intraspecific polymorphisms and as target for diagnostic methods by PCR. Accordingly, primers which are able to specifically detect T. cruzi or T. rangeli genomic DNA were characterized. The use of intergenic regions, generally divergent in the trypanosomatids, and the serine carboxypeptidase gene were successful. Using T. rangeli genomic sequences for the identification of group-specific polymorphisms and a polymorphic AT(n) dinucleotide repeat permitted the classification of the strains into two groups, which are entirely coincident with T. rangeli main lineages, KP1 (+) and KP1 (-), previously determined by kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) characterization. The sequences analyzed totalize 622 bp (382 bp represent a hypothetical protein sequence, and 240 bp represent an anonymous sequence), and of these, 581 (93.3%) are conserved sites and 41 bp (6.7%) are polymorphic, with 9 transitions (21.9%), 2 transversions (4.9%), and 30 (73.2%) insertion/deletion events. Taken together, the species-specific markers analyzed may be useful for the development of new strategies for the accurate diagnosis of infections. Furthermore, the identification of T. rangeli polymorphisms has a direct impact in the understanding of the population structure of this parasite.

  8. [Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II regions in the Deng populations from Tibet in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I (HVR I) and HVR II in the Deng population in Linzhi area of Tibet. mtDNAs obtained from 119 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. One hundred and ten variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, and insertions. In the HVR I region (nt16024-nt16365), 68 polymorphic sites and 119 haplotypes were observed, the genetic diversity was 0.9916. In the HVR II (nt73-nt340) region, 42 polymorphic sites and 113 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9907. The random match probability of the HVR I and HVR II regions were 0.0084 and 0.0093, respectively. When combining the HVR I and HVR II regions, 119 different haplotypes were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0084. There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Deng population. There are different genetic structures between Chinese and other Asian populations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. Sequence polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II can be used as a genetic marker for forensic individual identification and genetic analysis.

  9. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among those with the genotype of 5-HRRLPR polymorphism. There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and the response to MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Subjects with the S/L+L/L genotype tended to have tics and nail biting (respectively, p tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. This may aid in our understanding of the genetic contribution and genetic susceptibility of a particular allele in those ADHD patients with tics or nail biting.

  10. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    polymorphisms and its serum level with the risk of MetS as well as their ... population for quantifying insulin resistance and β-cell function (Matthews et al. 1985). .... of IL-10 -819 C >T gene polymorphism (Co-dominant model) was significantly.

  11. using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was observed for the ...

  12. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Association of Interleukin-10 (-1082 A>G, -819 C >T and -592 C >A) gene polymorphism and its ... Th2 induced component of anti-β cell immunity is mediated principally by IL-10 (Lee et al. ..... promoter polymorphisms influence the clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ... Bone Marrow Transplant 36, 1089-1095.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients with type-I diabetes mellitus folate deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction. So, polymorphism in genes involved in folate metabolism may have a role in vascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...

  14. Polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crumbled to dirty grey and the soldiers believed that it is the wrath of God; their .... more molecules of water leave the beaker progressively concentrating the solution ..... spectrum antibacterial fluoroquinolone for the treatment of prostate and ...

  15. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  16. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  17. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically acquired for the ACR

  18. Insertional inactivation of oprD in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, A; Azimi, T; Ardebili, A; Chirani, A S; Bahramian, A; Pormohammad, A; Sadredinamin, M; Erfanimanesh, S; Bostanghadiri, N; Shams, S; Hashemi, A

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we report the insertion sequence IS Ppu 21 in the opr D porin gene of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests for P. aeruginosa isolates were determined. Production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and carbapenemase was evaluated and the β-lactamase-encoding and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing methods. The mRNA transcription level of oprD and mex efflux pump genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. The outer membrane protein profile was determined by SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationship between the P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. In all, 10.52% (10/95) of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa harboured the IS Ppu 21 insertion element in the opr D gene. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase-encoding gene in IS Ppu 21-carrying isolates was bla TEM . PCR assays targeting MBL and carbapenemase-encoding genes were also negative in all ten isolates. The rmt A, aad A, aad B and arm A genes were positive in all IS Ppu 21 harbouring isolates. The relative expression levels of the mex X, mex B, mex T and mex D genes in ten isolates ranged from 0.1- to 1.4-fold, 1.1- to 3.68-fold, 0.3- to 8.22-fold and 1.7- to 35.17-fold, respectively. The relative expression levels of the oprD in ten isolates ranged from 0.57- to 35.01-fold, which was much higher than those in the control strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Evaluation of the outer membrane protein by SDS-PAGE suggested that opr D was produced at very low levels by all isolates. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR genotyping, eight of the ten isolates containing IS Ppu 21 were shown to be clonally related. The present study describes a novel molecular mechanism, IS Ppu 21 insertion of the opr D gene, associated with carbapenem resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates.

  19. Polymorphism of the ACE gene and the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Mlak, Radosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Czukiewska, Ewa; Milanowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in repetitive breathing pauses accompanied by oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Among the candidate genes affecting the risk of OSA, genes whose polymorphisms influence the development of diseases with similar pathogenesis such as OSA could be listed: APOE, genes for leptin and leptin receptor, TNFA1, ADRB2 and ACE (gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme). Until now there has been a confirmed relationship between ACE gene polymorphism and cardiovascular diseases, but its effect on the incidence of OSA is debatable. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism on the risk of OSA. Fifty-five patients with confirmed diagnose of OSA and qualified to CPAP therapy entered the study. The control group included 50 subjects who did not complain of any sleep related symptoms. Diagnose of OSA was set on the basis of full overnight polysomnography together with Epworth Sleepiness Scale according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine guidelines. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes with Qiagen DNA mini Kit. ACE gene polymorphism was determined in genomic DNA using allele specific polymerase chain reaction. Different sizes of PCR products were observed on agarose gel electrophoresis. There were non-significant differences in the frequency of ACE genotypes. However, allele D had significantly lower prevalence in the study group than in the control group. (χ(2) = 4.25 p = 0.04). Moreover, I allele carriers had a threefold greater risk of developing OSA (HR = 2.748, 95% CI = 1.029-7.340, p gene polymorphism might be useful to determine the risk of developing OSA in clinically predisposed patients.

  20. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  1. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  2. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  3. Impact of hydrogen insertion on vehicular natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangueto, Karina Maretti; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering. Energy Dept.], Email: karinakms@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to analyze the possibility of insertion of hydrogen in the vehicular natural gas or even the insertion of the hydrogen in the compressed natural gas used in Brazil. For the production of this hydrogen, the spilled turbinable energy from Itaipu would be harnessed. The calculation of production can be extended to other power plants which are close to the natural gas pipelines, where the hydrogen would be introduced. Then, it was analyzed the consumption of natural gas in vehicles in Brazil, the regulation of transportation, the sales of compressed natural gas to fuelling station, the specifications that the piped gas should follow to be sold, and how much hydrogen could be accepted in the mix. (author)

  4. CUDA accelerated simulation of needle insertions in deformable tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriciu, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a stiff needle-deformable tissue interaction model. The model uses a mesh-less discretization of continuum; avoiding thus the expensive remeshing required by the finite element models. The proposed model can accommodate both linear and nonlinear material characteristics. The needle-deformable tissue interaction is modeled through fundamental boundaries. The forces applied by the needle on the tissue are divided in tangent forces and constraint forces. The constraint forces are adaptively computed such that the material is properly constrained by the needle. The implementation is accelerated using NVidia CUDA. We present detailed analysis of the execution timing in both serial and parallel case. The proposed needle insertion model was integrated in a custom software that loads DICOM images, generate the deformable model, and can simulate different insertion strategies.

  5. A morphophonological analysis of the velar insert in Italian verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lampitelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a particular group of Italian irregular verbs that are characterized by the insertion of [g] between the root and the inflectional markers. Despite the apparent unetymological status of such a velar insert (Rohlfs 1968, it is shown that the allomorphy of the root depends on the internal organization of the segmental material with respect to a fixed template made of a strict alternation of onsets (C and nuclei (V. The analyses are couched within the CVCV framework (Lowenstamm 1996; Scheer 2004 and are consistent with a syntactic approach to word- formation such as Distributed Morphology (Halle & Marantz 1993; Embick 2010. This article is part of the special collection: Motivating Form in Morpho-Syntax

  6. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    KAUST Repository

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  7. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  8. Archive-cup insert for liquid-metal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Filewicz, E.C.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    An insert for collecting liquid-metal samples within a vertical casing including an elongated housing with an upper and a lower overflow seal of annular shape is described. The lower seal includes a centrally located pedestal on which a sample cup is disposed. Liquid metal enters the annulus of the upper seal and overflows into the cup which fills and overflows into the lower seal. Liquid-metal overflow from the lower seal is discharged from the insert. On cooling, the liquid metal trapped within the seals solidifies to hermetically isolate the metal sample within the cup. The device is particularly applicable for use with sampling systems on liquid metal-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  9. Calculation of magnetic error fields in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoy, R.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1989-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory requires insertion devices with fields sufficiently accurate to take advantage of the small emittance of the ALS electron beam. To maintain the spectral performance of the synchrotron radiation and to limit steering effects on the electron beam these errors must be smaller than 0.25%. This paper develops a procedure for calculating the steering error due to misalignment of the easy axis of the permanent magnet material. The procedure is based on a three dimensional theory of the design of hybrid insertion devices developed by one of us. The acceptable tolerance for easy axis misalignment is found for a 5 cm period undulator proposed for the ALS. 11 refs., 5 figs

  10. Codon 219 polymorphism of PRNP in healthy caucasians and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petraroli, R.; Pocchiari, M. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    A number of point and insert mutations of the PrP gene (PRNP) have been linked to familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS). Moreover, the methionine/valine homozygosity at the polymorphic codon 129 of PRNP may cause a predisposition to sporadic and iatrogenic CJD or may control the age at onset of familial cases carrying either the 144-bp insertion or codon 178, codon 198, and codon 210 pathogenic mutations in PRNP. In addition, the association of methionine or valine at codon 129 and the point mutation at codon 178 on the same allele seem to play an important role in determining either fatal familial insomnia or CJD. However, it is noteworthy that a relationship between codon 129 polymorphism and accelerated pathogenesis (early age at onset or shorter duration of the disease) has not been seen in familial CJD patients with codon 200 mutation or in GSS patients with codon 102 mutation, arguing that other, as yet unidentified, gene products or environmental factors, or both, may influence the clinical expression of these diseases. 17 refs.

  11. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  12. SRS Behaviour with a superconducting 5-Tesla wiggler insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suller, V.P.; Marks, N.; Poole, M.W.; Walker, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    A 5 Tesla superconducting wavelength shifting wiggler magnet has been inserted into the SRS lattice. Observations have been made of the behaviour of the stored electron beam with the magnet powered. Betatron tune shifts and modulation of the betatron function have been measured and good agreement obtained with theory. Closed orbit changes have been examined and the stored beam lifetime optimised. The magnet is fully operational and is producing intense x-ray beams for users

  13. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conjeevaram Rajendrarao Thambidorai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters.

  14. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Farooq Umar; Ehsan Ullah Munir; Shafqat Ali Shad; Muhammad Wasif Nisar

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insert...

  15. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winick, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  16. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for development of complication following peripherally inserted central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs are inserted into central veins through the upper extremity veins. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate PICC procedures, related complications, their causes and factors influencing the success of the procedure during anaesthesia Methods: ‘Central Venous Catheterization Forms’ filled out for 850 patients in whom a PICC was inserted by residents during general anaesthesia between November 2009 and March 2013 in the operating room of Uludag University Medical Faculty Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results: A total of 1174 procedures were evaluated. The most preferred vein for the first attempt was the right basilic vein (32.7%. Difficulty (more than two attempts with the PICC procedure was correlated with the patient’s age (p30 kg/m² (p<0.05, resident with less than 4 years of training (p=0.001, number of PICC attempts ≥2 (p<0.001, more than one resident involved in the catheterization procedure (p<0.001 and previous failed PICC procedures (p<0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that catheterization should be performed under the surveillance of a staff keeping in mind the risks of complications. In the case of failure following 2 attempts, the procedure should be handed over to a more experienced staff member. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 29-35

  18. Peripherally inserted central catheters and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, B.; Gibbs, H.; Catchpole, I.; Hetherington, R.; Harper, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for venous thrombosis in patients with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A retrospective study of all upper extremity venous duplex scans was carried out in the Vascular Medicine department from year 2000 to 2002 inclusive. A chart review of positive scans was undertaken to identify possible thrombotic risk factors. Of 317 upper extremity venous duplex scans carried out, 115, or 32%, were positive for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Three main risk factors were identified - presence of a central line, malignancy and administration of chemotherapy. PICC were the most common central line present. Symptomatic thrombosis occurred in 7% of PICC inserted for chemotherapy compared with 1% of PICC inserted for other reasons. Ten per cent of the patients receiving chemotherapy through a PICC developed a thrombosis. The post-thrombotic syndrome was infrequent following upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Patients receiving chemotherapy through a PICC are at increased risk of thrombosis. There may be a role for prophylactic low-dose anticoagulation in these high-risk patients

  19. Heat Transport Enhancement of Turbulent Thermal Convection by Inserted Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke-Qing; Zhang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    We report an experimental study on the heat transport properties of turbulent Rayleigh Benard Convection (RBC) in a rectangular cell with two types of 3D-printed structures inserted inside. The first one splits the original rectangular cell into 60 identical sub cells whose aspect ratio is 1:1:10 (length, width, height). The second one splits the cell into 30 sub cells, each with a 1:2:10 aspect ratio and a baffle in the center. We find that for large Rayleigh numbers (Ra), the Nusselt numbers (Nu) of both structures increase compared with that of the empty rectangular cell. An enhancement in Nu as much as 20% is found for the second type of insertion at Rayleigh number 2 ×109 . Moreover, the Nu-Ra scaling shows a transition with both geometries. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement within a single sub unit indicates that the transition may be related to the laminar to turbulent transition in flow field. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) confirm the experimental results. Our results demonstrate the potential in using insertions to enhance passive heat transfer. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of HKSAR (Nos. CUHK404513 and CUHK14301115).

  20. [Peripherally inserted central catheter antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betegnie, A-L; Cracowski, C; Bedouch, P; Segond, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Allenet, B

    2014-11-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are more and more used for intravenous antibiotic infusions in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in the Grenoble area (France). The aim of this study was to assess the use of this technique in this indication. 1. Retrospective evaluation of 102 consecutive PICC insertions over 3years and the incidence of adverse events during the therapy. 2. Prospective evaluation of 12 patient's satisfaction and their nurses over a 3-month period. 3. Comparative analysis of single domiciliary treatment costs using PICC versus peripheral catheter (PC). 102 PICC insertions were attempted in 31 patients. Seven failures and 7 complications occurred during the treatment requiring removal of the PICC, i.e. an overall success rate of 86.2% (88/102). Pain during PICC introduction was 4.2/10 (visual analogical scale). Mean satisfaction levels during therapy were 9.3/10 for patients and 8.7/10 for nurses. Compared with PC, all the patients said that PICC was "more comfortable". Differential costs of treatment with PC and with PICC at home were estimated at 57.15€ and 590.16€ respectively. PICC is an alternative to CP for intravenous antibiotherapy in CF patients, providing better safety and comfort. PICC use should be promoted in this indication. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  2. NURSING CARE IN PATIENTS NEONATES WITH PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL CATHETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacilda Oliveira Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter is a long flexible catheter which is inserted through a peripheral vein, progresses through a needle introducer until the final portion of the vena cava, acquiring characteristics of a central catheter. Objective: To point out the main theoretical and scientific ideas that demonstrate the reliability, competence and ability of nurses to perform the PICC. Methodology: Systematic review of articles, which were found by searching the database scientific journals and bibliographies area. Results: The success of integration depends on the patient assessment and choice of venous access where the catheter will be positioned, and its tip should be in the middle third of the superior vena cava, or the middle third of the inferior vena cava. In neonates, which are used more frequently, proper positioning of the catheter is through nursing care in making the dressing, and the first 24 hours it should be compressive. Ideally, the PICC remains in the vein for periods longer than seven days or until the end of treatment, thus decreasing invasive procedures. Conclusion: According to the Federal Board of Nursing (COFEN, it is lawful for the insertion of PICC nurses, provided it has undergone professional training.

  3. Insertion of pedagogical activities mediated by ICT in literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete Santos da Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is cut out of a research dissertation entitled "Educational activities insertion mediated by ICT literacy. This study aimed to implement such activities promoting the integration of ICT as an aid in the literacy process in a primary education school (EF of Santa Maria and had as participants the students of the 3rd year. In this survey we present results of the activities of insertion mediated by E-book technology. Therefore we sought theoretical foundation in authors like Ferreira and Teberoscky (1999, Freire (1989, 1996, Mendonça and Mendonça (2008 and other authors who contribute to the theme. The methodology used was action research that enables the construction of knowledge through practice, reflection-action and intervention in school reality. This study is linked to the line of research "Educational Technologies in Management Network", Federal University of Santa Maria. The results showed that the ICT e-book inserted in literacy contributed significantly to the advancement of learning reading, writing and the development of various skills as well as to build the autonomy of collaboration and cooperation among students considering the teacher as an important articulator and mediator interactions.

  4. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  5. On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl 3 over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm -1 ) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl 3 type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A 1g ), 201 (E g ), 112 (E g ), 88 (A 1g ), and 63 (E g ). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl 3 C 2h 3 symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.

  6. Multiple homoplasious insertions and deletions of a Triticeae (Poaceae DNA transposon: a phylogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason-Gamer Roberta J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stowaway elements are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons categorized as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs. The high MITE copy number in grass genomes suggests an active history of amplification and insertion, but ongoing MITE activity has only rarely been seen, and ongoing Stowaway activity has never been observed. Thus, a phylogenetic perspective on presence vs. absence of elements in an aligned data set can provide valuable historical insights into the dynamics of MITE acquisition and loss. Results A Stowaway-like element resides within the fourth intron of a β-amylase gene in representatives of five genera in the wheat tribe, Triticeae. Its presence vs. absence was examined with reference to the β-amylase gene tree topology, and in light of sequence comparisons of the β-amylase elements to Triticeae Stowaway elements in the Entrez nucleotide database. Among the sequences lacking the element, there are five distinct putative excision footprints (one widespread and four restricted to unrelated lineages and two flanking deletions. The sequences that do contain elements are polyphyletic on the β-amylase tree, and their elements are divergent at the sequence level. The β-amylase elements do not form a monophyletic group relative to other Stowaway elements in Entrez; most are more similar to elements from other loci in other Triticeae genomes than they are to one another. Conclusion Combined, the phylogenetic distribution, sequence variation, and Entrez database comparisons indicate that a Stowaway-like element has undergone multiple deletions from and insertions into the same site in β-amylase intron 4 during the history of the tribe. The elements currently at the site represent multiple, distinct lineages that transcend generic boundaries. While patterns of Stowaway polymorphism across a phylogenetic data set do not allow evolutionary mechanisms to be inferred with certainty, they do provide

  7. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  8. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C.G

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  9. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway enzymes, DRD4 and GSTM1 are related to temporomandibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayor-Olea Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a multifactorial syndrome related to a critical period of human life. TMD has been associated with psychological dysfunctions, oxidative state and sexual dimorphism with coincidental occurrence along the pubertal development. In this work we study the association between TMD and genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolism, neurotransmission, oxidative and hormonal metabolism. Folate metabolism, which depends on genes variations and diet, is directly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations that can influence the changes of last growing period of development in human and the appearance of the TMD. Methods A case-control study was designed to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms above described on TMD. A total of 229 individuals (69% women were included at the study; 86 were patients with TMD and 143 were healthy control subjects. Subjects underwent to a clinical examination following the guidelines by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD. Genotyping of 20 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs, divided in two groups, was performed by multiplex minisequencing preceded by multiplex PCR. Other seven genetic polymorphisms different from SNPs (deletions, insertions, tandem repeat, null genotype were achieved by a multiplex-PCR. A chi-square test was performed to determine the differences in genotype and allelic frequencies between TMD patients and healthy subjects. To estimate TMD risk, in those polymorphisms that shown significant differences, odds ratio (OR with a 95% of confidence interval were calculated. Results Six of the polymorphisms showed statistical associations with TMD. Four of them are related to enzymes of folates metabolism: Allele G of Serine Hydoxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1 rs1979277 (OR = 3.99; 95%CI 1.72, 9.25; p = 0.002, allele G of SHMT1 rs638416 (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 1.51, 5.21; p = 0.013, allele T of Methylentetrahydrofolate

  11. The role of VEGF and KDR polymorphisms in moyamoya disease and collateral revascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seok Park

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF -2578, -1154, -634, and 936 and kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR -604, 1192, and 1719 polymorphisms are associated with moyamoya disease. Korean patients with moyamoya disease (n = 107, mean age, 20.9±15.9 years; 66.4% female and 243 healthy control subjects (mean age, 23.0±16.1 years; 56.8% female were included. The subjects were divided into pediatric and adult groups. Among the 64 surgical patients, we evaluated collateral vessel formation after 2 years and divided patients into good (collateral grade A or poor (collateral grade B and C groups. The frequencies and distributions of four VEGF (-2578, -1154, -634, and 936 and KDR (-604, 1192, and 1719 polymorphisms were assessed from patients with moyamoya disease and compared to the control group. No differences were observed in VEGF -2578, -1154, -634, and 936 or KDR -604, 1192, and 1719 polymorphisms between the control group and moyamoya disease group. However, we found the -634CC genotype occurred less frequently in the pediatric moyamoya group (p = 0.040 whereas the KDR -604C/1192A/1719T haplotype increased the risk of pediatric moyamoya (p = 0.024. Patients with the CC genotype of VEGF -634 had better collateral vessel formation after surgery. Our results suggest that the VEGF -634G allele is associated with pediatric moyamoya disease and poor collateral vessel formation.

  12. Polymorphism at codon 36 of the p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, C A; Brown, D L; Mitsudomi, T; Ikagaki, N; Wong, A; Wasserman, R; Womer, R B; Biegel, J A

    1994-01-01

    A polymorphism at codon 36 in exon 4 of the p53 gene was identified by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of genomic DNA PCR products. The polymorphic allele, present in the heterozygous state in genomic DNAs of four of 100 individuals (4%), changes the codon 36 CCG to CCA, eliminates a FinI restriction site and creates a BccI site. Including this polymorphism there are four known polymorphisms in the p53 coding sequence.

  13. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  14. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  15. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...

  16. Polymorphous light eruption - some interesting aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales-Padilla, H.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M.T.; Londono, F.; Vargas-Ocampo, F.

    1979-01-01

    A study of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is Latin America is reported. The clinical lesions, the course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and systemic photoprotection are discussed. Treatment with ultraviolet radiation is included. (C.F.)

  17. An association study between polymorphism of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...

  18. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellites for domestic pigeon Columba ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...

  19. New polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene and their associations with myocardial infarction and blood pressure: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, O; Georges, J L; Ricard, S; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J B; Luc, G; Evans, A; Cambien, F; Tiret, L

    1998-10-01

    In an earlier report, we suggested that a polymorphism located in the 3' untranslated region of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R+1166 A/C) might interact with the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Since the AT1R+1166 A/C polymorphism does not appear to be functional, we postulated that it might be in linkage disequilibrium with an unidentified functional variant which would affect the regulation of the gene in response to angiotensin II. The present study was conducted to identify new polymorphisms of the AT1R gene that might be responsible for this interaction. The first four exons, which are untranslated, and 2.2 kb in the 5' flanking region of the AT1R gene were explored by polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism. Seven polymorphisms were detected in the 5' region at positions -1424, -810, -713, -521, -214, -213 and -153 upstream from the start of transcription. The genotypes of the -810, -713, -214, -213 and -153 polymorphisms were completely concordant. One substitution was detected at the 55th nucleotide of exon 4. These polymorphisms, together with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and a previously described T/C substitution at the 573th nucleotide of exon 5, were genotyped in the Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) study, a multicentre study comparing 651 patients who had survived a myocardial infarction and 728 controls from Belfast (United Kingdom) and Lille, Strasbourg and Toulouse (France). The newly identified polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and therefore could not explain the interaction observed with ACE I/D. None of the polymorphisms was associated with blood pressure levels in control subjects. In the four populations, the A allele of the -810 polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (population-adjusted odds ratio of 0.80, confidence

  20. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel; Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  1. Safety and Effectiveness of Percutaneously Inserted Peritoneal Ports Compared to Surgically Inserted Ports in a Retrospective Study of 87 Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma over a 10-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley-Cook, Joel, E-mail: jwoodleycook@gmail.com [The Scarborough Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada); Tarulli, Emidio; Tan, Kong T.; Rajan, Dheeraj K.; Simons, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    PurposePlacement of peritoneal ports has become a favorable technique for direct chemotherapy infusion in treating peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer. We aim to outline an approach to the percutaneous insertion of peritoneal ports and to characterize success and complication rates compared to surgically inserted ports.Materials and MethodsRetrospective analysis was collected from 87 patients who had peritoneal port insertion (28 inserted surgically and 59 percutaneously) for treatment of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer from July 2004 to July 2014. Complications were classified according to the SIR Clinical Practice Guidelines as major or minor.ResultsTechnical success rates for surgically and percutaneously inserted ports were 100 and 96.7 %, respectively (p = 0.44), with the two percutaneous failures successful at a later date. There were no major complications in either group. Minor complication rates for surgically versus percutaneously inserted ports were 46.4 versus 22.0 %, respectively (p = 0.02). The infection rate for surgically inserted versus percutaneously inserted ports was 14.3 and 0 %, respectively (p = 0.002). The relative risk of developing a complication from percutaneous peritoneal port insertion without ascites was 3.4 (p = 0.04). For percutaneously inserted ports, the mean in-room procedure time was 81 ± 1.3 min and mean fluoroscopy time was 5.0 ± 4.5 min.ConclusionPercutaneously inserted peritoneal ports are a safe alternative to surgically inserted ports, demonstrating similar technical success and lower complication rates.

  2. Enzymatic functionalization of a nanobody using protein insertion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasson, O; Rhazi, N; Jacquin, O; Freichels, A; Jérôme, C; Ruth, N; Galleni, M; Filée, P; Vandevenne, M

    2015-10-01

    Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has become a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis β-lactamase BlaP. We showed that the generated hybrid protein conserved its enzymatic activity while the displayed nanobody retains its ability to inhibit HEWL with a nanomolar affinity range. Then, we successfully implemented the functionalized cAb-Lys3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, potentiometric biosensor and drug screening assays. The hybrid protein was also expressed on the surface of phage particles and, in this context, was able to interact specifically with HEWL while the β-lactamase activity was used to monitor phage interactions. Finally, using thrombin-cleavage sites surrounding the permissive insertion site in the β-lactamase, we reported an expression system in which the nanobody can be easily separated from its carrier protein. Altogether, our study shows that insertion into the BlaP β-lactamase constitutes a suitable technology to functionalize nanobodies and allows the creation of versatile tools that can be used in innovative biotechnological assays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Sex-specific aspects of endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Patrick; Hein, Jotun; Katzourakis, Aris

    2013-11-07

    We wish to understand how sex and recombination affect endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion. While theory suggests that the risk of ectopic recombination will limit the accumulation of repetitive DNA in areas of high meiotic recombination, the experimental evidence so far has been inconsistent. Under the assumption of neutrality, we examine the genomes of eighteen species of animal in order to compute the ratio of solo-LTRs that derive from insertions occurring down the male germ line as opposed to the female one (male bias). We also extend the simple idea of comparing autosome to allosome in order to predict the ratio of full-length proviruses we would expect to see under conditions of recombination linked deletion or otherwise. Using our model, we predict the ratio of allosomal to autosomal full-length proviruses to lie between32 and 23 under increasing male bias in mammals and between 1 and 2 under increasing male bias in birds. In contrast to our expectations, we find that a pattern of male bias is not universal across species and that there is a frequent overabundance of full-length proviruses on the allosome beyond the ratios predicted by our model. We use our data as a whole to argue that full-length proviruses should be treated as deleterious mutations or as effectively neutral mutations whose persistence in a full-length state is linked to the rate of meiotic recombination and whose origin is not universally male biased. These conclusions suggest that retroviral insertions on the allosome may be more prolific and that it might be possible to identify mechanisms of replication that are enhanced in the female sex.

  4. COST ANALYSIS OF PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL CATHETER IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaoxin; Connolly, Bairbre L; Ungar, Wendy J; Coyte, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is a useful option in providing secure venous access, which enables patients to be discharged earlier with the provision of home care. The objective was to identify the costs associated with having a PICC from a societal perspective, and to identify factors that are associated with total PICC costs. Data were obtained from a retrospective cohort of 469 hospitalized pediatric patients with PICCs inserted. Both direct and indirect costs were estimated from a societal perspective. Insertion costs, complication costs, nurse and physician assessment costs, inpatient ward costs, catheter removal costs, home care costs, travel costs, and the cost associated with productivity losses incurred by parents were included in this study. Based on catheter dwell time, the median total cost associated with a PICC per patient per day (including inpatient hospital costs) was $3,133.5 ($2,210.7-$9,627.0) in 2017 Canadian dollars ($1.00USD = $1.25CAD in 2017). The adjusted mean cost per patient per day was $2,648.2 ($2,402.4-$2,920.4). Excluding inpatient ward costs, the median total and adjusted costs per patient per day were $198.8 ($91.8-$2,475.8) and $362.7($341.0-$386.0), respectively. Younger age, occurrence of complications, more catheter dwell days, wards with more intensive care, and the absence of home care were significant factors associated with higher total PICC costs. This study has demonstrated the costs associated with PICCs. This information may be helpful for healthcare providers to understand PICC related cost in children and resource implications.

  5. Preparation of the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanino, R.; Egorov, S.; Kim, K.; Martovetsky, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Salpietro, E.; Sborchia, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Weng, P.; Bangasco, M.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Polak, M.; Formisano, A.; Zapretilina, E.; Shikov, A.; Vedernikov, G.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Muzzi, L.; Ricci, M.; Deela Corte, A.; Sugimoto, M.; Hamada, K.; Portone, A.; Hurd, F.; Mitchell, N.; Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed in Europe and is being manufactured at Tesla Engineering, UK, in the frame of a Task Agreement with the ITER International Team. Completion of the PFCI is expected at the beginning of 2005. Then, the coil shall be shipped to JAERI Naka, Japan, and inserted into the bore of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil, where it should be tested in 2005 to 2006. The PFCI consists of a NbTi dual-channel conductor, almost identical to the ITER PF1 and PF6 design, about 45 m long, with a 50 mm thick square stainless steel jacket, wound in a single-layer solenoid. It should carry up to 50 kA in a field of about 6 T, and it will be cooled by supercritical He at around 4.5 K and 0.6 MPa. An intermediate joint, representative of the ITER PF joints and located at relatively high field, will be an important new item in the test configuration with respect to the previous ITER Insert Coils. The PFCI will be fully instrumented with inductive and resistive heaters, as well as with voltage taps, Hall probes, pick-up coils, temperature sensors, pressure taps, strain and displacement sensors. The test program shall be aimed at DC and pulsed performance assessment of conductor and intermediate joint, AC loss measurement, stability and quench propagation, thermalhydraulic characterization. Here we give an overview of the preparatory work towards the test, including a review of the coil manufacturing and of the available instrumentation, a discussion of the most likely test program items, and a presentation of the supporting modeling and characterization work performed so far. (authors)

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Fiber-Reinforced Additive Manufacturing for Injection Molding Insert Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Stotz, Philippe Maurice; Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) injection molding (IM) inserts have proved to be capable to substitute conventionally manufactured metal inserts with polymer-based insert enforced with short, virgin, unseized carbon fibers (CFs). It has been shown that the implementation of AM technology resulted......, this contribution provides a comparison of environmental performance of conventionally vs. additively manufactured inserts in a full life cycle perspective indicated in Figure 1, including materials, production, use and end-of-life (EoL) stages....

  7. Lithium Insertion in LixMn2O4, 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    The electrochemical lithium insertion properties of highly crystalline LixMn2O4 are investigated in the approximate lithium insertion range 0 ... of the lithium insertion/extraction reactions is better at the higher voltages (versus Li/Li+), and particularly at the 4 V plateau. The lithium insertion/extraction reaction at the 1 V plateau although essentially reversible is associated with a significant voltage hysteresis....

  8. TRACKER INSERTED INTO YB0 & HEAVY LOWERING COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

          The Tracker travelled very smoothly from Meyrin to Point 5 during the early hours of December 13th. Lowered later the same day, insertion was completed 18th December. The intense campaign of Tracker connections, involving 980 pipes, 2330 cables and 3623 fibre ribbons, has since begun and is making good progress. The final large element of CMS YE-1 was lowered gently into the cavern on January 22nd. This marks the end of fourteen months of heavy lowering operations.  

  9. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218666; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012-2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC

  10. Production and integration of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Albert, J.; Alberti, F.; Alex, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alkire, S.; Allport, P.; Altenheiner, S.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderssen, E.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Axen, B.; Arguin, J.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Ballansat, J.; Barbero, M.; Barbier, G.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R.; Baudin, P.; Battaglia, M.; Beau, T.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, A.; Benoit, M.; Bermgan, A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bindi, F.; Bomben, M.; Borri, M.; Bortolin, C.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, R. G.; Breugnon, P.; Bruni, G.; Brossamer, J.; Bruschi, M.; Buchholz, P.; Budun, E.; Buttar, C.; Cadoux, F.; Calderini, G.; Caminada, L.; Capeans, M.; Carney, R.; Casse, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Červ, M.; Cervelli, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, S. P.; Chu, M.; Ciapetti, M.; Cindro, V.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Coelli, S.; Collot, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Daly, C.; D'Amen, G.; Dann, N.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; DaVia, C.; David, P.; Debieux, S.; Delebecque, P.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Oliveira, R.; Dette, K.; Dietsche, W.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dinu, N.; Dittus, F.; Diyakov, D.; Djama, F.; Dobos, D.; Dondero, P.; Doonan, K.; Dopke, J.; Dorholt, O.; Dube, S.; Dzahini, D.; Egorov, K.; Ehrmann, O.; Einsweiler, K.; Elles, S.; Elsing, M.; Eraud, L.; Ereditato, A.; Eyring, A.; Falchieri, D.; Falou, A.; Fausten, C.; Favareto, A.; Favre, Y.; Feigl, S.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrere, D.; Fleury, J.; Flick, T.; Forshaw, D.; Fougeron, D.; Franconi, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Gaglione, R.; Gallrapp, C.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gariano, G.; Gastaldi, T.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gaudiello, A.; Geffroy, N.; Gemme, C.; Gensolen, F.; George, M.; Ghislain, P.; Giangiacomi, N.; Gibson, S.; Giordani, M. P.; Giugni, D.; Gjersdal, H.; Glitza, K. W.; Gnani, D.; Godlewski, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Gorelov, I.; Gorišek, A.; Gössling, C.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gray, H.; Gregor, I.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, A.; Gromov, V.; Grondin, D.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Guescini, F.; Guido, E.; Gutierrez, P.; Hallewell, G.; Hartman, N.; Hauck, S.; Hasi, J.; Hasib, A.; Hegner, F.; Heidbrink, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Hemperek, T.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetmánek, M.; Hinman, R. R.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Holmes, T.; Hostachy, J.; Hsu, S. C.; Hügging, F.; Husi, C.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Idarraga, J.; Ikegami, Y.; Ince, T.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Izen, J. M.; Janoška, Z.; Janssen, J.; Jansen, L.; Jeanty, L.; Jensen, F.; Jentzsch, J.; Jezequel, S.; Joseph, J.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Karagounis, M.; Kass, R.; Kastanas, A.; Kenney, C.; Kersten, S.; Kind, P.; Klein, M.; Klingenberg, R.; Kluit, R.; Kocian, M.; Koffeman, E.; Korchak, O.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhina-Visoven, I.; Kovalenko, S.; Kretz, M.; Krieger, N.; Krüger, H.; Kruth, A.; Kugel, A.; Kuykendall, W.; La Rosa, A.; Lai, C.; Lantzsch, K.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, D.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Leyton, M.; Lindquist, B.; Looper, K.; Lopez, I.; Lounis, A.; Lu, Y.; Lubatti, H. J.; Maeland, S.; Maier, A.; Mallik, U.; Manca, F.; Mandelli, B.; Mandić, I.; Marchand, D.; Marchiori, G.; Marx, M.; Massol, N.; Mättig, P.; Mayer, J.; McGoldrick, G.; Mekkaoui, A.; Menouni, M.; Menu, J.; Meroni, C.; Mesa, J.; Michal, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikuž, M.; Miucci, A.; Mochizuki, K.; Monti, M.; Moore, J.; Morettini, P.; Morley, A.; Moss, J.; Muenstermann, D.; Murray, P.; Nakamura, K.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, D.; Nessi, M.; Nisius, R.; Nordberg, M.; Nuiry, F.; Obermann, T.; Ockenfels, W.; Oide, H.; Oriunno, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Padilla, C.; Pangaud, P.; Parker, S.; Pelleriti, G.; Pernegger, H.; Piacquadio, G.; Picazio, A.; Pohl, D.; Polini, A.; Pons, X.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Potamianos, K.; Povoli, M.; Puldon, D.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, B.; Rarbi, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rambure, T.; Richards, E.; Riegel, C.; Ristic, B.; Rivière, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; RØhne, O.; Rossi, C.; Rossi, L. P.; Rovani, A.; Rozanov, A.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rummler, A.; Ruscino, E.; Sabatini, F.; Salek, D.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sannino, M.; Sanny, B.; Scanlon, T.; Schipper, J.; Schmidt, U.; Schneider, B.; Schorlemmer, A.; Schroer, N.; Schwemling, P.; Sciuccati, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Šícho, P.; Skubic, P.; Sloboda, M.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, M.; Sood, A.; Spencer, E.; Stramaglia, M.; Strauss, M.; Stucci, S.; Stugu, B.; Stupak, J.; Styles, N.; Su, D.; Takubo, Y.; Tassan, J.; Teng, P.; Teixeira, A.; Terzo, S.; Therry, X.; Todorov, T.; Tomášek, M.; Toms, K.; Travaglini, R.; Trischuk, W.; Troncon, C.; Troska, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsurin, I.; Tsybychev, D.; Unno, Y.; Vacavant, L.; Verlaat, B.; Vigeolas, E.; Vogt, M.; Vrba, V.; Vuillermet, R.; Wagner, W.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, R.; Watts, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, M.; Weingarten, J.; Welch, S.; Wenig, S.; Wensing, M.; Wermes, N.; Wittig, T.; Wittgen, M.; Yildizkaya, T.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.; Yi, Y.; Zaman, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, V.; Zoccoli, A.; Zwalinski, L.

    2018-05-01

    During the shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2013-2014, an additional pixel layer was installed between the existing Pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment and a new, smaller radius beam pipe. The motivation for this new pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was to maintain or improve the robustness and performance of the ATLAS tracking system, given the higher instantaneous and integrated luminosities realised following the shutdown. Because of the extreme radiation and collision rate environment, several new radiation-tolerant sensor and electronic technologies were utilised for this layer. This paper reports on the IBL construction and integration prior to its operation in the ATLAS detector.

  11. The Genetics of a Probable Insertional Translocation in SORDARIA BREVICOLLIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D J

    1979-05-01

    A chromosome rearrangement has been isolated and characterized in Sordaria brevicollis. Crosses to spore color mutants on each of the seven linkage groups have enabled the breakpoints to be mapped. The simplest hypothesis to account for the results is that a piece of linkage group VI has been translocated to linkage group V and inserted 2.7 map units from its centromere. Previous reports of markers on this linkage group with centromere distances greater than 2.7 units make it unlikely that the translocation is quasiterminal.

  12. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  13. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  14. Collimator Layouts for HL-LHC in the Experimental Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Jowett, John; Lechner, Anton; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Schaumann, Michaela; Skordis, Eleftherios; Eleanor Steele, G; Garcia Morales, H; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the layout of collimators for HL-LHC in the experimental insertions. On the incoming beam, we propose to install additional tertiary collimators to protect potential new aperture bottlenecks in cells 4 and 5, which in addition reduce the experimental background. For the outgoing beam, the layout of the present LHC with three physics debris absorbers gives sufficient protection for highluminosity proton operation. However, collisional processes for heavy ions cause localized beam losses with the potential to quench magnets. To alleviate these losses, an installation of dispersion suppressor collimators is proposed.

  15. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...... in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic...

  16. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-01-01

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders

  17. Inserting Phase Change Lines into Microsoft Excel® Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2015-10-01

    Microsoft Excel® is a popular graphing tool used by behavior analysts to visually display data. However, this program is not always friendly to the graphing conventions used by behavior analysts. For example, adding phase change lines has typically been a cumbersome process involving the insertion of line objects that do not move when new data is added to a graph. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel way to add phase change lines that move when new data is added and when graphs are resized.

  18. Regional insertion: an emergent approach; Insercao regional: uma abordagem emergente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, M T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P do [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Meio Ambiente

    1990-12-31

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  19. Reverse genetics in Chlamydomonas: a platform for isolating insertional mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Montaigu Amaury

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method was developed to identify insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupted for selected target genes. The approach relies on the generation of thousands of transformants followed by PCR-based screenings that allow for identification of strains harboring the introduced marker gene within specific genes of interest. Our results highlight the strengths and limitations of two independent screens that differed in the nature of the marker DNA used (PCR-amplified fragment containing the plasmid-free marker versus entire linearized plasmid with the marker and in the strategies used to maintain and store transformants.

  20. HB+ prepares for insertion into the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Dave Barney, CERN

    2006-01-01

    With calibration of the first half of the barrel Hadron Calorimeter (HB+) complete (using a radioactive source), preparations begin for its insertion into the solenoid for the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC). It was moved out of its alcove at the beginning of March - a non-trivial (but completely successful) operation due to the proximity of one of the barrel yoke rings (YB+1). The other half of the barrel Hadron Calorimeter (HB-) and one of the endcaps (HE+) should also be calibrated before the MTCC.

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD polymorphism is associated with poor coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Koksal; Kadi, Hasan; Celik, Atac; Burucu, Turgay; Koc, Fatih; Sogut, Erkan; Sahin, Semsettin; Onalan, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Although association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and cardiovascular diseases was reported by many studies, the relation between ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) has not been studied yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and CCC. Patients who were subjected to coronary angiography in the 2006 to 2009 period and had at least a completely occluded major artery were included in this study. To classify collateral circulation, we used the Rentrop classification. Patients were classified as having poor CCC (Rentrop grades 0 to 1) or good CCC (Rentrop grades 2 to 3). Gene polymorphism was detected through the detailed melting curve analysis of polymerase chain reaction products after amplification using real-time polymerase chain reaction method and LightCycler 1.5 apparatus. We prospectively studied 113 patients who had at least 1 totally occluded major epicardial coronary artery. Forty-seven patients had poor CCC and 67 patients had good CCC. There were no differences among groups in age, sex, risk factors, lipid profile, uses of cardiovascular drugs, and number of diseased vessels. Plasma ACE levels were significantly higher in poor CCC group (P DD polymorphism was higher in the poor CCC group (P DD genotype (95% CI, 2.55-12.79; P = 0.001), presence of diabetes (95% CI, 1.03-3.16; P = 0.005), and pulse pressure (95% CI, 1.04-1.56; P = 0.045) were independent determinants of poor coronary collateral development. This study showed that ACE DD polymorphism is associated with poor CCC. Poor collateral circulation in patients carrying the D allele may be associated with endothelial dysfunction and elevated blood ACE levels in these patients.

  2. Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Y; Sakatani, M; Takami, S; Tachibana, T; Higaki, J; Ogihara, T; Miki, T; Katsuya, T; Tsuchiyama, T; Yoshida, A; Yu, H; Tanio, Y; Ueda, E

    1998-06-01

    Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SACE in this disease has been found. A study of the association of angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphisms with sarcoidosis was therefore undertaken. ACE (I/D), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AGTR2) gene polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and SACE levels were measured in three groups of patients: those with sarcoidosis or tuberculosis and normal controls. There was no difference in allele frequency of AGTR1 and AGTR2 polymorphism among the three groups. Neither AGTR1 nor AGTR2 polymorphisms were associated with sarcoidosis. SACE activity was higher in patients with sarcoidosis with the AGTR1 A/C genotype than in others. However, this tendency was not detected in patients with tuberculosis. The AGTR1 allele C is associated with high activity of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis. It is another predisposing factor for high levels of SACE in patients with sarcoidosis and is considered to be an independent factor from the ACE D allele for high levels of SACE in sarcoidosis. This fact could be one of the explanations for the increased SACE activity in sarcoidosis.

  3. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  4. Cystathionine β-synthase T833C/844INS68 polymorphism: a family-based study on mentally retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Jotideb

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS mediates conversion of homocysteine to cystathionine and deficiency in enzyme activity may lead to hyperhomocysteinemia/homocystinuria, which are often associated with mental retardation (MR. A large number of polymorphisms have been reported in the CBS gene, some of which impair its activity and among these, a T833C polymorphism in cis with a 68 bp insertion at 844 in the exon 8 is found to be associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia in different ethnic groups. Methods The present study is aimed at investigating the association between T833C/844ins68 polymorphism and MR. One hundred and ninety MR cases were recruited after psychometric evaluation. Hundred and thirty-eight control subjects, two hundred and sixty-seven parents of MR probands and thirty cardiovascular disorder (CVD patients were included for comparison. Peripheral blood was collected after obtaining informed written consent. The T833C/844ins68 polymorphism was investigated by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, followed by statistical analysis. Results The genotypic distribution of the polymorphism was within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A slightly increased genotypic frequency was observed in the Indian control population as compared to other Asian populations. Both haplotype-based haplotype relative risk analysis and transmission disequilibrium test reveled lack of association of the T833C/844ins68 polymorphism with MR; nevertheless, the relative risk calculated was higher (>1 and in a limited number of informative MR families, preferential transmission of the double mutant from heterozygous mothers to the MR probands was noticed (χ2 = 4.00, P Conclusion This is the first molecular genetic study of CBS gene dealing with T833C/844ins68 double mutation in MR subjects. Our preliminary data indicate lack of association between T833C/844ins68 polymorphism with MR. However

  5. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allele...... control group (n = 46). Elevated UAE in clinically healthy subjects is not linked to the ACE gene polymorphism....... aged 40-65 years with elevated UAE in a dipstick negative urinary sample (n = 27) from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Neither the ACE genotype distribution (p = 0.12) nor the D and I allele frequencies (p = 0.69) differed significantly between subjects with elevated UAE and a matched normoalbuminuric...

  6. HLA-G and IL-10 in serum in relation to HLA-G genotype and polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F; Rizzo, Roberta; Christiansen, Ole B

    2004-01-01

    -mediated cell lysis and influence cytokine expression. Recently, a possible boarder immunoregulatory function of HLA-G also in adult life has been recognized. HLA-G gene polymorphism has been linked to differences in gene expression profile of alternatively spliced HLA-G transcripts and levels of specific HLA......% of the serum samples sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 could be detected. There was no correlation between sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 and IL-10 concentrations in serum. Soluble HLA-G1/HLA-G5 was not detected in any samples homozygous for a 14-bp insertion polymorphism in exon 8 of the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the HLA-G gene ( P=0...

  7. A LDR-PCR approach for multiplex polymorphisms genotyping of severely degraded DNA with fragment sizes <100 bp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Bao-Jie; Guan, Hong-Yu; Pang, Hao; Xuan, Jin-Feng

    2009-11-01

    Reducing amplicon sizes has become a major strategy for analyzing degraded DNA typical of forensic samples. However, amplicon sizes in current mini-short tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mini-sequencing assays are still not suitable for analysis of severely degraded DNA. In this study, we present a multiplex typing method that couples ligase detection reaction with PCR that can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and small-scale insertion/deletions in a sample of severely fragmented DNA. This method adopts thermostable ligation for allele discrimination and subsequent PCR for signal enhancement. In this study, four polymorphic loci were used to assess the ability of this technique to discriminate alleles in an artificially degraded sample of DNA with fragment sizes <100 bp. Our results showed clear allelic discrimination of single or multiple loci, suggesting that this method might aid in the analysis of extremely degraded samples in which allelic drop out of larger fragments is observed.

  8. Association of ACE and MDR1 Gene Polymorphisms with Steroid Resistance in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Mohanapriya Chinambedu; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Rengaswamy, Nammalwar Bollam; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Nageswaran, Prahlad; Perumal, Venkatachalam

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the distribution of insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and three exonic polymorphisms of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene (C3435T, C1236T, and G2677T) in children diagnosed with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The study group consisted of 100 healthy controls and 150 INS patients, of which 50 were steroid resistant. Genomic DNA from blood samples was isolated from both of these groups and genotyping of the ACE and MDR1 genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. There was no significant difference observed in the genotypic distribution and D allele frequency of the ACE gene. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), C1236T and C3435T, of the MDR1 gene showed no significance, whereas the SNP G2677T/A was significantly associated with the genotypes GT and GA of the MDR1 gene, indicating it may be a potential marker to detect drug resistance. Screening these polymorphisms will pave the way to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the disease, which may be useful in developing targeted therapies for INS patients.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: is DD genotype helpful in predicting syncope risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozben, Beste; Altun, Ibrahim; Sabri Hancer, Veysel; Bilge, Ahmet Kaya; Tanrikulu, Azra Meryem; Diz-Kucukkaya, Reyhan; Fak, Ali Serdar; Yilmaz, Ercument; Adalet, Kamil

    2008-12-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heritable disorder characterised by fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocytes and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects myocardial ACE levels. DD genotype favours myocardial fibrosis and is associated with malignant ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to explore ACE gene polymorphism in ARVD patients. Twenty-nine patients with ARVD and 24 controls were included. All ARVD patients had documented sustained ventricular tachycardia. Thirteen patients had syncopal episodes. Six patients were resuscitated from sudden cardiac death. ACE gene polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction technique. There was no significant difference in DD genotype frequency between ARVD patients and controls (44.8% vs. 45.8%, p=0.94). However, DD genotype frequency was significantly higher in ARVD patients with syncopal episodes compared to those without syncope (69.2% vs. 25.0%, p=0.017, odds ratio:6.750, 95% confidence interval: 1.318-34.565). DD genotype was detected in higher frequency also in patients with a family history of sudden cardiac death (66.7% vs. 39.1%,p=0.36). High prevalence of DD genotype in ARVD patients with syncope suggests that ACE I/D polymorphism might be useful in identifying high-risk patients for syncope.

  10. End of the EM Barrel Presampler Construction and Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a thin detector placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, made up of two half barrels also, but with 32 sectors per half barrel instead of 16. Each of these 64 sectors is 3.1 m long, 28 cm large and 2.9 cm thick. Three countries took part in its construction: France (LPSC-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat universities, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started 11 years ago and the series production began at the end of 2000. Cabling, mechanical and electronic tests of the anodes were achieved in Morocco. Forty-one sectors were assembled and validated at the LPSC-Grenoble and 25 at the KTH-Stockholm. In November 2002, the first half was inserted on the inner face of the first EM calorimeter wheel. The insertion of the other 32 sectors in the second EM calorimeter wheel was achieved in July 2003 (see pictures). The production of two additional sectors will allow us to study the p...

  11. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from I to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAS. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAS. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, open-quotes hclose quotes, in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  12. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  13. Spark igniter having precious metal ground electrode inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an igniter comprising a shell of a shell metal alloy which is resistant to spark erosion and corrosion, the shell having a firing end which terminates at its lower end in an annular ring, an insulator sealed within the metal shell and having a central bore and a surface extending inwardly toward the bore from the annular ring, a center electrode sealed within the bore of the insulator and having a firing end which is in spark gap relation with the annular ring of the shell and so positioned that a spark discharge between the firing end and the annular ring occurs along the inwardly extending surface of the insulator, and a plurality of oxidation and erosion resistant inserts, each of the inserts comprising a body of a metal selected from the group consisting of iridium, osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum, and tungsten or an alloy or a ductile alloy of one of the foregoing metals, each of the bodies being embedded within a matching opening which extends from the exterior of the shell through the annular ring, being bonded to the shell

  14. Band gap evaluations of metal-inserted titania nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Sajid; Liu, Jingbo; Zhang Hui; Sun Xuhui; Guo Jinghua

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and crystalline properties of iron-inserted titania (Fe x Ti 1−x O 2 ) nanoparticles were measured using synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectroscopy and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HT-XRD). The data from X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy were used to examine occupied and unoccupied densities of states for O 2p and Ti/Fe 3d hybrid orbital characteristics. It was found that Fe 3+ insertion resulted in an up-shift of the band gap from 3.20 to 3.46 eV. This observation reflected site occupancy in the TiO 2 lattice by Fe dopant ions. From HT-XRD Rietveld analysis, Ti occupancy was found to be 0.92 and oxygen 1.00. In addition, the crystal structure remained anatase within a temperature range of 25–800 °C, while the lattice distortion increased due to thermal expansion.

  15. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.

    2012-02-27

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  16. Are insertion torque and early osseointegration proportional? A histologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Felipe E B; Jimbo, Ryo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Barbosa, Darceny Z; Oliveira, Maiolino T F; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this histologic study was to determine the effect of three drilling protocols (oversized, intermediate, and undersized) on biologic responses to a single implant type at early healing periods (2 weeks in vivo) in a beagle dog model. Ten beagle dogs were acquired and subjected to surgeries in the tibia 2 weeks before euthanasia. During surgery, each dog received three Unitite implants, 4 mm in diameter by 10 mm in length, in bone sites drilled to 3.5, 3.75, and 4.0 mm in final diameter. The insertion torque was recorded during surgery, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupied (BAFO) measured from the histology. Each outcome measure was compared between treatment conditions with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Bonferroni-corrected statistical significance was set to 95%. Insertion torque increased as an inverse function of drilling diameter, as indicated by significant differences in torque levels between each pair of conditions (P = 0.005). BIC and BAFO levels were highest and statistically similar in the recommended and undersized conditions and significantly reduced in the oversized condition (P torque (primary stability). While BIC and BAFO were maximized when drilling the recommended diameter hole, only the oversized hole resulted in evidence of statistically reduced integration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PET Performance Evaluation of an MR-Compatible PET Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Catana, Ciprian; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert has been developed in our laboratory for simultaneous small animal PET/MR imaging. This system is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) photodetectors. The PET performance of this insert has been measured. The average reconstructed image spatial resolution was 1.51 mm. The sensitivity at the center of the field of view (CFOV) was 0.35%, which is comparable to the simulation predictions of 0.40%. The average photopeak energy resolution was 25%. The scatter fraction inside the MRI scanner with a line source was 12% (with a mouse-sized phantom and standard 35 mm Bruker 1H RF coil), 7% (with RF coil only) and 5% (without phantom or RF coil) for an energy window of 350–650 keV. The front-end electronics had a dead time of 390 ns, and a trigger extension dead time of 7.32 μs that degraded counting rate performance for injected doses above ~0.75 mCi (28 MBq). The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) of 1.27 kcps was achieved at 290 μCi (10.7 MBq). The system showed good imaging performance inside a 7-T animal MRI system; however improvements in data acquisition electronics and reduction of the coincidence timing window are needed to realize improved NECR performance. PMID:21072320

  18. Micropole undulators: Novel insertion devices for synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, A.; Csonka, P.; Tatchyn, R.

    1989-01-01

    Micropole undulators (wigglers) are undulators (wigglers) with submillimeter periods and are referred to, generically, as micropole insertion devices. Compared to ordinary insertion devices, whose period λ u is typically ≥l cm, micropole devices have periods smaller by a factor f≤10. Therefore, the first-harmonic radiation emitted by a micropole undulator will have its photon energy E γ increased by f and its spectral purity Δλ/λ by f, provided the total length of the undulator l u stays unchanged, and magnetic field errors, as well as the electron-beam emittance, are sufficiently small. Furthermore, to generate photons of the same E γ as from the conventional device, the electron-beam energy E e can be reduced by f 1/2 , resulting in significantly lower construction and operating costs. Radiative energy losses can be correspondingly diminished for the associated storage rings. In this paper we report on results recently obtained by us in the practical implementation and design of micropole undulators at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Based on our work, micropole undulators with f≤10 4 appear feasible at the present time

  19. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  20. Insertional engineering of chromosomes with Sleeping Beauty transposition: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Novel genetic tools and mutagenesis strategies based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element are currently under development with a vision to link primary DNA sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. By virtue of its inherent capacity to insert into DNA, the SB transposon can be developed into powerful tools for chromosomal manipulations. Mutagenesis screens based on SB have numerous advantages including high throughput and easy identification of mutated alleles. Forward genetic approaches based on insertional mutagenesis by engineered SB transposons have the advantage of providing insight into genetic networks and pathways based on phenotype. Indeed, the SB transposon has become a highly instrumental tool to induce tumors in experimental animals in a tissue-specific -manner with the aim of uncovering the genetic basis of diverse cancers. Here, we describe a battery of mutagenic cassettes that can be applied in conjunction with SB transposon vectors to mutagenize genes, and highlight versatile experimental strategies for the generation of engineered chromosomes for loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function mutagenesis for functional gene annotation in vertebrate models.

  1. Probabilistic analysis of canister inserts for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillstroem, Peter [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In this study, probabilistic analysis of canister inserts for spent nuclear fuel has been performed. The main conclusions are: 1. For the baseline case, the probability of failure is insignificant ({approx} 2x10{sup -9}). This is the case even though several conservative assumptions have been made both in underlying deterministic analysis and in the probabilistic analysis. 2. The initiation event dominates (over the local collapse event) when the external pressure is below the baseline case (p = 44 MPa). The local collapse event dominates when the external pressure is above the baseline case. 3. The local collapse event is strongly dependent of the assumed external pressure. 4. The analysis of collapse only considers the first local collapse event, total collapse of the insert will occur at a much higher pressure. 5. The resulting probabilities are more dependent on the assumption regarding the eccentricity of the cassette than the assumption regarding outer corner radius of the profiles for steel section cassette. The results indicate that the maximum allowed eccentricity should not be larger than 5 mm. 6. The probability of initiation of crack growth is calculated using a defect distribution where one assumes the existence of one crack-like defect. A simple scaling argument can be applied to consider the number of defects through the thickness.

  2. The insertion of boundaries in world-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.; Wai, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the operator that inserts a boundary in a string world-sheet on which the string coordinates satisfy either Neumann or constant Dirichlet boundary conditions. With an arbitrary open-string state attached to the boundary, this describes the vertex coupling an open string to a closed string (the ''open-closed string vertex''). A boundary with no open strings attached can be viewed as a vacuum correction to closed-string theory. This factorises into two open-closed string vertices joined together by an open-string propagator. BRST-invariant open-closed string vertices of the Neumann and Dirichlet theories are constructed in a ''light-cone-like'' frame (familiar from some formulations of covariant string field theory) as well as the ''vertex operator'' frame (in which a general open-string state is represented by a vertex operator attached to the world-sheet boundary). The vertices of the Neumann and Dirichlet theories are related to each other by space-time duality.The insertion of a closed Dirichlet boundary may be expressed in the light-cone-like gauge as an interaction vertex that acts at a fixed ''time'' and generates an explicit mass term connecting two arbitrary closed-string states. Some examples of how the presence of such boundaries modifies amplitudes for low-lying states are presented. ((orig.))

  3. The effect of increased CRA trip insertion times for TMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani, A.; Link, J.; Trikouos, N.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, testing of control rod assembly (CRA) drop times at TMI has resulted in a few rods that have failed to meet the Technical Specification (TS) acceptance criteria of 1.66 seconds to 3/4 inserted. Crud deposition was determined to be the cause of the slow rod insertion times. Corrective actions included increasing lithium concentration and increasing the frequency and extent of exercising the control rod drive mechanisms. However, after one cycle of operation, it was determined that these measures were not fully successful in retarding the crud buildup. Consequently, the safety significance of rods potentially having a longer drop time than the TS limit was evaluated. The analyses in Chapter 14 of the TMI FSAR demonstrate the ability of the plant to mitigate the consequences of postulated accidents without undue hazard to the health and safety of the public. To determine the safety consequences of the longer rod drop times, a reanalysis of some limiting accidents had to be done using the RETRAN, RELAP5 and TRAC computer codes. The safety evaluation concluded that a 3.0 second rod drop time would be acceptable because all of the event acceptance criteria were met. A permanent resolution of the problem is the replacement of the existing thermal barriers with new open flow path thermal barriers. Thermal barriers on half the CRAs at TMI have been replaced to date

  4. Probabilistic analysis of canister inserts for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillstroem, Peter

    2005-10-01

    In this study, probabilistic analysis of canister inserts for spent nuclear fuel has been performed. The main conclusions are: 1. For the baseline case, the probability of failure is insignificant (∼ 2x10 -9 ). This is the case even though several conservative assumptions have been made both in underlying deterministic analysis and in the probabilistic analysis. 2. The initiation event dominates (over the local collapse event) when the external pressure is below the baseline case (p = 44 MPa). The local collapse event dominates when the external pressure is above the baseline case. 3. The local collapse event is strongly dependent of the assumed external pressure. 4. The analysis of collapse only considers the first local collapse event, total collapse of the insert will occur at a much higher pressure. 5. The resulting probabilities are more dependent on the assumption regarding the eccentricity of the cassette than the assumption regarding outer corner radius of the profiles for steel section cassette. The results indicate that the maximum allowed eccentricity should not be larger than 5 mm. 6. The probability of initiation of crack growth is calculated using a defect distribution where one assumes the existence of one crack-like defect. A simple scaling argument can be applied to consider the number of defects through the thickness

  5. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Detector (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards SLHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during a longer shutdown of the LHC machine, the so-called Phase I Upgrade. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. In order to achieve these goals the pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. Main component of the module development for the IBL is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip, FE-I4, designed in 130 nm technology which features an array of 80 by 336 pixels with a pixel size of 50x250 µ...

  6. An Adaptive Insertion and Promotion Policy for Partitioned Shared Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrom, Norfadila; Liebelt, Michael; Raof, Rafikha Aliana A.; Daud, Shuhaizar; Hafizah Ghazali, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Cache replacement policies in chip multiprocessors (CMP) have been investigated extensively and proven able to enhance shared cache management. However, competition among multiple processors executing different threads that require simultaneous access to a shared memory may cause cache contention and memory coherence problems on the chip. These issues also exist due to some drawbacks of the commonly used Least Recently Used (LRU) policy employed in multiprocessor systems, which are because of the cache lines residing in the cache longer than required. In image processing analysis of for example extra pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), an accurate diagnosis for tissue specimen is required. Therefore, a fast and reliable shared memory management system to execute algorithms for processing vast amount of specimen image is needed. In this paper, the effects of the cache replacement policy in a partitioned shared cache are investigated. The goal is to quantify whether better performance can be achieved by using less complex replacement strategies. This paper proposes a Middle Insertion 2 Positions Promotion (MI2PP) policy to eliminate cache misses that could adversely affect the access patterns and the throughput of the processors in the system. The policy employs a static predefined insertion point, near distance promotion, and the concept of ownership in the eviction policy to effectively improve cache thrashing and to avoid resource stealing among the processors.

  7. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  8. Ocular Insert: Dosage Form for Sustain Opthalmic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for skin, the eye is the most easily accessible site for topical administration of a medication. Traditional topical ophthalmic formulations (eye drops and ointments have poor bioavailability because of rapid pre-corneal elimination, conjunctival absorption, solution drainage by gravity, induced lacrimation and normal tear turnover. This leads to frequent installations of concentrated medication to achieve a therapeutic effect. The typical “pulse-entry” type drug release observed with ocular aqueous solutions (eye drops, suspensions and ointments can be replaced by more controlled, sustained, and continuous drug delivery, using a controlled-release ocular drug delivery system. Ocular inserts are solid or semisolid sterile preparations, of appropriate size and shape, designed to be inserted behind the eyelid or held on the eye and to deliver drugs for topical or systemic effect. These are polymeric systems into which the drug is incorporated as a solution or dispersion. They are better tolerated as to drainage and tear flow compared with other ophthalmic formulation and produce reliable drug release in the conjunctival cul-de-sac.

  9. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  10. Evaluation of rod insertion issue for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunstek, A.; Kurincic, B.

    1998-01-01

    The last couple of years incident with control rods sticking in lower part of the fuel assemblies have been reported of several reactor operators and fuel vendors throughout of the world. Several activities were initiated immediately to determine the root cause of incomplete rod insertion. The purpose of this activities were to collect plants trip history data and testing results, review of available worldwide experience, review of plant operation and fuel management, detailed review of manufacturing and material property and to maintain detailed mechanical model. In this paper, we will present activities in Nuclear Power Plant Krsko which have been performed after NRC initiated the Root Cause Process (NRC Bulletin 96-01). NPP Krsko has not experienced rod insertion anomaly yet but anyway the additional tests were carried out. Rod drop time measurements that were performed normally at beginning of cycle at nominal temperature and pressure (HSB mode) have been extended also to end of cycle. Rod drop time, velocity of dropped rods and magnitudes of the initial recoil bounces vs. burnup were also analyzed. Also RCCA drag test with upper internals in place and drive shafts attached to RCCAs has been performed since then. At last two outages (1997 and 1998) drag test were carried out with digital scale meter to gather additional information. In addition to that, the reload core design has been performed with new constrains on rodded fuel assembly burnup as proposed by the industry.(author)

  11. Coat colour phenotype of Qingyu pig is associated with polymorphisms of melanocortin receptor 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqian; Tan, Zhendong; Shen, Linyuan; Yang, Qiong; Cheng, Xiao; Liao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Shuai, Surong; Li, Mingzhou; Li, Xuewei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2017-07-01

    Qingyu pig, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, exhibits two types of coat colour phenotypes, including pure black and white with black spotting respectively. Melanocortin receptor 1 ( MC1R ) and agouti signaling protein ( ASIP ) are two widely reported pivotal genes that significantly affect the regulation of coat colour. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the polymorphisms of these two genes are associated with coat colour and analyze the molecular mechanism of the coat colour separation in Qingyu pig. We studied the phenotype segregation and used polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing to investigate the polymorphism of MC1R and ASIP in 121 Qingyu pigs, consisting of 115 black and 6 white with black spotted pigs. Coat colour of Qingyu pig is associated with the polymorphisms of MC1R but not ASIP . We only found 2 haplotypes, E QY and E qy , based on the 13 observed mutations from MC1R gene. Among which, E qy presented a recessive inheritance mode in black spotted Qingyu pigs. Further analysis revealed a g.462-463CC insertion that caused a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon, thus changed the first transmembrane domain completely and lost the remaining six transmembrane domains. Altogether, our results strongly support that the variety of Qingyu pig's coat colour is related to MC1R . Our findings indicated that black coat colour in Qingyu pig was dominant to white with black spotted phenotype and MC1R gene polymorphism was associated with coat colour separation in Qingyu pig.

  12. Coat colour phenotype of Qingyu pig is associated with polymorphisms of melanocortin receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Qingyu pig, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, exhibits two types of coat colour phenotypes, including pure black and white with black spotting respectively. Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R and agouti signaling protein (ASIP are two widely reported pivotal genes that significantly affect the regulation of coat colour. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the polymorphisms of these two genes are associated with coat colour and analyze the molecular mechanism of the coat colour separation in Qingyu pig. Methods We studied the phenotype segregation and used polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing to investigate the polymorphism of MC1R and ASIP in 121 Qingyu pigs, consisting of 115 black and 6 white with black spotted pigs. Results Coat colour of Qingyu pig is associated with the polymorphisms of MC1R but not ASIP. We only found 2 haplotypes, EQY and Eqy, based on the 13 observed mutations from MC1R gene. Among which, Eqy presented a recessive inheritance mode in black spotted Qingyu pigs. Further analysis revealed a g.462–463CC insertion that caused a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon, thus changed the first transmembrane domain completely and lost the remaining six transmembrane domains. Altogether, our results strongly support that the variety of Qingyu pig’s coat colour is related to MC1R. Conclusion Our findings indicated that black coat colour in Qingyu pig was dominant to white with black spotted phenotype and MC1R gene polymorphism was associated with coat colour separation in Qingyu pig.

  13. Association Between ACE Gene Polymorphism and QT Dispersion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Zulkuf; Ugurlu, Murat; Ucaman, Berzal; Veysel Ulug, Ali; Kaya, Ilyas; Cevik, Kemal; Sahin Adiyaman, Mehmet; Oztürk, Onder; Iyem, Hikmet; Ozdemir, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is associated with high renin-angiotensin system causing myocardial fibrosis and ventricular repolarization abnormality. Based on these findings, this study was designed to determine the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and QT dispersion after acute myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 108 patients with acute MI. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients for genomic DNA analysis. ECGs were recorded at baseline and at the end of a 6-month follow up. The OT dispersion was manually calculated. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 ±9.9 years (ranging from 36 to 70). The patients with DD genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with II or DI genotype at the baseline, while at the end of the six-month follow up the patients with DI genotype showed longer QT dispersion than patients with DD or II genotypes. However, the magnitude of the QT dispersion prolongation was higher in patients carrying the ACE D allele than patients who were not carrying it, at baseline and at the end of six-month follow up (52.5 ±2.6 msn vs. 47.5±2.1 msn at baseline, 57±3.2 msn vs. 53±2.6 msn in months, P: 0.428 and P: 0.613, respectively). Carriers of the D allele of ACE gene I/D polymorphism may be associated with QT dispersion prolongation in patients with MI.An interaction of QT dispersion and ACE gene polymorphism may be associated with an elevation of serum type I-C terminal pro-collagen concentration, possibly leading to myocardial fibrosis, and increased action potential duration.

  14. Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and clinical presentation and prognosis of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, P; Mañá, J; Capdevila, O; Alvarez, A; Navarro, M A

    2005-01-01

    Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) concentration is considered a marker of sarcoidosis activity. This concentration is influenced by an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene, such that SACE levels follow the pattern DD>ID>II. The aim of our work was to study the relationship between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, as well as the relation between this polymorphism and the clinical presentation and evolution of the disease in 177 sarcoidosis patients. A group of 104 individuals without sarcoidosis was included as control. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and SACE concentration at diagnosis was determined by a kinetic method. No differences were observed in genotype or allele distributions between patients and controls, nor between patients considering the type of presentation (Löfgren versus non-Löfgren) and evolution of the disease (acute versus chronic). As reported for healthy populations, SACE concentrations followed the pattern DD>ID>II in sarcoidosis patients, but significant differences between genotypes existed only in the Löfgren group (p = 0.003) and in acute patients (p = 0.02). SACE concentrations at diagnosis were lower in acute patients (p = 0.05) and in Löfgren's syndrome (p = 0.04), but this seemed to occur only in ID individuals (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). No relation was thus found between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, but ACE I/D genotyping may improve the assessment of disease activity, both at diagnosis and during the follow-up of treated and untreated patients.

  15. A Pst I polymorphism in the human laminin B2 chain gene on 1q25-q31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallunki, T; Pikkarainen, T; Tryggvason, K; Savolainen, E R [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1989-06-12

    pHL-210 is a 2.7 kb cDNA insert in pBR322 that codes for the central position of the 7.5 kb mRNA. A Pst I polymorphism was identified with pHL-210. The allele frequency was studied in 40 chromosomes of unrelated Finnish individuals. The probe was localized to chromosome 1q25-q31 by somatic cell and in situ hybridization. Co-dominant inheritance was shown in three families.

  16. Telomere length is associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Eriksson, Anders; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Short telomeres are often associated with cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, while the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (DD, ID, II) has shown such associations less consistently. We hypothesized that telomere length...... and association of telomere length with cardiovascular risk is affected by ACE (I/D) genotype. METHODS: We measured leucocyte telomere length (LTL) by Southern blot and analysed ACE I/D genotypes in 1249 subjects with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined interactions of ACE I...

  17. Research on the Influence of Orthopaedic Inserts on Pressure Distribution in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rutulys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of individual orthopaedic inserts on pressure distribution in the foot. Feet deformations, types of orthopaedic inserts, materials and pressure in the foot testing methods are discussed. Experimental computer measurements of pressure in the foot before and after the use of inserts have been done. During research, the inserts made of different kinds of materials selected according to human weight, pathology, skin sensitivity and many other reasons has been used. It has been determinated that orthopaedic inserts have a more noticeable impact on children whose feet is adjusted easier if compared with those of adults.Article in Lithuanian

  18. The study on diamond-coated insert by DC plasma jet CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kesong; Dai Mingjiang; Song Jinbing; Kuang Tongchun; Liu Zhengyi

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coating were deposited on cemented carbide inserts by DC plasma jet CVD. The cemented carbide inserts were pretreated by methods including chemical etching of Co, Ar/H 2 plasma etching. The characteristics of diamond film, interface structure, adhesion strength and film stress were analysized by different methods such as SEM, XRD, Raman spectrum etc. A comparing experiment of cutting Al - 22 % Si alloy was carried out with diamond-coated cemented carbide inserts and uncoated cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the diamond-coated cemented carbide insert has a great advantage for cutting abrasive high content Al - Si alloy. (author)

  19. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  20. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Raman, Harsh; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jing; Dai, Shutao; Xiao, Qinqin; Li, Cong; Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Bin; Meng, Jinling

    2012-12-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type) and Ningyou7 (semi-winter) and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50). This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral 'A' genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Our findings strongly suggest that (i) BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10-4, the QTL for phenotypic diversity of flowering time in

  1. Successive increases in the resistance of Drosophila to viral infection through a transposon insertion followed by a Duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Magwire

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular basis of how hosts evolve resistance to their parasites, we have investigated the genes that cause variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to viral infection. Using a host-specific pathogen of D. melanogaster called the sigma virus (Rhabdoviridae, we mapped a major-effect polymorphism to a region containing two paralogous genes called CHKov1 and CHKov2. In a panel of inbred fly lines, we found that a transposable element insertion in the protein coding sequence of CHKov1 is associated with increased resistance to infection. Previous research has shown that this insertion results in a truncated messenger RNA that encodes a far shorter protein than the susceptible allele. This resistant allele has rapidly increased in frequency under directional selection and is now the commonest form of the gene in natural populations. Using genetic mapping and site-specific recombination, we identified a third genotype with considerably greater resistance that is currently rare in the wild. In these flies there have been two duplications, resulting in three copies of both the truncated allele of CHKov1 and CHKov2 (one of which is also truncated. Remarkably, the truncated allele of CHKov1 has previously been found to confer resistance to organophosphate insecticides. As estimates of the age of this allele predate the use of insecticides, it is likely that this allele initially functioned as a defence against viruses and fortuitously "pre-adapted" flies to insecticides. These results demonstrate that strong selection by parasites for increased host resistance can result in major genetic changes and rapid shifts in allele frequencies; and, contrary to the prevailing view that resistance to pathogens can be a costly trait to evolve, the pleiotropic effects of these changes can have unexpected benefits.

  2. Serotonin receptor 3A polymorphism c.-42C > T is associated with severe dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobbee Diederick E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between anxiety and depression related traits and dyspepsia may reflect a common genetic predisposition. Furthermore, genetic factors may contribute to the risk of having increased visceral sensitivity, which has been implicated in dyspeptic symptom generation. Serotonin (5-HT modulates visceral sensitivity by its action on 5-HT3 receptors. Interestingly, a functional polymorphism in HTR3A, encoding the 5-HT3 receptor A subunit, has been reported to be associated with depression and anxiety related traits. A functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT, which terminates serotonergic signalling, was also found associated with these psychiatric comorbidities and increased visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome, which coexistence is associated with higher dyspeptic symptom severity. We investigated the association between these functional polymorphisms and dyspeptic symptom severity. Methods Data from 592 unrelated, Caucasian, primary care patients with dyspepsia participating in a randomised clinical trial comparing step-up and step-down antacid drug treatment (The DIAMOND trial were analysed. Patients were genotyped for HTR3A c.-42C > T SNP and the 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5-HTT promoter (5-HTTLPR. Intensity of 8 dyspeptic symptoms at baseline was assessed using a validated questionnaire (0 = none; 6 = very severe. Sum score ≥20 was defined severe dyspepsia. Results HTR3A c.-42T allele carriers were more prevalent in patients with severe dyspepsia (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06-2.20. This association appeared to be stronger in females (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25-3.39 and patients homozygous for the long (L variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.01-3.94. Females with 5-HTTLPR LL genotype showed the strongest association (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.37-8.90. Conclusions The HTR3A c.-42T allele is associated with severe dyspeptic symptoms. The stronger association among

  3. Scala vestibuli insertion in cochlear implantation: a valuable alternative for cases with obstructed scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J; Weber, A; Pfennigdorff, T; von Ilberg, C

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of a sufficient number of electrodes is important for a successful use of cochlear implants. We investigated the results of scala vestibuli insertion for cochlear implantation in cases of obstructed scala tympani. In a series of 200 cochlear implantations, scala vestibuli insertion was successfully performed in 4 cases with obstruction of the scala tympani. Etiologies included a temporal bone fracture, severe otosclerosis and malformations of the cochlea. The maximum insertion depth obtained via the scala vestibuli was 30 mm. Postoperative results were comparable to patients in whom conventional scala tympani insertion was performed. No adverse effects related to the site of insertion were observed. Scala vestibuli insertion offers a valuable alternative in cases of obstructed scala tympani that can be employed for a variety of etiologies. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Pre-puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mahmoud; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2015-10-01

    Palpation method is widely used in clinical practice to identify the puncture site during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) blocks. Tuffier's line, is an anatomical landmark between two iliac crests (inter-cristal), which is widely used to identify the puncture site during CSE blocks is not always an indicator for specific vertebral level or inter-vertebral space. One hundred and Ten (110) women were scheduled for normal vaginal delivery and were randomized into two equal groups; palpation group and an ultrasound guided group to detect the efficacy of puncture ultrasound before CSE blocks to increase chances of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and to reduce the number of attempts or punctures during insertion of CSE catheter. There were no significant differences between two studied groups regarding; maternal age, weight and height, while, there was a significant difference between two studied groups regarding; parity. Percentage of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt was significantly higher (67.27%) in ultrasound compared to palpation group (40%). Number of punctures (attempts) were significantly less in ultrasound (1.2 ± 0.6) compared to palpation group (2.3 ± 0.8) and the number of redirections was also significantly less in ultrasound (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to palpation group (2.8 ± 1.6). Although, time to identify puncture site was significantly longer in ultrasound compared to palpation group and total procedure time was longer in ultrasound (9.1 ± 1.5 min) compared to palpation group (6.2 ± 1.2 min), there was no significant difference between two studied groups regarding; time to identify puncture site and total procedure time. Two cases of dural puncture in palpation versus no cases in ultrasound group and two cases of intravascular catheter placement (one in each group), with no significant difference between two groups. Pre- puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery, increases the chance of a

  5. Probing and Tapping: Are We Inserting Pedicle Screws Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vishal; Mesfin, Addisu; Lee, Robert; Reigrut, Julie; Schmidt, John

    2016-11-01

    Although there are a significant number of research publications on the topic of bone morphology and the strength of bone, the clinical significance of a failed pedicle screw is often revision surgery and the potential for further postoperative complications; especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this report is to quantify the mechanical strength of the foam-screw interface by assessing probe/pilot hole diameter and tap sizes using statistically relevant sample sizes under highly controlled test conditions. The study consisted of two experiments and used up to three different densities of reference-grade polyurethane foam (ASTM 1839), including 0.16, 0.24, and 0.32 g/cm 3 . All screws and rods were provided by K2M Inc. and screws were inserted to a depth of 25 mm. A series of pilot holes, 1.5, 2.2, 2.7, 3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 5.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter were drilled through the entire depth of the material. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 720). A 3.0-mm pilot hole was drilled and tapped with: no tap, 3.5-, 4.5-, 5.5-, and 6.5-mm taps. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 300). The size of the probe/pilot hole had a nonlinear, parabolic effect on pullout strength. This shape suggests an optimum-sized probe hole for a given size pedicle screw. Too large or too small of a probe hole causes a rapid falloff in pullout strength. The tap data demonstrated that not tapping and undertapping by two or three sizes did not significantly alter the pullout strength of the screws. The data showed an exponential falloff of pullout strength when as tap size increased to the diameter of the screw. In the current study, the data show that an ideal pilot hole size half the diameter of the screw is a starting point. Also, that if tapping was necessary, to use a tap two sizes smaller than the screw being implanted. A similar optimum pilot hole or tap size may be

  6. Machinability and scratch wear resistance of carbon-coated WC inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazhanivel, B., E-mail: palcecri@yahoo.co.in; Kumar, T. Prem; Sozhan, G.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cemented WC inserts were coated with carbon by CVD. • The deposits were either loosely held MWCNTs or adherent carbides. • Co-efficient of friction (ramp load; 1–13 N); 0.2 and 0.1 μ, respectively, for the uncoated and carbide-coated inserts. • The carbide-coated insert exhibited better machinability and surface finish than a commercial TiCN-coated insert. - Abstract: In this work, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) inserts were coated with nanocarbons/carbides by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their machinability and scratch wear resistance were investigated. The hardness and surface conditions of the WC substrate were studied before and after coating. The CVD-generated nanocarbons on the insert surfaces were examined by SEM, FE-SEM and TEM. The electron microscopic images revealed that the carbons generated were multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbides depending on the experimental conditions. In both the cases, the cutting edges of the inserts had dense deposits. Scratch wear test with the coated inserts showed that the co-efficient of friction was 0.1 μ as against 0.2 μ for the uncoated inserts under a ramp load of 1–13 N. The machinability characteristics of commercially available TiCN-coated inserts and the carbon-coated WC inserts were compared by using a CNC machine and a Rapid I vision inspection system. It was found that the carbide-coated inserts exhibited machinability with better surface finish comparable to that of the TiCN-coated inserts while the MWCNT-coated inserts showed inferior adhesion properties.

  7. The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.

  8. Upper limb assessment using a Virtual Peg Insertion Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Marie-Christine; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the initial evaluation of a Virtual Peg Insertion Test developed to assess sensorimotor functions of arm and hand using an instrumented tool, virtual reality and haptic feedback. Nine performance parameters derived from kinematic and kinetic data were selected and compared between two groups of healthy subjects performing the task with the dominant and non-dominant hand, as well as with a group of chronic stroke subjects suffering from different levels of upper limb impairment. Results showed significantly smaller grasping forces applied by the stroke subjects compared to the healthy subjects. The grasping force profiles suggest a poor coordination between position and grasping for the stroke subjects, and the collision forces with the virtual board were found to be indicative of sensory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that the analyzed parameters could be valid indicators of impairment. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Insert earphone calibration for hear-through options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    A hear-through option in earphones exists when the earphone has a microphone mounted on the outside of the earphone thus allowing the user to hear the surroundings - or not. Although routing the microphone signal to the earphone driver is relatively straightforward, the physical presence of the e......A hear-through option in earphones exists when the earphone has a microphone mounted on the outside of the earphone thus allowing the user to hear the surroundings - or not. Although routing the microphone signal to the earphone driver is relatively straightforward, the physical presence...... of the earphone will modify the natural acoustics of the external ear, and some form of compensation is required to make the microphone-earphone combination acoustically transparent. Here we derive a general expression for the design target response of insert earphones with hear-through options emphasizing...

  10. TEST RESULTS FOR LHC INSERTION REGION DEPOLE MAGNETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MURATORE, J.; JAIN, A.; ANERELLA, M.; COSSOLINO, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They are required to produce fields up to 4.14 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, whose construction was very different from the RHIC dipoles, except for the coil design. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality

  11. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  12. Design of microstrip patch antennas using knowledge insertion through retraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, T. V. S.; Sudhakar, A.

    2018-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing/designing neural network is to collect experimental data and train neural network. Then, the trained neural network acts as global approximate function. The network is then used to calculate parameters for unknown configurations. The main drawback of this method is one does not have enough experimental data, cost of prototypes being a major factor [1-4]. Therefore, in this method the author collected training data from available approximate formulas with in full design range and trained the network with it. After successful training, the network is retrained with available measured results. This simple way inserts experimental knowledge into the network [5]. This method is tested for rectangular microstrip antenna and circular microstrip antenna.

  13. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy)

  14. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  15. Cybermaterials: materials by design and accelerated insertion of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Olson, Gregory B.

    2016-02-01

    Cybermaterials innovation entails an integration of Materials by Design and accelerated insertion of materials (AIM), which transfers studio ideation into industrial manufacturing. By assembling a hierarchical architecture of integrated computational materials design (ICMD) based on materials genomic fundamental databases, the ICMD mechanistic design models accelerate innovation. We here review progress in the development of linkage models of the process-structure-property-performance paradigm, as well as related design accelerating tools. Extending the materials development capability based on phase-level structural control requires more fundamental investment at the level of the Materials Genome, with focus on improving applicable parametric design models and constructing high-quality databases. Future opportunities in materials genomic research serving both Materials by Design and AIM are addressed.

  16. Detector control system of the ATLAS insertable B-Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, S.; Kind, P.; Lantzsch, K.; Maettig, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Gensolen, F.; Citterio, M.; Meroni, C.; Verlaat, B.; Kovalenko, S.

    2012-01-01

    To improve tracking robustness and precision of the ATLAS inner tracker, an additional, fourth pixel layer is foreseen, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It will be installed between the innermost present Pixel layer and a new, smaller beam pipe and is presently under construction. As, once installed into the experiment, no access is possible, a highly reliable control system is required. It has to supply the detector with all entities required for operation and protect it at all times. Design constraints are the high power density inside the detector volume, the sensitivity of the sensors against heat-ups, and the protection of the front end electronics against transients. We present the architecture of the control system with an emphasis on the CO 2 cooling system, the power supply system, and protection strategies. As we aim for a common operation of Pixel and IBL detector, the integration of the IBL control system into the Pixel control system will also be discussed. (authors)

  17. Combined heart-kidney transplantation after total artificial heart insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; Ihnken, K A; Sasevich, M; Trento, A; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Arabia, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first single-center report of 2 consecutive cases of combined heart and kidney transplantation after insertion of a total artificial heart (TAH). Both patients had advanced heart failure and developed dialysis-dependent renal failure after implantation of the TAH. The 2 patients underwent successful heart and kidney transplantation, with restoration of normal heart and kidney function. On the basis of this limited experience, we consider TAH a safe and feasible option for bridging carefully selected patients with heart and kidney failure to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Recent FDA approval of the Freedom driver may allow outpatient management at substantial cost savings. The TAH, by virtue of its capability of providing pulsatile flow at 6 to 10 L/min, may be the mechanical circulatory support device most likely to recover patients with marginal renal function and advanced heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal Conducting Separation Dipoles for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bidon, S; Hans, O; Kalbreier, Willi; Kiselev, O; Petrov, V; Protopopov, I V; Pupkov, Yu A; Ramberger, S; de Rijk, G; Ruvinsky, E; Sukhanov, A

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two straight sections, IR3 and IR7, will be dedicated to beam cleaning. These cleaning insertions will be equipped with normal conducting magnets. MBW magnets are dipole magnets used to increase the separation of the two beams. They have a core length of 3.4 m and a gap height of 52 mm and will operate at a magnetic field ranging from 0.09 T to 1.53 T. Limitations on the dimensions and total weight of the magnet resulted in a special design with a common yoke for the two beams. The orbits of the two beams will be separated horizontally by a distance between 194 mm and 224 mm in the gap of the magnet. The magnet was designed in collaboration between CERN and BINP. The report presents the main design issues and results of the pre-series acceptance tests including mechanical, electrical and magnetic field measurements.

  19. Construction and Screening of Marine Metagenomic Large Insert Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Langfeldt, Daniela; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The marine environment covers more than 70 % of the world's surface. Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. In the past, marine microbes, mostly bacteria of microbial consortia attached to marine tissues of multicellular organisms, have proven to be a rich source of highly potent bioactive compounds, which represent a considerable number of drug candidates. However, to date, the biodiversity of marine microbes and the versatility of their bioactive compounds and metabolites have not been fully explored. This chapter describes sampling in the marine environment, construction of metagenomic large insert libraries from marine habitats, and exemplarily one function based screen of metagenomic clones for identification of quorum quenching activities.

  20. Interchromosomal insertions. Identification of five cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemel, J O; Eussen, H J

    2000-11-01

    In five families with questionable chromosome rearrangements, we identified an interchromosomal insertion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case 1 with a dir ins (5;11)(p14;q14q24) in three generations, the mentally retarded and microcephalic proband showed a 5p14-->pter deletion. In case 2, a duplication (13)(q21.31--> q31.2) combined with a deletion (11)(q14-->q22) segregated from a reciprocal ins(11;13)(q14q122)(q21.32q31.2), causing a mixed phenotype with psychomotor retardation, caput quadratum, choanal atresia, and pes equinovarus. In case 3, a dir ins (18;5)(q21.3;p13.1p14) was associated with spontaneous abortions, in case 4, the proband with mental retardation, microcephaly, and a heart defect showed a pure trisomy of (12)(q13-->q15), which had segregated from a carrier of an ins (18;12)(p11.3;q13q15). In case 5, a duplication of (10)(q26.3-->q25.2) segregated from an inv ins(5;10)(q15;q26.3q25.2), which was passed on directly from a mother to her son,with mental retardation. In all families the elucidation of the insertional translocation (IT) considerably increased the associated genetic risks of carriers. For the review, we collected data from 81 articles on 87 IT probands on ascertainment, origin, familial transmittance, progeny, and genetic risks of IT carriers. We also discussed the recombinant chromosomes and complex rearrangements associated with ITs, and listed chromosome regions occurring solely as deletions, or solely as duplications, or as both to facilitate genotype/phenotype correlations. We conclude that ITs are rare chromosomal rearrangements with an 1:80,000 incidence, of which nearly 80% were referred because of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation. A maternal origin was seen in 59.5%, a paternal origin in 26.6%, and 13.9% were de novo. No notable difference in fertility between male and female IT carriers was noticed. Bias of ascertainment was excluded in 15 familial cases and led to an estimate of the genetic

  1. Analysis of reactivity insertion accidents in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.

    1978-06-01

    A calculation model to analyze reactivity insertion accidents in a PWR reactor was developed. To analyze the nuclear power transient, the AIREK-III code was used, which simulates the conventional point-kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutron precursors. Some modifications were made to generalize and to adapt the program to solve the proposed problems. A transient thermal analysis model was developed which simulates the heat transfer process in a cross section of a UO 2 fuel rod with Zircalloy clad, a gap fullfilled with Helium gas and the correspondent coolant channel, using as input the nulcear power transient calculated by AIREK-III. The behavior of ANGRA-i reactor was analized during two types of accidents: - uncontrolled rod withdrawal from subcritical condition; - uncontrolled rod withdrawal at power. The results and conclusions obtained will be used in the license process of the Unit 1 of the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto. (Author) [pt

  2. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrades for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be staged in preparation for high luminosity LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will be the construction of a new pixel layer which is currently under construction and will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine, in 2013-14. The new detector, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new, smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL required the development of several new technologies to cope with increased radiation and pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance through reduction of the pixel size and a more stringent material budget. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, will be used, connected with the new generation 130nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 readout chip via solder bump-bonds. 32 \

  3. Insertion torque, resonance frequency, and removal torque analysis of microimplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Du, Je-Kang; Chen, Chun-Ming; Wu, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the insertion torque (IT), resonance frequency (RF), and removal torque (RT) among three microimplant brands. Thirty microimplants of the three brands were used as follows: Type A (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), Type B (stainless steel, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), and Type C (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 9-mm). A synthetic bone with a 2-mm cortical bone and bone marrow was used. Each microimplant was inserted into the synthetic bone, without predrilling, to a 7 mm depth. The IT, RF, and RT were measured in both vertical and horizontal directions. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. In the vertical test, the ITs of Type C (7.8 Ncm) and Type B (7.5 Ncm) were significantly higher than that of Type A (4.4 Ncm). The RFs of Type C (11.5 kHz) and Type A (10.2 kHz) were significantly higher than that of Type B (7.5 kHz). Type C (7.4 Ncm) and Type B (7.3 Ncm) had significantly higher RTs than did Type A (4.1 Ncm). In the horizontal test, both the ITs and RTs were significantly higher for Type C, compared with Type A. No significant differences were found among the groups, and the study hypothesis was accepted. Type A had the lowest inner/outer diameter ratio and widest apical facing angle, engendering the lowest IT and highest RF values. However, no significant correlations in the IT, RF, and RT were observed among the three groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  4. Heat transfer behaviors in round tube with conical ring inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, P.

    2008-01-01

    To increase convection heat transfer in a uniform heat flux tube by a passive method, several conical rings used as turbulators are mounted over the test tube. The effects of the conical ring turbulator inserts on the heat transfer rate and friction factor are experimentally investigated in the present work. Conical rings with three different diameter ratios of the ring to tube diameter (d/D = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) are introduced in the tests, and for each ratio, the rings are placed with three different arrangements (converging conical ring, referred to as CR array, diverging conical ring, DR array and converging-diverging conical ring, CDR array). In the experiment, cold air at ambient condition for Reynolds numbers in a range of 6000-26,000 is passed through the uniform heat flux circular tube. It is found that the ring to tube diameter ratio and the ring arrays provide a significant effect on the thermal performance of the test tube. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of conical ring inserts leads to a higher heat transfer rate than that of the plain surface tube, and the DR array yields a better heat transfer than the others. The results are also correlated in the form of Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and diameter ratio. An augmentation of up to 197%, 333%, and 237% in Nusselt number is obtained in the turbulent flow for the CR, DR and CDR arrays, respectively, although the effect of using the conical ring causes a substantial increase in friction factor

  5. 2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Agrody

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.

  6. Hapsembler: An Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Nilgun; Brudno, Michael

    As whole genome sequencing has become a routine biological experiment, algorithms for assembly of whole genome shotgun data has become a topic of extensive research, with a plethora of off-the-shelf methods that can reconstruct the genomes of many organisms. Simultaneously, several recently sequenced genomes exhibit very high polymorphism rates. For these organisms genome assembly remains a challenge as most assemblers are unable to handle highly divergent haplotypes in a single individual. In this paper we describe Hapsembler, an assembler for highly polymorphic genomes, which makes use of paired reads. Our experiments show that Hapsembler produces accurate and contiguous assemblies of highly polymorphic genomes, while performing on par with the leading tools on haploid genomes. Hapsembler is available for download at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/hapsembler.

  7. Investigation of drug polymorphism: Case of artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horosanskaia, E.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Artemisinin dimorphic system was found to be enantiotropic. • The Orthorhombic modification is the form stable at low-temperatures and the triclinic modification the form stable at high-temperatures. • The polymorphic phase transition occurs at ∼130 °C. - Abstract: The polymorphism of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin was examined. The phase behavior of solid artemisinin has experimentally been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-resolved X-Ray powder diffraction. In addition, complementary solution studies and suspension experiments were performed. The results clearly confirm the existence of two modifications of artemisinin, which are related enantiotropically. The orthorhombic modification is the thermodynamically stable form at low temperatures, while the triclinic form is the stable one at higher temperatures with a transition temperature of ∼130 °C. Problems associated with analysis of the polymorphic phase behavior are comprehensively addressed

  8. [Association of I/D and -786 Polymorphisms of ACE and NOS3 Genes With Features of the Course of Ischemic Heart Disease and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, S A; Muslimova, E F; Rebrov, T Y; Sergienko, T N; Repin, A N

    2016-09-01

    to study relationship of ACE insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism and NOS3 T-786C polymorphism with characteristics of the course of ischemic heart disease (IHD) at the background of diabetes mellitus. Were examined 114 patients with IHD, 29.8% of patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. ACE and NOS3 polymorphisms were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction with primers by "Lytech". Patients with combined pathology belonged to older age group, had increased frequency of obesity and predominance of functional class II chronic heart failure. In this group we detected association of D allele of the ACE gene with higher frequency of dyslipidemia and obesity. Among patients with IHD without diabetes we observed associations of ACE I/D and NOS3 T-786C polymorphisms (close and moderate, respectively) with severity of effort angina. We also found that frequency of dyslipidemia among carriers of II and TT genotypes was lower than among carriers of other genotypes. Presence of type 2 diabetes as background pathology leads to a change of character of association of ACE I/D and NOS3 T-786C polymorphisms with clinical characteristics of patients with IHD.

  9. Discovering and verifying DNA polymorphisms in a mung bean [V. radiata (L. R. Wilczek] collection by EcoTILLING and sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Rob E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigna radiata, which is classified in the family Fabaceae, is an important economic crop and a dietary staple in many developing countries. The species radiata can be further subdivided into varieties of which the variety sublobata is currently acknowledged as the putative progenitor of radiata. EcoTILLING was employed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and small insertions/deletions (INDELS in a collection of Vigna radiata accessions. Findings A total of 157 DNA polymorphisms in the collection were produced from ten primer sets when using V. radiata var. sublobata as the reference. The majority of polymorphisms detected were found in putative introns. The banding patterns varied from simple to complex as the number of DNA polymorphisms between two pooled samples increased. Numerous SNPs and INDELS ranging from 4–24 and 1–6, respectively, were detected in all fragments when pooling V. radiata var. sublobata with V. radiata var. radiata. On the other hand, when accessions of V. radiata var. radiata were mixed together and digested with CEL I relatively few SNPs and no INDELS were detected. Conclusion EcoTILLING was utilized to identify polymorphisms in a collection of mung bean, which previously showed limited molecular genetic diversity and limited morphological diversity in the flowers and pod descriptors. Overall, EcoTILLING proved to be a powerful genetic analysis tool providing the rapid identification of naturally occurring variation.

  10. Insertion forces and intracochlear trauma in temporal bone specimens implanted with a straight atraumatic electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalehi, Marjan; Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Hügl, Silke; Mohebbi, Saleh; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate insertion forces during manual insertion of a straight atraumatic electrode in human temporal bones, and post-implantation histologic evaluation of the samples to determine whether violation of intracochlear structures is related to insertion forces. In order to minimize intracochlear trauma and preserve residual hearing during cochlear implantation, knowledge of the insertion forces is necessary. Ten fresh frozen human temporal bones were prepared with canal wall down mastoidectomy. All samples were mounted on a one-axis force sensor. Insertion of a 16-mm straight atraumatic electrode was performed from different angles to induce "traumatic" insertion. Histologic evaluation was performed in order to evaluate intracochlear trauma. In 4 of 10 samples, dislocation of the electrode into scala vestibuli was observed. The mean insertion force for all 10 procedures was 0.003 ± 0.005 N. Insertion forces measured around the site of dislocation to scala vestibuli in 3 of 4 samples were significantly higher than insertion forces at the same location of the cochleae measured in samples without trauma (p straight atraumatic electrode is lower than reported by other studies using longer electrodes. Based on our study, insertion forces leading to basilar membrane trauma may be lower than the previously reported direct rupture forces.

  11. Facile construction of a random protein domain insertion library using an engineered transposon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vandan; Pierre, Brennal; Kim, Jin Ryoun

    2013-01-15

    Insertional fusion between multiple protein domains represents a novel means of creating integrated functionalities. Currently, there is no robust guideline for selection of insertion sites ensuring the desired functional outcome of insertional fusion. Therefore, construction and testing of random domain insertion libraries, in which a host protein domain is randomly inserted into a guest protein domain, significantly benefit extensive exploration of sequence spaces for insertion sites. Short peptide residues are usually introduced between protein domains to alleviate structural conflicts, and the interdomain linker residues may affect the functional outcome of protein insertion complexes. Unfortunately, optimal control of interdomain linker residues is not always available in conventional methods used to construct random domain insertion libraries. Moreover, most conventional methods employ blunt-end rather than sticky-end ligation between host and guest DNA fragments, thus lowering library construction efficiency. Here, we report the facile construction of random domain insertion libraries using an engineered transposon. We show that random domain insertion with optimal control of interdomain linker residues was possible with our engineered transposon-based method. In addition, our method employs sticky-end rather than blunt-end ligation between host and guest DNA fragments, thus allowing for facile construction of relatively large sized libraries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  13. The monoclinic polymorph of dimethylarsinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H7AsO2 or [As(CH32O(OH], is an organic derivative of arsinic acid, and is also known by its trivial name cacodylic acid. In contrast to the first polymorph (triclinic, space group Poverline{1}, Z = 2, the current study revealed monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c, Z = 8 for the second polymorph. The configuration of the tetrahedral molecule shows approximate Cs symmetry. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules to infinite zigzag chains along [010], which are further connected by weak intermolecular C—H...O contacts into a three-dimensional network.

  14. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    from only 10-15% in southern Europe to 40-50% in the north. The gradient may be a trace of the demic expansion of agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago, but it may also reflect the possibility that APOE*4 carriers are less likely to develop vitamin D deficiency. The common APOE polymorphism......Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  15. Modification of the temperatures of phase transformations of alumina by the insertion of MgO and ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, D.C.C.; Gouvea, D.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the stability and diversity of alumina polymorph, it becomes a very interesting material for stability studies considering changes in surface energy. The gamma phase is metastable and extensively studied due its properties and applications in catalysis. Studies have been conducted with the purpose to changing the transformation temperature gamma-alpha, considering modification on surface energy of nanomaterials. Thereby, this study aims to understand the phase transition amorphous-gamma of alumina by inserting additives (MgO and ZrO 2 ), taking into account the effects on specific surface area and surface energy. The assessment of stability was performed by analysis of DTA, X-ray diffraction and measurements of specific surface area, showing an increase in surface area with additives concentration, followed by a decrease of surface energy, then stability of gamma phase. (author)

  16. IUD in first-trimester abortion: immediate intrauterine contraceptive devices insertion vs delayed insertion following the next menstruation bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Grapsa, Anastasia; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Pinidis, Petros; Liberis, Anastasios; Ammari, Alexandros; Grapsas, Xenofon; Galazios, Georgios; Liberis, Vasileios

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 21 days after an abortion, ovulation occurs in 50 % of women. Installation of an IUD directly after induced or spontaneous abortion offers immediate contraceptive protection. The purpose of the present study was to weigh up contraceptive safety and adverse reactions of IUD inserted directly after first-trimester abortion under general or paracervical anesthesia as against the fitting of IUD in the days of the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. During the period May 1987 to October 2010, 73 women (Group A) underwent an immediate post-abortion insertion IUD after a first-trimester spontaneous or induced abortion under general or local paracervical anesthesia and 69 participants (Group B) received IUD during the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. Questionnaires were completed by all the women of the study with respect to the effects of IUD. The women were examined every 3 months for 1 year after the fitting of the IUD in the out-patient department of the University Obstetrics Gynecological Department of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. The demographic characteristics of the women of the two groups were similar. The age of the women ranged between 19 and 44 years, while 61.98 % were women with one or two children and 38.02 % were women with three or more children. During the first menstrual cycles, with the exception of vaginal hemorrhages (5 %) and adnexitis (1 %), no serious adverse reactions were noted. During the transvaginal ultrasonography checks in both groups, no observation was made of any dislocation of the IUD, except for two cases in the subgroup of those women with paracervical anesthesia and one case in the women of Group B. As concerns the questionnaire with regard to the women's subjective evaluation of IUD, satisfactory answers were given. There were no differences between the two groups either with respect to the security of the supplied contraceptive methods or to the development of side effects.

  17. The Correlation between Insertion Depth of Prodisc-C Artificial Disc and Postoperative Kyphotic Deformity: Clinical Importance of Insertion Depth of Artificial Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Youl; Kim, Se-Hoon; Suh, Jung-Keun; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the correlation between insertion depth of artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity after Prodisc-C total disc replacement surgery, and the range of artificial disc insertion depth which is effective in preventing postoperative whole cervical or segmental kyphotic deformity. A retrospective radiological analysis was performed in 50 patients who had undergone single level total disc replacement surgery. Records were reviewed to obtain demographic data. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed to determine C2-7 Cobb's angle and segmental angle and to investigate postoperative kyphotic deformity. A formula was introduced to calculate insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc. Statistical analysis was performed to search the correlation between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity, and to estimate insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc to prevent postoperative kyphotic deformity. In this study no significant statistical correlation was observed between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity regarding C2-7 Cobb's angle. Statistical correlation between insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc and postoperative kyphotic deformity was observed regarding segmental angle (p<0.05). It failed to estimate proper insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc effective in preventing postoperative kyphotic deformity. Postoperative segmental kyphotic deformity is associated with insertion depth of Prodisc-C artificial disc. Anterior located artificial disc leads to lordotic segmental angle and posterior located artificial disc leads to kyphotic segmental angle postoperatively. But C2-7 Cobb's angle is not affected by artificial disc location after the surgery.

  18. Autosomal and X chromosome Alu insertions in Bolivian Aymaras and Quechuas: two languages and one genetic pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Esteban, Esther; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Rodríguez, Armando; Villena, Mercedes; Vasquez, René; Moral, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-two polymorphic Alu insertions (18 autosomal and 14 from the X chromosome) were studied in 192 individuals from two Amerindian populations of the Bolivian Altiplano (Aymara and Quechua speakers: the two main Andean linguistic groups), to provide relevant information about their genetic relationships and demographic processes. The main objective was to determine from genetic data whether the expansion of the Quechua language into Bolivia could be associated with demographic (Inca migration of Quechua-speakers from Peru into Bolivia) or cultural (language imposition by the Inca Empire) processes. Allele frequencies were used to assess the genetic relationships between these two linguistic groups. Our results indicated that the two Bolivian samples showed a high genetic similarity for both sets of markers and were clearly differentiated from the two Peruvian Quechua samples available in the literature. Additionally, our data were compared with the available literature to determine the genetic and linguistic structure, and East-West differentiation in South America. The close genetic relationship between the two Bolivian samples and their differentiation from the Quechua-speakers from Peru suggests that the Quechua language expansion in Bolivia took place without any important demographic contribution. Moreover, no clear geographical or linguistic structure was found for the Alu variation among South Amerindians. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. A comparison of buffered lidocaine versus ELA-Max before peripheral intravenous catheter insertions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet; Hurt, Sarah; Shootman, Mario; Kennedy, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is a common, painful experience for many children in the pediatric emergency department. Although local anesthetics such as injected buffered lidocaine have been shown to be effective at reducing pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion, they are not routinely used. ELA-Max, a topical local anesthetic, has the advantage of needle-free administration but has not been compared with buffered lidocaine for PIV insertion. To compare the reduction of pain and anxiety during PIV insertion provided by subcutaneous buffered 1% lidocaine or topical ELA-Max in children. A randomized trial in children 4 to 17 years old undergoing PIV insertion with 22-gauge catheters was conducted. Children received either buffered lidocaine or ELA-Max. Buffered lidocaine was administered by using 30-gauge needles to inject 0.1 to 0.2 mL subcutaneously just before PIV insertion. ELA-Max was applied to the skin and occluded with Tegaderm 30 minutes before PIV insertion. Self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaires (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 = no pain, anxiety) were completed by patients and their parents before PIV insertion to assess baseline perceptions about pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion and immediately after PIV insertion to assess pain and anxiety associated with the experience. After PIV insertion, the nurse who inserted the PIV also completed a VAS questionnaire assessing technical difficulty and satisfaction with the local anesthesia. A blinded observer also completed a VAS questionnaire to assess pain and anxiety associated with the PIV insertion. Data were analyzed by using chi2 and t tests. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled, and questionnaires were competed by all (mean age: 12.1 +/- 4.5 years; 61% female). There were no differences for buffered lidocaine and ELA-Max groups in age, gender, race, prior IV experience, or baseline pain and anxiety. There were no significant differences between buffered

  20. Nucleotide diversity of the ZmPox3 maize peroxidase gene: Relationships between a MITE insertion in exon 2 and variation in forage maize digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigau Joan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms were investigated within the ZmPox3 maize peroxidase gene, possibly involved in lignin biosynthesis because of its colocalization with a cluster of QTL related to lignin content and cell wall digestibility. The purpose of this study was to identify, on the basis of 37 maize lines chosen for their varying degrees of cell wall digestibility and representative of temperate regions germplasm, ZmPox3 haplotypes or individual polymorphisms possibly associated with digestibility. Results Numerous haplotypes with high diversity were identified. Frequency of nucleotide changes was high with on average one SNP every 57 bp. Nucleotide diversity was not equally distributed among site categories: the estimated π was on average eight times higher for silent sites than for non-synonymous sites. Numerous sites were in linkage disequilibrium that decayed with increasing physical distance. A zmPox3 mutant allele, carrying an insertion of a transposable element in the second exon, was found in lines derived from the early flint inbred line, F7. This element possesses many structural features of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE. The mutant allele encodes a truncated protein lacking important functional sites. An ANOVA performed with a subset of 31 maize lines indicated that the transposable element was significantly associated with cell wall digestibility. This association was confirmed using an additional set of 25 flint lines related to F7. Moreover, RT-PCR experiments revealed a decreased amount of corresponding mRNA in plants with the MITE insertion. Conclusion These results showed that ZmPox3 could possibly be involved in monolignol polymerisation, and that a deficiency in ZmPox3 peroxidase activity seemingly has a negative effect on cell wall digestibility. Also, genetic diversity analyses of ZmPox3 indicated that this peroxidase could be a relevant target for grass digestibility improvement using