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Sample records for insect technique sit

  1. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  2. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Dafa' alla, Tarig H; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M; Nimmo, Derric D; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  3. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  4. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  5. Developing Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a tool Mosquito Control Districts can use for integrated Aedes aegypti control

    Science.gov (United States)

    New tools are clearly needed for integrated mosquito management of Ae. aegypti. We describe the sterile insect technique (SIT) that we are developing as a method to control Ae. aegypti by partnering with two prominent Florida mosquito control districts (MCD) and the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Sub...

  6. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M [Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release.

  7. Status of the control of mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata (WIED.) using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakid, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This note presents the importance of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the world especially in the med east region including egypt. Evaluation of the control methods used and the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a successful and safe method for the fly eradication or control in many countries are considered. Moreover, the important requirements for a successful SIT programme and the trial for improvement of this technique are discussed including the improvement of the larval rearing media, male only release, trapping and attracting systems of the adult fly, and the current research on genetic sexing for elimination of females that cause great losses to after release

  8. Development of a mathematical model for sugar cane borer population, Diatrea sacharalis (Fabr., 1794) and simulation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrillo, R.B.

    1979-08-01

    The determination of the theoretical possibility of applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to control sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794), population in the State of Sao Paulo was aimed at. This has been achieved with the development of a mathematical model of the insect population dynamics after simulation of the SIT. The model was constructed based on a field survey made in 1976 in four sugar cane regions of the State. With the surveys, data relative to insect population density of larvae and pupae was obtained. Data regarding fluctuation of adults and of some predators population were obtained using light traps. Through mathematical analysis of the data from the surveys it was noted that diapause occurred in large larvae. The percentage of larvae in diapause showed correlation with photoperiod and temperature. It was established that the number of degree days necessary for the insect to complement a generation is 954. A method was proposed to utilize the thermic constant concept equally for diapause conditions. A laboratory experiment showed that male adults irradiated at 50 krad gamma radiation ( 60 Co) produced a non-viable generation. Monthly mortality in each stage was estimated. From these data, sub-models were developed, correlating mortality with climatic and biological variables. The sub-models when grouped formed a model that permitted the simulation of the SIT. It was concluded that release of sterile insects in a number equal to those existing in the field, during the first three generations, would be an efficient method to control insect populations. Theoretically, a profit would be obtained if the cost for application of the method was up to Cr$ 1,355 per hectare. Release of sterile insects in a number nine times larger than those existing in the field during the first generation, would be equally efficient and a profit would be obtained if the cost for application of the method was Cr$ 975 per hectare. (Author) [pt

  9. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  10. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OUDA, S.M.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3 rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3 rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  11. Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and autosterilisation lethality in the eradication of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newst. (Diptera, Glossinidae) in Buvuma Islands in Lake Victoria, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloo, F.P.; Langley, P.A.; Luyimbazi, F.; Ogwal, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The years of 1970s to 1990s saw the development of bait technology for the control of tsetse flies from their infancy to their optimum levels. The technology relies on attracting the flies to trapping and killing devices, relying on olfactory and visual cues to artificial and natural objects which the flies probably perceive as their hosts. Despite the present level of improvement, the catching or trapping efficiency is low, averaging 20-35%, and some tsetse species hardly respond to these techniques. This makes sustaining control programmes to a level where economic development can proceed effectively elusive, leading to the re-invasion and collapse of many tsetse control projects. Efforts are therefore being made to incorporate different killing methods into the trapping systems. Lethal insect techniques (LIT) with pathogens, insect growth regulators and other chemosterilants are incorporated into bait technology to amplify their effectiveness as the flies can transfer them to other members of the species which cannot get access to the attractive devices. They are compatible with the sterile insect technique. Prospects for autosterilisation of the tsetse flies have been reviewed by Langley and Coates (1982) who also assessed the incorporation of sex pheromones and bisazir in the field. Encouraging field results were obtained with Pyroprxyfen (Sumitomo Chemical Co.) which is a juvenile hormone mimic that allows the larvae of G. morsitans morsitans to be produced normally but on pupation, further development was arrested after twenty days of the thirty day intrapupal period, 'effectively' making the females sterile (Hargrove and Langley 1990). However, when triflumuron is applied at doses of 0.5 micrograms per tsetse fly the following reproductive cycle was arrested with no recovery over four reproductive cycles (forty five days). Birth products of the sterilised flies ranged from abortion of eggs to fully grown larvae which formed non-viable puparia. The aim of

  12. The sterile insect technique [videorecording]: An environment-friendly method of insect pest suppression and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Using graphic displays and clips of actual laboratory and field activities related to the sterile insect technique (SIT), the video covers various topics on the principles and applications of this technique

  13. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  14. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  15. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, L E; Klassen, W [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)

    1991-09-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment.

  16. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Peveling, R.

    2005-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  17. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F 1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F 1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  18. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  19. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  20. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.; Mehta, K.

    2007-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [es

  1. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  2. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  3. When Eggs Don't Hatch. The Benefits of the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests, such as the medfly, tsetse flies and carob moth can devastate crops and infect herds, causing severe economic hardship. To suppress the insect pest population and protect their livestock and crops, farmers usually use large quantities of pesticides. However, these pesticides are expensive, a risk to public health and cause environmental damage. Another technique, however, can reduce the insect pest population using natural means that do not require toxic chemicals: the sterile insect technique, or SIT. When female insect pests mate with male partners that have been radiation sterilized, the insemination produces eggs that cannot hatch. Since mating does not produce offspring, the insect population decreases naturally. The pest population can be suppressed with little or no use of pesticides. With the help of the IAEA, farmers have applied SIT successfully in over 20 countries on five continents, for over 15 insect species worldwide.

  4. Role of population genetics in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafsur, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation in natural and laboratory populations are reviewed. The application of population genetic methods and theory can help to plan and evaluate the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the sterile insect technique (SIT). Population genetic studies can play an important role in estimating dispersal rates and thus gene flow among target populations, determining if sibling species exist, establishing the origin of outbreaks or reintroductions, and supporting the quality control of mass-reared colonies. The target's population history may be examined, in terms of 'bottlenecks', range fragmentations, and expansions. Genetic methods can be helpful in distinguishing wild insects from released sterile or substerile ones, and in ascertaining, together with mating cross-compatibility studies, the compatibility of mass-reared colonies with target wild insects. (author)

  5. Application of benefit/cost analysis to insect pest control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Before embarking on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes involving eradication, exclusion, or suppression of insect pests using the sterile insect technique (SIT), and/or other area-wide control measures, not only their technical but also their economic feasibility needs to be assessed. They may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods, and may raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts. A consistent and transparent system is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such programmes and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Benefit/cost analysis (BCA) provides such a framework, and has been applied to many AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT, in which it has been used to demonstrate the expected value of area-wide eradication, exclusion or suppression. This chapter outlines the process of BCA in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of BCA to the SIT. A checklist of BCA inputs, and some examples of benefit/cost outputs, are also presented. (author)

  6. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  7. Insect pest intervention using the sterile insect technique. Current status on research and on operational programs in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, Walther; Bakri, Abdel; Caceres, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The area-wide integrated approach to insect pest management (AWIPM) is increasingly gaining acceptance for major insect pests in view that agriculture and medical/veterinary pests cannot be controlled effectively at the local level, without the systematic use of conventional insecticides which disrupt the environment, affect human health and preclude access to low pesticide or organic markets. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is amongst the most non-disruptive pest control methods, however, it is only effective when implementation is coordinated over larger contiguous areas to address whole target pest populations. Over the last four decades the Joint FAOI/IAEA has been promoting the AWIPM concept and supporting the development and application of the SIT against various key insect pests including fruit files, moths, screwworms and tsetse flies. There has been considerable progress in the development and integrated use of the SIT against a number of such pests, as reflected by operational programs on all five continents for eradication, for prevention, and lately increasingly for suppression. There is however, considerable scope for improving the efficiency of SIT, an indispensable requirement for increased involvement of the livestock and horticultural industry and biocontrol producers in any future application. (author)

  8. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  9. INFLUENCE OF LARVAL REARING DIET ACIDITY ON THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wied.) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FOR ITS CONTROL BY STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.; EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The biological effects of larval rearing diet acidity on the developmental stages of the medfly C. capitata (Wied.) were studied at the laboratory scale. Diets were formulated at five different initial pH ranging from 4.59 to 2.09 together with the control group currently used in our laboratory (5.26). These effects were evaluated on larval period, percent pupal recovery, pupal weight, percent adult emergence, percent male production and adult flight ability. The results showed that the shortest larval development occurred at pH 3.48 and 3.75, the highest pupal recovery at pH 3.75, the best pupal weight at pH 2.09, 3.48, 3.75 and 4.59, the highest percent adult emergence at pH 3.75, the highest percentage male production at pH 3.48, and the best percentage of fliers at pH 4.59. The obtained data referred to the optimizing physiochemical factors such as pH can improve the overall yield of mass reared medfly in the laboratory to be irradiated by gamma radiation and released in the field for controlling the insect

  10. The basic principles of the application of sterile insect technique for area-wide insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2006-01-01

    Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a new insect pest control technique, potential, and compatible to other techniques. This technique includes irradiation of insect colony in the laboratory using gamma, n, or x-rays and then release them in the field periodically to obtain the increase of sterility probability level from the first generation to the dependence as the result the decrease of the fertility level in the field. The effect the release of sterile insects ( 9:1 ratio to the male indigenous and reproductive potential every single female of each generation reproduce 5 females ) to the insect reduction population model is conceptually discussed. From one million of the female parental decrease to be 26, 316; 1,907; 10; and 0 insects at the first, second, third, and the forth progeny respectively. Then if sterile insect technique integrated with chemical technique (insecticide) 90% kill, it will be much more effective compared to the application sterile insect technique only. From the number of one million population of insects will decrease to be 2,632; 189; and 0 insects at the first, second, and the third progeny respectively. In the Lepidoptera insects was found a phenomenon of inherited sterility. According to Knipling (1970) the inherited sterility in the first offspring caused by chromosome translocation in the gamete . In the individual of heterozygote will be die and in the homozygotes is still alive. Interspecific hybrid sterility first time was found by Laster (1972) from a cross between males Heliothis virescens (F) and females Heliothis subflexa Guenee. Male moths of the first offspring from the cross between H. virescens and H. subflexa is sterile and the females still remain fertile. If the female moths of the first offspring back crossed with male H. virescens the phenomenon of sterility always found will same situation as mention earlier the male offspring is sterile and the females is fertile ( the male F2 will be sterile and the females will

  11. The Sterile Insect Technique:Current and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALRubeai, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Key insect pests and their potential for economic and environmental impact, such species are the targets for area-wide approaches including in some cases the use of SIT. At the heart of the SIT is genetic sterility that is introduced into the target population by releasing large numbers of sterile insects . The development of an SIT package for a Key pest, involving mass rearing and aerial dispersion, as well as field monitoring and a suppression system. Losses caused by insect pests throughout the developing world will continue to be unacceptably high in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the economic feasibility of non-chemical pest control tools, including biologically -based methods such as SIT, will become increasingly apparent . This study include an overview of the basic scientific principles of SIT , is successful applications and related mass rearing and irradiation facilities over the world. (author)

  12. Thematic Plan for the Sterile Insect Technique for Old and New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To support livestock development programmes aiming at controlling or eradicating key insect pests. This involves the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into area wide integrated pest management and eradication systems. The sustainability of eradication activities has been demonstrated for a number of insect pests under various national settings where the application of SIT has produced significant impact on socio-economic development, in terms of both cost-savings and environmental quality. In line with the TC strategy, this thematic plan reviews best practices and experience gained in field operations, identifies stakeholders and common objectives in New World Screwworm, Cochliomya hominivorax (NWS) and Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana (OWS), control and outlines a strategy for implementing integrated pest control programmes at the regional, sub-regional and national level. Synergies are sought with partner organisations to expand the knowledge base and capabilities for SIT based pest control activities and to strengthen TCDC.

  13. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  14. A spatial model with pulsed releases to compare strategies for the sterile insect technique applied to the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oléron Evans, Thomas P; Bishop, Steven R

    2014-08-01

    We present a simple mathematical model to replicate the key features of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling pest species, with particular reference to the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The model differs from the majority of those studied previously in that it is simultaneously spatially explicit and involves pulsed, rather than continuous, sterile insect releases. The spatially uniform equilibria of the model are identified and analysed. Simulations are performed to analyse the impact of varying the number of release sites, the interval between pulsed releases and the overall volume of sterile insect releases on the effectiveness of SIT programmes. Results show that, given a fixed volume of available sterile insects, increasing the number of release sites and the frequency of releases increases the effectiveness of SIT programmes. It is also observed that programmes may become completely ineffective if the interval between pulsed releases is greater that a certain threshold value and that, beyond a certain point, increasing the overall volume of sterile insects released does not improve the effectiveness of SIT. It is also noted that insect dispersal drives a rapid recolonisation of areas in which the species has been eradicated and we argue that understanding the density dependent mortality of released insects is necessary to develop efficient, cost-effective SIT programmes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Hendrichs, J.; Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  16. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Teran, M.; Hofmann, H.C.; Tweddle, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  17. Thematic Plan for Fruit Fly Control Using the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This thematic plan for fruit flies is the summation of ideas and recommendations put forth by a group of experts composed of fruit fly program managers and workers, stakeholders from the affected industry, a commodity specialist from the FAO, and technical, planning and policy specialists from the IAEA and the FAO. This document provides strategic guidance and direction on how and where the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can most effectively be applied to control or eradicate fruit flies in the future.

  18. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  19. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ``Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique`` highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits. Refs, figs, tabs.

  20. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique'' highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits

  1. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R.E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; McInnis, D.; Shelly, T.; Jang, E.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [es

  4. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  5. Sterile insect technique for the management of the oriental fruit fly in Guimaras iasland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golez, H.; Manoto, E.

    1996-01-01

    Mango is an important fruit crop in the country as shown by increasing demand for the fruit both in local and domestic markets. In particular, the island of Guimaras is now being developed as the mango province of the country since the soil and climate are highly suitable for its growth and development. Today, there are more than 250,000 trees grown in the island and the local government plans to plant more than 1 million trees by the year 2000. The production of quality fruits is however, hampered by the presence of fruit flies. A new strategy in fruit fly control is the sterile insect technique which will be implemented in the island of Guimaras. SIT involves mass rearing, sterilization and release of sterile fruit flies in target areas to stop native flies from reproducing. Preparatory phase of the project include campaigns launched to inform growers, government officials and private sectors on the objectives and mechanics of SIT through press releases, workshops and meetings. Basic ecological studies which involved determination of host fruits, degree of fruit infestation, population dynamics and fruit fly dispersal are presented. Estimates of fruit fly population showed that more insects were present in natural vegetation as compared to mix plantation and low population was recorded in pure orchards. Preliminary results of male annihilation technique using a bait consisting of methyl eugenol and malathion placed in fiber boards also revealed that male populations were reduced to low levels, provided that wide area approach is considered. Otherwise, reinfestation of limited areas by flies will occur. Continuous monitoring of flies in the whole island is now being undertaken. Sterile insect technique was demonstrated in the small islet of Naoay, south west of the main island of Guimaras. Results of several releases showed that no unmarked flies were captured from monitoring traps, indicating that sterile flies suppressed the population of wild flies in the area

  6. Role of population and behavioural ecology in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Yamamura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The principles of population and behavioural ecology in relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for eradication of a pest are explained. These include: (1) a logistic population model for estimation of the population fluctuation of target animals and the number of sterile males to be released for successful eradication, (2) mark-recapture estimations of density and mortality rate of the target population, especially for remote areas, where repeated releases and recaptures are difficult, (3) models of dispersal to assess dispersal distance of target animals, and (4) equations for estimating the decrease of sexual competitiveness of mass-reared strains under field conditions. The method to estimate dispersal distance curves when attraction areas of traps are overlapping, and changes in mate-choice of wild females resulting from inadvertent selection when the SIT is applied, are explained. The necessity of field estimation of sexual competitiveness of released sterile males is also emphasized. (author)

  7. Impact of fruit fly control programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, is complex. These programmes affect practically the whole horticultural food chain. In this chapter, the impact of the programmes is assessed by focusing only on the benefits generated to producers and traders of horticultural products, the direct beneficiaries. This is done first by describing the types of benefits accrued from these programmes, second by explaining the factors that shape programme benefits, and finally by presenting several examples to illustrate how the SIT technology, when properly applied for eradication, containment, suppression, or prevention purposes, can generate substantial direct and indirect benefits to the horticulture industry. (author)

  8. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es

  9. Prospects for the future development and application of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.; Hendrichs, J.

    2005-01-01

    Science-based modern agriculture and international trade in agricultural commodities have achieved that, even though the world population has doubled in the last 40 years, the absolute number of people in poverty and hunger has been falling steadily. The major challenge in the immediate future is to consolidate these positive gains, while simultaneously expanding environment-friendly agricultural practices. Within this context, the sterile insect technique (SIT), as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, will continue to gain momentum for application against certain key insect pests. This is in response to the demands for cleaner food and a better environment, the need to facilitate increasing international trade by overcoming pest related trade barriers to the movement of agricultural commodities, and the imperative of dealing with the increasing invasion of exotic pests. As the use of the technology increases, changes will continue to be made to improve the overall efficiency of the technique for those species where the SIT is already being used, and to expand the use of the technique to new key species. Modem biotechnology may also contribute to improving efficiency and, even though there are as yet no transgenic strains of pest insects that could be used in AW-IPM programmes, transgenic technology may eventually benefit these programmes in terms of strain marking, genetic sexing, molecular sterilization, and disease refractoriness; however, first the regulatory hurdle to allow their use will have to be overcome. There appears to be much promise in improving sterile male performance by exposing male insects to hormonal, nutritional, microbial, and semiochemical supplements. Furthermore, the management of mother colonies will be significantly improved to reduce the effects of colonization and to slow down mass-rearing effects on key behavioural parameters that often result in rapid colony deterioration. Progress will also need to be

  10. Economics of area-wide sit control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The economic feasibility of using the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control certain key insect pests has been demonstrated clearly. The successful implementation of a number of area-wide and large-scale SIT programs has produced substantial economic benefits for the beneficiaries of the technology. The economic advantages of this technology will become more evident as indirect benefits of SIT application are incorporated into total program benefit estimates. Awareness of the technical and economic advantages of the SIT, and market forces favoring the use of environmentally clean pest control methods, will encourage private investment in this technology. (author)

  11. The sterile insect technique in the integrated pest management of whitefly species in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Cirio, U.

    2000-01-01

    Insect pests commonly known as whiteflies are Hemiptera belonging to the family of Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (greenhouse whitefly) and the B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (=Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) are pests whose economic importance is constantly increasing within the European agriculture. The B-biotype of B. tabaci, in particular, has become more problematic by causing damage over a wide range, from the temperate climates of Californian squash fields to European greenhouses and field crops. In the absence of valid alternatives, many growers have resorted to intensive application of insecticides to control these pests, creating a severe environmental and health hazard. Several new environmentally safe technologies are currently available and have opened up new opportunities in the integrated pest management (IPM) of whiteflies under greenhouse conditions. In particular, biological or biologically-based control means, including a number of fungi, insects, and compounds have been recently developed. However, the limitation of whitefly population outbreaks in greenhouses is a problem that needs to be solved. The idea to extend the use of sterile insect technique (SIT) to a confined environment against whitefly species is novel, and especially when we consider that the target species undergo arrhenotoky (unfertilised females generate only male progenies). The possibility to join this approach to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of the whitefly species in the greenhouse may open new perspectives in the safe application of nuclear technology for pest control. The present work reviews recent advances in research and practice related to the development of SIT for the control of whiteflies in greenhouses. Explanations on whitefly radiation biology, with data on Bemisia spp. radio-sterilisation, methods for whitefly mass rearing and collection, and the definition of a complete SIT procedure tested against the greenhouse

  12. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  13. Adding guarana powder to medfly diets: an alternative for improving the Sterile Insect Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Câmara de Aquino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ceratitis capitata (medfly is a globally important horticultural pest that can be controlled using the sterile insect technique (SIT, but the success of SIT depends on the sexual performance of mass-reared males when released into the field. We added “guarana” (Paullinia cupana powder (derived from an Amazonian fruit that is considered to be a stimulant with aphrodisiac effects, capable of improving human physical stamina to the diets of adult male medflies to determine whether it increased their sexual performance. The basic diet of a protein extract + sucrose (1:3 was enriched with guarana powder (3 % on a volume basis. Experiments examining sexual competitiveness were performed using lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. lab-reared males fed on the basic diet (and lab-reared females fed on the basic diet, as well as lab-reared males fed with the enriched diet vs. wild males fed on the basic diet (and wild females fed on the basic diet. The results of both experiments indicated that males maintained on diets enriched with guarana powder showed higher copulation successes than males fed only with the basic diet. Guarana powder therefore contributed to the greater mating success of lab-reared males (probably because of its stimulant properties, and may represent a new and viable option for increasing SIT effectiveness.

  14. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  15. Controlling Aedes aegypti population as DHF vector with radiation based-sterile insect technique in Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nurhayati; Bambang Yunianto; Tri Ramadhani; Bina Ikawati; Budi Santoso; Ali Rahayu

    2013-01-01

    The control program of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia is still a problem due to the incomplete integrated handling. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for Aedes aegypti as DHF vector was considered as a potential strategy for controlling the DHF. A preliminary survey was carried out to determine the characteristic of A aegypti population in the study site before the implementation of SIT. The implementation of radiation based-SIT was carried out in Krandegan and Kutabanjar Villages of Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java which involved 99 houses. One hundred gamma rays irradiated male mosquitoes were released to each house up to five times. The eggs, larvae and adult mosquitoes were collected using ovitrap and weekly observed. The initial population density of A. aegypti in the studied area was obtained to be 6 mosquitoes per house with the mean index of house was 15.86% and the mean sterility of sterilized mosquitoes was 79.16%. The SIT effectively reduced A. aegypti population after the fifth release of irradiated mosquitoes into the houses. It can be assumed that the SIT was effective in controlling DHF vector in the studied area, nevertheless, it will be more effective if it is combined with other handling techniques. (author)

  16. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  17. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4 - June 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized

  19. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  20. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  2. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, A W

    1963-10-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The successful use of the sterile male technique to eradicate the screw worm fly from the Southeastern part of the United States showed that a new biological method using radiation-sterilized insects could not only control but also eradicate harmful insect pests. A panel of experts met at the IAEA in Vienna in October 1962 to discuss the various aspects and applications of this new technique and to assess its usefulness and limitations. This report summarizes the panel proceedings. 42 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  4. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M.; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60 Co or 137 Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60 Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  5. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Reyes Flores, J.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Loosjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  6. Pilot application of sterile insect technique for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Philippinensis, in Naoway islet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Resilva, S.S.; Obra, G.B.; Reyes, M.R.; Golez, H.G.; Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Gaitan, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The sterile insect technique for the Oriental fruit fly was pilot tested in Naoway, a 12-ha islet about 1.5 km. southeast of Guimaras island. The Oriental fruit fly population (male) in the islet was first estimated at 3,432 using the mark-release-recapture experiments. From August to October 1995, six releases of sterile fruit flies (male and female) at biweekly intervals were conducted in the islet. Except for the 7 wild fruit flies collected by a trap 10 days after the first release, not a single fly was collected from the pilot site thereafter. Furthermore, field collections of infested fruits yield only 6 pupae on the first and zero on the subsequent collections. The results suggested that SIT proved successful in Naoway islet. For Guimaras, an island-wide implementation of SIT could be undertaken after reducing the wild male fruit fly population by field sanitation and the male annihilation method in order to overflood the wild population with sterile fruit flies. (Author)

  7. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  8. Decoupled pelvis adjustment to induce lumbar motion: A technique that controls low back load in sitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, P.; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Petrus H.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    Static sitting in confined settings have been associated with low back pain in sedentary occupations such as office works and car driving. To prevent lumbar discomfort in prolonged static sitting, periodic motion of the lumbar spine is needed. Because the pelvis forms the basis for lumbar spine

  9. Use of geographic information systems and spatial analysis in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.St.H.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction to the science of GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and satellite remote sensing (RS), and reviews the principal ways in which these technologies can be used to assist various stages of development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes - from the selection of project sites, and feasibility assessments and planning of pre-intervention surveys, to the monitoring and analysis of insect suppression programmes, and the release of sterile insects. Potential barriers to the successful deployment of GIS tools are also discussed. (author)

  10. Use of steril insect technique to control the medfly Ceratitis capitata wiedmann (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhel, Selma

    2005-01-01

    The autocide struggle against fruit fly consists in making a raising in mass of the stump to genetic sexing of the fruit fly, to radiate males with gamma rays and then to set free them in orchards of citrus fruits. This technique permitted a reduction of the rate of stings of 50% in relation to the witness although its production of pupae in 2004, either enough feeble, not passing the 9 millions of pupae per week. But, it remains even efficient in relation to the chemical struggle (respectively 12% and 7%). One preliminary survey of the profitability of autocide struggle and the chemical struggle (rate of profitability to 181.020) is more profitable than autocide struggle (rate of profitability to 43.450) for the first year to release. This relativity weak profitability for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is the consequence of a bad interview of citrus fruits and unconsciousness of farmer of the importance of built in struggle technique . However, autocide struggle permits to preserve the quality of fruit, to reduce the toxics residues and to preserve parasitoides. therefore, there is increase of selling prices of the product. (author). 12 refs

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  19. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  1. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective

  2. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo [INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    occur and must be dealt with in Florida and California, Mexico and Chile. Fruit flies, like any other pest, have been attacked with biocides at the farm level. Citrus is an instructive example. Citrus flowers and fruits twice a year, and various species and varieties provide year-round harvests. Biocides are typically applied to citrus every 10-15 days. Even so, the effectiveness is usually only 70-80%, due to uncontrolled neighboring farms, untreated hosts, problems with the spraying equipment, dose miscalculations, etc. Aerial applications of bait sprays to wider areas are more expensive, require a regional plan, and can represent a major impact to the environment. All means of application can leave pesticide residues in the fruit. Trade in fresh fruits and vegetables is being liberalized on a world-wide basis as part of globalization. At the same time, local consumption of fresh products is increasing in the search for a healthier life. Pesticides are increasingly less acceptable in both the export trade and local markets. Newly adopted food safety and phytosanitary standards require the establishment of either low prevalence or entirely fruit fly-free areas. Environmental considerations reinforce the already favorable cost-benefit picture for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an alternative to controls that use chemicals alone. The SIT has been in use since the 1950s. The aim of the technique is to disrupt the life cycle of the fly, mating the wild population with sterile flies reared at a 'fly factory'. Sterilization is accomplished by exposing insects to a specific dose of gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes (cobalt-60 or cesium-137). Irradiation is a central and indispensable part of the total SIT process: every insect among millions produced each week must to be sterilized. No other method is available to achieve sterilization; chemosterilants, linear accelerators and the like have proven less cost-effective.

  3. Control of dengue vector by the sterile insect technique considering logistic recruitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteva, L.; Yang, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated male insects introduction in a previously infested region, taking into account the logistic recruitment of sterile male insects. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (or wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peridomestic adapted Aedes aegypyti mosquitoes which are transmitters of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease. (author)

  4. Control of dengue vector by the sterile insect technique considering logistic recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteva, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Matematicas; Lab-Epifisma, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Yang, H.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Ciencia da Computacao. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Lab-Epifisma, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    We propose a mathematical model to assess the effects of irradiated male insects introduction in a previously infested region, taking into account the logistic recruitment of sterile male insects. The release of sterile male insects aims to displace gradually the natural (or wild) insect from the habitat. We discuss the suitability of this release technique when applied to peridomestic adapted Aedes aegypyti mosquitoes which are transmitters of Yellow Fever and Dengue disease. (author)

  5. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.

    2005-01-01

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  6. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  7. Madeira-Med, a sterile insect technique programme for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Barbosa, A.; Silva, N.; Caldeira, J.; Dantas, L.; Pacheco, J.

    2000-01-01

    The islands of Madeira are located 980 km west-southwest from mainland Portugal and have a population of approximately 255,000. The islands are volcanic with very little level land suitable for large agricultural production. Approximately 47% of the land area is above 700 m. Thus the area likely to require Medfly control is about half of the islands. Agricultural production is on small scale, frequently part-time and mostly terraced because of the volcanic nature of the land. Grapes for wine and bananas are the predominant fruit crops. Neither are primary Medfly hosts. Citrus and tropical fruits are not produced in large quantities and are generally not of high quality. This is, to a large extent, because intensive Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), attack has prevented the establishment of citrus and tropical fruit production. Medflies are present the year round on land below 300 m, resulting in the necessity of continuous control measures, usually insecticide bait sprays. Current annual losses from the Medflies in Madeira are estimated at US$3 million. In 1992, the agricultural officials of Madeira applied for an European Union (EU) grant to eliminate the Medfly from Madeira using the sterile insect technique (SIT). After extensive discussions, the project was changed from eradication to control and approved in late 1993 with EU support of about 8 million ECU over a 7-year period. Subsequently, the Madeira officials applied for, and received, a technical assistance project from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA support is primarily for training and consultant services. Sterile female Medflies puncture fruits when they try to lay eggs. These punctures, called 'sterile stings', result in a reduced crop value. For this reason, the Madeira-Med programme will use only sterile male Medflies in its SIT programme. This not only eliminates the sterile sting problem but also increases the efficacy of the sterile males from

  8. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation.

  10. Exploitation of the Medfly Gut Microbiota for the Enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique: Use of Enterobacter sp. in Larval Diet-Based Probiotic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Cáceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a pest of worldwide substantial economic importance, as well as a Tephritidae model for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. The latter is partially due to the development and utilization of genetic sexing strains (GSS) for this species, such as the Vienna 8 strain, which is currently used in mass rearing facilities worldwide. Improving the performance of such a strain both in mass rearing facilities and in the field could significantly enhance the efficacy of SIT and reduce operational costs. Recent studies have suggested that the manipulation of gut symbionts can have a significant positive effect on the overall fitness of insect strains. We used culture-based approaches to isolate and characterize gut-associated bacterial species of the Vienna 8 strain under mass rearing conditions. We also exploited one of the isolated bacterial species, Enterobacter sp., as dietary supplement (probiotic) to the larval diet, and we assessed its effects on fitness parameters under the standard operating procedures used in SIT operational programs. Probiotic application of Enterobacter sp. resulted in improvement of both pupal and adult productivity, as well as reduced rearing duration, particularly for males, without affecting pupal weight, sex ratio, male mating competitiveness, flight ability and longevity under starvation. PMID:26325068

  11. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangan, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  12. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  13. Exploring miniature insect brains using micro-CT scanning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan B.; Bernhardt, Galina; Raine, Nigel E.; Abel, Richard L.; Sykes, Dan; Ahmed, Farah; Pedroso, Inti; Gill, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to explore soft tissue structures in detail is important in understanding animal physiology and how this determines features such as movement, behaviour and the impact of trauma on regular function. Here we use advances in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology to explore the brain of an important insect pollinator and model organism, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). Here we present a method for accurate imaging and exploration of insect brains that keeps brain tissue free from trauma and in its natural stereo-geometry, and showcase our 3D reconstructions and analyses of 19 individual brains at high resolution. Development of this protocol allows relatively rapid and cost effective brain reconstructions, making it an accessible methodology to the wider scientific community. The protocol describes the necessary steps for sample preparation, tissue staining, micro-CT scanning and 3D reconstruction, followed by a method for image analysis using the freeware SPIERS. These image analysis methods describe how to virtually extract key composite structures from the insect brain, and we demonstrate the application and precision of this method by calculating structural volumes and investigating the allometric relationships between bumblebee brain structures. PMID:26908205

  14. Status report on 'The integrated fruit fly management based on the Sterile Insect Technique in Guimaras Island, Philippines'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Gaitan, E.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Maranon, R.P.; Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Reyes, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Western Visayas has a large area planted with mangoes and is considered the major mango producing region of the country. As of 1992, about 10,000 hectares were devoted to the crop with a total production of 88,727 metric tons. The bulk of mango production comes from Guimaras Island with 54,944 bearing and 165,852 non-bearing trees. Major markets for Philippine mangoes are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The country accounts for more than 90% of Japan's fresh mango imports. Exports to Japan also show an average increase of 20% yearly while those to Hong Kong have increased by 23%. However, expansion in the market of mangoes and other fruits is greatly restricted by the presence of Bactrocera philippinensis, a sibling species of the Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in the country. The pests cause large economic losses to producers and are a major deterrent to the free movement of fresh fruits in the world market. The control of B. philippinensis pests using insecticides cannot be relied upon because of problems like development of insect resistance, undesirable environmental contamination and resurgence of secondary pests. On the other hand, disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits are either expensive or not accepted by importing countries. Japan, for instance, accepts only vapour heat treated fruits from the Philippines (Merino et al. 1986). To facilitate the growth of the fruit industry, an effective area-wide eradication of fruit flies as achieved by Japan in its southern island is therefore needed. This involves the use of the male annihilation technique (MAT) and the sterile insect technique (SIT). The probability of having similar success in the use of the male annihilation technique and the sterile insect technique in eradicating fruit flies from the island of Guimaras is not far from reality. Fulfilling requirement of an 'isolated area', the geographical location of Guimaras is therefore a unique feature that will satisfy the

  15. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Eyles, David K.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  16. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  17. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in insect research and control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Isotopes are commonly used in agricultural research in developed countries, but because of a lack of both training and equipment isotopic techniques are not frequently used in developing countries. This manual has been prepared with the aim of helping entomologists and others responsible for the control of insects in developing countries become familiar with the potential uses of isotopes and radiation in solving some of their research and insect control problems. After chapters dealing with radiation safety, the general properties of radiation and isotopes (especially those used by entomologists), and radiation detection and assay of radioactivity, two further chapters discuss applications to entomological problems and the sterile insect technique. Numerous case studies are described, and the final chapter also includes a description of eight laboratory exercises to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and chemosterilants on insects. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Basic studies on the efficacy of gamma irradiation as insect disinfestation and sterilising techniques for stored rice insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Muda.

    1987-01-01

    Basic laboratory evaluations on the efficacy of gamma irradiation on the insect sitophilus zeamais, Motch. showed this method of insect control is effective to disinfest both internal and surface infestations in stored milled rice, and substantially reduced reproductive potentials of the weevil. Adult emergence of treated larvae developing within the rice kernel reduced by an average of 82% for treatment doses of 0.05 to 1 kGy. All emerged adults died within 16 days upon emergence at all tested doses. Radiated adult insects showed 100% mortality within 18 days at doses above 0.15 kGy; 26 days at 0.1 kGy and 33 days at 0.05 kGy. However none of the tested doses recorded total immediate mortality after treatment. Significant sterility effects through 93% reduction in F 1 progenies can be achieved by sterilising both parents; but none of the tested doses showed potential for employment as male sterilising technique alone. (author)

  19. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turaihi, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) and Improvement of The Sterile-Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, W.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The population suppression success of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) using sterile insect technique (SIT) depends mainly upon: the release of male only, ability of sterilized males to compete with wild males in mating with wild females and discrimination of released male flies from the wild population. The effect of gamma irradiation doses on the male sterility was evaluated, to determine the level of induced sterility for achieving the balance between sterility and mating competitiveness. For optimal sterilizing dose, 8 different doses of gamma irradiation were tested. The results revealed that the doses 80, 90 and 100 Gy were the effective doses for SIT. In a field cage experiment, the mating ability, mating competitiveness and sexual compatibility were determined for the three effective sterilizing doses. The indices of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterile index (RSI) indicated that mating efficiency of the dose 80 Gy was better than the doses 90 and 100 Gy. Obtained results also revealed that the competitiveness of 80 Gy irradiated males was higher than either 90 or 100 Gy irradiated males. Mutant strains, i.e. white eye white pupae strain (WeWp strain), male linked translocated strain (T strain), temperature sensitive lethal strain (tsl strain) and sergeant 2 strain (Sr 2 strain) were reared and maintained for the construction of genetic sexing strain Vienna 8- Sr 2 strain (GSS V8-Sr 2 ). The results of biological characters of GSSs revealed that, the 3 sexing strains (T, Sr 2 and V8 strains) which have Y- auto some translocation were less productive than the bisexual strain (BSS). Also, the development of tsl and GSS V 8-Sr 2 strains was delayed compared with the BSS strain. The stability of GSS V8-Sr 2 strain in the filter rearing was higher than in the mass rearing throughout 12 successive generations. The use of recombinant DNA to develop the two genetically modified strains GMSs (V8-2) and (V8-4) using insect transformation

  1. Potential impact of tsetse fly control involving the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.; Dyck, V.A.; Mattioli, R.C.; Jannin, J.

    2005-01-01

    sterile insect technique (SIT), as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes to create tsetse-free zones, has been demonstrated in Zanzibar and other locations. This chapter (1) outlines the causal relationship between the T and T problem and food insecurity, malnutrition, poverty, and related disease and development constraints, (2) describes the impact of the problem on African rural communities and the overall economy, and (3) indicates the potential benefits of a reduced T and T burden, or even of its zonal elimination from selected priority areas in support of sustainable rural development. (author)

  2. Improving the sterile sperm identification method for its implementation in the area-wide sterile insect technique program against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan-Blasco, M.; Urbaneja, A.; San Andrés, V.; Sabater-Muñoz, B.; Castañera, P.

    2014-01-01

    The success of sterile males in area-wide sterile insect technique (aw-SIT) programs against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is currently measured by using indirect methods as the wild: sterile male ratio captured in monitoring traps. In the past decade, molecular techniques have been used to improve these methods. The development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism- based method to identify the transfer of sterile sperm to wild females, the target of SIT, was considered a significant step in this direction. This method relies on identification of sperm by detecting the presence of Y chromosomes in spermathecae DNA extract complemented by the identification of the genetic origin of this sperm: Vienna-8 males or wild haplotype. However, the application of this protocol to aw-SIT programs is limited by handling time and personnel cost. The objective of this work was to obtain a high-throughput protocol to facilitate the routine measurement in a pest population of sterile sperm presence in wild females. The polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment-length polymorphism markers previously developed were validated in Mediterranean fruit by samples collected from various locations worldwide. A laboratory protocol previously published was modified to allow for the analysis of more samples at the same time. Preservation methods and preservation times commonly used for Mediterranean fruit by female samples were assessed for their influence on the correct molecular detection of sterile sperm. This high-throughput methodology, as well as the results of sample management presented here, provide a robust, efficient, fast, and economical sterile sperm identification method ready to be used in all Mediterranean fruit by SIT programs. (author)

  3. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  4. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  5. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  6. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamungu, M B; Kiimbisa, B; Matembo, S; Mashenga, G [Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  7. Field population studies of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) for the SIT programme in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, V.; Dokmaihom, R.; AImyim, A.; Meecheepsom, S.

    2000-01-01

    Pakchong district is a large area in the Nakornrajchasima province in Thailand which produces many kinds of tropical fruits. As fruit flies are serious pests in fruit plantations in the area, the Department of Agriculture Extension has tried to control them by using the sterile insect technique (SIT) with complementary technology from the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). In order to obtain data required to plan the SIT programme to eradicate the fruit flies, subsequent field population studies were conducted

  8. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  9. Comparison of Techniques for Sampling Adult Necrophilous Insects From Pig Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Angela; Hatano, Eduardo; Watson, David W; Schal, Coby

    2018-02-06

    Studies of the pre-colonization interval and mechanisms driving necrophilous insect ecological succession depend on effective sampling of adult insects and knowledge of their diel and successional activity patterns. The number of insects trapped, their diversity, and diel periodicity were compared with four sampling methods on neonate pigs. Sampling method, time of day and decomposition age of the pigs significantly affected the number of insects sampled from pigs. We also found significant interactions of sampling method and decomposition day, time of sampling and decomposition day. No single method was superior to the other methods during all three decomposition days. Sampling times after noon yielded the largest samples during the first 2 d of decomposition. On day 3 of decomposition however, all sampling times were equally effective. Therefore, to maximize insect collections from neonate pigs, the method used to sample must vary by decomposition day. The suction trap collected the most species-rich samples, but sticky trap samples were the most diverse, when both species richness and evenness were factored into a Shannon diversity index. Repeated sampling during the noon to 18:00 hours period was most effective to obtain the maximum diversity of trapped insects. The integration of multiple sampling techniques would most effectively sample the necrophilous insect community. However, because all four tested methods were deficient at sampling beetle species, future work should focus on optimizing the most promising methods, alone or in combinations, and incorporate hand-collections of beetles. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Advances in insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    The sterile male technique has been successfully used in the control or eradication of at least eight species of insects in experimental or field trials. In view of the importance of the method the IAEA convened a Panel of experts in July 1964 to review the progress made in research on the application of the technique and to suggest future actions. The findings of the Panel are published in this Technical Report. 52 refs, 10 figs, 10 tabs.

  11. Advances in insect population control by the sterile-male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The sterile male technique has been successfully used in the control or eradication of at least eight species of insects in experimental or field trials. In view of the importance of the method the IAEA convened a Panel of experts in July 1964 to review the progress made in research on the application of the technique and to suggest future actions. The findings of the Panel are published in this Technical Report. 52 refs, 10 figs, 10 tabs

  12. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrino, F.; Mathis, A.; Veronesi, E.; Lang, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16–24- h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a True- Beam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. (author)

  13. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, T.C.; Harris, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km 2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  14. The Potential of the Sterile Insect Technique and other Genetic Methods for Control of Malaria-Transmitting Mosquitoes. Report of a Consultants Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report updates information provided by a 1993 consultant group on the use of genetic methods for control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Human malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are exclusively transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Where these two groups co-exist, the transmission of the parasite to humans can create a major health problem. Malaria currently causes 2 million deaths world-wide and approximately 400 million clinical cases annually. There are ca. 15 major vector species and 30-40 vectors of lesser importance. This report considers the practicality of developing the sterile insect technique (SIT) or other genetic mechanisms in order to eradicate mosquito vectors from specific areas. This would interrupt transmission and eliminate malaria in those areas.

  15. First results in the use of sterile insect technique against Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyroididae) in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Pasquali, A.; Cirio, U.

    1998-01-01

    Trials for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique for the suppression of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), both in cage and in greenhouse conditions are described. The results show a significant reduction of the reproductive capacity of the untreated whitefly populations interacting with sterile insects. Untreated whiteflies, co-existing in a mixed population together with sterile insects, attained less than the half (44%) of their potential reproductive capacity. This trend was also evident in the cage test where the untreated whitefly population, crossed with the sterile whiteflies, increased without exceeding 2/3 of the density recorded in the control cages. These results may be based on 2 joint sterile insect technique effects: primarily a drastic reduction of the progeny of normal untreated females, when mating with sterile males, carriers of dominant lethal mutations, and secondarily a progressive reduction of the females in the population due to an increasing rate of unsuccessful matings resulting in a condition of forced arrhenotoky. No deleterious effects, on plant health and fruit quality, were observed on plants exposed to high sterile whitefly pressures

  16. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  17. Male-killing bacteria as agents of insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berec, Ludek; Maxin, Daniel; Bernhauerová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    1. Continual effort is needed to reduce the impact of exotic species in the context of increased globalization. Any innovation in this respect would be an asset. 2. We assess the potential of combining two pest control techniques: the well-established sterile insect technique (SIT) and a novel male-killing technique (MKT), which comprises inoculation of a pest population with bacteria that kill the infected male embryos. 3. Population models are developed to assess the efficiency of using the MKT for insect pest control, either alone or together with the SIT. We seek for conditions under which the MKT weakens requirements on the SIT. 4. Regarding the SIT, we consider both non-heritable and inherited sterility. In both cases, the MKT and SIT benefit one another. The MKT may prevent the SIT from failing when not enough sterilized males are released due to high production costs and/or uncertainty on their mating ability following a high irradiation dose. Conversely, with already established SIT, pest eradication can be achieved after introduction of male-killing bacteria with lower vertical transmission efficiency than if the MKT was applied alone. 5. For tephritid fruit flies with non-heritable sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved when the released males are fully sterile. Conversely, for lepidopterans with inherited sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved for intermediate irradiation doses. In both cases, increasing vertical transmission efficiency of male-killing bacteria benefits the SIT; high enough vertical transmission efficiency allows for pest eradication where the SIT is absent or induces only pest suppression when used alone. 6. Synthesis and applications. While both techniques can suppress or eliminate the pest on their own, combined application of the male-killing technique and the sterile insect technique substantially increases pest control efficiency. If male-killing bacteria are already established in the pest, any assessment of

  18. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo; Nascimento, Antonio Souza do; Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo; Sampaio, Raimundo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2008-01-01

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  19. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly, Todd E., E-mail: todd.e.shelly@aphis.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-APHIS), HI (United States). Animal and Plant Health Inspection

    2006-07-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  20. Aroma therapy and medfly SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelly, Todd E.

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the main findings of the research program on the biological competence of mass-reared, sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (med fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and the development and implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest is presented. The potential application of aroma therapy to improve the mating success of sterile med fly males is studied. The report assumes a loosely chronological framework as it documents progression along two experimental scales: the number of males simultaneously exposed to ginger root oil, starting with small groups of 25 males and ending with rooms with nearly 200 million males; the experimental arena used to test the effects of aroma therapy, progressing from standard field-cages to large field enclosures to the open field. In addition, brief comments are offered regarding the potential negative effects of GRO exposure, the mechanisms underlying GRO-mediated improvement in male mating success, and the financial costs of GRO aroma therapy. (MAC)

  1. Application of radiation and radioisotopes for the management of insect pests of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongre, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    This article gives brief account of radiation and radioisotope applications in the field of insect pest management. Radiation has a direct application in controlling insect pests, through sterile insect techniques (SIT) and radiation disinfestations of food grains, whereas radioisotopes can be used in basic as well as applied studies in the field of insect physiology, ecology and metabolism. The successful implementation of SIT against New world screwworm fly and different fruit fly species has clearly demonstrated the usefulness of radiation in agriculture. Over the past 35 years, the joint FAO/IAEA committee has played a critical role in supporting member states in the development and application of SIT for the management of various economically important insect pests. BARC has developed SIT for the management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv, the most serious pest of coconut in India and date palms in Arabian countries. Now, through thematic BRNS project this technique is being evaluated under field conditions in collaboration with three Indian agricultural universities. Present status and future prospects of sterile insect technique for the area wide control of different insect species will be discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Use of gamma irradiation and inert gases in the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera-Tephritidae) with the objective of using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.S.-P. de.

    1983-11-01

    The sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Dip. Tephritidae) using gamma irradiation (γ) was studied under laboratory conditions at Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Living conditions for Med fly are optimum in this country and its biological cycle is completed in less than 30 days. There is a large number of varying host fruits for larvae development, which makes this pest very harmful, especially to citrus crops. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a type of physical control of pests, which does not cause any harm to other insects. Pupae with different ages were initially submitted to 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 Gy doses. Sterility was determined from fertility of eggs resulting from crosses of irradiated male x normal female and normal male x irradiated female. Later, pupae with 72 + - 12 hrs before emergence were submitted to 70 and 90 Gy doses with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen fluxes. The sterilizing dose for the males was 90 Gy. Activity, of irradiated with and without gas lux and normal male, was evaluated with an activity-meter, and the dose least harmful to their behaviour was found to be 90 Gy with nitrogen flux. (Author) [pt

  3. Consultants Group Meeting on Rational Supply of Sterile Flies for Medfly SIT in the Mediterranean Basin. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a very damaging insect pest of citrus, stone fruit, pome fruit, figs, etc. in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) - The current insecticide based method for medfly control is causing serious environmental and insecticide residue problems throughout the MB - Producers, exporters, plant protection officials and environmentalists all are seeking ways to reduce insecticide usage against the medfly. - The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven method of managing the medfly on an area wide basis. It is the only alternative to repeated insecticide treatments for medfly control. The SIT is environmentally friendly and little or no insecticide is involved in SIT based insect control systems. - The SIT is routinely used against the medfly in Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and the USA. - The SIT is not used against the medfly in the MB. There is a medfly control programme being developed in Madeira, Portugal. A demonstration is currently underway in Israel. Valencia, Spain and Algarve, Portugal are planning SIT demonstrations or programmes. Morocco and Corsica (France) are considering SIT efforts. Other MB countries are known to be considering the SIT for use against the medfly. - The major deterrent to using the SIT is lack of confidence that it really is effective and the perceived high cost of the technology. Efficacy has been repeatedly proven in the new world. Cost studies have clearly shown the SIT is not more expensive than insecticide based medfly control systems. Regardless demonstrations projects are required in the MB. - The limiting factor to one or more SIT based medfly control demonstrations in the MB is lack of a source of sufficient numbers of sterile male medflies. The only medfly factory in the MB is in Madeira and is too small to provide sufficient sterile flies. Thus it is imperative that for rapid development of the SIT for medfly control in the MB, a large medfly factory is essential. - The planned (IAEA supported

  4. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  5. The use of radiation induced sterility for the control of the codling moth. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jermy, T.

    1977-12-01

    Studies were conducted from 1973 - 1977 in Hungary to obtain background information necessary for the implementation of sterile insect techniques (SIT) and pest management systems. The flight of the codling moth (CM), monitored by sex-pheromone traps, lasted from May to September. The two peaks (corresponding to the two generations per year) and the break between the two flights appeared blurred, i.e. control measures should be carried out nearly continuously during the whole season. The number of CM pairs was estimated by the release-recapture method as 100 to 500 per ha in mid-summer in an untreated orchard. Such naturally occurring low population levels could help initiating successful SIT against the CM even in not thoroughly treated apple stands. Mixed house gardens containing abandoned host trees have to be considered in Hungary as the main reservoir of the supposed ''semiwild type'' CM. Oak forests proved to harbour autonomous ''wild type'' CM populations on wild apple and sorb trees. The chemically well treated apple orchards have generally very low ''farm type'' CM populations. Natural occurrence of the CM granulosis virus in larvae developing in wild apples has been found. Transmission of the virus in laboratory rearings by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was detected. Spraying with virus suspensions fully protected apples against the CM; however, no spread of the virus to neighbouring untreated trees was observed. Surveys for other major insect pests (Lepidoptera, aphids and scales) of apples were also made and the high population levels of several species in the untreated apple stands have been found indicating that (1) natural control generally cannot reduce these populations to an economically acceptable level, and (2) the SIT against the CM must be combined with chemical treatments or with selective methods against these species. Based on a theoretical analysis of economic aspects of the SIT for codling moth control, it was found that in Hungary

  6. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  7. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelis, Mario; Ljubetic, Visnja; Novosel, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  8. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  9. Sterile insect technique: a field evaluation of the quality of mass-reared fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    To optimize the use of the sterile insect technique it is essential to establish precise programmes for the evaluation of mass-reared flies in comparison with the natural population. This video presents a programme carried out at the island of Prosida which represents an extremely favourable habitat for the development of the flies; the flies are a new strain mass-reared in the IAEA's Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The technique employed is the Marked Release Recapture Technique, which consists of colouring a predetermined number of flies with fluorescent powder before they are released, and then recapturing them. This method provides valuable data about the flies' adaptability, orientation to the habitat, motility, sexual activity and reproduction

  10. Sterile insect technique: a field evaluation of the quality of mass-reared fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    To optimize the use of the sterile insect technique it is essential to establish precise programmes for the evaluation of mass-reared flies in comparison with the natural population. This video presents a programme carried out at the island of Prosida which represents an extremely favourable habitat for the development of the flies; the flies are a new strain mass-reared in the IAEA`s Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The technique employed is the Marked Release Recapture Technique, which consists of colouring a predetermined number of flies with fluorescent powder before they are released, and then recapturing them. This method provides valuable data about the flies` adaptability, orientation to the habitat, motility, sexual activity and reproduction

  11. Light microscopy with differential staining techniques for the characterisation and discrimination of insects versus marine arthropods processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Matteo; Tretola, Marco; Cheli, Federica; Marchis, Daniela; Veys, Pascal; Baeten, Vincent; Pinotti, Luciano

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of light microscopy with differential staining techniques for the discrimination of insect material from marine arthropods - classified as fishmeal. Specifically, three samples of single-species insect material, Hermetia illucens (HI), Bombyx mori (BM) and Tenebrio molitor (TM), and two samples of marine arthropods, shrimp material and krill, were analysed and compared after staining by two reagents to enhance fragment identification. Alizarin Red (AR) and Chlorazol Black (CB), which react respectively with calcium salts and chitin, were tested for their potential efficacy in distinguishing between insect and marine materials. Results indicated that AR failed to stain HI, BM and TM materials. By contrast, the three insect species materials tested were stained by CB. When shrimp fragments and krill were considered, AR and CB stained marine materials reddish-pink and light blue to black, respectively. By combining these results, it can be suggested that CB staining may efficiently be used to mark insect materials; AR does stain shrimp fragments but does not stain the tested insect material, indicating a possible approach for discriminating between insects and marine arthropods. However, since the present study was performed on pure materials and a small set of samples, possible implementation of this technique still needs to be confirmed in complex matrices such as compound feed.

  12. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  13. Consultants Group Meeting on Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    A consultants' group met in Vienna from 23 September - 3 October 1991 to explore 'Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa'. This report is based on their observations during working visits to the Entomology Unit of the IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf, and on information supplied by the tsetse team and staff of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Insect and Pest Control Section. The consultants conducted a technical, operational and financial review of present rearing methods, equipment, philosophies and production capacities, taking into account one of the recommendations made at the 6th Session of the ''FAO Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis'' held in June 1991 in Harare, Zimbabwe. This recommendation, related to the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), states that {sup F}AO, through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, should further investigate and improve the use of sterile insects to strengthen the efficacy of tsetse surveys and, where applicable, consider teh use of the SIT to support eradication campaigns where other techniques on their own will not achieve this objective''. In investigating the potential for improved tsetse mass-rearing and analyzing the present costs of pupa/distributable sterile fly production, the consultants noted that: 1. The Seibersdorf Tsetse Unit is conducting an effective research and development programme which strives to emulate a production facility while continuing to pursue R and D. The capacity of the present facility in Seibersdorf is practically limited to a colony size of about 150,000 breeding females. The release of sterile males in an eradication campaign of economical relevance would require a colony containing more than 500,000 female flies. Such a population can only be maintained in an organizational, operational and financially justifiable manner if the rearing technology is transferred from an

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency of various medfly female trapping combinations in Costa Rica in support of the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, H [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Mosca del Mediterraneo, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This report contains information from a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The study was carried out at two different Agricultural Research Stations of the University of Costa Rica, the Fabio Baudrit Agricultural Research Station (FBS) and Laguna de Fraijanes Agricultural Research Station (LFS), and in a privately-owned coffee and orange plantation in Grecia canton (Coope-Victoria Farm). Female medfly attractants tested were three food based `female` attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated to last at least one month. These attractants were evaluated either in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or all three (termed FA-3). The attractants were tested in various traps including the plastic International Pheromone`s McPhail traps (IPMT) and Tephri traps, a Spanish trap similar to the IPMT. Traps were used either as a dry trap (provided with DDVP) or a wet trap (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant). Jackson traps with Trimedlure (JT,TML), a routinely used male medfly trapping system, was also used. Trapping experiments conducted in the citrus plantation of the FBS resulted in the following fly/trap/day indices (F/T/D): 7.18 with JT,TML; 4.62 with open bottom dry traps (OBDT) baited with FA-3; 4.18 with OBDT (PVC) baited with FA-3; 7.73 with IPMT baited with FA-3, wet; 8.245 with IPMT baited with FA-3, dry; 5.27 with IPMT baited with NuLure; 4.79 with Tephri baited with FA-3, wet; and 5.42 with Tephri, FA-3, dry. The F/T/D indices at the Coope-Victoria Farm, in coffee

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of various medfly female trapping combinations in Costa Rica in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information from a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The study was carried out at two different Agricultural Research Stations of the University of Costa Rica, the Fabio Baudrit Agricultural Research Station (FBS) and Laguna de Fraijanes Agricultural Research Station (LFS), and in a privately-owned coffee and orange plantation in Grecia canton (Coope-Victoria Farm). Female medfly attractants tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated to last at least one month. These attractants were evaluated either in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or all three (termed FA-3). The attractants were tested in various traps including the plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT) and Tephri traps, a Spanish trap similar to the IPMT. Traps were used either as a dry trap (provided with DDVP) or a wet trap (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant). Jackson traps with Trimedlure (JT,TML), a routinely used male medfly trapping system, was also used. Trapping experiments conducted in the citrus plantation of the FBS resulted in the following fly/trap/day indices (F/T/D): 7.18 with JT,TML; 4.62 with open bottom dry traps (OBDT) baited with FA-3; 4.18 with OBDT (PVC) baited with FA-3; 7.73 with IPMT baited with FA-3, wet; 8.245 with IPMT baited with FA-3, dry; 5.27 with IPMT baited with NuLure; 4.79 with Tephri baited with FA-3, wet; and 5.42 with Tephri, FA-3, dry. The F/T/D indices at the Coope-Victoria Farm, in coffee

  16. Genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 27 morphological mutations on the five autosomes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), have been isolated and studied in the author's laboratory during 22 years of research on the genetics of this species. Of the 27 loci, 18 were located on chromosomes 4 and 5. No mutant loci were identified on the sex chromosome in the laboratory. Linkage relations, map distances and linear arrangements on the respective chromosomes were established for most of the 27 mutant traits. The wp and dp traits were utilized in the construction of genetic sexing lines in laboratories involved in studies of the sterile insect technique. The occurrence and consequences of male recombination are discussed. (author)

  17. Irradiation of dates: insect disinfestation, microbial and chemical assessments, and use of thermoluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Bajaber, Adnan S. [Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Dryhim, Yousif N.; Adam, El-Shami E. [Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A. [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-08-01

    Irradiation of dates (Khalas variety) at 0.9 kGy was sufficient to eliminate single insect infestation (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) and mixed infestation (O. surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum), whereas 0.3 kGy was effective only in controlling single infestation. Sensory properties were not affected but irradiation contributed to some reduction in microbial counts immediately after irradiation and counts remained low till the end of 6 months storage period. All sugars were significantly reduced immediately after irradiation but they increased gradually with increasing storage time. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique was useful in discriminating between irradiated and unirradiated dates during the entire storage period but was less sensitive as far as the dose estimation is concerned.

  18. Irradiation of dates: insect disinfestation, microbial and chemical assessments, and use of thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Bajaber, Adnan S.; Al-Dryhim, Yousif N.; Adam, El-Shami E.; El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of dates (Khalas variety) at 0.9 kGy was sufficient to eliminate single insect infestation (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) and mixed infestation (O. surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum), whereas 0.3 kGy was effective only in controlling single infestation. Sensory properties were not affected but irradiation contributed to some reduction in microbial counts immediately after irradiation and counts remained low till the end of 6 months storage period. All sugars were significantly reduced immediately after irradiation but they increased gradually with increasing storage time. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique was useful in discriminating between irradiated and unirradiated dates during the entire storage period but was less sensitive as far as the dose estimation is concerned

  19. Dipping of Eggs, Use of Low Temperature and Aeration to Improve Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Mass Rearing in Sterile Insect Technique Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasution, Indah Arastuti; Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi

    2004-01-01

    In the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme a large number of homogenous age of pupae should be produced to be sterilized and released into the field. A methodology to preserve eggs which at the same time delay the egg hatch is needed in the production of a large number of pupae with homogenous age. The study on method of preserving fruit fly eggs the effect of dipping, low temperature, on the viability of eggs, the quality of larvae hatched from the eggs, and the quality of pupae produced were observed. Viability of eggs were observed as percent of egg hatch, quality of larvae as number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml of eggs when reared on artificial diet, and quality of pupae as percent of the flies number emerged and flew from the pupae. In room temperature (26 o C) dipping did not preserve fruit fly eggs and aeration did not improve the preservation. Although after one day dipping the viability of eggs only decreased from 90 % (control) to 80.5 %, (without aeration) and 81.5 % (with aeration) it decreased the number of pupae been produced from 1447 pupae (control) to 382 pupae (without aeration) and 616 pupae (with aeration). Low temperature successfully preserved the egg up to 24 hours. After 24 hour dipping in low temperature (16 o C) the viability of eggs were decreased up to 84.75 % (without aeration) and able to produce 1104 pupae. Aeration during dipping in low temperature did not improve the preservation. (author)

  20. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824); Esterilizacao de Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) para aplicacao da tecnica do inseto esteril no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jamuga@cena.usp.br; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from {sup 60}Co or {sup 137}Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a {sup 60}Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  1. The study of insect blood-feeding behaviour: 2. Recording techniques and the use of flow charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. B. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues a discussion of approaches and methodologies we have used in our studies of feeding in haematophagous insects. Described are techniques for directly monitoring behaviour: electrical recording of feeding behaviour via resistance changes in the food canal, optical methods for monitoring mouthpart activity, and a computer technique for behavioural event recording. Also described is the use of "flow charts" or "decision diagrams" to model interrelated sequences of behaviours.

  2. Optimal barrier zones for stopping the invasion of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes via transgenic or sterile insect techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. Seirin

    2013-03-27

    Biological invasions have dramatically altered the natural world by threatening native species and their communities. Moreover, when the invading species is a vector for human disease, there are further substantive public health and economic impacts. The development of transgenic technologies is being explored in relation to new approaches for the biological control of insect pests. We investigate the use of two control strategies, classical sterile insect techniques and transgenic late-acting bisex lethality (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), for controlling invasion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a spatial stage-structured mathematical model. In particular, we explore the use of a barrier zone of sterile/transgenic insects to prevent or impede the invasion of mosquitoes. We show that the level of control required is not only highly sensitive to the rate at which the sterile/transgenic males are released in the barrier zone but also to the spatial range of release. Our models characterise how the distribution of sterile/transgenic mosquitoes in the barrier zone can be controlled so as to minimise the number of mass-produced insects required for the arrest of species invasion. We predict that, given unknown rates of mosquito dispersal, management strategies should concentrate on larger release areas rather than more intense release rates for optimal control. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Monitoring sterile and wild insects in area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters of sterile insects, which should be monitored regularly, are sexual competitiveness of the released insects, and related components, e.g. survival, mobility, dispersal characteristics, and spatial occupation of the habitat. A well-balanced monitoring programme will, at any given time, provide essential feedback on the progress being made. This information is prerequisite to efficient implementation of the release and cost-efficient use of sterile insects. The type of monitoring to be done will be determined largely by the particular biology of the target insect species. The most important parameter in relation to the release of sterile insects is the rate of sterility induced in the wild insect pest population; it will provide the best evidence that any observed changes, e.g. in the density of the target insect, are caused by the release of sterile insects. (author)

  4. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  5. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives.

  6. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  7. Limited mobility of target pests crucially lowers controllability when sterile insect releases are spatiotemporally biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegawa, Yusuke; Himuro, Chihiro

    2017-05-21

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a genetic pest control method wherein mass-reared sterile insects are periodically released into the wild, thereby impeding the successful reproduction of fertile pests. In Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, the SIT has been implemented to eradicate the West Indian sweet potato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), which is a flightless agricultural pest of sweet potatoes. It is known that E. postfasciatus is much less mobile than other insects to which the SIT has been applied. However, previous theoretical studies have rarely examined effects of low mobility of target pests and variation in the spatiotemporal evenness of sterile insect releases. To theoretically examine the effects of spatiotemporal evenness on the regional eradication of less mobile pests, we constructed a simple two-patch population model comprised of a pest and sterile insect moving between two habitats, and numerically simulated different release strategies (varying the number of released sterile insects and release intervals). We found that spatially biased releases allowed the pest to spatially escape from the sterile insect, and thus intensively lowered its controllability. However, we showed that the temporally counterbalancing spatially biased releases by swapping the number of released insects in the two habitats at every release (called temporal balancing) could greatly mitigate this negative effect and promote the controllability. We also showed that the negative effect of spatiotemporally biased releases was a result of the limited mobility of the target insect. Although directed dispersal of the insects in response to habitats of differing quality could lower the controllability in the more productive habitat, the temporal balancing could promote and eventually maximize the controllability as released insects increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly female attractant studies in support of the sterile insect technique: trapping experiments conducted on the island of Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyannos, B.I.; Papadopoulos, N.T.; Kouloussis, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper contains information on a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The main objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The experiments were conducted from July to September 1994-1997 on the island of Chios, Greece, in citrus orchards with low to medium medfly populations. Different trap types and several trap treatments consisting of sex and food based attractants were tested, following a standard coordinated experimental protocol. The most extensively tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated in dispensers lasting one month. These attractants were evaluated in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or three (FA-3) dispensers in various traps, including dry (provided with DDVP) or wet (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant) plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT). Among the various traps and treatments tested, the most effective for medfly capture was the wet IPMT, baited with FA-3 attractants. This treatment captured predominantly females and was relatively selective for medflies. In dry IPMT traps, the FA-3 were as effective as the standard 300 ml aqueous solution of 9% of the protein NuLure and 3% borax, but much more medfly selective. Dry IPMT traps were also more selective than wet ones. FA-3 baited wet Tephri traps (a Spanish modification of the McPhail trap), performed somewhat poorer than IPMT traps. Other dry trap types tested were not effective. Additional experiments showed that certain insecticide formulations used in dry traps may have a repellent

  9. 'A Place to Sit'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Klok, Julie Skovgaard; Bøhnke, Mia Marker

    Published in 2014 on the occasion of the third 'A Place to Sit' exhibition as a reflection upon three years of teaching tectonic method in architecture using the furniture scale as a learning basis.......Published in 2014 on the occasion of the third 'A Place to Sit' exhibition as a reflection upon three years of teaching tectonic method in architecture using the furniture scale as a learning basis....

  10. Strategic options in using sterile insects for area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Cayol, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The four strategic options, 'suppression', 'eradication', 'containment' and 'prevention', in which the sterile insect technique (SIT) can be deployed as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) interventions, are defined and described in relation to the contexts in which they are applied against exotic or naturally occurring major insect pests. Advantages and disadvantages of these strategic options are analysed, and examples of successful programmes provided. Considerations of pest status, biology and distribution affecting decision-making in relation to strategy selection are reviewed and discussed in terms of feasibility assessment, and programme planning and implementation. Unrealistic expectations are often associated with applying the SIT, resulting in high political costs to change a strategy during implementation. The choice of strategy needs to be assessed carefully, and considerable baseline data obtained to prepare for the selected strategy, before embarking on an AW-IPM programme with an SIT component. (author)

  11. Management of insect pests: Nuclear and related molecular and genetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference was organized in eight sessions: opening, genetic engineering and molecular biology, genetics, operational programmes, F 1 sterility and insect behaviour, biocontrol, research and development on the tsetse fly, and quarantine. The 64 individual contributions have been indexed separately for INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Gunathilaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Methodology. Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis of variance (ANOSIM, and principal coordinates (PCO analysis. Results. Feeding rates of Ae. aegypti significantly differed among the membrane feeding techniques as suggested by one-way ANOVA (p0.05. Conclusions. Metal plate method could be recommended as the most effective membrane feeding technique for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti, due to its high feeding rate and cost effectiveness. Cattle blood could be recommended for mass rearing Ae. aegypti.

  13. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Gunathilaka; Tharaka Ranathunge; Lahiru Udayanga; Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Methodology Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one...

  14. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique: Manuscript Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarqui, Leal Ruben; Perez, Rene Cano; Klad, Roberto Angulo; Lopez, Jose L. Zavale; Parker, Andrew; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse. Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p < 0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p < 0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km"2 for tsetse flies up to 600 000 flies/km"2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  15. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  16. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Ranathunge, Tharaka; Udayanga, Lahiru; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2017-01-01

    Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti . Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis of variance (ANOSIM), and principal coordinates (PCO) analysis. Feeding rates of Ae. aegypti significantly differed among the membrane feeding techniques as suggested by one-way ANOVA ( p feeding technique. Blood feeding rate of Ae. aegypti was higher with human blood followed by cattle and chicken blood, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed from the mosquitoes fed with cattle and human blood, in terms of fecundity, oviposition rate, and fertility as suggested by one-way ANOVA ( p > 0.05). Metal plate method could be recommended as the most effective membrane feeding technique for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti , due to its high feeding rate and cost effectiveness. Cattle blood could be recommended for mass rearing Ae. aegypti .

  17. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  18. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent. Pupal weight was affected only when the diet was based on paste of cardboard eggs box. Adult recovery and flight ability was not affected by using fiber or paste of cardboard instead of bran. Soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar (1:1:1:1) as protein sources can be used for larval diet of medfly. The mixture of 4 % fiber with 10 % bran can be used as a bulking agent instead of the conventional diet based on 28% bran saving 18 % of the bran usually used.

  19. Application of the sterile-insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in Israel under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, S.S.; Yawetz, A.

    1975-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment, carried out in 1973 in Israel, employing the sterile-insect technique against the Mediterranean fruit fly and conducted over a 10 000 dunam area containing commercial citrus groves, is discussed. The release area was surrounded by a 500-m-wide low-volume (LV) bait spray barrier. Sterile flies were released from the ground and by air twice weekly. Results indicate successful control of the wild fly population for several months only and a clear suppression until July; thereafter, wild fertile females immigrated into the release area through the LV barrier. (author)

  20. Molecular approaches to the modification of insect pest populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampton, J.M.; Stowell, S.; Parkes, R.; Karras, M.; Sinden, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    After considerable research effort over the last decade or more, the ability to routinely introduce specific genes and other DNA constructs (such as linked promoter:gene cassettes) into a range of pest insect genomes at high efficiency using transgenic approaches is fast becoming a reality. The critical issue that now needs to be addressed is how best to incorporate these techniques into SIT in order to improve its effectiveness or efficiency. Manipulation of insect pest genomes using transgenic approaches may be used in two ways. It may be used as an analytical tool, or to introduce or modify either endogenous or heterologous genes and their expression in the pest insect of choice. In this way, new strains may be generated with a set of desired characteristics beneficial to SIT. In order to realise the full potential of the technology, a number of issues and research areas is being explored and progress to date is reviewed below. Specific examples are drawn from work on mosquito systems in order to illustrate the approaches available to identify genes and promoters of interest and the potential applications to SIT

  1. SITTING ON A GOLDMINE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. SITTING ON A GOLDMINE. Gates to the remaining “99%” (or whatever) bacterial diversity opened. Streptomyces alone has > 1,00,000 secondary metabolites (Watve et al 2001). If we have obtained several thousand antibiotics, enzymes and other molecules of ...

  2. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  3. Single Sitting Surgical Treatment of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis Using GTR Technique and Immediate Implant Placement with 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatme Mouchref Hamasni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report exhibits a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis who has been under maintenance for the past 12 years after being surgically treated in a single sitting and restored with dental implants. A 41-year-old systemically healthy male patient presented complaining of lower anterior teeth mobility and pain in the upper right quadrant. After clinical and radiographic examination, the upper right molars and lower anterior incisors were deemed unrestorable. Covered by doxycycline, the patient received a nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Three weeks later, teeth extraction, immediate implant placement, immediate nonloading provisional prosthesis, and a guided tissue regeneration were performed at indicated areas in a single sitting. The clinical decisions were based on patient compliance, the status of the existing periodontal tissues, and the prognosis of the remaining teeth. During the 12-year follow-up period, no residual pockets were observed and there was no exacerbation of the inflammatory condition. Marginal bone stability is present on all implants. For aggressive periodontal disease, a high risk of relapse as well as limited success and survival of dental implants should be considered. This case shows proper containment of the disease based on appropriate treatment planning and a strict maintenance program.

  4. Environmental benefits of medfly sterile insect technique in Madeira and their inclusion in a cost-benefit analysis. Study sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    -spectrum insecticides affect access to the market because of the long harvest intervals and residues in fruit. High damage to fruit crops leads to the abandonment of agriculture, which has negative social and environmental consequences. In 1998, the Regional Government of Madeira, with the support of the IAEA and FAO, through a technical cooperation project implemented the Madeira-Med project aimed at controlling the medfly using an integrated approach based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). A mass rearing and sterilization facility with a production capacity of 50 million sterile males per week was built and is currently in operation. Madeira-Med was referred to as an essential stepping-stone for Madeira fruit production to be able to withstand future challenges. The present study sets out to quantify the different categories of benefits that would be obtained by effectively controlling the medfly using SIT and the costs of the control programme. The economic analysis will evaluate how Madeira-Med benefits society as a whole and not only fruit producers. It includes gains from increase in production volumes and the reduction of production costs, which are direct benefits for the farmers. In addition it includes improvements in environmental quality and health that will benefit both farmers and fruit consumers. Recent cost benefit analyses for proposed insect pest eradication or suppression programmes have included some environmental factors, but a systematic valuation of these factors is new to this study

  5. Potential use of the sterile insect technique against the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, G.

    1999-01-01

    The Latin American countries have a strong interest in increasing fruit production and quality to facilitate commercialization within and outside the region. Various fruit fly control programmes in South America and their objectives and benefits are described here. Specific priorities to improve fruit fly control and eradication technologies include strengthening of quarantine, development of pre- and post-phytosanitary measures, and harmonization of the most effective and advanced technical procedures/methodologies to control fruit flies. A subregional strategy to control fruit flies in South America would promote technical co-operation among the South American countries and strengthen the activities of less advanced fruit fly programmes. Effective use can be made of local/regional infrastructure, expertise, sterile fly production and human/technical resources. In Argentina, advanced technology related to the use of medfly genetic sexing strains for SIT programmes has been successfully introduced. Joint efforts between technicians and scientists would contribute to developing new technology to control important pests in South America. (author)

  6. World-wide sexual compatibility in Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and its implications for SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayol, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the sterile insect technique, described by Knipling (1953), to control and/or eradicate insect pest populations has been applied to many Lepidoptera and Diptera species. Among Diptera species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most important agricultural pest in the world (Liquido et al. 1990) and it is also a major target of SIT action programmes world-wide. The use of SIT requires that mass rearing facilities be developed to produce sterile insects for use in national programmes, with mass reared strains being established by colonising wild insects collected from the SIT target area. More recently, with the increasing demand for sterile Medflies and the limited number of production facilities, some rearing facilities began to export Medflies to other national/regional programmes. Eight facilities have now reached production levels which allow them to export sterile insects (Fisher and Caceres 199) on a regional or inter-regional basis. When this procedure is used, the flies released have to compete with wild flies of a different geographic origin. The increasing use of Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) has also resulted in the same strain being used in different countries. To date, five rearing facilities in the world produce GSS (Fisher and Caceres 1999). Since GSS are assembled from specific components, it is impossible to 'colonise' them from each country where sterile GSS flies are needed. The GSS are often backcrossed with insects from the target population to increase the genetic variability (Franz et al. 1996), although in some cases this presents problems (Franz, personal communication). In practice, a single wild population is used as a basis for the synthesis of the GSS. Consequently, the same GSS based on the same wild genetic material may be used in various countries/continents and the question was raised concerning the sexual compatibility of these strains with

  7. Optimal barrier zones for stopping the invasion of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes via transgenic or sterile insect techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. Seirin; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; White, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), for controlling invasion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a spatial stage-structured mathematical model. In particular, we explore the use of a barrier zone of sterile/transgenic insects to prevent

  8. Development of female medfly attractants to support the sterile insect technique: experiments conducted in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the availability of genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), it is possible to release only sterile males in SIT programs. The availability of a new female medfly attractant can reduce labor costs because program progress can be monitored by trapping females instead of the usual male trapping with its labor intensive identification of sterile and wild males. Three Madeira studies evaluated new female attractants; ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. One study was carried out in the same area during two different periods of 1996 (8 June to 27 July and 12 October to 30 November). A second study was conducted between 24 May to 05 July, 1997, in two different areas at the same altitude. One area had a wild fly population (sex ratio 1: 1) and the other was in an area where sterile males were released (sex ratio > 9: 1). The third study, conducted from 18 October to 29 November, 1997, compared wild fly captures at low elevations (80 m) with those at high elevations (700 m). The first study showed that the inclusion of the attractant trimethylamine significantly increased the wild female medfly. The percentage of medfly females in the traps with the two and the three attractants (FA-2 and FA-3) was more than 70%. In the second and third studies, the dry traps were more effective than wet traps in capturing wild medfly females. In areas with only wild females, the percentage of females captured was more than 62%. In areas where sterile males were released, the percentage of females captured was between 12% and 19%. In conclusion, the new attractants captured high percentages of females and, when combined with medfly genetic sexing strains, can reduce program costs significantly. (author)

  9. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  10. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  11. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  12. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  13. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  14. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  15. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The Second International Conference on Areawide Insect Pest Control sponsored by FAO and IAEA will be held from 9 to 13 May, 2005 in Vienna, Austria. This conference will provide a forum for the presentation of scientific papers dealing with areawide insect management programmes, including those applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and will include significant time for plenary discussion. The framework of the conference is being developed and the announcement with details of the Conference can be found under http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Meetings2005.asp. It is planned to hold several Research Coordination Meetings in conjunction with this meeting. The Interregional Training Course on The Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques for the Integrated Areawide Management of Insect Pests, was held from 4 May to 1 June 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. This is a unique course that provides participants with a complete overview of all aspects related to areawide and SIT operational programmes. Both USA and external lecturers participated with an adequate balance between theory and practical laboratory and field exercises. Third, the SIT programme in Madeira is in negotiations with a private company regarding some type of partnership to ensure sustainability of the programme when EC funding comes to an end. These developments have been followed very closely by the sub-programme and we have been involved in providing advice, developing collaborative links and interacting at the R and D and technology transfer levels. There will be ample scope for further collaboration when these initiatives become fully realized. The fifth meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere (WGFFWH) took place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, from 16 to 21 May 2004 and more than 200 participants attended. The meeting has a very unique format where scientists, action programme managers and the industry interact, greatly encouraging discussions and

  16. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 86, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 we concluded the six-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade”. The objective of the CRP was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, conducting coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, with an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. One of the scientific outputs of the CRP was the accurate alignment of some biological species with taxonomic names. The resolution of some of these controversial issues has important applied implications for FAO and IAEA Member States, both in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and in facilitating international agricultural trade

  17. Development Of Biosteres sp Parasitation On Larvae Of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) As Complementary Of Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, Darmawi; Nasution, Indah A.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswadi, Achmad N.

    2002-01-01

    Sterile insect technique was compatible with biological control after parasitoid releasing. In order to find out suitable life stage of B. carambolae to use as host in the mass rearing of Biosteres sp. parasitoid, an efectivity of the parasitoid infestation on different age of B. carambolae egg by putting fruits in cage containing 200 pairs of B. carambolae flies for the 1 hour. The fruit of infected fruit fly larvae with the different age i.e. 1,2,3, and 4 days were offered to 80 pairs of adult pamsitoid age 1,2, and 3 weeks for old for two hours i.e. 7.00-9.00; 9.00- 11.00; 11.00-13.00; 13.00-15.00; and 15.00-17.00. Numbers of parasitoid emerge from each fruit were observed. Results of the parasitation effectiveness assays show that 1-2 days old larvae were the most severely infested larvae infestation by the done at 7-15 of the day by the day parasitoid. Infestation mostly done by parasitoid of 7-14 days old

  18. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  19. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia{sub S}I/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  20. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 87, July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    A year ago, in NL 85, we reported on the increasing demands from our FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our focus from developing and transferring the sterile insect technique (SIT) for major crop and livestock insect pests to major disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Since the mid-2000s, there have been several IAEA General Conference resolutions requesting the Joint FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Subprogramme to develop a complete “SIT package” for major mosquito species to be used as a component of area-wide integrated vector management (IVM) approaches. The first resolutions focussed on the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis, but since 2010, also the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were included. In view that the traditional chemical-based vector control strategies were facing serious challenges due to increased resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides and increased public concern of insecticide use in urban areas, there was a clear need for novel methods and complementary approaches to manage mosquito populations in an effective and more environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Furthermore, due to the absence of effective vaccines and drugs against some of these diseases, vector suppression approaches are widely seen as the most effective means to reduce these mosquito-transmitted diseases that pose an enormous economic and social burden, and whose incidence has increased drastically in recent years with the spread to new regions.

  1. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  2. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  3. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  4. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Tsetse and trypanosomosis are at the root of low agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa and the removal of this factor would be a major contributor for large- scale poverty reduction in this region. Whilst removal of the disease would allow other constraining issues to become priorities such as the presence of other disease, lack of feed, poor husbandry skills and lack of markets for dairy products, without the removal of the threat of trypanosomosis there can be no progress, and for many in this region, no way out of staying hungry. Significantly though, during the past five years there has been an increasing awareness that the final elimination of the tsetse fly from areas can be achieved through the integrated use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Reduction of tsetse fly populations has always been achievable but not sustainable. The area-wide application of SIT offers a realistic, affordable and environmentally acceptable way to complete the task by eliminating the final remaining flies. Although the effective use of SIT for fly elimination requires a reduction of fly populations by around 95%, this has often been achieved but not sustained due to the recurrent cost and logistics of fly control. The fact that use of SIT can achieve final eradication of the fly and hence the disease has been dramatically demonstrated on the island of Zanzibar. Recognizing this fact and in response to the increasing problem of African trypanosomosis, the Heads of African States and Governments, at their 36 th Summit Meeting in Lome, Togo, 10-12 July 2000, adopted a Decision on Proposal for Eradication of Tsetse Flies on the African Continent. In this decision, AHG/Dec.156 (XXXVI), the Assembly of countries that have initiated the application of the SIT for their pioneering effort, and invited the OAU to lead the establishment of a Pan- African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). The Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT), which is a

  5. Development of Operation Strategy for Hybrid-SIT in SBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Seop; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was not managed properly due to a lack of effective mitigation systems against Station Black Out (SBO) accident. For this reason, development of passive system is suggested as an alternative way for active system because passive system doesn't need external energy source and passive system can also increase the diversity of mitigation technique of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). H-SIT is a passive injection system that is newly planned to adjust into the Advanced Power Reactor plus (APR+). This system is specialized for mitigation of SBO scenarios because it is passive system and it can inject coolant even in high pressure condition. Main function of H-SIT is injection of coolant to the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) in a passive way. The H-SIT system can inject water using the pressure from nitrogen gas as a normal SIT in low pressure accidents such as large and medium break loss-of-coolant accidents. This operation strategy is divided according to numbers of PAFS which can be used. When one H-SIT is used, H-SIT is recommended to use operation strategy which is explained as follow. In case of operation number, 1+1+1+1 strategy is the best and first operation timing, the time when upper plenum level is 5% is the best and next operation timing, the time when water level of H-SIT which is operated in previous round is 5% and operation order, 4-3-2-1 is the best. Even if one PAFS can be used, the minimum flow of H-SIT can maintain core in normal condition before H-SIT dried out thus if two PAFS can be used, the strategy which is used in the condition one PAFS can be operated is also used as a best operation strategy

  6. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 88, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    In our NL 84, we reported on the ground-breaking for the ReNuAL project (Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories), which includes the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The laboratories are unique within the United Nations system in providing Member States with direct access to scientific training, technology and analytical services. ReNuAL is getting under way with the construction of a new Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL), pictured on the previous page, due for completion by the end of 2017. In 2016, we also reported on the increasing demands from our FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our focus from developing and transferring the SIT for major crop and livestock insect pests to major disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Looking to the year ahead, we are organizing the Third FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-wide Management of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques, at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 22–26 May 2017. The programme that is being prepared looks very promising and will cover relevant current scientific and applied topics. A number of prominent speakers have been invited to debate new developments and trends. We expect around 400 scientists from all continents and look forward to a successful conference and your active participation.

  7. Measuring postural sway in sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...... and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...

  8. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  10. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  11. Achievements 2006-Activities 2007: Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the establishment of a zone free of tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, Baba

    2007-01-01

    The Project ''Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the creation of a zone free of tsetse flies'' aims to eradicate the tsetse fly and the trypanosomiasis it transmits from the Niayes area and part of the small coast. These areas were re-infested after several decades of lull following the eradication campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s. The project began in 2006 for a period of 4 years.This document presents the achievements of 2006 and the activities planned in 2007 within the framework of the project.

  12. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  13. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  14. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  15. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  16. Developing methods of measuring competitiveness of sterilized laboratory insects. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of Lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay-Marzso, L.

    1978-08-01

    Optical and acoustical equipment were developed and tested for measuring insect activity, one of the parameters used to assess insect quality. The acoustical equipment which recorded the sound generated by moving insects performed well in the laboratory but was either unsuitable to measure the activity of populations as opposed to pairs or was unsuitable under field conditions. The optical equipment, however, based on light interception, performed well in the field also. In other studies the fitness of insects receiving various treatments was assessed on the basis of release-recapture experiments, number of matings and percentage sperm transfer. These methods proved very sensitive but were more laborious compared to automated recordings

  17. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Lee, S.G.; Saul, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  18. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu

    2013-12-01

    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  20. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  1. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... He writes popular science articles in ... science, English poetry is his area of ... A fascinating branch of insect science (ento- ... Methods in Forensic Entomology .... bullet wound to the right temple, and a substantial pooling of.

  2. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  3. Application of nuclear techniques in improving agricultural productivity with particular reference to pasture management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid Ajorlo; Ramdzani Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are appropriate tools to settle problems for agriculture or natural resources which cannot be solved using conventional agricultural techniques. In this paper, the research activities carried out and the achievements so far obtained in the agricultural specialties -all by using nuclear techniques- with particular reference to pasture management are discussed. Insect pest control by Sterile Insect Techniques (SIT); soil and water management using neutron moisture probes; determining N-fixation capacity of legumes using N-15 isotope and nuclear methods; soil erosion measurement using of fallout radionuclide such as Cs-137; monitoring the movement of saline water in salt-affected land using isotopes of chlorine; livestock production and health by RIA and ELISA are some of achievements so far obtained in improving agricultural productivity. The ultimate goal of the nuclear technique investigation in agriculture is to use the resources efficiently in obtaining higher plant and livestock yields while increasing the quality and protecting them against insects, diseases and weeds. (Author)

  4. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs.

  5. Economic evaluation of damage caused by, and methods of control of, the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Maghreb. An analysis covering three control options, including the sterile insect technique. Report of an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable production is an important agricultural sector throughout the Mediterranean Basin, which is dependent on aerial or ground insecticide applications to protect commercial crops against the Mediterranean fruit fly. Pesticide applications are required up to twelve times a year, costing large sums of money. This study assesses for the four North African countries the economics of different pest control/eradication alternatives: insecticide application and the more environmentally friendly alternatives based on the Sterile Insect Technique. It is concluded that Sterile Insect Technique, not only very attractive from environmental point of view, but is also a feasible option from economic point of view. 40 refs, 3 figs, 37 tabs

  6. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  7. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  9. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  10. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose

  11. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Jacob, E-mail: jurquidi@nmsu.edu; Brar, Ramaninder K. [X-ray and Neutron Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo [Molecular Vector Physiology Lab, Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  12. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  13. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther

    2017-07-01

    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  14. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  15. Mathematical models for the use of sterile insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter begins with a consideration of simple population models. The sterility formulation proposed by Knipling is then included into the population models, and these are elaborated in systematic fashion to include the major biological factors that will affect the success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) control programme. These factors include residual fertility, differential competitive ability of wild and sterilized males, mating patterns, immigration, and various combinations of these features. Also examined are density-dependence, age structure, population aggregation, biotic interactions with other species, and then integration of the SIT with other control methods. It was found that combinations of factors are synergistic: combinations of detrimental factors such as residual fertility and inferior competitive ability put severe limits on the probable success of the control programme, while combinations of control methods are much more likely to succeed than single control methods. This is because each control method needs only to account for a smaller proportion of the total mortality when combined with other methods than when acting alone. (author)

  16. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  17. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Damiens

    Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  18. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  19. Mass rearing and radiation sterilization of tsetse flies. Part of a coordinated programme on control and eradication of tsetse flies by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offori, E.

    1980-12-01

    Studies were conducted with the tsetse flies Glossina palpalis palpalis, G.p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides to evaluate the practicality in Ghana of various laboratory and field procedures used to conduct a sterile insect release programme. Investigations revealed that in colony rearing rabbits, guinea pigs and goats could be used as host animals and that alternation of hosts had little effect on colony performance. Over 90% sterility in 10-day-old males irradiated at 12 kR was obtained with little or no effect on survival. At 15 kR, 98% sterility was obtained but with some loss in viability observed. In mating experiments, G. p. palpalis and G. p. gambiensis mated readily with each other and indicated that sterile males of one sub-species could be released with advantage into an area predominantly occupied by the other sub-species. In field tests, the moving vehicle traps proved most efficient of the various sampling techniques evaluated. It was noted that in spite of the rapid expansion of the city of Accra, tsetse flies were still present within a distance of 4 km of the city

  20. Medfly Gut Microbiota and Enhancement of the Sterile Insect Technique: Similarities and Differences of Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter sp. AA26 Probiotics during the Larval and Adult Stages of the VIENNA 8D53+ Genetic Sexing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Kyritsis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a major agricultural pest worldwide. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs for this species that allows male-only sterile insects releases has boosted the effectiveness of the environmental friendly pest control method known as the sterile insect technique. The last generation of these strains, the VIENNA 7 and VIENNA 8, are currently used in all mass rearing facilities worldwide and are considered as models for such pest control applications. The sterile insect technique depends on the rearing of sufficient numbers of adequate “biological quality” laboratory flies to be released in the field. Currently, there is an increasing amount of studies focusing on the characterization of the symbiotic communities and development of probiotic diets. In our study, two bacterial isolates, an Enterobacter sp. (strain AA26 and a Klebsiella oxytoca strain, were used as probiotics in larval and adult diet. These strains have been shown to be beneficial, affecting several aspects related to the rearing efficiency and biological quality of the medfly VIENNA 8D53+ GSS. Our results demonstrate the effect of K. oxytoca on the developmental duration of the immature stages and, to some extent, on flight ability. On the other hand, our study does not support the presence of any beneficial effect of (a K. oxytoca on pupal and adult recovery and adults’ survival under stress conditions when provided as a larval diet supplement and (b K. oxytoca and Enterobacter sp. AA26 on mating competitiveness when provided as adult diet supplements. Possible explanations for inconsistencies with previous studies and the need for universalizing protocols are discussed. Our findings, combined with previous studies can support the sterile insect technique, through the improvement of different aspects of mass rearing and biological properties of laboratory reared insect pests.

  1. Work and leisure time sitting and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart

    2016-01-01

    time sitting did not predict weight. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize sedentary behaviour during leisure time, rather than at work, as a risk behaviour in relation to cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. For cardiorespiratory fitness, it may be important not only to promote MVPA, but also......BACKGROUND: Prospective relationships between sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory and metabolic markers need to be better delineated in adults with different physical activity levels. We examined the separate and combined relationships of work and leisure time sitting and moderate to vigorous...... physical activity (MVPA) with cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 2308 adults from the Health2006 cohort were followed for five years. Work sitting, leisure time sitting and MVPA were self-reported and cardiorespiratory fitness (Vo2max) was estimated...

  2. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  3. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The rearing of tsetse flies for the sterile insect technique has been a laborious procedure in the past. The purpose of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes' was to develop appropriate semiautomated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product. Two main objectives were accomplished. The first was to simplify the handling of adults at emergence. This was achieved by allowing the adults to emerge directly into the production cages. Selection of the appropriate environmental conditions and timing allowed the manipulation of the emergence pattern to achieve the desired ratio of four females to one male with minimal un-emerged females remaining mixed with the male pupae. Tests demonstrated that putting the sexes together at emergence, leaving the males in the production cages, and using a ratio of 4:1 (3:1 for a few species) did not adversely affect pupal production. This has resulted in a standardized system for the self stocking of production cages. The second was to reduce the labour involved in feeding the flies. Three distinct systems were developed and tested in sequence. The first tsetse production unit (TPU 1) was a fully automated system, but the fly survival and fecundity were unacceptably low. From this a simpler TPU 2 was developed and tested, where 63 large cages were held on a frame that could be moved as a single unit to the feeding location. TPU 2 was tested in various locations, and found to satisfy the basic requirements, and the adoption of Plexiglas pupal collection slopes resolved much of the problem due to light distribution. However the cage holding frame was heavy and difficult to position on the feeding frame and the movement disturbed the flies. TPU 2 was superseded by TPU 3, in which the cages remain stationary at all times, and the blood is brought to the flies. The blood feeding system is mounted on rails to make it

  4. Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutten Geert M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the “Law of the few”, the “Stickiness factor”, and the “Power of context”. For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as “interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks”, for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time.

  5. Relationship between sitting volleyball performance and field fitness of sitting volleyball players in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Bogja

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sitting volleyball performance and the field fitness of sitting volleyball players. Forty-five elite sitting volleyball players participated in 10 field fitness tests. Additionally, the players’ head coach and coach assessed their volleyball performance (receive and defense, block, attack, and serve). Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at Pvolleyball performance. PMID:29326896

  6. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  7. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  8. Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nipun; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T; Verbeek, Jos H; Ijaz, Sharea; Hermans, Veerle; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

    2016-03-17

    Office work has changed considerably over the previous couple of decades and has become sedentary in nature. Physical inactivity at workplaces and particularly increased sitting has been linked to increase in cardiovascular disease, obesity and overall mortality. To evaluate the effects of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH UPDATE, PsycINFO, Clinical trials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal up to 2 June, 2015. We also screened reference lists of articles and contacted authors to find more studies to include. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions to reduce sitting at work. For changes of workplace arrangements, we also included controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs) with a concurrent control group. The primary outcome was time spent sitting at work per day, either self-reported or objectively measured by means of an accelerometer-inclinometer. We considered energy expenditure, duration and number of sitting episodes lasting 30 minutes or more, work productivity and adverse events as secondary outcomes. Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full-text articles for study eligibility. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors for additional data where required. We included 20 studies, two cross-over RCTs, 11 RCTs, three cRCTs and four CBAs, with a total of 2180 participants from high income nations. The studies evaluated physical workplace changes (nine studies), policy changes (two studies), information and counselling (seven studies) and interventions from multiple categories (two studies). One study had both physical

  9. Development of mass production, gamma sterilization and release of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, Z.W.

    1979-03-01

    Research on codling moths was conducted from Spring 1973 to Autumn 1978 and included rearing of larvae on thinning apples and artificial diet ecology, radiation sterilization and the effect of field releases of sterile moths in suppressing the wild population. Field releases of irradiated with 30 Krad unsexed insects were conducted in two consecutive seasons, namely in 1977 and 1978 and aimed at a sterile to wild ratio of 97:1 and 233:1 respectively. The experimentally obtained ratio, however, based on catches in traps baited with sex attractant was 24:1 and 79:1 respectively. Examination of fruit infestation at harvest revealed an increase in infestation by 9% in the 1977 sterile release programme and by 56% in the 1978 programme. Likely causes of the failure of the SIT programme were the immigration of fertile females from the surrounding area and inadequate mating competitiveness of the released moths due to somatic damage caused by the irradiation and laboratory adaptation. The sharp increase of fruit infestation in 1978 was very likely the result of a six fold increase in yield which provided a better chance of survival for hatching larvae

  10. Where to Sit? Type of Sitting Matters for the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Borodulin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current evidence on associations of type-specific sedentary behavior with cardiovascular disease (CVD is limited to mainly screen-time sedentary behavior (SB. We aimed to study the associations of type-specific and total time spent sitting with the Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score (Framingham score in Finnish adults. Methods: Data comprise the National FINRISK 2007 and 2012 health examination surveys with 10,185 participants aged 25-74 years, apparently free of CVD. Participants reported average daily time spent sitting in different locations: work-related sitting, at home in front of television (TV, at home in front of computer, in a vehicle, and elsewhere. Total SB time was calculated from these context-specific self-reports. Accelerometer-based sedentary time was assessed in 988 FINRISK 2012 participants. Framingham score was calculated using information on blood pressure and its medication, cholesterol levels, age, diabetes status, and smoking. Analyses were adjusted for age, study year, education, employment status, leisure time physical activity, and body mass index. Results: Out of several type-specific sitting behaviors, only TV sitting showed systematic associations with the Framingham score in both genders. The lowest Framingham risk was found for TV sitting from 6 minutes to less than 1 hour daily. Of other types of sitting, computer sitting was inversely associated with the Framingham risk in men only. Total self-reported sitting time did not show significant associations with the Framingham score, but instead higher objectively assessed sedentary time showed higher Framingham risk in men. Conclusions: TV sitting showed most systematic associations with CVD risk score. This suggests that of all types of SB, reducing TV sitting should be targeted for reducing CVD risk.

  11. 'More than two': integrating biological control and sterile insects, from factory to field, and the possibility of its implementation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Viscarret, Mariana M.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Pietrek, Alejandro [Instituto de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Castelar (Argentina). Inst. de Genetica; Soria, M. Alejandra; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (PROIMI/CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industrials Microbiolo

    2006-07-01

    No single control measure is able to provide full control of a pest. Integration of techniques like the sterile insect (SIT) with biological control practices (BC) should be intensively sough for. This possibility is revised here in connection with the fruit fly pest problems in Argentina. Theoretical reasons as well as practical conveniences for this integration are reviewed in this paper, the intention of which is to promote a discussion on how to approach the experimental study of the SIT+CB integration problem, i.e. how to measure the effects of each separate control measure as well as that of both acting together, in a repeatable manner. Arguments are advanced in favor of the joint production and releases of sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. (author)

  12. 'More than two': integrating biological control and sterile insects, from factory to field, and the possibility of its implementation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Viscarret, Mariana M.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Pietrek, Alejandro; Soria, M. Alejandra; Ovruski, Sergio M.

    2006-01-01

    No single control measure is able to provide full control of a pest. Integration of techniques like the sterile insect (SIT) with biological control practices (BC) should be intensively sough for. This possibility is revised here in connection with the fruit fly pest problems in Argentina. Theoretical reasons as well as practical conveniences for this integration are reviewed in this paper, the intention of which is to promote a discussion on how to approach the experimental study of the SIT+CB integration problem, i.e. how to measure the effects of each separate control measure as well as that of both acting together, in a repeatable manner. Arguments are advanced in favor of the joint production and releases of sterile fruit flies and parasitoids. (author)

  13. Motivational Counseling to Reduce Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Trine C

    2014-01-01

    counseling intervention aimed at reducing sitting time. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, community-based trial with two parallel groups using open-end randomization with 1:1 allocation. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 166 sedentary adults were consecutively recruited from the population......-based Health2010 Study. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to a control (usual lifestyle) or intervention group with four individual theory-based counseling sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Objectively measured overall sitting time (ActivPAL 3TM, 7 days); secondary measures were breaks in sitting time......, anthropometric measures, and cardiometabolic biomarkers, assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Data were collected in 2010-2012 and analyzed in 2013-2014 using repeated measures multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Ninety-three participants were randomized to the intervention group and 73 to the control...

  14. Type 2 diabetes sits in a chair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Thyfault, J P

    2013-01-01

    for prevention and treatment are desperately needed. Accumulating evidence suggests that increased sedentary time (i.e. 'sitting time') combined with reduced physical activity levels, plays both a major role in the development of T2D and may contribute to the worsening of the condition after diagnosis......The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to skyrocket across the industrialized world leading to soaring medical costs, reduced quality of life and increased mortality rates. Therefore, a more firm understanding of the development of the disease and effective, low cost therapies....... In this review, we cover these topics and use current scientific evidence to support our belief that 'type 2 diabetes sits in a chair'. We also discuss a relatively new question that has yet to be examined: Would reducing sitting time be an effective treatment for T2D?...

  15. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  16. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  17. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Wimmer, Ernst A.; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano; Handler, Ernst A.

    2006-01-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  18. New genetic tools for improving SIT in Ceratitis capitata: embryonic lethality and sperm marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A [Georg-August-University, Gottingen (Germany). Johann-Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology. Gottingen Center for Molecular Biosciences; Scolari, Francesca; Gasperi, Giuliano [Universita di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Handler, Ernst A [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    Environment friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied effectively as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) for Ceratitis capitata since 1970s. Nevertheless improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of AW-IPM. Transgenic approaches should increase and widen the applicability of such programmes to different pest species. In this respect two major strategies are followed: First an approach to cause sterility was designed without interfering with spermatogenesis to maintain males and their sperm as competitive as possible. We followed a strategy, which is based on the expression of a lethal factor under the control of a promoter that is active at early blastoderm stages. The system employs the ectopic expression of a hyperactive pro apoptotic gene that causes embryo-specific lethality when driven by the tetracycline-controlled trans activator tTA under the regulation of a cellularization gene enhancer/promoter. The system has been tested successfully in Drosophila melanogaster (Horn and Wimmer 2003). We tried the direct transfer of the Drosophila system to Ceratitis capitata by injecting the respective constructs that carry Drosophila-derived promoters. Unfortunately, the cellularization specific promoters from Drosophila seem not functional in Ceratitis. Therefore, the corresponding enhancers/promoters from Ceratitis were isolated and subsequently the tTA was brought independently under the control of each enhancer/promoter region. These constructs were injected in Ceratitis for further evaluation. Second, we have engineered a medfly strain carrying a sperm marking system. This strain carries two fluorescent markers. One (turboGFP) marker is under the control of the spermatogenesis specific b2-tubulin promoter from Ceratitis and is therefore sperm specifically expressed. The second (DsRed) is under the control of the poly ubiquitin promoter of Drosophila. Released males from this strain could be

  19. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  20. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Pereira, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  1. Cost effective, robust, and reliable coupled separation techniques for the identification and quantification of phospholipids in complex biological matrices: Application to insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Tomčala, Aleš; Berková, Petra; Schneedorferová, Ivana; Okrouhlík, J.; Šimek, Petr; Hodková, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 15 (2014), s. 2062-2068 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S; GA ČR GAP502/10/1612; GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : insects * mass spectrometry * phospholipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jssc.201400113/pdf

  2. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  3. Why Women Sit: Determinants of Leisure Sitting Time for Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Shana M; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Stamatis, Andreas; Morgan, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with negative health consequences independent of physical activity levels. Evidence suggests the work environment promotes sedentary behavior regardless of sector, and that employees with occupations requiring longer sitting times differ only marginally in leisure sitting time from those with more active occupations. Because physical activity opportunities may be limited across many work settings, leisure sedentary time may be more easily replaced with physical activity. Understanding correlates of leisure sedentary behaviors could inform interventions, specifically for women who are among the least active in America. Female employees at two universities completed online surveys (n = 156; mean age, 45.12 [SD = 12.5]; mean BMI, 26.7 kg/m(2) [SD = 5.9]; mean work hours/week, 43.7 [SD = 9.4]). Bivariate correlations and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine personal and behavioral correlates of weekday and weekend leisure sitting time. Final regression models revealed that greater weekday leisure sitting time (R(2) = 0.307) was related with being older (p = .006), having fewer children (p = .001), self-reporting poorer health (p = .006), and greater weekend sitting time (p Physical activity was not related with weekday or weekend leisure sitting time. The most prominent correlates of leisure sitting time were other types of sedentary behaviors. This suggests that sedentary time in one segment of life predicts time spent sitting in other areas of life. Future interventions should target decreasing sedentary behaviors during leisure time specifically, in addition to increasing physical activity behavior. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Hwal

    1989-06-01

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  5. Contemporary analysis of the intraoperative and perioperative complications of neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Benjamin T; Mallory, Grant W; Abcejo, Arnoley S; Pasternak, Jeffrey; Atkinson, John L D; Meyer, Fredric B; Marsh, W Richard; Link, Michael J; Clarke, Michelle J; Perkins, William; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Historically, performing neurosurgery with the patient in the sitting position offered advantages such as improved visualization and gravity-assisted retraction. However, this position fell out of favor at many centers due to the perceived risk of venous air embolism (VAE) and other position-related complications. Some neurosurgical centers continue to perform sitting-position cases in select patients, often using modern monitoring techniques that may improve procedural safety. Therefore, this paper reports the risks associated with neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position in a modern series. METHODS The authors reviewed the anesthesia records for instances of clinically significant VAE and other complications for all neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position between January 1, 2000, and October 8, 2013. In addition, a prospectively maintained morbidity and mortality log of these procedures was reviewed for instances of subdural or intracerebral hemorrhage, tension pneumocephalus, and quadriplegia. Both overall and specific complication rates were calculated in relation to the specific type of procedure. RESULTS In a series of 1792 procedures, the overall complication rate related to the sitting position was 1.45%, which included clinically significant VAE, tension pneumocephalus, and subdural hemorrhage. The rate of any detected VAE was 4.7%, but the rate of VAE requiring clinical intervention was 1.06%. The risk of clinically significant VAE was highest in patients undergoing suboccipital craniotomy/craniectomy with a rate of 2.7% and an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 relative to deep brain stimulator cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-70, p = 0.04). Sitting cervical spine cases had a comparatively lower complication rate of 0.7% and an OR of 0.28 as compared with all cranial procedures (95% CI 0.12-0.67, p < 0.01). Sitting cervical cases were further subdivided into extradural and intradural procedures. The rate of

  6. Unfaithful medfly females: Impact on SIT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonizzoni, M [Dept. of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Gomulski, L M; Bertin, S; Scolari, F [Dept. of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Matessi, C; Gasperi, G [Institute of Molecular Genetics - CNR, Pavia (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: In the field, medfly females can copulate more than once. This behaviour may be critical for the application of SIT against medfly natural populations. Whether the frequency of remating is dependent on both ecological conditions and population density is under investigation. Moreover, the observation that, in wild populations, remating is accompanied by a strong paternity skew, led to the formulation of an hypothesis on the mechanisms that regulate the use of sperm from different males. The elucidation of these mechanisms has been undertaken in the laboratory, using fly strains with different internal molecular markers. This will allow the description of the most significant medfly sexual/population behaviours to consider for SIT planning. (author)

  7. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  8. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  9. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  10. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  11. Analysis of sitting forces on stationary chairs for daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingling; Tackett, Bob; Tor, Onder; Zhang, Jilei

    2016-04-01

    No literature related to the study of sitting forces on chairs sat on by people who weighed over 136 kg was found. The Business Institutional Furniture Manufactures Association needs force data for development of performance test standards to test chairs for users who weigh up to 181 kg. 20 participants who weighed from 136 to 186 kg completed 6 tasks on an instrumented chair in the sequence of sitting down, remaining seated and rising. Effects of sitting motion, armrest use and seat cushion thickness on vertical sitting forces and centre-of-force were investigated. Results indicated hard sitting down yielded the highest sitting force of 213% in terms of participants' body weights. Armrest use affected sitting forces of normal sitting down, but not of rising and hard sitting down. Cushion thickness affected sitting forces of normal and hard sitting down and shifting, but not of rising, static seating or stretching backward situations. Practitioner Summary: Results of the sitting force and centre-of-force data obtained for this research can help furniture manufacturers develop new product performance test standards for creating reliable engineering design and manufacturing quality and durable products to meet a niche market need.

  12. Is Sitting Too Much Bad for Your Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Proper, K.I.; Spekle, E.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Office workers spend a large part of their workday sitting down. Too much sitting seems bad for people's health and puts them at risk for premature death. Workstation alternatives that allow desk work to be done while standing, walking, biking, or stepping reduce the total time spent sitting without

  13. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  14. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  15. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  16. Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominis Muscle Fatigue Induced by Slumped Sitting Posture after 1 Hour of Sitting in Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooriput Waongenngarm

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged sitting led to increased body discomfort in the neck, shoulder, upper back, low back, and buttock. No sign of trunk muscle fatigue was detected over 1 hour of sitting in the upright and forward leaning postures. Prolonged slumped sitting may relate to IO/TrA muscle fatigue, which may compromise the stability of the spine, making it susceptible to injury.

  17. Heritable strategies for controlling insect vectors of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are causing a substantial burden of mortality, morbidity and economic loss in many parts of the world, despite current control efforts, and new complementary approaches to controlling these diseases are needed. One promising class of new interventions under development involves the heritable modification of the mosquito by insertion of novel genes into the nucleus or of Wolbachia endosymbionts into the cytoplasm. Once released into a target population, these modifications can act to reduce one or more components of the mosquito population's vectorial capacity (e.g. the number of female mosquitoes, their longevity or their ability to support development and transmission of the pathogen). Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). Several successful field trials have now been performed with Aedes mosquitoes, and such trials are helping to define the appropriate developmental pathway for this new class of intervention.

  18. Insect barcode information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  19. Mutations in sit B and sit D genes affect manganese-growth requirements in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platero, Raúl A; Jaureguy, Melina; Battistoni, Federico J; Fabiano, Elena R

    2003-01-21

    Two transposon-induced mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti 242 were isolated based on their inability to grow on rich medium supplemented with the metal chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and either heme-compounds or siderophores as iron sources. Tagged loci of these mutants were identified as sit B and sit D genes. These genes encode components of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) metal-type permease in several Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, the phenotypes of these two mutants were compared with those of two siderophore-mediated iron transport mutants. The results strongly implicate a role of the sit genes in manganese acquisition when this metal is limiting in S. meliloti.

  20. Delivery of Nucleic Acids through Embryo Microinjection in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest Insect, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny. The advent and the subsequent rapid development of biotechnological tools, together with the availability of the medfly genome sequence, has greatly boosted our understanding of the biology of this species. This favored the proliferation of new strategies for genome manipulation, which can be applied to population control. In this context, embryo microinjection plays a dual role in expanding the toolbox for medfly control. The ability to interfere with the function of genes that regulate key biological processes, indeed, expands our understanding of the molecular machinery underlying medfly invasiveness. Furthermore, the ability to achieve germ-line transformation facilitates the production of multiple transgenic strains that can be tested for future field applications in novel SIT settings. Indeed, genetic manipulation can be used to confer desirable traits that can, for example, be used to monitor sterile male performance in the field, or that can result in early life-stage lethality. Here we describe a method to microinject nucleic acids into medfly embryos to achieve these two main goals.

  1. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, Srisan

    1978-06-15

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  2. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  3. Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Sit-to-Stand-to-Sit Performance Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Sit-to-stand-to-sit performance is one of the most common activities of daily living and often is evaluated by counting the number of repetitions of the 30-second chair-stand test. No study, however, has examined the performance over the 30 seconds of this test of female patients with fibromyalgia on a phase-by-phase basis. To evaluate the impact of fibromyalgia on performance of the 30-second chair-stand test and to analyze how the kinematic performance changed over the 30-second test period. A cross-sectional study. Local association of fibromyalgia. Fifteen females with fibromyalgia and nine healthy female controls. Participants performed the 30-second chair-stand test while wearing a motion capture device. Duration of each sit-to-stand-to-sit phase within the 30-second time limit was compared between groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between duration of phases and scores from the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was tested using bivariate correlations. The duration of impulse and sit-to-stand phases were gradually increased over the 30 seconds of the chair-stand test for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The mean duration of these 2 phases was associated with symptom duration and the function domain of the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Since sit-to-stand from a chair is a common daily activity, women with fibromyalgia may require specific exercises to improve performance of this task. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear energy against insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-15

    The paper presents the main topics discussed at the scientific symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, held in Athens last April, jointly organized by IAEA and FAO with the co-operation of the Greek Government. The sterile male technique is discussed in details and some results from the applications are given

  5. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  6. The effectiveness of sit-stand workstations for changing office workers' sitting time: results from the Stand@Work randomized controlled trial pilot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Daley, M.; Dunn, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Do, A.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged sitting time is detrimental for health. Individuals with desk-based occupations tend to sit a great deal and sit-stand workstations have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce sitting time. Hence, the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of using sit-stand

  7. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC, double-infected (GUA and uninfected (GT female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression.

  8. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  9. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    SIT methodologies have not been developed for many of the major potential invasive pest species for which it could play an important role in eradicating incipient outbreaks. Among the USDA-APHIS Exotic Pest Arthropod List for the USA, which highlights 100 high-risk pests, ca. fifty percent of this worst of the worst list are from the order Lepidoptera. Many of these Lepidoptera are not only a threat to the US but also to many other regions of the world. Nevertheless, research to develop SIT for these high risk, exotic lepidopteran pests is lacking in most cases (Asian gypsy moth being an exception). Cooperative efforts are needed to develop appropriate response strategies that would include eradication technologies in advance of invasive lepidopteran pest introductions. In collaboration with USDA scientists James Carpenter, Ken Bloem and Stephanie Bloem, FAO/IAEA has been supporting research and facilitating co-operation among scientists of different countries to develop F1 Sterility as a proactive approach for dealing with two such potential invasive lepidopteran pests. Because F1 Sterility produces competitive insects and has been reported in all lepidopteran species investigated, these studies should serve as useful models for half of the species on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. One is the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta, which features prominently on the 'Worst of the Worst' list. It is a polyphagous key pest in South Africa and many regional plant protection organizations have expressed concern of the spread of this damaging pest as a direct result of increased international trade. Under a multi-country and multi-agency effort mass rearing methods are being improved in South Africa, and radiation biology studies are being refined to determine the optimum dose of radiation to induce F1 Sterility for use in an SIT programme as an eradication tool should this pest be introduced into a foreign country. Another good example of our ill-preparedness to

  10. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  11. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  12. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  13. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  14. The sterile-male technique for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., in the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, C.

    1975-01-01

    Certain problems caused by the use of insecticides in the management of agricultural pests, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and disturbance of biological balance, has led to the development of selective pest control methods. A prominent place among these for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly has been attained by the species specific sterile-insect technique (SIT). This study reviews the status of field programmes in countries of the Mediterranean basin, and of related mass rearing, irradiation and field release methodology. The SIT has been successfully tested in Spain, Italy, Israel and Cyprus. In all these cases, however, tests were conducted in small semi-isolated areas where at best a high degree of suppression but not eradication of the fly could be obtained since immigration of gravid females was always possible. The SIT programme in Cyprus and data on medfly ecology in the island is here reviewed in more detail. A proposal is make for the eradication of medfly from Cyprus by the use of an integration of methods, namely bait spraying, cultural practices and sterile-insect releases. (author)

  15. 26 CFR 31.3506-1 - Companion sitting placement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3506-1 Companion sitting placement services. (a) Definitions—(1) Companion sitting placement service... agency that places babysitters with individuals who desire babysitting services. X furnishes all the.... B performs the services four days a week in A's home and follows specific instructions given by A...

  16. Sitting too much: A hierarchy of socio-demographic correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, J.; Loyen, A.; Schotman, N.; Peeters, C.F.W.; Cardon, G.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Lien, N.; Chastin, S.; Brug, J.

    Too much sitting (extended sedentary time) is recognized as a public health concern in Europe and beyond. Time spent sedentary is influenced and conditioned by clusters of individual-level and contextual (upstream) factors. Identifying population subgroups that sit too much could help to develop

  17. Knowledge discovery in databases of biomechanical variables: application to the sit to stand motor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuti Francesco

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interpretation of data obtained in a movement analysis laboratory is a crucial issue in clinical contexts. Collection of such data in large databases might encourage the use of modern techniques of data mining to discover additional knowledge with automated methods. In order to maximise the size of the database, simple and low-cost experimental set-ups are preferable. The aim of this study was to extract knowledge inherent in the sit-to-stand task as performed by healthy adults, by searching relationships among measured and estimated biomechanical quantities. An automated method was applied to a large amount of data stored in a database. The sit-to-stand motor task was already shown to be adequate for determining the level of individual motor ability. Methods The technique of search for association rules was chosen to discover patterns as part of a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD process applied to a sit-to-stand motor task observed with a simple experimental set-up and analysed by means of a minimum measured input model. Selected parameters and variables of a database containing data from 110 healthy adults, of both genders and of a large range of age, performing the task were considered in the analysis. Results A set of rules and definitions were found characterising the patterns shared by the investigated subjects. Time events of the task turned out to be highly interdependent at least in their average values, showing a high level of repeatability of the timing of the performance of the task. Conclusions The distinctive patterns of the sit-to-stand task found in this study, associated to those that could be found in similar studies focusing on subjects with pathologies, could be used as a reference for the functional evaluation of specific subjects performing the sit-to-stand motor task.

  18. Excessive sitting at work and at home: Correlates of occupational sitting and TV viewing time in working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Lynch, Brigid M; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-09-15

    Recent evidence links sedentary behaviour (or too much sitting) with poorer health outcomes; many adults accumulate the majority of their daily sitting time through occupational sitting and TV viewing. To further the development and targeting of evidence-based strategies there is a need for identification of the factors associated with higher levels of these behaviours. This study examined socio-demographic and health-related correlates of occupational sitting and of combined high levels of occupational sitting/TV viewing time amongst working adults. Participants were attendees of the third wave (2011/12) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study who worked full-time (≥35 h/week; n = 1,235; 38 % women; mean ± SD age 53 ± 7 years). Logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted (separately for women and men) to assess cross-sectional associations of self-reported occupational sitting time (categorised as high/low based on the median) and also the combination of occupational sitting time/TV viewing time (high/low for each outcome), with a number of potential socio-demographic and health-related correlates. Higher levels of occupational sitting (>6 h/day) were associated with higher household income for both genders. Lower levels of occupational sitting were associated with being older (women only); and, for men only, having a blue collar occupation, having a technical/vocational educational attainment, and undertaking more leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Attributes associated with high levels of both occupational sitting and TV viewing time included white collar occupation (men only), lower levels of LTPA (both genders), higher BMI (men), and higher energy consumption (women). Higher household income (both genders) and professional/managerial occupations (men only) were correlates of high occupational sitting time, relative to low occupational sitting time, while health-related factors (lower LTPA, higher BMI

  19. Sitting Safety Aspects of Second Romanian NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, T.

    2010-01-01

    The first Romanian NPP CANDU 6 type reactor gone to erection in 1980 on Cernavoda site planned to have 5 units like the Wolsong applied design project for nuclear island. For the BOP parts the ASALDO-GE project was applied with the careful about the interface connection NSP requirements. The new NPP sitting studies began from 1982 in a serious manner as first part on Nuclear Power Plant Romanian Program adopted by political and governmental authorities at the time. For develop the all package of the studies in concordance with the first IAEA Safety Standards recommendations. Till the 1982 the first mission of design and research multi-branch of specialists team was to adapt the NPP Cernavoda project having a open water cooling circuit to the new parameters of close water cooling circuit. But the team was looking at the other type of NPP for sitting. Also in the same time was studied the possibility of NSP foundation on hard less or soft soil foundation strata in connection with safety aspects. The close circuit of cooling water means others parameters of systems and need very large cooling towers. Also must be reconsidering the safety systems design and performance as new solution. In the south of Transylvania historical region in Romania the Olt River run from west to east having medium multi annual flow around 70 m3/s. The Olt River has a chain of small hydropower in operation and other planned. From geological and geophysical points of view two main faults, along the Olt river valley, one of this having seismically small activities was detected. Site region geotechnical studies show small quantity underground natural gas, salt and peat. The initial nuclear program has imposed 4 NPP units site near Olt River. Taking into account the orogenesis, water cooling needs and other local feature can't be built more than two NPP units on a site. This paper tries to reconsider the old analysis from the last IAEA Safety Standards point of view taking into account the new

  20. Wearable Sensors for Measuring Movement in Short Sessions of Mindfulness Sitting Meditation: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness techniques are useful tools in health and well-being. To improve and facilitate formal training, beginners need to know if they are in a stable sitting posture and if they can hold it. Previous monitoring studies did not consider stability during sitting meditation or were specific for longer traditional practices. In this paper, we have extended and adapted previous studies to modern mindfulness practices and posed two questions: (a Which is the best meditation seat for short sessions? In this way, the applications of stability measures are expanded to meditation activities, in which the sitting posture favors stability, and (b Which is the most sensitive location of an accelerometer to measure body motion during short meditation sessions? A pilot study involving 31 volunteers was conducted using inertial sensors. The results suggest that thumb, head, or infraclavicular locations can be chosen to measure stability despite the habitual lumbar or sacral region found in the literature. Another important finding of this study is that zafus, chairs, and meditation benches are suitable for short meditation sessions in a sitting posture, although the zafu seems to allow for fewer postural changes. This finding opens new opportunities to design very simple and comfortable measuring systems.

  1. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.; Cockburn, Andrew F.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal

  2. Recombinant DNA technology and insect control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, J A; Cockburn, Andrew F [Insects Affecting Man and Animals Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1989-08-01

    In the past, the most successful avenue for the use of genetics in insect control has been the employment of the sterile insect technique, in which huge numbers of a species are produced in a factory, sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation and released into the native habitat. this method is suitable for some species, but for logistical, economical, and biological reasons this control technique is not suitable for many economically important species. Our ability to use genetic approaches to cope with the myriad of insect pests will improve in the near future because of progress in the biochemical manipulation of genes. Molecular geneticists have created bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi that have useful new properties, and many of these are being used or tested for commercial use. A reasonable forecast is that a virtual revolution will occur in the way that we currently practice and perceive the genetic control of insects. Using genetic engineering manipulations to develop control techniques for insects of agricultural and public health importance is an exciting prospect and a highly desirable goal.

  3. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  4. RAAAF's office landscape The End of Sitting : Energy expenditure and temporary comfort when working in non-sitting postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, Simone R.; de Vries, Rutger; Withagen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    An earlier study suggested that the activity-inviting office landscape called "The End of Sitting", designed by Rietveld Architecture Art Affordances (RAAAF), should be considered as an alternative working environment to prevent sedentary behavior. The End of Sitting lacks chairs and tables but

  5. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  6. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  7. Evaluation of genetically altered medflies for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Although the medfly is a key pest in many areas of the world, there are important fruit growing areas where other fruit flies are key pests. It was concluded that it would be of value for any future CRP on genetic sexing to include these species. For the development of genetic sexing systems in these species much can be gained from the experiences with the medfly. However, at present, a similar procedure will have to be followed which will entail the construction of genetic maps, the development of cytological techniques and the induction of male linked translocation. In future, the availability of molecular methods could enable sexing systems to be transferred between species. The proceedings contain 11 papers, which range from an initial molecular analysis of the genome of the fly to a field experiment to assess the impact of an all-male release

  8. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  9. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wild-type DNA resulted in the production of adults with wing ... using conventional method of breeding and selection. .... insects, birds, and other animals .... used to derive the expression of the antibiotic, tetracycline repressible transactivator.

  10. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects (as might be the case when a nest is disturbed, or when Africanized honeybees are involved); ... test with the five commercially available venoms; honey bee, paper wasp, yellow jacket, yellow hornet and white- ...

  11. RAAAF's office landscape The End of Sitting: Energy expenditure and temporary comfort when working in non-sitting postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R Caljouw

    Full Text Available An earlier study suggested that the activity-inviting office landscape called "The End of Sitting", designed by Rietveld Architecture Art Affordances (RAAAF, should be considered as an alternative working environment to prevent sedentary behavior. The End of Sitting lacks chairs and tables but consists instead of a myriad of sloped surfaces at different heights that afford workers to stand, lean or recline at different locations. In this study, we assessed the impact of four of its workspaces on physical intensity, temporary comfort and productivity of office work and compared the outcomes with sitting and standing behind a desk. Twenty-four participants worked for 10 minutes in each of the six test conditions. Energy expenditure, measured by indirect calorimetry, and heart rate were recorded. Questionnaires were used to assess the perceived comfort. The number of words found in the word search test was counted as a measure of productivity. The majority of The End of Sitting workspaces led to a significant increase in energy expenditure compared with sitting behind a desk (ps < .05. Average MET values ranged from 1.40 to 1.58 which is a modest rise in energy expenditure compared to sitting (1.32 METs and not significantly different from standing (1.47 METs. The scores on the general comfort scale indicated that some workspaces were less comfortable than sitting (ps < .05, but the vast majority of participants reported that at least one of The End of Sitting workspaces was equally or more comfortable than sitting. No differences in productivity between the test conditions were found. Further long-term studies are required to assess the behavioral adaptations, productivity and the level of comfort when using The End of Sitting as a permanent office.

  12. Vibrotactile Postural Control in Patients that have Sit-to-Stand Balance Deficit and Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ankle joint flexibility, or joint replacement technique may be the focus of rehabilitation, yet the intervention goal is to normalize sit-to-stand...the knee joint angle to an optimal ankle joint angle to achieve a weight-bearing task. An analogy for a single-variant model would be shooting a...and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) observer anchor -based scores.30 Therefore, this study might demonstrate knowledge retention as evidenced in

  13. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  14. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  15. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  16. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  17. Evaluation of Game Performance in Elite Male Sitting Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kosmol, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Izabela; Jakubicka, Alicja; Kaliszewska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Robert; Kurowska, Monika; Ploch, Elwira; Mustafins, Pavel; Gómez, Miguel-Ángel

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the current study were (a) to analyze the differences in game performances of sitting volleyball athletes representing the different types of disabilities and (b) to assess whether the seated position vertical reach is one of the crucial factors in the game performance level of sitting volleyball athletes. One hundred male athletes from various national teams participating in the European Championships in Sitting Volleyball (2009) took part in this study. The athletes were categorized according to type of disability and the results of the vertical reach in a seated position. Thirtysix games were analyzed using the Game Performance Sheet for Sitting Volleyball. Twenty-three game performance parameters were studied. In addition, the sum and effectiveness of attacks, blocks, block services, services, ball receiving, and defensive actions were calculated. The main results indicated significant differences between athletes with minimal disability and athletes with single amputations from above the knee in the level of defensive performances and the summation of defensive actions. There was also a significant difference between athletes in relation to their vertical reach during activity and attacking actions, blocks, and ball receiving. In addition, there were strong relationships between the players' vertical reach scores and their activity and effectiveness in sitting volleyball. In conclusion, the accuracy of the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled classification systems for sitting volleyball players was confirmed. There is a strong relationship between players' vertical reach and their effectiveness in sitting volleyball.

  18. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrose, M.; Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of 36 Cl - into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [ 14 C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([ 14 C]-TPP + ) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL - . Steady-state distribution of [ 14 C]methylamine ([ 14 C]MA) was used to examine for Cl - -dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na + gradients, but not Cl - gradients, induce changes in [ 14 C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [ 14 C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na + and Cl - . Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl - influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of P Cl relative to either P Na or P K . SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [ 14 C]TPP + or [ 14 C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl - influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl - conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl - -OH - exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  19. Occupational sitting time and overweight and obesity in Australian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummery, W Kerry; Schofield, Grant M; Steele, Rebekah; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Brown, Wendy J

    2005-08-01

    One of the major immediate and long-term health issues in modern society is the problem of overweight and obesity. This paper examines the role of the workplace in the problem by studying the association between occupational sitting time and overweight and obesity (body mass index [BMI] > or =25) in a sample of adult Australians in full-time employment. Data on age, gender, occupation, physical activity, occupational sitting time, and BMI were collected in September 2003 from a sample of 1579 adult men and women in full-time employment at the time of the survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between occupational sitting time and overweight and obesity. Mean occupational sitting time was >3 hours/day, and significantly higher in men (209 minutes) than in women (189 minutes, p=0.026). Univariate analyses showed significant associations between occupational sitting time and BMI of > or =25 in men but not in women. After adjusting for age, occupation, and physical activity, the odds ratio for BMI > or =25 was 1.92 (confidence interval: 1.17-3.17) in men who reported sitting for >6 hours/day, compared with those who sat for workplace may play an important role in the growing problem of overweight and obesity. Further research is needed to clearly understand the association between sitting time at work and overweight and obesity in women.

  20. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  2. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 71, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  3. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 66, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  4. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 72, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  5. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 69, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  6. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 68, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  7. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 70, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  8. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 67, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  9. Search for new amounts of Irrdiation in order to improve the efficacy of the steril insect technique in the control of medfly in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ibrahim, Hatem; Ben Abdallah, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This survey has for objective to look for a dose of irradiation appropriate and susceptible to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the males radiated in order to make currently moe efficient the sterile bug technique associated in a national program of controlled struggle against the ceratite. For that to make, eight doses of irradiations (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130Gy) have been tried in comparison with a non exposed witness and a witness treated by the dose currently used in the national center of nuclear sciences and technology (145Gy). The quality control of the sterile males has been made in return for tests of emergence, of faculty to the flight, barrenness, longevity and wandering. The last test has been valued after releasing males radiated in orchards of citrus fruits in the region of Hammamet. This work allowed us to clear a dose of 110GY has to improve the quality of the exposed males even and that would be released. This dose permitted to get the best rates of emergence (about 82%), of faculty to the flight (76%), of longevity (65% (about 35% of flies died after 12 hours of observation)) and distribution (8 flies by trap) without affecting the barrenness (about 97% that are considered in the norms of the AIEA). (author). 12 refs

  10. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  11. The Effects of Breaking up Prolonged Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    on the electronic databases PUBMED and SCOPUS was independently conducted by two researchers. Only prospective intervention studies (controlled and uncontrolled) evaluating the effects of explicitly replacing sitting time with physical activity (including standing) on metabolic parameters as outcomes were included...

  12. Sitting Time and Associated Factors among Chronic Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitting Time and Associated Factors among Chronic Disease Patients in Cambodia, ... comprising those who had cardiovascular disease (n = 804), hypertension (n ... physical activity, no problem drinking and not having depression symptoms.

  13. Incorporation of diapause into codling moth mass rearing: Production advantages and insect quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Stephanie; Calkins, Carrol O.; Bloem, Ken A.

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a widely distributed species and the key pest of apples and pears in orchards of the Pacific Northwest. CM possesses facultative diapause and the mature 5th instar larva is the overwintering stage (Brown 1991). British Columbia, Canada, is attempting to eradicate CM using the sterile insect technique (SIT). The Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release (SIR) Program began releasing sterile CM in 1994 (Dyck et al. 1993, Bloem and Bloem 1996) and results in recent years have been excellent. Despite the fact that standard rearing operations have gone extremely well, and weekly CM production has increased from 8.7 million CM per week in 1994 to 14.2 million per week in 1997, the ability to mass rear diapausing CM holds a number of advantages that are currently not available. The ability to stockpile CM larvae in diapause throughout the fall and winter months when the mass rearing facility is underutilised would: 1) provide additional CM for release during the spring/summer field season, 2) provide back-up material to guard against colony losses due to operational failures and/or pathogen outbreaks, 3) allow for a potentially more cost-effective use of the facility by maintaining production year round, 4) facilitate the development of mass rearing techniques for key parasitoids that attack the overwintering stage, 5) allow for the easy shipment (and sale) of CM to researchers around the world. Here we outline the current standard CM mass rearing procedures and discuss research that has allowed diapausing CM to be mass reared (Bloem et al. 1997). We also discuss research that suggests diapaused CM are more competitive than standard non-diapaused CM (Bloem et al. 1998)

  14. Evidence of weak genetic structure and recent gene flow between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and B. papayae, across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia, supporting a single target pest for SIT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-06-14

    Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. (Hendel) and B. papayae Drew & Hancock, are invasive pests belonging to the B. dorsalis complex. Their species status, based on morphology, is sometimes arguable. Consequently, the existence of cryptic species and/or population isolation may decrease the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT) due to an unknown degree of sexual isolation between released sterile flies and wild counterparts. To evaluate the genetic relationship and current demography in wild populations for guiding the application of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT, seven microsatellite-derived markers from B. dorsalis s.s. and another five from B. papayae were used for surveying intra- and inter-specific variation, population structure, and recent migration among sympatric and allopatric populations of the two morphological forms across Southern Thailand and West Malaysia. Basic genetic variations were not significantly different among forms, populations, and geographical areas (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, two sets of microsatellite markers showed significantly different levels of polymorphisms. Genetic differentiation between intra- and inter-specific differences was significant, but low. Seventeen populations revealed three hypothetical genetic clusters (K = 3) regardless of forms and geographical areas. The genetic structure of sympatric populations slightly changed during the different years of collection. Recent gene flow (m ≥ 0.10) was frequently detected whether samples were sympatric or allopatric. Ninety-five of 379 individuals distributed across the given area were designated as recent migrants or of admixed ancestry. As a consequence of substantial migration, no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was detected (R2 = 0.056, P = 0.650). According to the 12 microsatellite variations, weak population structure and recent gene flow suggest that there is no status for cryptic species between B. dorsalis s.s. and B

  15. Sit to stand activity during stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andy; Dawson, Jesse; Robertson, Chris; Rowe, Philip; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The sit to stand (STS) movement is key to independence and commonly affected by stroke. Repetitive practice is likely to improve STS ability during rehabilitation, however current practice levels are unknown. The objective of this study was simply to count the number of STS movements performed during the rehabilitation period of stroke patients using a physical activity monitor (PAM) and test whether being observed altered outcome. Methods Participants were medically stable patients referred for rehabilitation following stroke. Participants were randomly allocated to either wear or not wear the PAM for 14 days. STS ability and general mobility were recorded before and after. Results Sixty-one patients was recruited; aged 68.4 ± 13.15 years, weight 77.12 ± 22.73 Kg, Height 1.67 ± 0.1 m, within 9 ± 9 days of their stroke and an NIHSS score of 6.4 ± 3.3. The monitored group (n = 38) performed 25.00 ± 17.24 daily STS movements. Those requiring assistance achieved 14.29 ± 16.10 per day while those independent in the movement achieved 34.10 ± 12.44. There was an overall improvement in mobility (p = 0.002) but not STS performance (p = 0.053) neither outcome was affected by group allocation (p = 0.158). Cognition and mobility at baseline explained around 50% of daily STS variability. Discussion Low levels of STS activity were recorded during the rehabilitation period of stroke patient. The mean daily STS activity was lower than reports for frail older people receiving rehabilitation, and substantially below levels recorded by community living older adults. STS repetitions may represent general physical activity and these low levels support previous reports of sedentary behavior during rehabilitation.

  16. Maakonna tegu – Käsitööplahvatus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Eesti Rahvakunsti ja Käsitöö Liidu juhatus andis teist korda välja auhinda “Maakonna tegu”, mille pälvis Pärnu Muuseumi näitus “Käsitöö plahvatus” 6.10.2015- 24.01.2016, mis koosnes kolmest alanäitusest “Loomast loodud”, “Puulased” ja “Helmes, sina kallis väike helmes ...”

  17. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  18. Two-Arm Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial to Decrease Sitting Time and Increase Sit-To-Stand Transitions in Working and Non-Working Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kerr

    Full Text Available Excessive sitting has been linked to poor health. It is unknown whether reducing total sitting time or increasing brief sit-to-stand transitions is more beneficial. We conducted a randomized pilot study to assess whether it is feasible for working and non-working older adults to reduce these two different behavioral targets.Thirty adults (15 workers and 15 non-workers age 50-70 years were randomized to one of two conditions (a 2-hour reduction in daily sitting or accumulating 30 additional brief sit-to-stand transitions per day. Sitting time, standing time, sit-to-stand transitions and stepping were assessed by a thigh worn inclinometer (activPAL. Participants were assessed for 7 days at baseline and followed while the intervention was delivered (2 weeks. Mixed effects regression analyses adjusted for days within participants, device wear time, and employment status. Time by condition interactions were investigated.Recruitment, assessments, and intervention delivery were feasible. The 'reduce sitting' group reduced their sitting by two hours, the 'increase sit-to-stand' group had no change in sitting time (p < .001. The sit-to-stand transition group increased their sit-to-stand transitions, the sitting group did not (p < .001.This study was the first to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of specific sedentary behavioral goals.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02544867.

  19. Parametric structural modeling of insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R

    2009-01-01

    Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.

  20. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  1. The Sit-and-Wait Hypothesis in Bacterial Pathogens: A Theoretical Study of Durability and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The intriguing sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with their virulence. Since its first proposal in 1987, the hypothesis has been spurring debates in terms of its validity in the field of bacterial virulence. As a special case of the vector-borne transmission versus virulence tradeoff, where vector is now replaced by environmental longevity, there are only sporadic studies over the last three decades showing that environmental durability is possibly linked with virulence. However, no systematic study of these works is currently available and epidemiological analysis has not been updated for the sit-and-wait hypothesis since the publication of Walther and Ewald’s (2004 review. In this article, we put experimental evidence, epidemiological data and theoretical analysis together to support the sit-and-wait hypothesis. According to the epidemiological data in terms of gain and loss of virulence (+/- and durability (+/- phenotypes, we classify bacteria into four groups, which are: sit-and-wait pathogens (++, vector-borne pathogens (+-, obligate-intracellular bacteria (--, and free-living bacteria (-+. After that, we dive into the abundant bacterial proteomic data with the assistance of bioinformatics techniques in order to investigate the two factors at molecular level thanks to the fast development of high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequences of durability-related genes sourced from Gene Ontology and UniProt databases and virulence factors collected from Virulence Factor Database are used to search 20 corresponding bacterial proteomes in batch mode for homologous sequences via the HMMER software package. Statistical analysis only identified a modest, and not statistically significant correlation between mortality and survival time for eight non-vector-borne bacteria with sit-and-wait potentials. Meanwhile, through between-group comparisons, bacteria with higher

  2. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  3. Optimal operation of hybrid-SITs under a SBO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Seop; Heo, Sun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation strategy of hybrid-SIT (H-SIT) in station blackout (SBO) is developed. • There are five main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of the operation strategy. • Optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically and then through thermal-hydraulic analysis using computer code. • The optimum operation strategy is suggested based on the optimal value of the main factors. - Abstract: A hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT) is designed to enhance the capability of pressurized water reactors against high-pressure accidents which might be caused by the combined accidents accompanied by station blackout (SBO), and is suggested as a useful alternative to electricity-driven motor injection pumps. The main purpose of the H-SIT is to provide coolant to the core so that core safety can be maintained for a longer period. As H-SITs have a limited inventory, their efficient use in cooling down the core is paramount to maximize the available time for long-term cooling component restoration. Therefore, an optimum operation strategy must be developed to support the operators for the most efficient H-SIT use. In this study, the main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of an operation strategy are first identified. Then the optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically, a process useful to get the basis of the global optimum points. Based on these analytical optimum points, a thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code is performed to get more accurate values and to verify the results of the analytical study. The available time for long-term cooling component restoration is also estimated. Finally, an integrated optimum operation strategy for H-SITs in SBO is suggested.

  4. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  5. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  6. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  7. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  8. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  9. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  10. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  11. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  12. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  13. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  14. Can a smart chair improve the sitting behavior of office workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy Paul; Roossien, Charissa; Stegenga, Jan; Spook, SM; Brouwer, Sandra; Verkerke, Bart; Reneman, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    a b s t r a c t Prolonged sitting can cause health problems and musculoskeletal discomfort. There is a need for objective and non-obstructive means of measuring sitting behavior. A ‘smart’ office chair can monitor sitting behavior and provide tactile feedback, aiming to improve sitting behavior.

  15. Can a smart chair improve the sitting behavior of office workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, C. C.; Stegenga, J.; Hodselmans, A. P.; Spook, S. M.; Koolhaas, W.; Brouwer, S.; Verkerke, G. J.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged sitting can cause health problems and musculoskeletal discomfort. There is a need for objective and non-obstructive means of measuring sitting behavior. A ‘smart’ office chair can monitor sitting behavior and provide tactile feedback, aiming to improve sitting behavior. This study aimed to

  16. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  17. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  18. How Does Definition of Minimum Break Length Affect Objective Measures of Sitting Outcomes Among Office Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloster, Stine; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behaviour may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been...... described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers...

  19. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...... for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...

  20. Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

  1. Guide for dosimetry for sterile insect release programs. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This guide outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed for the radiation sterilization of live insects for use in pest management programs. The primary use of irradiated, reproductively sterile insects is in the Sterile Insect Technique, where large numbers of sterile insects are released into the field to mate with and thus control pest populations of the same species. A secondary use of sterile insects is as benign hosts for rearing insect parasitoids. The procedures outlined in this guide will help ensure that insects processed with ionizing radiation from gamma, electron, or X-ray sources receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. Information on effective dose ranges for specific applications of insect sterilization, or on methodology for determining effective dose ranges, is not within the scope of this guide. Note: Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality control program to ensure that irradiated insects are adequately sterilized and sufficiently competitive or otherwise suitable for their intended purpose. This guide covers dosimetry in the irradiation of insects for these types of irradiators: self-contained dry-storage 137 Cs or 60 Co irradiators, large-scale gamma irradiators, and electron accelerators. Additional, detailed information on dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine product processing can be found in ISO/ASTM Practices 51608 (X-ray [bremsstrahlung] facilities), 51649 (electron beam facilities), 51702 (large-scale gamma facilities), and ASTM Practice E 2116 (self-contained dry-storage gamma facilities). The absorbed dose for insect sterilization is typically within the range of 20 Gy to 600 Gy

  2. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Bezsheiko

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sed vulputate luctus tortor, facilisis rutrum quam accumsan sed. Aenean nec aliquet nisl, convallis finibus elit. Suspendisse posuere neque eu euismod tempor. Curabitur eleifend massa vitae ex placerat gravida. Nam consequat magna eget elit dignissim consequat. Duis lacinia, libero eu eleifend interdum, ex lacus mattis urna, in dapibus nibh nibh id risus. Suspendisse potenti. Methods. Mauris ut nulla ante. Fusce pharetra aliquet neque, id efficitur ex consequat sit amet. Proin sollicitudin eu est at faucibus. Vivamus eu risus lacus. Ut nec orci vitae leo fermentum facilisis non blandit risus. Nunc non arcu ac neque sagittis malesuada. Duis quis mauris vitae lorem rutrum dapibus blandit at ipsum. Sed tortor nibh, aliquet et mauris a, pellentesque gravida arcu. Cras tristique nisi ultricies, gravida tortor quis, pretium metus. Results. Vivamus arcu ante, iaculis feugiat feugiat vitae, aliquam ac purus. Donec ex turpis, hendrerit vel ultricies id, iaculis a odio. Fusce congue pretium ante, in feugiat nulla elementum in. Donec turpis felis, porta ac tempus eget, accumsan nec libero. Etiam rutrum, tortor et varius bibendum, nisi dolor molestie lectus, volutpat euismod dui justo a diam. Aliquam sapien mauris, molestie a lacus a, fermentum suscipit nunc. Sed eros lectus, hendrerit sit amet aliquet sit amet, mollis vitae purus. Morbi urna nulla, ultrices id facilisis sit amet, placerat eget tellus. Proin semper nisi eget bibendum euismod. Proin dignissim in mauris vel accumsan. Sed nec sodales metus. Mauris suscipit erat sed dui consectetur auctor. Quisque eget ex tortor. In molestie, urna id ullamcorper sagittis, libero risus gravida massa, in efficitur sapien urna lacinia sem. Donec interdum libero at tempor auctor. Conclusion. Ut a lorem non libero semper euismod in ut tellus. Aenean aliquam congue enim nec porttitor. Ut mauris libero, auctor sed finibus ac, gravida et mauris. Nullam vel mattis tortor, sit amet vestibulum ipsum. Nulla

  4. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  5. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  6. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  7. Sit-to-stand at different periods of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, S Z; Chou, Y L; Chou, P H; Lin, C J; Chen, U C; Su, F C

    2001-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the biomechanics of chair rising by pregnant women. Relative body joint position and ground reaction forces were measured by a motion analysis system and one force plate. Physiological and psychological changes during pregnancy impose postural demands and limit the performance of daily living activities such as rising from sitting to standing position. Twenty-four pregnant women, divided into three groups, were studied performing sit-to-stand transition from an armless and adjustable chair. By kinematic and kinetic analysis, the angles and moments of hip, knee and ankle joints were investigated. The chair height has great influence on knee joint and hip joint moments, but less on ankle joints. In the third trimester for all chair heights, because of a marked increase in abdominal depth, the maximum hip moment is significantly less than that in first trimester, while the maximum knee moment is significantly larger. Pregnant women in third trimester produced larger knee moment during sit-to-stand transition from lower chair height. The mechanism of sit-to-stand is affected by the physical changes of pregnant women at different periods of pregnancy, e.g. increased loading of knee joint and decreased hip joint moment, especially in the last trimester period of pregnancy.

  8. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  9. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  10. Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae on tone surfaces in an uncontaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Hibino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae in an uncontaminated river were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) via the k 0 -standardization method. The aquatic insect larvae found were all intolerant species. No significant difference was observed int he elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae long the river. Similar elemental concentrations were observed in the aquatic insect larvae collected at a fixed sampling point for two years. An analysis by the ratio-matching technique indicated a higher generic relationship between aquatic insect larvae and attached algae than river water. (author)

  11. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S; Arnolds, L; Johnson, J [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  12. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  13. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  14. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  15. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  16. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  17. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  18. Arriving at the age of pest insect transgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Peter W.; O'Brochta, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Technologies that enable the stable genetic transformation of insects other than the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, have been sought since D. melanogaster was initially transformed using the P transposable element (Rubin and Spradling 1982). D. melanogaster transformation can now be achieved by using Type II eukaryotic transposable elements such as P, hobo, Hermes, mariner, Minos and piggyBac (Blackman et al. 1989, Lidholm et al. 1993, Loukeris et al. 1995a, O'Brochta et al. 1996, Rubin and Spadling 1982, A. M. Handler, personal communication). The success of this strategy led to many attempts to extend it into non-drosophilid insects and this approach has recently been successful with the use of four different transposable elements to transform two non-drosophilid insect species, the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Coates et al. 1998, Handler et al. 1998, Jasinskiene et al. 1998, Loukeris et al. 1995b). The generation of these transgenic insects has, in part, arisen through the adoption of two approaches. One has been the isolation of new transposable elements from non-drosophilid insects. The second has been the implementation of mobility assays that have quickly enabled the mobility properties of these new elements in the target pest species to be determined. The success of these approaches will most likely be extended to other pest insect species over the next five years and will increase our ability to use modern genetic techniques to develop new strategies to control pest insects

  19. Detection methods for irradiated mites and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the study on the following tests for separation of irradiated pests from untreated ones are reported: (a) test for identification of irradiated mites (Acaridae) based on lack of fecundity of treated females; (b) test for identification of irradiated beetles based on their locomotor activity; (c) test for identification of irradiated pests based on electron spin resonance (ESR) signal derived from treated insects; (d) test for identification of irradiated pests based on changes in the midgut induced by gamma radiation; and (e) test for identification of irradiated pests based on the alterations in total proteins of treated adults. Of these detection methods, only the test based on the pathological changes induced by irradiation in the insect midgut may identify consistently either irradiated larvae or adults. This test is simple and convenient when a rapid processing technique for dehydrating and embedding the midgut is used. (author)

  20. CFD simulation on condensation inside a Hybrid SIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; Ryu, Sung Uk; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The concept of Hybrid Safety Injection Tank system (Hybrid SIT) was proposed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) aiming at Advanced Power Reactor Plus. The main advantage of the system is the ready injection of coolant into the reactor coolant system at high pressure. In this paper, a CFD simulation is conducted as a preliminary study. In Hybrid SITs, condensation inside the tank affects its pressure rise and injection time. In an attempt to explore the condensation in detail, we manufactured a dedicated experimental facility for visualization of condensation-induced thermal mixing and conducted a preliminary CFD simulation. Its condensation models were validated first and then computational domain was constructed. The water region was modeled as a solid for stable calculation. The CFD results gave less condensation and excessive pressurization because of lack of steam penetration into the water. In the future, the water region will be modeled as liquid using a VOF model.

  1. Application of a sitting MIRD phantom for effective dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R. H.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    In typical realistic scenarios, dose factors due to 60 Co contaminated steel, used in consumer products, cannot be approximated by standard exposure geometries. It is then necessary to calculate the effective dose using an appropriate anthropomorphic phantom. MCNP calculations were performed using a MIRD human model in two settings. In the first, a male office worker is sitting in a chair containing contaminated steel, surrounded by contaminated furniture. In the second, a male driver is seated inside an automobile, the steel of which is uniformly contaminated. To accurately calculate the dose to lower body organs, especially the gonads, it was essential to modify the MIRD model to simulate two sitting postures: chair and driving position. The phantom modifications are described, and the results of the calculations are presented. In the case of the automobile scenarios, results are compared to those obtained using an isotropic fluence-to-dose conversion function. (authors)

  2. Comparison of Objectively Measured and Self-reported Time Spent Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...

  3. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  4. Quality assurance system for sitting high risk facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Aymee; Peralta, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows how we have conceived and designed the quality assurance system for the site selection process of an area for sitting the facility of high risk in correspondence with the approved methodology. The results obtained in the implementation of the system have permitted the satisfactory performance of each one the expected stage, defining the most favorable sectors in order to continue the studies of the repository site for the disposal of low and intermedium. (author)

  5. Induction position for spinal anaesthesia: Sitting versus lateral position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, K.; Afshan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of induction position on block characteristics (sensory and motor nerves) and haemodynamic stability in elderly patients with isobaric bupivacaine. Patient comfort was also looked at. Methods: The randomized single blinded study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from September 2007 to August 2008. A total of 70 patients aged >60 years of both genders were included. Spinal anaesthesia was performed either in sitting or lateral position according to random allocation. Assessments of sensory, motor block and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded for 20 minutes. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference for haemodynamic variables heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The onset of anaesthesia was faster in the sitting group (4.5 minutes vs 5.4 minutes). The motor block characteristics were similar in both the groups. The majority of patients who reported 'very comfortable' for induction position belonged to the lateral group. Conclusion: Both sitting and lateral positions have similar effects on sensory and motor blockade and haemodynamic stability. However, patients generally found lateral position very comfortable. (author)

  6. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  7. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  8. Sitting Time in Adults 65 Years and Over: Behavior, Knowledge, and Intentions to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Duncan, Mitch J; De Cocker, Katrien; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2018-04-01

    This study examined sitting time, knowledge, and intentions to change sitting time in older adults. An online survey was completed by 494 Australians aged 65+. Average daily sitting was high (9.0 hr). Daily sitting time was the highest during TV (3.3 hr), computer (2.1 hr), and leisure (1.7 hr). A regression analysis demonstrated that women were more knowledgeable about the health risks of sitting compared to men. The percentage of older adults intending to sit less were the highest for TV (24%), leisure (24%), and computer (19%) sitting time. Regression analyses demonstrated that intentions varied by gender (for TV sitting), education (leisure and work sitting), body mass index (computer, leisure, and transport sitting), and physical activity (TV, computer, and leisure sitting). Interventions should target older adults' TV, computer, and leisure time sitting, with a focus on intentions in older males and older adults with low education, those who are active, and those with a normal weight.

  9. Ring ümber käsitöö / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Virumaa Kunsti ja Käsitöö Seltsi ja Rakvere Galerii ühisprojektist "Ring ümber kunsti ja käsitöö" - kaardistatakse Lääne-Virumaa käsitööpoed, kunstnikud, meistrikojad, galeriid ja ateljeed

  10. sitöötund ja õpilaste loovus / Kai Malmstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malmstein, Kai

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ käsitöö ja kodunduse eriala diplomand Lemme Kurvits viis 2000.a. läbi uuringu, et selgitada õpilaste arvamust oma loovatest võimetest ja suhtumist käsitöötundidesse. Küsimustele vastas 250 8.-9. klassi õpilast kaheksast koolist ning nende koolide käsitööõpetajad

  11. Postural control in children with spastic diplegia : Muscle activity during perturbations in sitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogren, E; HaddersAlgra, M; Forssberg, H

    To clarify the neural mechanisms controlling equilibrium during sitting, and the implications for the optimal sitting position for children with CP, automatic postural adjustments after perturbations of the support surface during sitting were investigated in seven children with spastic diplegia and

  12. Quality in mass-produced insects: definition and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The insect that is mass-produced and released in a control programme is in effect a biological bullet, a self-guided missile designed to deliver a beneficial effect against a pest insect. The ability of the released insect to achieve this objective may be influenced in many ways. The control of the quality of mass-produced insects must include an understanding of the behavioural components critical to their success and an evaluation of their performance based upon these behavioural components. The paper discusses some of the principles and techniques being used and developed to study behavioural performance and quality. Included are discussions of tests of: vigour, irritability, activity, sound production, response thresholds, reproductive preference and drive, biotic potential, and others. (author)

  13. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I D

    2017-07-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process. Obtaining such knowledge is crucial for the success of insect-based product development. One of the issues that is likely to compromise the success of insect rearing is the outbreak of insect diseases. In particular, viral diseases can be devastating for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks in mass rearing systems, ranging from simple sanitation methods to highly sophisticated methods including RNAi and transgenics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of a sit-stand workstation intervention on daily sitting, standing and physical activity: protocol for a 12 month workplace randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer; Mansfield, Louise; Kay, Tess; McConnell, Alison K

    2015-02-15

    A lack of physical activity and excessive sitting can contribute to poor physical health and wellbeing. The high percentage of the UK adult population in employment, and the prolonged sitting associated with desk-based office-work, make these workplaces an appropriate setting for interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity. This pilot study aims to determine the effect of an office-based sit-stand workstation intervention, compared with usual desk use, on daily sitting, standing and physical activity, and to examine the factors that underlie sitting, standing and physical activity, within and outside, the workplace. A randomised control trial (RCT) comparing the effects of a sit-stand workstation only and a multi-component sit-stand workstation intervention, with usual desk-based working practice (no sit-stand workstation) will be conducted with office workers across two organisations, over a 12 month period (N = 30). The multicomponent intervention will comprise organisational, environmental and individual elements. Objective data will be collected at baseline, and after 2-weeks, 3-months, 6-months and 12-months of the intervention. Objective measures of sitting, standing, and physical activity will be made concurrently (ActivPAL3™ and ActiGraph (GT3X+)). Activity diaries, ethnographic participant observation, and interviews with participants and key organisational personnel will be used to elicit understanding of the influence of organisational culture on sitting, standing and physical activity behaviour in the workplace. This study will be the first long-term sit-stand workstation intervention study utilising an RCT design, and incorporating a comprehensive process evaluation. The study will generate an understanding of the factors that encourage and restrict successful implementation of sit-stand workstation interventions, and will help inform future occupational wellbeing policy and practice. Other strengths include the

  15. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BILATERAL SINGLE SITTING ENDOSCOPIC MYRINGOPLASTY CONCHAL CARTILAGE VERSUS TEMPORALIS FASCIA GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Thirugnanam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Though single sitting myringoplasty using temporalis fascia under general anaesthesia has been documented in many studies, but ours is the first center to have started using tragal cartilage and temporalis fascia harvested from one ear to do bilateral myringoplasty in one sitting using local anaesthesia with excellent results including very good graft uptake rate and audiological improvement without significant complications. The aim of the study is to compare the outcome of bilateral myringoplasty in dry central perforation in one sitting using cartilage on one side and temporalis fascia on the other ear in an urban tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients above the age of 15 years were included in the study who had dried bilateral perforated ear drum involving pars tensa both sides size of perforation and hearing loss were more or less-matched patients who had persistently discharging ear or had evidence of middle ear infection, granulation tissues, aural polypi, cholesteatoma, ossicular erosion or evidence of sensorineural hearing loss were excluded from the study. In the cases, temporalis fascia graft through postaural incision right side and conchal cartilage was harvested from the right side and endoscopic myringoplasty was performed. Temporalis fascia graft placed by underlay technique and conchal cartilage was used as graft on the left side for all the patients. Patients were followed up after 3 and 6 months to assess closure of tympanic membrane perforation and hearing improvement as depicted by closure of air above gap on pure tone audiometry at 6 months. Study Design- Interventional, descriptive. Place and Duration of Study- Department of ENT, UIORL, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, June 2012 to July 2013. RESULTS A total of 100 myringoplasties were performed on 50 patients included in the study. Majority of the patients included were having medium to large size

  17. The use of massive SIT for the control of the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), strain SEIB 6-96, in Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Oscar de; Colombo, Anibal; Gomez-Riera, Pablo; Bartolucci, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits has led to the development of new techniques in farming and in harvest and postharvest areas. Special care has been taken to ensure that the use of pesticides reconciles pest control with a low impact on the environment and human health. The presence of pests of economic importance, among them, the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Weid.), led to the search for alternative techniques of control. The Medfly was first recorded in the United States in 1901, and in Argentina in 1934. The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) began to develop around 1950. Improvement in the technique has produced promising results world-wide, especially in the breeding of sexing strains, which allows the release of sterile males only. The National Service of Agrifood Quality and Protection (SENASA) of Argentina, coordinates the National Program of Control and Eradication of Fruit Flies (PROCEM). PROCEM has divided Argentina into five different regions. This is according to quarantine regulations, and control and eradication activities to be undertaken. Actually, the Mendoza and San Juan provinces, and the Patagonia Region, have adhered to PROCEM. They have ongoing regional programmes in their respective areas. Mendoza and the Central Valleys of San Juan (Tulum, Ullum and Zonda) are included in the New Cuyo Region, Phase I, where the main objectives are: eradication of the Medfly; verification of the quarantine status; creation of a Medfly free area and exports to Medfly free markets. SIT is the main technique used in Mendoza for Medfly eradication. The Institute of Quality and Protection of Mendoza (ISCAMen) is in charge of the programme in the Province of Mendoza. Mendoza policies for Medfly eradication and the use of SIT, are based on: a growing area of 290,000 ha of vegetable and fruits (vineyards, stone, pome and nut orchards) of high quality, with favourable agroecological conditions and geographical isolation, exports of fresh fruits for the

  18. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H W; Adams, Aaron S; Scott, Jarrod J; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes. The cultivation of fungi for food is a behavior that has evolved independently in ants, beetles, and termites and has enabled many species of these insects to become ecologically important and widely distributed herbivores and forest pests. Although the primary fungal cultivars of these insects have been studied for decades, comparatively little is known of their bacterial microbiota. In this study, we show that diverse fungus-growing insects are associated with a common bacterial community composed of the

  19. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Mitko

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years. Despite the widespread and increased interest in the use of deet in public health programmes, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the olfactory system and its mechanism of toxicity in insects, mammals and humans. Here, we investigated the molecular target site for deet and the consequences of its interactions with carbamate insecticides on the cholinergic system. Results By using toxicological, biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, we show that deet is not simply a behaviour-modifying chemical but that it also inhibits cholinesterase activity, in both insect and mammalian neuronal preparations. Deet is commonly used in combination with insecticides and we show that deet has the capacity to strengthen the toxicity of carbamates, a class of insecticides known to block acetylcholinesterase. Conclusion These findings question the safety of deet, particularly in combination with other chemicals, and they highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of safer insect repellents for use in public health.

  20. Physical Activity, Study Sitting Time, Leisure Sitting Time, and Sleep Time Are Differently Associated With Obesity in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-11-01

    Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese.

  1. Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leightley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance between young adults (n = 15, healthy old people (n = 10, and masters athletes (n = 15 using a depth sensor and automated digital assessment framework. Participants were asked to complete a clinically validated assessment of the sit-to-stand technique (five repetitions, which was recorded using a depth sensor. A feature encoding and evaluation framework to assess balance, core, and limb performance using time- and speed-related measurements was applied to markerless motion capture data. The associations between the measurements and participant groups were examined and used to evaluate the assessment framework suitability. The proposed framework could identify phases of sit-to-stand, stability, transition style, and performance between participant groups with a high degree of accuracy. In summary, we found that a depth sensor coupled with the proposed framework could identify performance subtleties between groups.

  2. Digital Analysis of Sit-to-Stand in Masters Athletes, Healthy Old People, and Young Adults Using a Depth Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leightley, Daniel; Yap, Moi Hoon

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance between young adults ( n = 15), healthy old people ( n = 10), and masters athletes ( n = 15) using a depth sensor and automated digital assessment framework. Participants were asked to complete a clinically validated assessment of the sit-to-stand technique (five repetitions), which was recorded using a depth sensor. A feature encoding and evaluation framework to assess balance, core, and limb performance using time- and speed-related measurements was applied to markerless motion capture data. The associations between the measurements and participant groups were examined and used to evaluate the assessment framework suitability. The proposed framework could identify phases of sit-to-stand, stability, transition style, and performance between participant groups with a high degree of accuracy. In summary, we found that a depth sensor coupled with the proposed framework could identify performance subtleties between groups.

  3. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT SITTING POSTURES ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelan .K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children adopting different styles of sitting in class rooms may have an influence over the hamstring length which indirectly produces an effect on posture, gait and musculoskeletal problems. Hence, physiotherapists play an important role in preventing the problems that are to be developed due to the sitting posture adopted at school. Hence, it is important for all the health professionals to understand and know about the effect of different sitting styles of children in school over the children health.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two sitting postures (crossed leg sitting and bench sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Aim of the Study to observe the influence of bench sitting and crossed-leg sitting on hamstring flexibility in school going children. Methods: 200 school children (105 boys and 95 girls from private schools (those who are bench sitting and 200 school children (109 boys and 91 girls from government schools (those who are crossed leg sitting aged 6-10 years were included in this study. Active Knee Extension (AKE test with the aid of a simple and economically cheap stabilizing apparatus was used to determine hamstring flexibility. Measurements were taken for both right and left knee. Results: The mean Active Knee Extension (AKE score for bench sitting children was 132.4 and for crossed leg sitting children was 130.1. The difference observed in knee extension range of motion between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility was greater in bench sitting children as compared to crossed leg sitting children.

  4. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI. Results Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI. Conclusions These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays. So what? The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  5. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  6. Is questionnaire-based sitting time inaccurate and can it be improved? A cross-sectional investigation using accelerometer-based sitting time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hanisch, Christiana

    2017-01-01

    with questionnaire-based siting time and other self-reported predictors to predict accelerometer-based sitting time. Results Questionnaire-based and accelerometer-based average sitting times were ≈272 and ≈476min/day, respectively. A low Pearson correlation (r=0.32), high mean bias (204.1min) and wide limits...

  7. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  8. [Antigravity suit used for neurosurgical operations in sitting position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpiro-Zurkowska, A; Milczarek, Z; Marchel, A; Jagielski, J

    1996-01-01

    The aviator's antigravity suit (G-suit) was used for 40 operations on neurosurgical patients operated on in sitting position. The G-suit was filled with air to 0.2 atmosphere (20 kPa) pressure in 26 cases, and 0.3 atm. (30 kPa) in 14 cases. In all cases G-suit filling was followed by central venous pressure rise and mean arterial pressure rise. Venous air embolism was found in 5 (12.5%) patients. No other complications connected with the use of G-suit were observed.

  9. Do sit-to-stand performance changes during gait acquisition?

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Alana Maria Ferreira Guimarães; Costa, Carolina Souza Neves da; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    In a child's daily routine, sit-to-stand (STS) is a prerequisite activity for many functional tasks. The relationship between gait and other abilities has been pointed out by many authors, but there is no study investigating the changes in STS during gait acquisition in children. The purpose of this study was to analyse, in healthy children, changes that occur in STS performance during gait acquisition. Five healthy children were initially assessed with an average age of 13.6 months. The kine...

  10. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Association of sitting time and breaks in sitting with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N; Healy, G N; Gianoudis, J; Formica, M; Gardiner, P A; Eakin, E E; Nowson, C A; Daly, R M

    2018-02-26

    The mechanisms through which excessive sitting time impacts health are important to understand. This study found that each hour of sitting per day was not associated with physical function, although associations with poor body composition were observed. Reducing sitting time for improved weight management in older adults needs further exploration. To examine the association of sitting time and breaks in sitting time with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in older Australians. Data from the thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-day continuous wear) was used to derive time spent sitting (hours) and total number of sit-stand transitions per day. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower-body muscle strength, function (timed up-and-go [TUG], 4-m gait speed, four square step test, 30-second sit-to-stand), and serum inflammatory markers (interleukin-[IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and adiponectin) were measured. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, employment status, marital status, number of prescription medications, smoking status, vitamin D, and stepping time, were used to assess the associations. Data from 123 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-84 years, 63% female) were used. Total daily sitting time was associated with lower percentage lean mass (β [95%CI], - 1.70% [- 2.30, - 1.10]) and higher total body fat mass (2.92 kg [1.94, 3.30]). More frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with a 45% reduced risk of having pre-sarcopenia (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.34, 0.91; model 1), defined as appendicular lean mass divided by BMI. No significant associations were observed for sitting time or breaks in sitting with measures of muscle strength, function, or inflammation. In older community-dwelling adults, greater sitting time was associated with a lower percentage lean mass, while more frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with lower odds of having

  12. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  13. Atomic war on insects intensified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Intensive research work in many countries using nuclear methods aimed at reducing the immense food losses caused by insects have led to a number of important trial operations this year. Some are now in progress in Capri, the famous Italian tourist island, and in Central America. Both are directed against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which attacks most fruit in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Similar methods are also developing to combat other insect pests

  14. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  15. Anatomy of adult Megaphragma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, one of the smallest insects, and new insight into insect miniaturization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Polilov

    Full Text Available The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered. This article is the first detailed study of the external and internal morphology of adults of Megaphragma mymaripenne and M. amalphitanum using histological methods, 3D computer modeling and other techniques. It is shown that in spite of the extremely small size the organization of Megaphragma retains a considerkable level of structural complexity. On the other hand, miniaturization leads to re-organizations of several organ systems. Unique structural features related to miniaturization have been found in both species: lysis of cell bodies and nuclei of neurons at late stages of pupal development, absence of the heart, and considerable reductions in the set of muscles. Comparative analysis of structure in the smallest insects representing different taxa has revealed common features of the evolutionary process of miniaturization in insects.

  16. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  17. Reducing children's classroom sitting time using sit-to-stand desks: findings from pilot studies in UK and Australian primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Barber, Sally E; Bingham, Daniel D; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fletcher, Elly; Pearson, Natalie; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the influence of sit-to-stand desks on classroom sitting time in primary school children. Pilot controlled trials with similar intervention strategies were conducted in primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, and Bradford, UK. Sit-to-stand desks replaced all standard desks in the Australian intervention classroom. Six sit-to-stand desks replaced a bank of standard desks in the UK intervention classroom. Children were exposed to the sit-to-stand desks for 9-10 weeks. Control classrooms retained their normal seated desks. Classroom sitting time was measured at baseline and follow-up using the activPAL3 inclinometer. Thirty UK and 44 Australian children provided valid activPAL data at baseline and follow-up. The proportion of time spent sitting in class decreased significantly at follow-up in both intervention groups (UK: -9.8 ± 16.5% [-52.4 ± 66.6 min/day]; Australian: -9.4 ± 10% [-43.7 ± 29.9 min/day]). No significant changes in classroom sitting time were observed in the UK control group, while a significant reduction was observed in the Australian control group (-5.9 ± 11.7% [-28.2 ± 28.3 min/day]). Irrespective of implementation, incorporating sit-to-stand desks into classrooms appears to be an effective way of reducing classroom sitting in this diverse sample of children. Longer term efficacy trials are needed to determine effects on children's health and learning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Prompts to disrupt sitting time and increase physical activity at work, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann M; Rote, Aubrianne E; Welch, Whitney A; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated.

  19. Separate and Joint Associations of Occupational and Leisure-Time Sitting with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Working Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is a main setting for prolonged sitting for some occupational groups. Convincing evidence has recently accumulated on the detrimental cardio-metabolic health effects of leisure-time sitting. Yet, much less is known about occupational sitting, and the potential health risk attached...... compared to leisure-time sitting....

  20. Nuclear science fights malaria. Radiation and molecular techniques can play targeted roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Steffen; Khan, Baldip; Robinson, Alan; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is the most important insect transmitted disease. Globally there are 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria a year. They result in two million deaths per year (one every 30 seconds), more than 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 90% of those affected are children less than five years old. The economic impact of the disease is felt disproportionately by poor families who may spend a fourth of their annual income on prevention and control measures. The causative agents are parasites of the genus Plasmodium and they are transmitted only by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Among key strategies to control malaria are the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy through monitoring the levels of drug resistance, and the reduction of mosquito populations. Nuclear techniques can play important roles in these efforts to combat malaria. This article reports on IAEA activities associated with drug-resistant malaria and describes how molecular methods making use of radioactive isotopes can provide a great advantage in the diagnosis of resistance. The article further presents the IAEA's plans for initiating a research programme to assess the feasibility of developing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary method to control the vector of malaria

  1. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  2. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  3. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  4. Effect of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace (ACTIVE OFFICE on sitting time, performance and physiological parameters: protocol for a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwartz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged sitting is ubiquitous in modern society and linked to several diseases. Height-adjustable desks are being used to decrease worksite based sitting time (ST. Single-desk sit-to-stand workplaces exhibit small ST reduction potential and short-term loss in performance. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of an ACTIVE OFFICE trial. Design The study was a 1-year three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 18 healthy Austrian office workers. Allocation was done via a regional health insurance, with data collection during Jan 2014 – March 2015. Participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. Intervention group subjects were provided with traditional or two-desk sit-to-stand workstations in either the first or the second half of the study, while control subjects did not experience any changes during the whole study duration. Sitting time and physical activity (IPAQ-long, cognitive performance (text editing task, Stroop-test, d2R test of attention, workload perception (NASA-TLX and physiological parameters (salivary cortisol, heartrate variability and body weight were measured pre- and post-intervention (23 weeks after baseline for intervention and control periods. Postural changes and sitting/standing time (software logger were recorded at the workplace for the whole intervention period. Discussion This study evaluates the effects of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace on sitting time, physical parameters and work performance of healthy office based workers. If the intervention proves effective, it has a great potential to be implemented in regular workplaces to reduce diseases related to prolonged sitting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303 , July 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  5. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a ...

  6. Work engagement and its association with occupational sitting time: results from the Stormont study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Houdmont, Jonathan; Clemes, Stacy; Wilson, Kelly; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2015-01-29

    Evidence suggests that poor health outcomes and poor work-related health outcomes such as sickness presenteeism are associated with excessive sitting at work. Studies have yet to investigate the relationship between work engagement and occupational sitting. Work engagement is considered to be an important predictor of work-related well-being. We investigated the relationship between and self-reported work engagement and high occupational sitting time in Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS) office-based workers. A cohort of 4436 NICS office-workers (1945 men and 2491 women) completed a questionnaire measuring work engagement and occupational sitting time. Logistic regression analyses were used to test the associations between work engagement and occupational sitting times. Compared to women, men reported lower mean occupational sitting time (385.7 minutes/day; s.d. = 1.9; versus 362.4 minutes/day; s.d. =2.5; p work engagement of vigor (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.98) and dedication (OR 0.68 95% CI 0.47-0.98) were less likely to have prolonged sitting time. Women with high work engagement of vigor (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84) were also less likely to have prolonged occupational sitting times. In contrast, women with high absorption (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.65) were more likely to have prolonged sitting times. Being actively engaged in one's work is associated with lower occupational sitting times for men (vigor and dedication) and to a limited extent for women (vigor only). This suggests that interventions such as introducing sit-stand workstations to reduce sitting times, may be beneficial for work engagement.

  7. Effect of Sitting Pause Times on Balance After Supine to Standing Transfer in Dim Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Albalwi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Dabbak, Fuad M; Daher, Noha S

    2017-06-01

    The risk of falling for older adults increases in dimly lit environments. Longer sitting pause times, before getting out of bed and standing during the night, may improve postural stability. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity immediately after a supine to standing transfer in a dimly lit room in older adult women. Eighteen healthy women aged 65 to 75 years who were able to independently perform supine to standing transfers participated in the study. On each of 2 consecutive days, participants assumed the supine position on a mat table and closed their eyes for 45 minutes. Then, participants were instructed to open their eyes and transfer from supine to sitting, with either 2- or 30-second pause in the sitting position followed by standing. The sitting pause time order was randomized. A significant difference was observed in postural sway velocity between the 2- and 30-second sitting pause times. The results revealed that there was less postural sway velocity after 30-second than 2-second sitting pause time (0.61 ± 0.19 vs 1.22 ± 0.68, P Falls related to bathroom usage at night are the most common reported falls among older adults. In the present study, the investigators studied the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity after changing position from supine to standing in a dimly lit environment. The findings showed that the mean postural sway velocity was significantly less after 30-second sitting pause time compared with 2-second sitting pause time. Postural sway velocity decreased when participants performed a sitting pause of 30 seconds before standing in a dimly lit environment. These results suggest that longer sitting pause times may improve adaptability to dimly lit environments, contributing to improved postural stability and reduced risk of fall in older adult women when getting out of bed at night.

  8. Stand More AT Work (SMArT Work): using the behaviour change wheel to develop an intervention to reduce sitting time in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Biddle, Stuart J H; Davies, Melanie J; Dunstan, David; Esliger, David; Gray, Laura J; Jackson, Ben R; O'Connell, Sophie E; Yates, Tom; Edwardson, Charlotte L

    2018-03-06

    Sitting (sedentary behaviour) is widespread among desk-based office workers and a high level of sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for poor health. Reducing workplace sitting time is therefore an important prevention strategy. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are theory and evidence-based. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a framework for intervention development. This article describes the development of the Stand More AT Work (SMArT Work) intervention, which aims to reduce sitting time among National Health Service (NHS) office-based workers in Leicester, UK. We followed the BCW guide and used the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) model to conduct focus group discussions with 39 NHS office workers. With these data we used the taxonomy of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTv1) to identify the most appropriate strategies for facilitating behaviour change in our intervention. To identify the best method for participants to self-monitor their sitting time, a sub-group of participants (n = 31) tested a number of electronic self-monitoring devices. From our BCW steps and the BCT-Taxonomy we identified 10 behaviour change strategies addressing environmental (e.g. provision of height adjustable desks,), organisational (e.g. senior management support, seminar), and individual level (e.g. face-to-face coaching session) barriers. The Darma cushion scored the highest for practicality and acceptability for self-monitoring sitting. The BCW guide, COM-B model and BCT-Taxonomy can be applied successfully in the context of designing a workplace intervention for reducing sitting time through standing and moving more. The intervention was developed in collaboration with office workers (a participatory approach) to ensure relevance for them and their work situation. The effectiveness of this intervention is currently being evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. ISRCTN10967042 . Registered on 2 February 2015.

  9. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  10. Musculo-skeletal and pulmonary effects of sitting position – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Szczygieł

    2017-03-01

    Incorrect sitting posture contributes to many disorders, especially in the cervical and lumbar spine. It also determines the work of the respiratory system. Most authors suggest that maintenance of the physiological curvature of the spine is crucial for the biomechanics of the sitting position, as well as the location of the head and position of the pelvis. It raises awareness of work-related hazards and the introduction of education on the principles of proper seating. It is necessary to draw attention to the risks associated with work performed in a sitting posture, and education on the principles of ergonomical sitting.

  11. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrupting Prolonged Sitting with Regular Activity Breaks does not Acutely Influence Appetite: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn M. Mete; Tracy L. Perry; Jillian J. Haszard; Ashleigh R. Homer; Stephen P. Fenemor; Nancy J. Rehrer; C. Murray Skeaff; Meredith C. Peddie

    2018-01-01

    Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.9)) completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT), and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB). Standardized meals were provided throughout the in...

  13. Improving Hip-Worn Accelerometer Estimates of Sitting Using Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan; Godbole, Suneeta; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa; Bellettiere, John; Hartman, Sheri

    2018-02-13

    To improve estimates of sitting time from hip worn accelerometers used in large cohort studies by employing machine learning methods developed on free living activPAL data. Thirty breast cancer survivors concurrently wore a hip worn accelerometer and a thigh worn activPAL for 7 days. A random forest classifier, trained on the activPAL data, was employed to detect sitting, standing and sit-stand transitions in 5 second windows in the hip worn accelerometer. The classifier estimates were compared to the standard accelerometer cut point and significant differences across different bout lengths were investigated using mixed effect models. Overall, the algorithm predicted the postures with moderate accuracy (stepping 77%, standing 63%, sitting 67%, sit to stand 52% and stand to sit 51%). Daily level analyses indicated that errors in transition estimates were only occurring during sitting bouts of 2 minutes or less. The standard cut point was significantly different from the activPAL across all bout lengths, overestimating short bouts and underestimating long bouts. This is among the first algorithms for sitting and standing for hip worn accelerometer data to be trained from entirely free living activPAL data. The new algorithm detected prolonged sitting which has been shown to be most detrimental to health. Further validation and training in larger cohorts is warranted.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zemp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP, are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user’s sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest. Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples. Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Roland; Tanadini, Matteo; Plüss, Stefan; Schnüriger, Karin; Singh, Navrag B; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP), are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user's sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest). Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples). Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features) for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. The descriptive epidemiology of sitting. A 20-country comparison using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Hagströmer, Maria; Craig, Cora L; Bull, Fiona C; Pratt, Michael; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Chau, Josephine; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence points to the health risks of prolonged sitting, that are independent of physical activity, but few papers have reported the descriptive epidemiology of sitting in population studies with adults. This paper reports the prevalence of "high sitting time" and its correlates in an international study in 20 countries. Representative population samples from 20 countries were collected 2002-2004, and a question was asked on usual weekday hours spent sitting. This question was part of the International Prevalence Study, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The sitting measure has acceptable reliability and validity. Daily sitting time was compared among countries, and by age group, gender, educational attainment, and physical activity. Data were available for 49,493 adults aged 18-65 years from 20 countries. The median reported sitting time was 300 minutes/day, with an interquartile range of 180-480 minutes. Countries reporting the lowest amount of sitting included Portugal, Brazil, and Colombia (medians ≤180 min/day), whereas adults in Taiwan, Norway, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, and Japan reported the highest sitting times (medians ≥360 min/day). In adjusted analyses, adults aged 40-65 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest quintile for sitting than adults aged 18-39 years (AOR=0.796), and those with postschool education had higher sitting times compared with those with high school or less education (OR=1.349). Physical activity showed an inverse relationship, with those reporting low activity on the IPAQ three times more likely to be in the highest-sitting quintile compared to those reporting high physical activity. Median sitting time varied widely across countries. Assessing sitting time is an important new area for preventive medicine, in addition to assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Population surveys that monitor lifestyle behaviors should add measures of sitting time to

  17. Can a smart chair improve the sitting behavior of office workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossien, C C; Stegenga, J; Hodselmans, A P; Spook, S M; Koolhaas, W; Brouwer, S; Verkerke, G J; Reneman, M F

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged sitting can cause health problems and musculoskeletal discomfort. There is a need for objective and non-obstructive means of measuring sitting behavior. A 'smart' office chair can monitor sitting behavior and provide tactile feedback, aiming to improve sitting behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the feedback signal on sitting behavior and musculoskeletal discomfort. In a 12-week prospective cohort study (ABCB design) among office workers (n = 45) was measured sitting duration and posture, feedback signals and musculoskeletal discomfort. Between the study phases, small changes were observed in mean sitting duration, posture and discomfort. After turning off the feedback signal, a slight increase in sitting duration was observed (10 min, p = 0.04), a slight decrease in optimally supported posture (2.8%, p < 0.01), and musculoskeletal discomfort (0.8, p < 0.01) was observed. We conclude that the 'smart' chair is able to monitor the sitting behavior, the feedback signal, however, led to small or insignificant changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  19. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  20. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  1. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In October 2004 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture celebrated 40 years of existence. The creation in October 1964 of this Division, which includes the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, marked the beginning of what is certainly a unique and arguably the best example of inter-agency cooperation within the whole UN family. The goal was to join the talents and resources of both organizations to obtain better cooperation and less duplication of efforts in assisting their Member States in applying nuclear techniques for providing people with more, better and safer food and other agricultural products, while sustaining the natural resources base. The complete press release is included under 'Special News and Reports'

  2. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  3. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  4. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  5. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  6. The use of radiation in quarantine on insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2012-01-01

    With world trade in agricultural commodities increasing, the introduction of exotic insects into new areas, where they become pests, will increase. The development and application of quarantine treatments or other mitigation approaches to prevent pest introduction in traded commodities raise many research and regulatory issues. The probit 9 standard for quarantine treatment efficacy has given way to risk based alternatives. Development of generic treatments to control broad groups of insects or insects in all commodities can expedite new trade in agricultural products. An innovative technique using radio-frequency (RF) and Microwave (MW) heating treatments was proposed as an alternative quarantine treatment in nuts. The practical future application in industry should be possible after solving their problems of high cost, non-uniform heating and quality damage. (author)

  7. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  8. Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects of Zayandeh Roud River and Its Branches, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011.In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of Diptera (92.31% and Coleoptera (7.69%. The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.

  9. Recent Advances in Developing Insect Natural Products as Potential Modern Day Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Ratcliffe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines.

  10. Design and mechanical properties of insect cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Julian F V; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2004-07-01

    Since nearly all adult insects fly, the cuticle has to provide a very efficient and lightweight skeleton. Information is available about the mechanical properties of cuticle-Young's modulus of resilin is about 1 MPa, of soft cuticles about 1 kPa to 50 MPa, of sclerotised cuticles 1-20 GPa; Vicker's Hardness of sclerotised cuticle ranges between 25 and 80 kgf mm(-2); density is 1-1.3 kg m(-3)-and one of its components, chitin nanofibres, the Young's modulus of which is more than 150 GPa. Experiments based on fracture mechanics have not been performed although the layered structure probably provides some toughening. The structural performance of wings and legs has been measured, but our understanding of the importance of buckling is lacking: it can stiffen the structure (by elastic postbuckling in wings, for example) or be a failure mode. We know nothing of fatigue properties (yet, for instance, the insect wing must undergo millions of cycles, flexing or buckling on each cycle). The remarkable mechanical performance and efficiency of cuticle can be analysed and compared with those of other materials using material property charts and material indices. Presented in this paper are four: Young's modulus-density (stiffness per unit weight), specific Young's modulus-specific strength (elastic hinges, elastic energy storage per unit weight), toughness-Young's modulus (fracture resistance under various loading conditions), and hardness (wear resistance). In conjunction with a structural analysis of cuticle these charts help to understand the relevance of microstructure (fibre orientation effects in tendons, joints and sense organs, for example) and shape (including surface structure) of this fibrous composite for a given function. With modern techniques for analysis of structure and material, and emphasis on nanocomposites and self-assembly, insect cuticle should be the archetype for composites at all levels of scale.

  11. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  12. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  13. Do Sitting, Standing, or Treadmill Desks Impact Psychobiological Indicators of Work Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Nicholas D; Hall, Caitlin; Renton, Angela; Ng, Norman; von Hippel, William

    2017-10-01

    This pilot study investigated the links between psychobiological indicators of work productivity, prolonged desk sitting, and conditions whereby office workers were able to interrupt sitting using a sit-stand or treadmill desk. Twenty participants visited our laboratory and completed their own desk work in counterbalanced sit-only, sit-stand (Varidesk Pro Plus 48™), and sit-walk conditions (Infiniti TR1200-DTS™). Steady-state visually evoked potentials calculated from electroencephalography recordings during a set task at the end of the workday assessed attentional resource. Salivary cortisol samples were taken during the morning and afternoon to measure stress response. Within-subject analyses were used to compare work productivity indicators relative to condition. No significant differences in mean steady-state visually evoked potential amplitude were observed, although attentional resource allocation was found to be the most effective following the sit-stand [1.01 (0.46) μV] compared with the sit-walk [0.9 (0.28) μV] and sit-only [0.91 (0.32) μV] conditions. The mean magnitude of decrease in cortisol was most apparent when workers used treadmill (1.5 nmol/L; P = .007) and sit-stand (1.6 nmol/L; P = .001) desks, and least evident in the sit-only condition (1.0 nmol/L; P = .146). The findings highlight the potential benefits of standing or active deskwork to the allocation of attentional resources and the regulation of stress.

  14. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  15. Acceptability and feasibility of a low-cost, theory-based and co-produced intervention to reduce workplace sitting time in desk-based university employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Kelly; Goyder, Elizabeth; Eves, Francis

    2015-12-24

    Prolonged sedentary time is linked with poor health, independent of physical activity levels. Workplace sitting significantly contributes to sedentary time, but there is limited research evaluating low-cost interventions targeting reductions in workplace sitting. Current evidence supports the use of multi-modal interventions developed using participative approaches. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a low-cost, co-produced, multi-modal intervention to reduce workplace sitting. The intervention was developed with eleven volunteers from a large university department in the UK using participative approaches and "brainstorming" techniques. Main components of the intervention included: emails suggesting ways to "sit less" e.g. walking and standing meetings; free reminder software to install onto computers; social media to increase awareness; workplace champions; management support; and point-of-decision prompts e.g. by lifts encouraging stair use. All staff (n = 317) were invited to take part. Seventeen participated in all aspects of the evaluation, completing pre- and post-intervention sitting logs and questionnaires. The intervention was delivered over four weeks from 7th July to 3rd August 2014. Pre- and post-intervention difference in daily workplace sitting time was presented as a mean ± standard deviation. Questionnaires were used to establish awareness of the intervention and its various elements, and to collect qualitative data regarding intervention acceptability and feasibility. Mean baseline sitting time of 440 min/workday was reported with a mean reduction of 26 ± 54 min/workday post-intervention (n = 17, 95 % CI = -2 to 53). All participants were aware of the intervention as a whole, although there was a range of awareness for individual elements of the intervention. The intervention was generally felt to be both acceptable and feasible. Management support was perceived to be a strength, whilst specific

  16. The Sitting-Height Index of Build, (Body Mass/(Sitting Height3, as an Improvement on the Body Mass Index for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Burton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI is unsatisfactory in being affected by both relative leg length and height, and, for use with children and adolescents, therefore needs to be interpreted in relation to age. The sitting-height index of build (body mass/(sitting height3, is largely free of these disadvantages. Furthermore, because that index is independent of relative leg length, the latter can be treated as a separate indicator of nutritional history and health risks. Past studies on white children and adults have shown body mass to be approximately proportional to (sitting height3. Moreover, multiple regression of (body mass1/3 on sitting height and leg length, using year-by-year averages, has indicated that leg length is an insignificant predictor of body mass. The present study used data for individuals, namely 2–20 years old males and females, black as well as white. Regression analysis as above again showed leg length to be an insignificant predictor of body mass, but only above the age of about nine years. However, sitting height is still a stronger predictor of body mass than leg length at all ages. The advantages of the sitting-height index of build for use with young people are confirmed.

  17. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.; Bartley, P.G. Jr.; Lawrence, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The permittivities of bulk samples of adult insects of the rice weevil, red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, and lesser grain borer were measured at single frequencies of 9.4 and 11.7 Ghz in X-band waveguide at about 23 degrees C, and permittivities of homogenized samples of the same species were measured from 0.2 to 20 GHz at temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. Sample densities for the coaxial-line probe measurements were determined from the X-band measurements with a linear relationship between the cube root of the dielectric constant and sample bulk density determined from permittivity measurements on bulk samples of the adult insects in a waveguide sample holder taken with the short-circuited line technique. Since linearity of the cube root of the dielectric constant with bulk density is consistent with the Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga dielectric mixture equation, this equation was used to calculate estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects from measured permittivities and volume fractions determined from measured bulk density and adult insect density determined by air-comparison pycnometer measurements. Estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects are presented graphically for temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C, and tabulated data are provided for range information and comparative purposes

  18. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  19. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  20. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  1. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  2. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  3. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  4. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  5. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  6. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  8. Physical Fitness Profiles of Sitting Volleyball Players of the Turkish National Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet Fatih; Sevindi, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    This research is conducted to determine the physical profiles of sitting volleyball players of the Turkish National Team. 12 male players from Turkish Sitting Volleyball National Team volunteered to participate in the study. The anthropometric measurements were taken over dominant extremity. In order to determine the physical features of the…

  9. 'The End of Sitting' : An Empirical Study on Working in an Office of the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    Background Inspired by recent findings that prolonged sitting has detrimental health effects, Rietveld Architecture Art Affordances (RAAAF) and visual artist Barbara Visser designed a working environment without chairs and desks. This environment, which they called The End of Sitting, is a sculpture

  10. Oxidant resistance in a yeast mutant deficient in the Sit4 phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to thiol oxidation can arise from mutations altering redox homeostasis. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae sit4-110 mutant is here described, which was isolated as resistant to the thiol-specific oxidant dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) and which contains a single-residue substitution in the SIT4 gene...

  11. Body segments decoupling in sitting: control of body posture from automatic chair adjustments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, P.; Molier, B.I.; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Petrus H.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves adopt a passive body posture and suffer from physical discomfort in long-term sitting. To regulate body load and to prevent sitting related mobility problems, proper posture control is important. The inability to reposition

  12. "Thinking on your feet": A qualitative evaluation of sit-stand desks in an Australian workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunseit, A.C.; Chau, J.Y.Y.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological research has established sitting as a new risk factor for the development of non-communicable chronic disease. Sit-stand desks have been proposed as one strategy to reduce occupational sedentary time. This formative research study evaluated the acceptability and usability

  13. Sit-stand desks in call centres: associations of use and ergonomics awareness with sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon; Abbott, Rebecca A; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Toomingas, Allan

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether or not use of sit-stand desks and awareness of the importance of postural variation and breaks are associated with the pattern of sedentary behavior in office workers. The data came from a cross-sectional observation study of Swedish call centre workers. Inclinometers recorded 'seated' or 'standing/walking' episodes of 131 operators over a full work shift. Differences in sedentary behavior based on desk type and awareness of the importance of posture variation and breaks were assessed by non-parametric analyses. 90 (68.7%) operators worked at a sit-stand desk. Working at a sit-stand desk, as opposed to a sit desk, was associated with less time seated (78.5 vs 83.8%, p = 0.010), and less time taken to accumulate 5 min of standing/walking (36.2 vs 46.3 min, p = 0.022), but no significant difference to sitting episode length or the number of switches between sitting and standing/walking per hour. Ergonomics awareness was not associated with any sedentary pattern variable among those using a sit-stand desk. Use of sit-stand desks was associated with better sedentary behavior in call centre workers, however ergonomics awareness did not enhance the effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    a sitting occupant. CFD predictions were performed to explain the reason for a skewness in the thermal plume above a sitting thermal manikin with realistic body shape, size, and surface temperature distribution, measured in a climate chamber with mean radiant temperature equal to the room air temperature...

  15. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of reducing workplace sitting time: a qualitative study with Australian office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Brakenridge, Charlotte L; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Lynch, Brigid M; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N; Lawler, Sheleigh P

    2016-09-05

    Office workers spend a large proportion of their working hours sitting. This may contribute to an increased risk of chronic disease and premature mortality. While there is growing interest in workplace interventions targeting prolonged sitting, few qualitative studies have explored workers' perceptions of reducing occupational sitting outside of an intervention context. This study explored barriers to reducing office workplace sitting, and the feasibility and acceptability of strategies targeting prolonged sitting in this context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 office workers (50 % women), including employees and managers, in Melbourne, Australia. The three organisations (two large, and one small organisation) were from retail, health and IT industries and had not implemented any formalised approaches to sitting reduction. Questions covered barriers to reducing sitting, the feasibility of potential strategies aimed at reducing sitting, and perceived effects on productivity. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants reported spending most (median: 7.2 h) of their working hours sitting. The nature of computer-based work and exposure to furniture designed for a seated posture were considered to be the main factors influencing sitting time. Low cost strategies, such as standing meetings and in-person communication, were identified as feasible ways to reduce sitting time and were also perceived to have potential productivity benefits. However, social norms around appropriate workplace behaviour and workload pressures were perceived to be barriers to uptake of these strategies. The cost implications of height-adjustable workstations influenced perceptions of feasibility. Managers noted the need for an evidence-based business case supporting action on prolonged sitting, particularly in the context of limited resources and competing workplace health priorities

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of reducing workplace sitting time: a qualitative study with Australian office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyssa T. Hadgraft

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Office workers spend a large proportion of their working hours sitting. This may contribute to an increased risk of chronic disease and premature mortality. While there is growing interest in workplace interventions targeting prolonged sitting, few qualitative studies have explored workers’ perceptions of reducing occupational sitting outside of an intervention context. This study explored barriers to reducing office workplace sitting, and the feasibility and acceptability of strategies targeting prolonged sitting in this context. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 office workers (50 % women, including employees and managers, in Melbourne, Australia. The three organisations (two large, and one small organisation were from retail, health and IT industries and had not implemented any formalised approaches to sitting reduction. Questions covered barriers to reducing sitting, the feasibility of potential strategies aimed at reducing sitting, and perceived effects on productivity. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Participants reported spending most (median: 7.2 h of their working hours sitting. The nature of computer-based work and exposure to furniture designed for a seated posture were considered to be the main factors influencing sitting time. Low cost strategies, such as standing meetings and in-person communication, were identified as feasible ways to reduce sitting time and were also perceived to have potential productivity benefits. However, social norms around appropriate workplace behaviour and workload pressures were perceived to be barriers to uptake of these strategies. The cost implications of height-adjustable workstations influenced perceptions of feasibility. Managers noted the need for an evidence-based business case supporting action on prolonged sitting, particularly in the context of

  18. How Insects Survive Winter in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how insects cope with cold temperatures can not only help entomologists more accurately forecast when and where insects are active, but it may also help us understand how climate change will influence insect pests. This newsletter article provides a comprehensive overview of how Midwes...

  19. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  20. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  1. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  2. Hidden marker position estimation during sit-to-stand with walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang Ho; Jun, Hong Gul; Dan, Byung Ju; Jo, Byeong Rim; Min, Byung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Motion capture analysis of sit-to-stand task with assistive device is hard to achieve due to obstruction on reflective makers. Previously developed robotic system, Smart Mobile Walker, is used as an assistive device to perform motion capture analysis in sit-to-stand task. All lower limb markers except hip markers are invisible through whole session. The link-segment and regression method is applied to estimate the marker position during sit-to-stand. Applying a new method, the lost marker positions are restored and the biomechanical evaluation of the sit-to-stand movement with a Smart Mobile Walker could be carried out. The accuracy of the marker position estimation is verified with normal sit-to-stand data from more than 30 clinical trials. Moreover, further research on improving the link segment and regression method is addressed.

  3. Breaking Up Sitting with Light-Intensity Physical Activity: Implications for Shift-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting, restricted sleep, and circadian disruption are all independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that breaking up sitting with light-intensity physical activity has clear benefits for the health of day workers, but these findings may not apply in the presence of sleep restriction and/or circadian disruption—both of which are commonly experienced by shift-workers. Specifically, sleep restriction, and circadian disruption result in acute physiological changes that may offset the benefits of breaking up sitting. This commentary will explore the potential benefits of breaking up sitting for health, work performance, and subsequent sleep in shift-workers. Future areas of research designed to understand the mechanisms by which prolonged sitting and shift work impact worker health and safety and to support the design of effective occupational health and safety interventions are proposed.

  4. Sitting time and physical activity after stroke: physical ability is only part of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Coralie; Healy, Genevieve N; Coates, Alison; Lewis, Lucy K; Olds, Tim; Bernhardt, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence the amount of time people with stroke spend sitting and being active is important to inform the development of targeted interventions. To explore the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial factors associated with daily sitting time and physical activity in people with stroke. Secondary analysis of an observational study (n = 50, mean age 67.2 ± 11.6 years, 33 men) of adults at least 6 months post-stroke. Activity monitor data were collected via a 7-day, continuous wear (24 hours/day) protocol. Sitting time [total, and prolonged (time in bouts of ≥ 30 minutes)] was measured with an activPAL3 activity monitor. A hip-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to measure moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) time. Univariate analyses examined relationships of stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), physical [walking speed, Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) physical domain score], cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), and psychosocial factors (living arrangement, SIS emotional domain score) with sitting time, prolonged sitting time, and MVPA. Self-reported physical function and walking speed were negatively associated with total sitting time (r = - 0.354, P = 0.022 and r = - 0.361, P = 0.011, respectively) and prolonged sitting time (r = - 0.5, P = 0.001 and - 0.45, P = 0.001, respectively), and positively associated with MVPA (r = 0.469, P = 0.002 and 0.431, P = 0.003, respectively). Physical factors, such as walking ability, may influence sitting and activity time in people with stroke, yet much of the variance in daily sitting time remains unexplained. Large prospective studies are required to understand the drivers of activity and sitting time.

  5. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  6. Rapid assessment of insect fauna based on local knowledge: comparing ecological and ethnobiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves

    2016-03-01

    The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent  in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.

  7. On sitting and doing: ethnography as action in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Stacy Leigh

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary discussions within the arenas of medical anthropology and global health are often restricted by the driving imperatives to "do something" about a particular health problem. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nepal in 1997, which sought to follow the translation of AIDS prevention policies into local awareness, this paper addresses the need to revitalize theories of ethnography for an understanding of global health goals. The Nepal example underscores how the path toward decisions is never entirely clear, nor is it always obvious who benefits or loses from different approaches, even as public health discourse seeks to set a strict agenda around what the problem is and what should be done about it. Ethnography shows that definitions of what matters as well as understandings of why certain things matter are formulated from specific social locations. The paper therefore advocates for a practice of patient ethnographic "sitting" as a means to understanding, as a form of critical reflexivity, and as a diagnostic of the politics of relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do sit-to-stand performance changes during gait acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Maria Ferreira Guimarães Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a child's daily routine, sit-to-stand (STS is a prerequisite activity for many functional tasks. The relationship between gait and other abilities has been pointed out by many authors, but there is no study investigating the changes in STS during gait acquisition in children. The purpose of this study was to analyse, in healthy children, changes that occur in STS performance during gait acquisition. Five healthy children were initially assessed with an average age of 13.6 months. The kinematics in STS movement performance of the children was evaluated longitudinally during different periods of walking experience: children who have not acquired independent walking, 8.2 (±8.4 days of independent walking experience, and 86.2 (±8.7 days of independent walking experience. At the gait acquisition period we found a significant decrease in the final trunk flexion angle and an increase in amplitude of the trunk flexion. The walking experience may have changed the execution of the STS movement.

  9. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2017-10-01

    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  10. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  11. Evaluating biomechanics of user-selected sitting and standing computer workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael Y; Barbir, Ana; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-11-01

    A standing computer workstation has now become a popular modern work place intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. However, user's interaction related to a standing computer workstation and its differences with a sitting workstation need to be understood to assist in developing recommendations for use and set up. The study compared the differences in upper extremity posture and muscle activity between user-selected sitting and standing workstation setups. Twenty participants (10 females, 10 males) volunteered for the study. 3-D posture, surface electromyography, and user-reported discomfort were measured while completing simulated tasks with each participant's self-selected workstation setups. Sitting computer workstation associated with more non-neutral shoulder postures and greater shoulder muscle activity, while standing computer workstation induced greater wrist adduction angle and greater extensor carpi radialis muscle activity. Sitting computer workstation also associated with greater shoulder abduction postural variation (90th-10th percentile) while standing computer workstation associated with greater variation for should rotation and wrist extension. Users reported similar overall discomfort levels within the first 10 min of work but had more than twice as much discomfort while standing than sitting after 45 min; with most discomfort reported in the low back for standing and shoulder for sitting. These different measures provide understanding in users' different interactions with sitting and standing and by alternating between the two configurations in short bouts may be a way of changing the loading pattern on the upper extremity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sitting Posture Monitoring System Based on a Low-Cost Load Cell Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongryun Roh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitting posture monitoring systems (SPMSs help assess the posture of a seated person in real-time and improve sitting posture. To date, SPMS studies reported have required many sensors mounted on the backrest plate and seat plate of a chair. The present study, therefore, developed a system that measures a total of six sitting postures including the posture that applied a load to the backrest plate, with four load cells mounted only on the seat plate. Various machine learning algorithms were applied to the body weight ratio measured by the developed SPMS to identify the method that most accurately classified the actual sitting posture of the seated person. After classifying the sitting postures using several classifiers, average and maximum classification rates of 97.20% and 97.94%, respectively, were obtained from nine subjects with a support vector machine using the radial basis function kernel; the results obtained by this classifier showed a statistically significant difference from the results of multiple classifications using other classifiers. The proposed SPMS was able to classify six sitting postures including the posture with loading on the backrest and showed the possibility of classifying the sitting posture even though the number of sensors is reduced.

  13. Circadian organization in hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji; Abdelsalam, Salaheldin

    2004-12-01

    The circadian system of hemimetabolous insects is reviewed in respect to the locus of the circadian clock and multioscillatory organization. Because of relatively easy access to the nervous system, the neuronal organization of the clock system in hemimetabolous insects has been studied, yielding identification of the compound eye as the major photoreceptor for entrainment and the optic lobe for the circadian clock locus. The clock site within the optic lobe is inconsistent among reported species; in cockroaches the lobula was previously thought to be a most likely clock locus but accessory medulla is recently stressed to be a clock center, while more distal part of the optic lobe including the lamina and the outer medulla area for the cricket. Identification of the clock cells needs further critical studies. Although each optic lobe clock seems functionally identical, in respect to photic entrainment and generation of the rhythm, the bilaterally paired clocks form a functional unit. They interact to produce a stable time structure within individual insects by exchanging photic and temporal information through neural pathways, in which serotonin and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved as chemical messengers. The mutual interaction also plays an important role in seasonal adaptation of the rhythm.

  14. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R

    2011-01-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 μN mm -1 h -1 . For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm -1 . (communication)

  15. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  16. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  18. Evaluation of supine and sitting cardiac blood pool scans with sup(99m)Tc-HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Kuwajima, Akira; Hisada, Kinichi

    1977-01-01

    In the differential diagnosis of enlarged cardiac silhouette on plain chest x-ray film, cardiac blood pool scan was usually performed at first. However, small amount of pericardial effusion was difficult to detect on cardiac blood pool scan and differentiation of pericardial effusion from myocardial thickening was sometimes difficult. We evaluated cardiac blood pool scan with sup(99m)Tc-HSA(human serum albumin) and gamma camera imaged on both supine and sitting position, and evaluated diagnostic efficiency of criteria for pericardial effusion of these scans. Fifty-seven patients suspected of having pericardial effusion were included in the study. Sixteen of these patients had pericardial effusion and 2 of these 16 patients had free pleural effusion. Three patients had pleural effusion alone and excluded from the study. Of the five criteria for pericardial effusion, separation between heart and right lung activities was most frequent in both effusion (true positive, TP=100% on both supine and sitting) and no effusion (false positive, FP=18.4% on supine and 23.7% on sitting) groups. However, increased heart and right lung separation on sitting position was rather frequent in effusion group, and this finding was also thought to be typical for effusion but not for myocardial thickening. Decreased cardiohepatic separation on sitting position was frequent in no effusion group, and FP rate was decreased from 18.4% (supine) to 10.5% (sitting). Two patients with both pericardial effusion and free pleural effusion were easily diagnosed on sitting cardiac blood pool scan. With ROC(receiver operating characteristic) curve, three criteria should be agreed on either supine or sitting scan for diagnosis of pericardial effusion, and six criteria should be agreed when both supine and sitting scans were employed for diagnosis of pericardial effusion. (auth.)

  19. Genetic sexing strains for four species of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawright, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Genetic sexing strains were assembled by using classical genetic and cytogenetic techniques for four medically important species of insects. Male linked reciprocal translocations were used to impose pseudolinkage of sex and selectable genes (shown in parentheses) for Anopheles albimanus (propoxur resistance), Anopheles quadrimaculatus sp. A (malathion resistance), Stomoxys calcitrans (dieldrin resistance; malathion resistance, and black pupa), and Musca domestica (black pupa). These strains would be of great value in implementation of the sterile insect technique for control of these species because the females can either be killed in the egg stage (in the case of insecticide resistance as the selectable gene) or they can be separated from the males and thus excluded from releases. (author). 13 refs

  20. Perspectives on a 'Sit Less, Move More' Intervention in Australian Emergency Call Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; Engelen, Lina; Burks-Young, Sarah; Daley, Michelle; Maxwell, Jen-Kui; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. Workplace programs that aim to reduce sitting time (sit less) and increase physical activity (move more) have targeted desk-based workers in corporate and university settings with promising results. However, little is known about 'move more, sit less' programs for workers in other types of jobs and industries, such as shift workers. This formative research examines the perceptions of a 'sit less, move more' program in an Australian Emergency Call Centre that operates 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Participants were employees (N = 39, 72% female, 50% aged 36-55 years) recruited from Emergency Services control centres located in New South Wales, Australia. The 'sit less, move more' intervention, consisting of emails, posters and timer lights, was co-designed with the management team and tailored to the control centre environment and work practices, which already included electronic height-adjustable sit-stand workstations for all call centre staff. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of the intervention in a self-report online questionnaire, and directly to the research team during regular site visits. Questionnaire topics included barriers and facilitators to standing while working, mental wellbeing, effects on work performance, and workplace satisfaction. Field notes and open-ended response data were analysed in an iterative process during and after data collection to identify the main themes. Whilst participants already had sit-stand workstations, use of the desks in the standing position varied and sometimes were contrary to expectations (e.g, less tired standing than sitting; standing when experiencing high call stress). Participants emphasised the "challenging" and "unrelenting" nature of their work. They reported sleep issues ("always tired"), work stress ("non-stop demands"), and feeling mentally and physically drained due to shift work and length of shifts

  1. Perspectives on a ‘Sit Less, Move More’ Intervention in Australian Emergency Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Daley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. Workplace programs that aim to reduce sitting time (sit less and increase physical activity (move more have targeted desk-based workers in corporate and university settings with promising results. However, little is known about ‘move more, sit less’ programs for workers in other types of jobs and industries, such as shift workers. This formative research examines the perceptions of a ‘sit less, move more’ program in an Australian Emergency Call Centre that operates 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Methods: Participants were employees (N = 39, 72% female, 50% aged 36–55 years recruited from Emergency Services control centres located in New South Wales, Australia. The ‘sit less, move more’ intervention, consisting of emails, posters and timer lights, was co-designed with the management team and tailored to the control centre environment and work practices, which already included electronic height-adjustable sit-stand workstations for all call centre staff. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of the intervention in a self-report online questionnaire, and directly to the research team during regular site visits. Questionnaire topics included barriers and facilitators to standing while working, mental wellbeing, effects on work performance, and workplace satisfaction. Field notes and open-ended response data were analysed in an iterative process during and after data collection to identify the main themes. Results: Whilst participants already had sit-stand workstations, use of the desks in the standing position varied and sometimes were contrary to expectations (e.g, less tired standing than sitting; standing when experiencing high call stress. Participants emphasised the “challenging” and “unrelenting” nature of their work. They reported sleep issues (“always tired”, work stress (“non-stop demands”, and feeling

  2. Desk-based workers' perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Daley, M.; Srinivasan, A.; Dunn, S.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to

  3. Are temporal patterns of sitting associated with obesity among blue-collar workers? A cross sectional study using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about associations of temporal patterns of sitting (i.e., distribution of sitting across time) with obesity. We aimed investigating the association between temporal patterns of sitting (long, moderate and brief uninterrupted bouts) and obesity indicators (body mass ind...

  4. Biological, socio-demographic, work and lifestyle determinants of sitting in young adult women: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Singh, A.S.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Brown, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sitting is associated with health risks. Factors that influence sitting are however not well understood. The aim was to examine the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of sitting time (including during transport, work and leisure) in young adult

  5. Microbial ecology-based methods to characterize the bacterial communities of non-model insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Erica M; Mapelli, Francesca; Gonella, Elena; Borin, Sara; Crotti, Elena

    2015-12-01

    Among the animals of the Kingdom Animalia, insects are unparalleled for their widespread diffusion, diversity and number of occupied ecological niches. In recent years they have raised researcher interest not only because of their importance as human and agricultural pests, disease vectors and as useful breeding species (e.g. honeybee and silkworm), but also because of their suitability as animal models. It is now fully recognized that microorganisms form symbiotic relationships with insects, influencing their survival, fitness, development, mating habits and the immune system and other aspects of the biology and ecology of the insect host. Thus, any research aimed at deepening the knowledge of any given insect species (perhaps species of applied interest or species emerging as novel pests or vectors) must consider the characterization of the associated microbiome. The present review critically examines the microbiology and molecular ecology techniques that can be applied to the taxonomical and functional analysis of the microbiome of non-model insects. Our goal is to provide an overview of current approaches and methods addressing the ecology and functions of microorganisms and microbiomes associated with insects. Our focus is on operational details, aiming to provide a concise guide to currently available advanced techniques, in an effort to extend insect microbiome research beyond simple descriptions of microbial communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  7. Forest insect and disease conditions, Vancouver forest region, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, N; Ferris, R L

    1988-01-01

    The Forest Insect and Disease Survey (FIDS) is a nation-wide network within Forestry Canada with the responsibility of producing an overview of forest pest conditions and their implications; maintaining records and surveys to support quarantine and facilitate predictions; supporting forestry research with records, insect collections and herbaria; providing advice on forest insect and disease conditions; developing and testing survey techniques; and conducting related biological studies. This report outlines the status of forest pest conditions in the Vancouver Forest Region, and forecasts population trends of some potentially damaging pests. Pests are listed by host in order of importance.

  8. Effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on the biomechanics of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand toilet transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Mehta-Desai, Ricky; Oh, Kyunggeune; Sanford, Jon; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2018-03-09

    Kinetic characteristics of transfers to and from a toilet performed using bilateral grab bars are not fully quantified to inform grab bar design and configuration. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on peaks of ankle, knee and hip joint moments during grab bar assisted stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers; and (2) determine effects of three different heights and widths of swing-away grab bars on the same kinetic characteristics. Healthy subjects (N = 11, age 25-58 years) performed stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers with and without grab bars. In transfers with grab bars, 9 grab bar configurations were tested by varying their height from the floor (0.787 m, 0.813 m, 0.838 m; 31″-33″) and width, the distance of each grab bar from the toilet's centerline (0.330 m, 0.356 m, 0.381 m; 13″-15″). Motion capture, force plate and inverse dynamics analysis were used to determine lower limb joint moments. The use of bilateral grab bars generally reduced the peak magnitude of extension moments at lower limb joints during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers (p away grab bars is useful for informing grab bar design and configuration recommendations for assisted living and skilled nursing facilities. Our findings suggest that the swing-away grab bars located at certain ranges are a reasonable alternative to the grab bars mandated by the current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Future research investigating the effects of grab bars on transfer performance should consider additional factors, such as a wider range of abilities and transfer methods of the users.

  9. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  10. Unilateral Discomfort Increases the Use of Contralateral Side during Sit-to-Stand Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simisola O. Oludare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with unilateral impairment perform symmetrical movements asymmetrically. Restoring symmetry of movements is an important goal of rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using discomfort-inducing devices on movement symmetry. Fifteen healthy individuals performed the sit-to-stand (STS maneuver using devices inducing unilateral discomfort under the left sole and left thigh or right sole and right thigh and without them. 3D body kinematics, ground reaction forces, electrical activity of muscles, and the level of perceived discomfort were recorded. The center of mass (COM, center of pressure (COP, and trunk displacements as well as the magnitude and latency of muscle activity of lower limb muscles were calculated during STS and compared to quantify the movement asymmetry. Discomfort on the left and right side of the body (thigh and feet induced statistically significant displacement of the trunk towards the opposite side. There was statistically significant asymmetry in the activity of the left and right Tibialis Anterior, Medial Gastrocnemius, and Biceps Femoris muscles when discomfort was induced underneath the left side of the body (thigh and feet. The technique was effective in causing asymmetry and promoted the use of the contralateral side. The outcome provides a foundation for future investigations of the role of discomfort-inducing devices in improving symmetry of the STS in individuals with unilateral impairment.

  11. Insects as food: a cross-cultural comparison of consumers' intention and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Albeit the benefits of switching to an insects’ based diet are set up on nutritional, environmental, economic and ecological benefits, the potential growth of insects as everyday food is still unclear. This work relies on three different papers who share the main objective of exploring consumer behavior towards edible insects, using both direct and indirect methods (computer questionnaires and more daring techniques such as IAT), while linking two European countries that share little in terms...

  12. Measuring functional limitations in rising and sitting down: Development of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, L.D.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Bouter, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Develop and test a self-administered questionnaire that measures perceived and actual functional limitations in rising and sitting down. Setting: Private practices for physical therapy and outpatient clinics of hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Patients: 345 outpatients (43% male,

  13. Herbivory increases diversification across insect clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J; Lapoint, Richard T; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-09-24

    Insects contain more than half of all living species, but the causes of their remarkable diversity remain poorly understood. Many authors have suggested that herbivory has accelerated diversification in many insect clades. However, others have questioned the role of herbivory in insect diversification. Here, we test the relationships between herbivory and insect diversification across multiple scales. We find a strong, positive relationship between herbivory and diversification among insect orders. However, herbivory explains less variation in diversification within some orders (Diptera, Hemiptera) or shows no significant relationship with diversification in others (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera). Thus, we support the overall importance of herbivory for insect diversification, but also show that its impacts can vary across scales and clades. In summary, our results illuminate the causes of species richness patterns in a group containing most living species, and show the importance of ecological impacts on diversification in explaining the diversity of life.

  14. SHOULDER EXTERNAL ROTATOR STRENGTH IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SITTING POSTURES: A CONTROLLED LABORATORY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Steven; Haydt, Richard; Gottstein, Thomas; Grasso, Anthony; Lombard, Nicholas; Stone, Brandon

    2018-02-01

    The forward head rounded shoulder (FHRS) sitting posture has been associated with decreased shoulder complex muscle strength and function. Upon clinical observation, the adverse effects of the FHRS sitting posture on shoulder complex isometric muscle strength is also present when testing controls for scapular position. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of various sitting postures on shoulder external rotator muscle isometric strength when the strength testing controls for scapular position. A cohort study, with subjects serving as their own controls. One hundred subjects ages 20-26 participated in the study. Each subject was placed in a neutral cervical sitting (NCS) posture which was maintained for five minutes after which the strength of the dominant shoulder external rotators was immediately tested with the glenohumeral joint in the neutral position using a Micro-FET3 Hand Held Muscle Testing Dynamometer (HHMTD). Each subject was returned to the NCS posture for subsequent external rotator strength testing after five minutes in a FHRS sitting posture, five additional minutes in the NCS posture and five minutes in a retracted cervical sitting (RCS) posture resulting in each subjects' external rotator strength being tested on four occasions. Subjects were randomized for order between the FHRS and RCS postures. Mean strength values for each condition were normalized to the mean strength value for the 1 st NCS condition for each subject. A statistically significant decline in shoulder external rotator strength following the FHRS sitting posture occurred compared to the appropriate postural conditions (pexternal rotator strength following five minutes in the FHRS sitting posture. The average percentage of strength decline in those with greater than a 10% reduction in external rotator strength was 19%. Sixty-four percent of the subjects experienced less than a 10% decline in shoulder external rotator strength in response to the FHRS sitting posture

  15. Prolonged sitting and markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in children and youth: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Goldfield, Gary S; Colley, Rachel C; Kenny, Glen P; Doucet, Eric; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that short bouts of uninterrupted sedentary behavior reduce insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while increasing triglyceride levels in both healthy and overweight/obese adults. To date no study has examined the acute impact of uninterrupted sitting in children and youth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether 8 h of uninterrupted sitting increases markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in healthy children and youth, in comparison to 8 h of sitting interrupted by light intensity walk breaks or structured physical activity. 11 healthy males and 8 healthy females between the ages of 10 and 14 years experienced 3 conditions in random order: (1) 8 h of uninterrupted sitting (Sedentary); (2) 8 h of sitting interrupted with a 2-min light-intensity walk break every 20 min (Breaks); and (3) 8 h of sitting interrupted with a 2-min light-intensity walk break every 20 min as well as 2×20 min of moderate-intensity physical activity (Breaks+Physical Activity). Insulin, glucose, triglyceride, HDL and LDL cholesterol area under the curve were calculated for each condition. We observed no significant differences in the area under the curve for any marker of cardiometabolic disease risk across the 3 study conditions (all p>0.09). These results suggest that in comparison to interrupted sitting or structured physical activity, a single bout of 8 h of uninterrupted sitting does not result in measurable changes in circulating levels of insulin, glucose, or lipids in healthy children and youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Low-back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge due to the risk for long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objectives of this study were to determine (i...... and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively. Conclusion Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures are more powerful risk factors for LBP....

  17. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Workplace sitting and height-adjustable workstations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Maike; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2014-01-01

    Desk-based office employees sit for most of their working day. To address excessive sitting as a newly identified health risk, best practice frameworks suggest a multi-component approach. However, these approaches are resource intensive and knowledge about their impact is limited. To compare the efficacy of a multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting time, to a height-adjustable workstations-only intervention, and to a comparison group (usual practice). Three-arm quasi-randomized controlled trial in three separate administrative units of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Data were collected between January and June 2012 and analyzed the same year. Desk-based office workers aged 20-65 (multi-component intervention, n=16; workstations-only, n=14; comparison, n=14). The multi-component intervention comprised installation of height-adjustable workstations and organizational-level (management consultation, staff education, manager e-mails to staff) and individual-level (face-to-face coaching, telephone support) elements. Workplace sitting time (minutes/8-hour workday) assessed objectively via activPAL3 devices worn for 7 days at baseline and 3 months (end-of-intervention). At baseline, the mean proportion of workplace sitting time was approximately 77% across all groups (multi-component group 366 minutes/8 hours [SD=49]; workstations-only group 373 minutes/8 hours [SD=36], comparison 365 minutes/8 hours [SD=54]). Following intervention and relative to the comparison group, workplace sitting time in the multi-component group was reduced by 89 minutes/8-hour workday (95% CI=-130, -47 minutes; pworkplace sitting. These findings may have important practical and financial implications for workplaces targeting sitting time reductions. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 00363297. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  19. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Insect Immunity: The Post-Genomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Bangham, Jenny; Jiggins, Frank; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Insects have a complex and effective immune system, many components of which are conserved in mammals. But only in the last decade have the molecular mechanisms that regulate the insect immune response--and their relevance to general biology and human immunology--become fully appreciated. A meeting supported by the Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique (France) was held to bring together the whole spectrum of researchers working on insect immunity. The meeting addressed diverse aspects...