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Sample records for inorganic ion exchanger

  1. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  2. Synthetic inorganic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange isotherms for hydrogen ion/alkali metal ions have been measured at 20 and 40 0 C, with a solution ionic strength of 0.1, in crystalline antimonic(V) acid as a cation-exchanger. The isotherms showed S-shaped curves for the systems of H + /Na + , H + /K + , H + /Rb + and H + /Cs + , but not for H + /Li + exchange. The selectivity coefficients (logarithm scale) vs equivalent fraction of alkali metal ions in the exchanger give linear functions for all systems studied. The selectivity sequences are shown. Overall and hypothetical (zero loading) thermodynamic equilibrium constants were evaluated for these ion-exchange reactions. (author)

  3. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  4. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1983-10-01

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked [fr

  5. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  6. Inorganic ion exchangers in industrial and nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.

    2000-01-01

    Zirconium and titanium phosphates have been used as inorganic ion exchangers for many years. Their characteristics, as high exchange capacity and ionizing and oxidizing reagents resistance, among others, have made them suitable for the treatment of wastes, mostly the radioactive ones. Due to its granulometry, zirconium phosphate (Zr P) must be prepared on an inert support, or it can be synthesized , as well as titanium phosphate, with modifiers, to promote better distribution of the exchanger over the support surface and to enlarge the cavities of their crystal lattice. The prepared exchangers were analyzed by electronic sweep microscopy. The studies on cesium and chromium sorption were made by using radioactive tracer technique, with Cs-134 and Cr-51 radioisotopes. The sorption of cesium in Zr P and Ti P was about 95%, but chromium showed very low sorption in the studied conditions, indicating the necessity of more experiments varying pH and temperature of the solutions. (author)

  7. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  8. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  9. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  10. Organic and inorganic ion exchangers as catalysts for the heterogeneous alkylation of aromatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Widdecke, H [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1979-06-01

    Ion exchangers have advantages over low molecular for use in industrial alkylation reactions. The reactivity and selectivity behaviour of the polymeric catalysts was found to be markedly influenced by the structure of the polymeric matrix as well as the type and number of the functional groups. In this connection many similarities between inorganic ion exchangers (zeolites) and organic ion exchange resins were detected.

  11. Preparation of inorganic ion exchangers with high selectivity for lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Development of ion exchangers that show large lithium isotope effects is hoped for to establish highly efficient chromatographic processes of lithium isotope separation. In this paper, preparation, characterization, ion exchange properties, and lithium isotope selectivity of inorganic materials that have been and still are being studied by my research group at Sophia University are reviewed. They include manganese oxides-based ion exchangers, antimonic acids and titanium/zirconium phosphates-based ion exchangers. As a result, the lithium isotope separation effects that were one order of magnitude larger than those of organic ion exchangers were obtained. Some inorganic ion exchangers were found to show ion exchange rates more than comparable to those of organic ones. (author)

  12. Advance in the study of removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songping; Wang Xiaowei; Du Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The excellent performance in the removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers has received extensive attention due to their characteristic physico-chemical features. The paper summarized research progress of removal of cesium by different inorganic ion exchangers such as silicoaluminate, salts of hetero polyacid, hexacyanoferrate, insoluble salts of acid with multivalent metals, insoluble hydrous oxides of multivalent metals and silicotitanate and reviewed several removal systems of cesium by inorganic ion exchangers which might offer China some reference in treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  13. Inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbents for chemical processing in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The application of inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbents to both waste treatment and the recovery of fission products and actinides were of primary concern at this meeting. The meeting covered the two major fields of fundamental studies and industrial applications

  14. Applications of inorganic ion-exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Li Xingliang; Li Shoujian

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the application of abio-ion exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater, which would be useful for latter research of new inorganic materials that used in managing radioactivity wastewater. (authors)

  15. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  16. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  17. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  18. The application of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers to analytical chemistry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuo

    1974-01-01

    Regarding acidic salts, description is made on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals and each of zirconium salts, titanium salts, stannic salts, cerium salts, thorium salts, chromium salts, and others. On heteropolyacid salts, ammonium 12-molybdophosphated and phosphorus wolframate are described. On insoluble ferrocyanides, the behaviour of various complex salts is explained. In the discussion on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals, the ideality of ion exchange, the stability and solubility of the acidic salts, thermal stability and radiation resistance, the ion sieving effect of various acidic salts, and the selectivity of the acidic salts are stated. Zirconium gives a number of acidic salts, such as zirconium phosphate, crystalline zirconium phosphate, zirconium phrophosphate, various polyphosphates of zirconium, zirconium phosphate-silicate, zirconium arsenate, zirconium antimonate, zirconium molybdate, zirconium tungstate, etc. Useful titanium salts for ion exchange are titanium phosphate, titanium aresenate, titanium antimonate, titanium tungstate, titanium molybdate, titanium vanadate, and titanium selenate. The distribution coefficients of metal ions, inorganic-separation of various inorganic ion exchangers, the exchange characteristics of various elements on various ion exchangers, and the selectivity of various inorganic ion-exchangers are tabulated. (Fukutomi, T.)

  19. Inorganic ion exchange evaluation and design: Silicotitanate ion exchange waste conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-03-01

    Ion exchange materials are being evaluated for removing Cs, SR from tank waste. Thermal conversion of a variety of compositions within the Cs 2 O-TiO 2 -SiO 2 phase diagram yielded both glass and crystalline materials, some of which show low leach rates and negligible Cs losses during heat treatment. A new material, CsTiSi 2 0 6 , with a structure isomorphous to pollucite (CsAlSi 2 0 6 ) has been identified. This material represents a new class of crystalline zeolite materials which contain large amounts of titanium. Direct conversion of Cs loaded silicotitanate ion exchangers to CsTiSi 2 O 6 is an excellent alternative to dissolving the Cs-loaded or Cs-eluted exchangers in borosilicate glass because: CsTiSi 2 O 6 is formed using a simple, one step heat treatment. The unique crystalline pollucite-like structure of CsTiSi 2 O 6 traps Cs, and exhibits extremely low Cs leach rates. CsTiSi 2 O 6 is converted to solid waste at a low processing temperature of 700 to 800 C (nominal melter operating temperatures are 1150 C). CsTiSi 2 0 6 concentrates the waste, thus generating lower volumes of expensive HLW. Cs losses due to volatilization during processing of CsTiSi 2 O 6 are extremely low

  20. Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated up to a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the K d values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II . These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry

  1. Application of inorganic ion exchangers for low and medium activity radioactive effluent decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.

    1986-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative pretreatment or treatment for low and medium activity liquid wastes, allowing to improve the quality of containment and decrease the cost of storage. Inorganic ion exchangers are used to remove alpha emitters and long lived fission products and concentrate them in a small volume; these exchangers can be converted into a stable matrix by thermal treatment. This treatment, at least for some liquid wastes, don't exclude a complementary decontamination by chemical precipitation. Sludges, arising from precipitation, exempt from alpha emitters and long lived fission products can be stored in a shallow land burial. This study includes two parts: - Measurements of distribution coefficients for the main nuclides in order to choose, for each liquid wastes, the most suitable ion exchanger. - Estimation of performances of selected inorganic ion exchangers, from tests of percolation of genuine effluents

  2. The selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Min, Byeog Heon [Hoseo University, Taegu (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This study shows the selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites such as clinoptilolite, Y-type CBV760, CBV780 and A-type 3A. The selective separation of Cs and Sr on these zeolites was examined using batch and continuous column experiments. For the selective separation of Cs and Sr from a synthetic wastewater, adsorption rate of Cs increased in the order, clinoptilolite> 3A>> CBV760> CBV780, adsorption rate of Sr increased in the other, 3A>> clinoptilolite> CBV760> CBV780. For the clinoptilolite, the adsorption rate of Cs reached about 96 {approx} 98% within 3h. The adsorption rate of Sr on 3A reached about 99% within 3h. (author). 40 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. environmental studies for removal of some radioactive elements using zirconium silicate as inorganic ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2007-01-01

    inorganic ion exchangers have a good potential than the commonly used organic ones for removal and separation of radionuclides from irradiated nuclear fuel solutions. therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some radionuclides such as Cs + ,Co 2+ ,and Eu 3+ by the prepared zirconium silicate as cation exchanger. the following items will be involved:-1- preparation of zirconium silicate as a cation exchanger. 2- characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA and TG analyses. 3-chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (heating temperature and reaction temperature). 4- ion exchange isotherms. 5- breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain conditions

  4. Sol - gel inorganic ion exchangers for conditioning of medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, G.; Traverso, D.M.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Fava, R.

    1988-01-01

    Decontamination of high-level liquid wastes and medium activity wastes streams by inorganic ion exchange combined with the conversion of the spent inorganic ion exchange material to waste ceramics presents a considerable potential for utilisation in waste conditioning. Ceramic waste forms are found superior to other candidate waste immobilisation forms but practical implementation is hampered because of the complexity of the related fabrication technology. This report shows the possibility of improving this situation by resorting to sol gel techniques earlier developed for preparation of nuclear fuel ceramics. The principal findings are: - superior quality ion exchange xerogel titanates in the form of mechanically resistant, size controlled microspheres can be prepared using a simple sol-gel technique; - the titanate particles can be also used as precursors in Evaporative Deposition on Xerogel Particles (EDXP) a new waste solidification process based on physical impregnation of the xerogel material with the waste liquid followed by evaporation; - waste loaded ion exchange microspheres can be converted to leach resistant ceramics by firing and/or cold pressing and sintering at 900 0 -1100 0 C; - sol-gel inorganic ion exchange and EDXP may find useful application in conditioning MAW streams. 44 figs., 43 refs

  5. Development of inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.

    1997-01-01

    'In this research program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Texas A and M University in the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of cesium and strontium from nuclear tank-waste and from groundwater. Inorganic ion exchangers are developed and characterized at Texas A and M University; ORNL is involved in preparing the powders in engineered forms and testing the performance of the sorbents in actual nuclear waste solutions. The Texas A and M studies are divided into two main categories: (1) exchangers for tank wastes and (2) exchangers for groundwater remediation. These are subdivided into exchangers for use in acid and alkaline solutions for tank wastes and those that can be recycled for use in groundwater remediation. The exchangers will also be considered for in situ immobilization of radionuclides. The approach will involve a combination of exchanger synthesis, structural characterization, and ion exchange behavior. ORNL has developed a technique for preparing inorganic ion exchangers in the form of spherules by a gel-sphere internal gelation process. This technology, which was developed and used for making nuclear fuels, has the potential of greatly enhancing the usability of many other special inorganic materials because of the improved flow dynamics of the spherules. Also, pure inorganic spherules can be made without the use of binders. ORNL also has access to actual nuclear waste in the form of waste tank supernatant solutions for testing the capabilities of the sorbents for removing the cesium and strontium radionuclides from actual waste solutions. The ORNL collaboration will involve the preparation of the powdered ion exchangers, developed and synthesized at Texas A and M, in the form of spherules, and evaluating the performance of the exchangers in real nuclear waste solutions. Selected sorbents will be provided by Texas A and M for potential incorporation into microspheres, and the performance

  6. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  7. Extraction of metals from liquid effluent using modified inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers such as goethite, titanium (IV) oxide; silica and zeolites have been modified to examine the extraction of ruthenium; technetium and cobalt from liquid effluent. In addition, tin (IV) hydrogenphosphate and antimony hydrogenphosphate have been also examined in the modified and unmodified forms. It has been shown that some of the above reagents are able to remove the required metal ions from aqueous solution at the trace and mg L -1 levels. (author)

  8. Inorganic ion-exchangers. Their role in chromatographic radionuclide generators for the decade 1993-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ion-exchangers are found not only in water purification processes, the original major application, but also in analytical chemistry for the separation and isolation of elements, hydrometallurgy, inorganic chemistry and biochemistry, in food technology, and of course in many specialized fields related to the utilization of atomic energy. The use of organic ion-exchangers is limited by virtue of their limited stability under harsh conditions, whereas inorganic ion-exchangers possess important properties, which make them very useful for chemical separation and purification in intense radiation fields. The availability of short-lived radionuclides from radionuclide generators provides an inexpensive and convenient alternative to in-house radioisotope production facilities such as accelerators and cyclotrons. Due to their simplicity of operation, chromatographic based generators have been the method of choice, although generators based on solvent extraction and on volatilization and sublimation have also been developed, and are routinely used. In this paper use of inorganic ion-exchangers for the development of radionuclide generators for the decade 1993-2002 has been compiled. (author)

  9. Separation of In (III)and Cd(II) Using Zirconium Vanadate As Inorganic Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, A.; Abou El Nour, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, zirconium vanadate as inorganic ion exchanger was chemically synthesized using homogeneous precipitation technique. The obtained zirconium vanadate was mixed with Indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solution using batch experiment. Ion exchange capacity of various metal ions was investigated. Effects of ph, initial concentration, weight of the sorbent and contact time on the adsorption of metals were studied. Chromatographic column methods were applied for separation of indium and cadmium. A fixed bed column of zirconium vanadate was successfully used for separation of indium and cadmium. The recovery percentage of both metal ions was about 98.4% using 2 M HCl and citrate buffer ph 3.5, respectively.

  10. Complexation ion-exchange chromatography of some metal ions on papers impregnated with Ti(IV)-based inorganic ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S D; Gupta, R

    2000-02-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 40 metal ions is studied on titanium (IV) arsenate, titanium (IV) phosphate-, titanium (IV) molybdate-, titanium(IV) tungstate-, and titanium(IV) selenite-impregnated papers in 0.1M oxalic, citric, and tartaric acid as mobile phases. Similar studies are carried out on Whatman No. 1 papers for comparison. The ion-exchange capacity of these papers is determined, and their selectivity for different cations is discussed. The mechanism of migration is explained in terms of ion-exchange, precipitation, and adsorption. The prediction of elution sequence from RF values is also checked. The average Ri is found to be almost linearly dependent on the charge of the metal ions. The effect of the pKa of complexing acids on average RF values of 3d series metal ions is explained. A number of binary and ternary separations are achieved.

  11. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  12. Use of inorganic ion exchange materials for the treatment of liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Zakaria, E.S.; El-Absy, M.A.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.; Abo-Mesalam, M.M.; Shady, S.A.; Abdelwahab, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    To examine the ion exchange behaviour of the double salts of polybasic acid with tetravalent metals type such as cerium(IV) and tin(IV) antimonates, different samples were prepared, heated at different temperatures and exposed to γ-irradiation. These samples were subject to X-ray, infra-red and thermal analysis. The exchange properties of the studied materials improved on increasing the Sb, Ce or Sn molar ratios and the drying temperature. The rate of the isotopic exchange was controlled by particle diffusion for the metal ions studied and was faster as the heating temperature was increased but slower for materials with a higher exchange capacity. The physical thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated which give some information regarding the mechanism of ion exchange on the surface of inorganic materials. The removal of radioactive isotopes of Na + , Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ was carried out by in-situ precipitation or by using preformed precipitate of tin(IV) and cerium(IV) antimonates. The products of in-situ precipitations act as ion exchange materials with high chemical and radioactive stabilities. The new materials have relatively high capacity compared with CeSb and SnSb. The irradiated cerium(IV) antimonate has been successfully used for the quantitative separation of cesium which suggests its use in the treatment of active liquid waste. (author). 24 refs, 7 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium eerie nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic system's, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. A molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 12 O 27 . 13H 2 O and Ce 2 Ti 3 O 10 . 7.46H 2 O, respectively, was proposed. Thermal stabilities of both ion exchangers were investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared with the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were also investigated

  14. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  15. Conditioning of inorganic ion exchangers based on cerium (IV) antimonate in cement matrix. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Zakareia, N.; El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abo-Mosallem, N.M.; EL-Naggar, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of inorganic adsorbents for treatment of aqueous radioactive waste has many advantages; namely; better resistance to chemical action, thermal stability, compatibility with immobilization matrices and resistance to radiation. Inorganic ion exchangers process many properties which make them more suitable for rad waste treatment than organic exchange resins. Inorganic ion exchange materials can be immobilized using cement matrix to obtain good solidified waste form. In this work, the removal of radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste is carried out by chemical in-situ precipitation. The addition of cerium (IV) antimonate (cesb) to cement mixture enhances the compressive strength more than plain cement. Waste package containing cesb increased the compressive strength relative to original ordinary portland cement (OPC) matrix for waste products immersed in tap water for one month. The compressive strength increases in the order; st Ce Sb> mix Ce Sb> Na Ce Sb> Co Ce Sb> Cs Ce Sb> OPC> Eu Ce Sb> Ce Sb; (mix refers to all the radionuclides used here). The cumulative leached fractions of 60 Co and 134 Cs decreased for solidified waste products containing Ce Sb in comparison to plain cement. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Conditioning of inorganic ion exchangers based on cerium (IV) antimonate in cement matrix. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, H F; Zakareia, N; El-Dessouky, M I; Abo-Mosallem, N M; EL-Naggar, I M [Hot Laboratory and Waste Management Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The use of inorganic adsorbents for treatment of aqueous radioactive waste has many advantages; namely; better resistance to chemical action, thermal stability, compatibility with immobilization matrices and resistance to radiation. Inorganic ion exchangers process many properties which make them more suitable for rad waste treatment than organic exchange resins. Inorganic ion exchange materials can be immobilized using cement matrix to obtain good solidified waste form. In this work, the removal of radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste is carried out by chemical in-situ precipitation. The addition of cerium (IV) antimonate (cesb) to cement mixture enhances the compressive strength more than plain cement. Waste package containing cesb increased the compressive strength relative to original ordinary portland cement (OPC) matrix for waste products immersed in tap water for one month. The compressive strength increases in the order; st Ce Sb> mix Ce Sb> Na Ce Sb> Co Ce Sb> Cs Ce Sb> OPC> Eu Ce Sb> Ce Sb; (mix refers to all the radionuclides used here). The cumulative leached fractions of {sup 60} Co and {sup 134} Cs decreased for solidified waste products containing Ce Sb in comparison to plain cement. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Retention of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs on inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the study is the treatment of radioactive wastes produced in plutonium fuel fabrication or in spent fuel reprocessing by inorganic ion exchangers for ultimate storage. This rapport, gives the distribution coefficients of 60 Co, 85 Sr, 137 Cs (in sodium nitrate medium at different concentration of sodium: .23g/l, 1 g/l, 10 g/l) obtained with different inorganic exchangers: titanium oxyde, sodium titanate, sodium zirconate, sodium niobate, sodium tantalate, titanium phosphate, zirconium phosphate, ammonium phosphotungstate in zirconium phosphate, polyantimonic acid amorphous aluminosilicate and several zeolites (ZBS 15 from OXYMIN, ZEOLON 400, ZEOLON 500, ZEOLON 900 from Norton, IE 96, A 51, 13 X from Union Carbide) [fr

  18. Synthesis and characterization of some inorganic ion exchange materials and its application in the treatment of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in the last decays in the fields of industry, medicine, agriculture and nuclear technology due to their stabilities towards thermal and radiation and their resistance to chemical attack. the most important property of inorganic ion exchangers enabling their use in the various chemical separation is the selectivity. the selectivity behaviour of synthetic inorganic ion exchanges are still far from being clearly understood. this work had been done in an attempt to synthesize of inorganic ion exchangers such as zircon-titanate and doping alkali metals with zircon-titanate to produce a new developed ion exchanger with properties allow to used in the treatment of hazardous wastes. this work is concerned with the preparation of zircon-titanate and the doping of some alkali metals (K,Na,Li and Cs)with zircon-titanate. characterization of the synthesized ion exchangers using x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and thermal analysis were conducted. equilibrium measurements and effect of batch factor, ph of the medium on percent uptake were determined. capacity measurements and sorption isotherm studies were also investigated on zircon-titanate and its dopant products.

  19. Study on the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.A.; Hooper, E.W.; Monckton, N.P.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarises some of the results from an ongoing experimental programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. The effect of irradiation up to a total dose of 10 M Gy on the absorption of fission products and actinides over a range of experimental conditions by selected ion exchangers is described. The ion exchangers tested were polyantimonic acid, hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II, titanium phosphate and zirconium phosphate. Manganese dioxide and potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II were unaffected by irradiation. Polyantimonic acid showed a decreasing performance with increasing total dose. Zirconium phosphate, titanium phosphate and oxide showed a decreasing performance up to a total dose of 2.19 M Gy with an apparent recovery in performance on increasing the total dose to 10 M Gy. The effect of conditioning time on some of the irradiated absorbers could have influenced the uptake data above 1.25 M Gy. (author)

  20. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd 2+ is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd 2+ , time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd 2+ solution and the interference of other ions like Ni 2+ . The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd 2+ solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni 2+ as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd 2+ . (author)

  1. Inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium to be used in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of synthesis and characterization of an inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxides doped with europium (SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ ) to be used in environmental field. The adsorption study of nickel was realized in this exchanger to recover the nickel metal which is in thorium-nickel alloys used as electrode of discharge lamps. The studied exchanger was synthesized by neutralization of tin chloride (IV) and titanium chloride (III) mixed solution and characterized by thermogravimetric measurement (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption study showed that these inorganic ion exchangers are good materials to recovery nickel with high weight distribution ratios (Dw Ni 2+ ) and percent adsorption. (author)

  2. Investigation of heavy metal removal from motorway stormwater using inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Stormwater runoff from motorway surfaces contains toxic heavy metals that are not sufficiently removed by current treatment systems. This research has investigated the potential use of inorganic ion exchange materials to further reduce the levels of dissolved heavy metals. Candidate materials (synthetic/natural zeolites, clay/modified clay, hydrotalcite, lignite) were tested by a shaking procedure (mixed 5 mg dm -3 of each heavy metals, shaken for 10 min) and analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The synthetic zeolites MAP and Y showed 100% heavy metal removal and were investigated further by a series of batch experiments. The zeolites exhibited a selectivity sequence Pb > Cu > Cd ∼ Zn. Zeolite MAP has a high capacity for heavy metal uptake (4.5 meq g -1 ), but is not practical for use in a treatment facility owing to its low particle size (3 μm). However, large zeolite pellets (∼ 2 mm) were found to have a low heavy metal uptake (∼ 44 %) due to diffusion limitations. Selected materials (zeolites MAP, Y, mordenite, and carbon-based lignite) were tested in actual and spiked motorway stormwater. The synthetic zeolites effectively remove heavy metals (∼ 100 %) but change the environmental chemistry of the stormwater by releasing high concentrations of sodium, removing calcium ions and increasing the solution pH. The presence of other dissolved contaminants in motorway stormwater inhibited the uptake of heavy metals by the natural zeolite mordenite (34 % less removal). Alkali/alkaline-earth metals (Na, Ca) in solution compete for exchange sites in lignite and mordenite, reducing the heavy metal uptake. Chloride in solution forms complexes with cadmium, severely reducing its uptake by zeolite Y. The presence of dissolved road salt is a potentially serious concern as it causes previously exchanged heavy metals to be re-eluted, especially zinc and cadmium. Zeolite MAP as an exchanger is relatively unaffected by road salt. There is potential for the use of

  3. Ion Exchange Kinetics of CO2+ Ions In the Particles of Some Organic and Inorganic Sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Messalam, M.M; Shady, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of exchange and diffusion mechanism of Co 2+ and Zn 2+ on the hydrogen form of cerium (IV) antimonate Ce/Sb and polyacrylamide acrylic acid resin impregnated with zirconium phosphate p(A M-A A) Zr-P was determined at different reaction temperatures 25,45 and 60 degree. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism and a limited batch technique. The effective diffusion coefficients of exchange reactions, values of activation energies, entropy of activation have been calculated and were confirmed by the B t versus t plots

  4. A structural study of nepheline hydrate I, an inorganic ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.

    1985-01-01

    The crystal structures of nepheline hydrates I, Na 3 Al 3 Si 3 O 12 x 2H 2 O, and three compounds produced by ion exchange with aqueous KCl, RbCl and CsCl at 80 degrees C, have been studied using X-ray diffraction methods. This synthetic silicate has a tetrahedral framework with a two-dimensional pore system consisting of perpendicular 8-ring and 6-ring channels. The long-range ordering of Si and Al into adjacent tetrahedra is well developed. Some aspects of the topology, geometry and bonding of the tetrahedral frame are discussed. Related framework types are derived by unit cell twinning of the idealized cristobalite structure. A limit in the ion exchange is observed when about 1/3 of the Na + ions have been replaced. This behaviour is explained by the restricted volume of two Na sites situated in the 6-ring channel. The readily exchangeable ions and water molecules in the 8-ring channels an arrangement which gradually changes when the size of the alkali metal-ion increases. Most K + -exchanged crystals have a unit cell which is determined by the translational symmetry of the framework, while the original Na form has a two-fold superstructure and the Rb + -exchanged form has a five-fold superstructure. Caesium-ion-exchanged crystals have incommensurate structures. The occurrence of superstructures is related to long-range ordering of the species in the 8-ring channels. (author)

  5. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers with a higher affinity for arsenate and a competitive removal capacity towards fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, selenite, arsenite and borate

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Highly selective materials and effective technologies are needed to meet the increasingly stronger drinking water standards for targeted ionic species. Inorganic ion exchangers based on individual and mixed-metal hydrous oxides (or mixed adsorbents

  6. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  7. Applications of inorganic ion exchangers; I-sorption and fixation of some radionuclides in synthetic iron (III)titanate ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Iron(III) titanate as inorganic ion exchange material has been synthesized by addition of ferric nitrate solution to titanium tetrachloride (dissolved in 4M HCI) with molar ratio equal to unity. The data obtained proposed that the chemical formula of iron(III) titanate may written either as Fe 1 .3 (TiO). 2h 2 O or Fe(TiO 4 ) 0 .76.1.5H 2 O. The surface area values of unloaded and loaded iron(III) titanate with Cs + , Co 2 + and Eu 3 + ions were measured using BET-technique. The selectiy sequence for sorption of Cs + , Co 2 + and Fu 3 + ions on iron (III) titanate was found to be; Co 2 + > Eu 3 + > Cs + . The leach rate values of Cs + , Co 2 + and Fu 3 + ions from iron (II) titanate heated to 1000 degree C different leachants were determined and shows lower values compared to those obtained from unheated iron (III) titanate (dried at 50 degree C) which elucidate the suitability of iron (III) titanate in fixation of Cs + , Co 2 + and Eu 3 + ions by thermal treatment up to1000 degree.

  8. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Part IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaven, G.W.; Cross, J.E.; Hooper, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises some of the results from an ongoing experimental programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. Six different absorbers have been examined for their effectiveness in removing Am, Cs, Co, Sb, Ru, Eu, Ag, Zr, Nb, Zn and Mn ions from solutions varying from 4 M HNO 3 to 1 M NaNO 3 at pH 10. The ion exchangers tested were polyantimonic acid, hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II, titanium phosphate and zirconium phosphate. The experimental results show that by suitable choice of absorber and operating conditions, good decontamination from all the radionuclides examined can be achieved. (author)

  9. Exchangers of inorganic ions in the administration of radioactive wastes; Intercambiadores de iones inorganicos en la gestion de desechos radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The prediction of the radionuclide migration in geologic mean requires of a quantitative knowledge of the physiochemical phenomenon of retention in the surface of mineral phases. With this purpose, is necessary the study of the radionuclides retention in solids named model solids are the oxides and phosphates of polyvalent cations. This work presents experimental evidence of the convenience of using two exchangers of inorganic ions, alumina and apatite, in the administration of radioactive wastes due to its selectivity for the main products of divalent fission, Pd and Sr with regard to the anion species represented by Tc. The retention of Sr(III), Pd(II) and Tc(-I) in hydroxyapatite and alumina, in NaCl O.02 M in function of the ph is studied. The likeness of retention of the solids for the fission products is expressed in terms of the distribution coefficient kD which is obtained using the homologous radionuclides {sup 109}Pd and {sup 87m}Sr as well as the {sup 99m}Tc. The retention of Pd was of 100% and the Tc near to 0%. (Author)

  10. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate%Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Yavari, Ramin; Ashtari, Parviz'; Gholipour, Vanik; Kamel, Leila; Rakhshandehru, Farokh

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of the composite of cerium(IV) molybdophosphate (CMP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was reported (CMP-PAN). The material has been characterized by elemental and spectral (FT-IR), X-ray and thermal (TGA) analysis. Also the size analysis of the composite was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its chemical stability in acidic, basic and saline solutions and radiation stability up to 100 kGy total expose dose were assessed. Whereas the synthesized composite has ion exchange properties, its ion exchange capacity and behavior toward several metal ions were also investigated. Further, the distribution coefficients of the metal ions were calculated. Finally, the ability of the synthesized CMP-PAN composite for the decontamination of low level liquid waste (LLLW) was investigated.

  12. Kinetics of boron ions sorption from solution by inorganic anion exchanger of MNH type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of restricted volume in case of boron excess in solution kinetics of boron sorption by inorganic anion-exchanger of the composition (Mg 0.55 Ni 0.45 )(OH) 2 has been studied. The sorption was carried out from solution containing Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , HCO 3 at 283, 293, 303 and 313 K and pH 8.1, while the density of solution was 1225 kg/m 3 . The sorption mechanism was considered. It is shown that heterogeneity of the character of kinetic curves is caused by the change in the mechanism of limiting stages of the sorption

  13. Adsorption of arsenite and selenite using an inorganic ion exchanger based on Fe–Mn hydrous oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Szlachta, Małgorzata; Gerda, Vasyl; Chubar, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour and mechanism of As(III) and Se(IV) oxyanion uptake using a mixed inorganic adsorbent were studied. The novel adsorbent, based on Fe(III)-Mn(III) hydrous oxides and manganese(II) carbonate, was synthesised using a hydrothermal precipitation approach in the presence of urea. The inorganic ion exchanger exhibited a high selectivity and adsorptive capacity towards As(III) (up to 47.6mg/g) and Se(IV) (up to 29.0mg/g), even at low equilibrium concentration. Although pH effects were typical for anionic species (i.e., the adsorption decreased upon pH increase), Se(IV) was more sensitive to pH changes than As(III). The rates of adsorption of both oxyanions were high. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the ion exchange adsorption of both anions took place via OH - groups, mainly from Fe(III) but also Mn(III) hydrous oxides. MnCO 3 did not contribute directly to As(III) and Se(IV) removal. A higher adsorptive capacity of the developed material towards As(III) was partly due to partial As(III) oxidation during adsorption. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  15. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  16. The application and properties of composite sorbents of inorganic ion exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Khanchi, A; Atashi, H; Bagheri, A; Nematollahi, L

    2006-10-11

    A description is given of the preparation and properties of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) (KCFC) and the composite, potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II)-polyacrylonitrile (KCFC-PAN). The materials were dried at high temperatures and characterized by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and infrared. The ion exchange of alkaline earth metals and molybdenum on a nonstoichiometric compound K(2)[CoFe(CN)(6)] and its PAN based absorber was examined by batch methods. The adsorption of molybdenum from aqueous solutions on KCFC-PAN was investigated and optimized as a function of equilibration time and pH. The materials which were dried at optimum high temperature of 110 degrees C were found to be stable in water, dilute acids, alkaline solutions and relatively high temperature. The distribution coefficient values K(d) for alkaline earth metals, followed the same trend of increase for both sets of absorbers studied, i.e. Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), which closely resembles to the order of the size of the hydrated cations. However, the K(d) values show a significant increase for PAN based absorbers in comparison to KCFC absorbers.

  17. Immobilization of inorganic ion-exchanger into bio-polymer foams - Application to cesium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Chloe; Hertz, Audrey; Barre, Yves; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-potassium ferrocyanide (along with other ferrocyanide sub-products, as shown by mineralization, SEM-EDX and XRD analyses) has been immobilized in highly porous discs of chitin for the sorption of Cs(I) from near neutral solutions. The immobilization process allows synthesizing stable materials that can bind up to 80 mg Cs g -1 (i.e., 240 mg Cs g -1 ion-exchanger). Cesium sorption is hardly affected by the pH between pH 2 and 8. The sorbent is selective to Cs(I) even in the presence of high concentrations of Na(I), K(I), Rb(I) or NH 4+ . The pseudo-second order rate equation fits well kinetic profiles: the rate coefficient increases with the flow rate of recirculation (to force the access to potentially non-interconnected pores), as an evidence of the control of uptake kinetics by diffusion properties. In fixed-bed columns, the breakthrough curve is accurately described by the Clark model and the sorption capacity (at sorbent saturation) is consistent with the values obtained in sorption isotherms. Preliminary tests performed on 137 Cs spiked solutions confirm the efficiency of the material for the treatment of effluents bearing radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  19. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed oxide tin-titanium to be used in recovery of cadmium and nickel and photoluminescent studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed tin-titanium oxide for recovery of cadmium and nickel metals from aqueous effluents, discarded in the environment mainly through Ni-Cd battery. The exchangers were synthesized by sol-gel modified method using a mixture of tin(IV) chloride and titanium(III) chloride and ammonium hydroxide, as precursors reagents. The materials obtained: SnO 2 /TiO 2 and SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scattering electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (powder method) and electronic spectroscopy (excitation and emission) for the europium doped exchanger. The same materials also were synthesized in polymeric matrix too and can be used in column, because the synthesized materials showed crystals size in nano metric scale. It was determined by the distribution ratios for metals taking as parameters the influence of pH, the concentration of metals (by adsorption isotherms) and the contact time (by adsorption kinetic). The inorganic ion exchanger presented high exchange capacity with adsorption percent above 90 por cent for the studied conditions, quickly kinetic, heterogeneous exchange surfaces, physic adsorption and spontaneous process of exchange. To the doped exchanger spectroscopy properties were studied and also it was calculated the intensity parameters and it was found a satisfactory quantum yield. (author)

  1. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers with a higher affinity for arsenate and a competitive removal capacity towards fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, selenite, arsenite and borate

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-12-01

    Highly selective materials and effective technologies are needed to meet the increasingly stronger drinking water standards for targeted ionic species. Inorganic ion exchangers based on individual and mixed-metal hydrous oxides (or mixed adsorbents that contain inorganic ion exchangers in their composition) are adsorptive materials that are capable of lowering the concentrations of anionic contaminants, such as H 2AsO 4 -, H 3AsO 3, F -, Br -, BrO 3 -, HSeO 4 -, HSeO 3 - and H 3BO 3, to 10 μg/L or less. To achieve a higher selectivity towards arsenate, a new ion exchanger based on Mg-Al hydrous oxides was developed by a novel, cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method via a non-traditional (alkoxide-free) sol-gel approach. The exceptional adsorptive capacity of the Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H 2AsO 4 - (up to 200 mg[As]/gdw) is due to the high affinity of this sorbent towards arsenate (steep equilibrium isotherms) and its fast adsorption kinetics. Because of the mesoporous (as determined by N 2 adsorption and SEM) and layered (as determined by XRD and FTIR) structure of the ion-exchange material as well as the abundance of anion exchange sites (as determined by XPS and potentiometric titration) on its surface the material demonstrated very competitive (or very high) removal capacity towards other targeted anions, including fluoride, bromide, bromate, selenate, selenite, and borate. © 2011 IWA Publishing.

  2. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  3. Kinetic Study on the Sorption of Te (IV), Ce (III) and Eu (III) on some Inorganic Ion Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Shehata, M.K.K.; El-Shazly, E.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of Te (IV), Ce (III) and Eu (III) on zirconium phosphate (Zr P) and ceric tungstate under various conditions was studied. Some factors affecting the sorption kinetics of the aforementioned metal ions on both ion exchangers were investigated. These factors were: hydrogen ion concentration in the absence of complexing agents, contact time, particle size of the two mentioned ion exchangers, metal in concentration and temperature. Radioactive isotopes were used for tracing the corresponding elements. Some physical parameters related to the sorption process were calculated from the obtained data

  4. Studies on Some Physical, Chemical and Sorption Properties of Some Inorganic ion Exchangers and Their Application to Radioactive Isotopes Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Shehata, M.K.K.; El-Shazly, E.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, amorphous zirconium phosphate, zirconium titanium phosphate and ceric tungstate have been synthesised. Solubility of the prepared ion exchangers in different media has been examined. These media were mineral acids, aqueous solutions of organic acids: oxalic, citric and tartaric as well as ammonium and potassium carbonate solutions of different molarities. I.R. analysis is applied on some samples of the prepared ion exchangers. Sorption behaviour of different metal ion species, of elements of nuclear significance on the prepared ion exchangers has been studied from aqueous media of different compositions and concentration under different experimental conditions. The studied metal ions are, Ce(III) and Eu(III), as representative for the trivalent lanthanides, Co(II), Zr(IV), Nb(V), Hf(IV), Te(IV), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and U(V I). Optimization of the conditions for the isolation and separation of the desired element species highlighted

  5. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    A number of organic and inorganic exchangers are being developed and evaluated for cesium removal from Hanford tank wastes. The exchangers of interest that are investigated in this work include powdered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-910; referred to as IE-910) and engineered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-911; referred to as IE-911) forms of the crystalline silico-titanate (CST) inorganic sorbent developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/Texas A and M and prepared by UOP; a phenol-formaldehyde (CS-100) resin developed by Rohm and Haas; a resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) polymer developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and produced by Boulder Scientific; an inorganic zeolite exchanger produced by UOP (IONSIV reg-sign TIE-96; referred to as TIE-96); an inorganic sodium titanate produced by Allied Signal/Texas A and M (NaTi); and a macrocyclic organic resin developed and produced by IBC Advanced Technologies (SuperLig reg-sign 644; referred to as SL-644). Several of these materials are still under development and may not be in the optimal form. The work described in this report involves the direct comparison of the ion exchange materials for the pretreatment of actual and simulated Hanford tank waste. Data on the performance of all of the exchangers with simulated and actual double shell slurry feed (DSSF) is included. The DSSF waste is a mixture of the supernate from tanks 101-AW (70%), 106-AP (20%) and 102-AP (10%). The comparative parameters include radionuclide removal efficiency under a variety of conditions and material properties (e.g., bed density and percent removable water). Cesium and strontium distribution (K d ), lambda (λ = K d x ρ b ), and decontamination factors (DF) are compared as a function of exchanger contact duration, solution composition (Na and Cs concentration), exchanger/waste phase ratio, and multiple sequential contacts

  6. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  8. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A&M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin.

  9. Comparison of inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium, strontium, and transuranic elements from K-basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bontha, J.R.; Carson, K.J.; Elovich, R.J.; DesChane, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    The work presented in this report was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program (ESP), Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this work was to investigate radionuclide uptake by several newly produced ion exchange materials under actual waste conditions, and to compare the performance of those materials with that of commercially available ion exchangers. The equilibrium uptake data presented in this report are useful for identifying potential materials that are capable of removing cesium and strontium from 105-KE Basin water. The data show the relative selectivities of the ion exchange materials under similar operating conditions. Additional flow studies are needed to predict material capacities and to develop complete ion exchange process flow sheets. The materials investigated in this study include commercially available ion exchangers such as IONSIV reg-sign IE-911 (manufactured by UOP), clinoptilolite (a naturally occurring zeolite), and materials produced on an experimental basis by AlliedSignal (biotites and nonatitanates), 3M (hexacyanoferrates), Selion Technologies, Inc. (hexacyanoferrates and titanates), and Texas A ampersand M University (pharmacosiderites, biotites, and nonatitanates). In all, the performance of 14 ion exchange materials was evaluated at two solution-to-exchanger mass ratios (i.e., 10 4 and 10 5 ) using actual 105-KE Basin water. Evaluation consisted of determining cesium and strontium batch distribution coefficients, loading, and decontamination factors. Actual 105-KE Basin water was obtained from a sample collected during the sludge dissolution work conducted by PNNL in FY 1996. This sample was taken from the bottom of the basin and contained significantly higher concentrations of the radioactive constituents than do samples taken from the top of the basin

  10. Influence of some factors on kinetics of boron ions sorption by inorganic anion exchanger of MNG type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of particle size of anion exchanger and boron ion concentration on boron sorption from the solution of the following composition (kg/m 3 ): Na + -71.3; K + - 1.9; Ca 2+ - 43.8; Mg 2+ - 5.7; B 2 O 3 -0.32-1.50; Cl - - 204.6, SO 4 2- - 0.02, CO 3 2+ - 0.40; HCO 3 - - 1.74; pH=8.1; density - 1225 kg/m 3 . Increase of dispersivity of ion-exchange material promotes the elevation of sorption rate. Increase of boron ion concentration in the solution leads to exchange capacity growth and reduction of latent period of nucleation; this results to increase of sorption rate

  11. Batch and column adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on organic and inorganic ion exchangers from HCl solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Abdel-Fattah, Alaa El-Din A.; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on the inorganic ion exchanger ceric tungstate (CeW) was studied under static and dynamic conditions and compared with the adsorption on the organic cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The radioactive isotopes {sup 75}Se and {sup 123m}Te were used to trace the respective elements. Some parameters affecting the adsorption were investigated under static conditions. In the case of batch technique the adsorption was studied from slightly acidic HCl as well as slightly alkaline media, i.e. at two pH-ranges. Se(IV) and Te(IV) were adsorbed on both the inorganic ion exchanger (CeW) and on AG-2X8, from slightly alkaline solutions. From the similarity of adsorption on both ion exchangers it was clear that (CeW) acts as an anion exchanger. Moreover, the obtained K{sub d}-values for the adsorption on (CeW) were much higher than those for the adsorption on the organic anion exchanger AG-2X8. Se(IV) was not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8 all over the studied pH-range whereas Te(IV) was slightly adsorbed. Loading and elution behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on columns of AG-2X8 and (CeW) were studied using solutions of HCl of different concentrations. Some good separation alternatives of Se(IV) and Te(IV) under certain conditions were achieved.

  12. Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex measured with ion-exchange resins and conventional collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héctor García-Gomez; Sheila Izquieta-Rojano; Laura Aguillaume; Ignacio González-Fernández; Fernando Valiño; David Elustondo; Jesús M. Santamaría; Anna Àvila; Mark E. Fenn; Rocío Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Measurement techniques like ion-exchange resin collectors (IECs), which are less expensive and time-consuming than conventional methods, are gaining relevance in the study of atmospheric deposition and are recommended to expand monitoring networks. In the present work...

  13. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  14. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  15. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  16. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers based on Mg–Al hydrous oxides: (Alkoxide-free) sol–gel synthesis and characterisation

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    New inorganic ion exchangers based on double Mg-Al hydrous oxides were generated via the new non-traditional sol-gel synthesis method which avoids using metal alkoxides as raw materials. Surface chemical and adsorptive properties of the final products were controlled by several ways of hydrogels and xerogels treatments which produced the materials of the layered structure, mixed hydrous oxides or amorphous adsorbents. The final adsorptive materials obtained via thermal treatment of xerogels were the layered mesoporous materials with carbonate in the interlayer space, surface abundance with hydroxylic groups and maximum adsorptive capacity to arsenate. Higher affinity of Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H2AsO4- is confirmed by steep adsorption isotherms having plateau (removal capacity) at 220. mg[As]. gdw-1 for the best sample at pH = 7, fast adsorption kinetics and little pH effect. Adsorption of arsenite, fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, borate by Mg-Al hydrous oxides was few times high either competitive (depending on the anion) as compare with the conventional inorganic ion exchange adsorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  17. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers based on Mg–Al hydrous oxides: (Alkoxide-free) sol–gel synthesis and characterisation

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-05-01

    New inorganic ion exchangers based on double Mg-Al hydrous oxides were generated via the new non-traditional sol-gel synthesis method which avoids using metal alkoxides as raw materials. Surface chemical and adsorptive properties of the final products were controlled by several ways of hydrogels and xerogels treatments which produced the materials of the layered structure, mixed hydrous oxides or amorphous adsorbents. The final adsorptive materials obtained via thermal treatment of xerogels were the layered mesoporous materials with carbonate in the interlayer space, surface abundance with hydroxylic groups and maximum adsorptive capacity to arsenate. Higher affinity of Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H2AsO4- is confirmed by steep adsorption isotherms having plateau (removal capacity) at 220. mg[As]. gdw-1 for the best sample at pH = 7, fast adsorption kinetics and little pH effect. Adsorption of arsenite, fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, borate by Mg-Al hydrous oxides was few times high either competitive (depending on the anion) as compare with the conventional inorganic ion exchange adsorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  19. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  20. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  1. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents; Trocadores ionicos inorganicos a base de manganes e potassio para recuperacao e remocao de metais poluentes de efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd{sup 2+}, time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd{sup 2+} solution and the interference of other ions like Ni{sup 2+}. The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd{sup 2+} solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni{sup 2+} as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd{sup 2+}. (author)

  2. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  3. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  4. Retention behavior of nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solutions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate used as inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Silico-titanate (SiTi) and silico-antimonate (SiSb) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared and thermal analysis techniques. Divalent cations such as Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in the pH range 2 to 8 have been exchanged with the exchangeable active sites of the exchangers using a batch technique. From the results obtained, the equilibrium capacities and distribution coefficient values were calculated indicating high selectivity values for Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate compared to other titanates and antimonates. Also SiTi and SiSb show high chemical stability in H 2 O, nitric and hydrochloric acids. All these results support the suitability of the prepared materials for the removal of the toxic metals concerned from waste waters. Based on the results obtained, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on SiTi and SiSb columns from aqueous waste solutions were carried out. (author)

  5. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  6. Studies on inorganic ion-exchangers. Part I : application of polyantimonic acid for the polishing of uranium product of reprocessing stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Mayan Kutty, P.C.; Mani, V.V.S.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of applying various inorganic exchangers to specific problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing industry and related spheres of activity. An investigation has been carried out to select a suitable exchanger for the polishing of tail-end uranium product of reprocessing stream free of residual plutonium activity. It includes determination of distribution ratios of uranium and plutonium on the exchangers like zirconium phosphate (ZrP), ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP), ammonium phosphotungstate (APW), polyantimonic acid (PA), polyphosphoantimonic acid (PPA) and breakthrough capacities of plutonium on some of these exchangers. The inhibition studies of sodium on plutonium uptake on polyantimonic acid and the effective decontamination factors achieved using uranium tanker solution from the plant for recycling work have been described. These results indicated the usefulness of the polyantimonic acid exchanger for this purpose. (author)

  7. Study of the sorption of nuclear fuel fission products using non-ion exchange polymeric and inorganic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manorik, P.

    1997-01-01

    New tetrazamacrocycle and crown-ether poly-styrene and divinylbenzenepolystyrene derivatives (P-TAM and P-CE respectively) have been synthesized and studied as chemisorbents for Cs, Sr (P-CE) and Ru, Co (P-TAM) radioisotopes. It has been found that the tetraazamacro cycle modifier concentration in such material is about 5 x 10 -4 M/g material. Model solutions, containing Ru and other platinoid salts, and also Co salts, were used in experiments at concentrations of 5 x 10 -3 - 5 x 10 -6 M/L. It was shown that P-TAM quantitatively removes Ru and other platinoids from the water solution at pH = 0-1 during 1-2 days and practically all modifying groups participate in the sorption process. It was established that in alkaline solutions this sorbent also adsorbs Co, Cr and other 3d-metal ions. P-TAM also demonstrates a very high platinoid sorption selectivity (close to 100%) from solutions containing, for example, platinoids in the presence of a large excess of 3d-metal ions. 137 Cs sorption by some types of P-CE and IN-CE from Ringer-Locka model waste solution was also studied and it was found that K d (Bq/g) strongly depends not only on the crown-ether ring size but also on the form in which crown-ethers exist on the surface, for example when the modifier was in the form of the complex such as P-CE-L(L=K 3 Fe(CN) 6 or L=K 4 Fe(CN) 6 ) there was an increase in K' d value (Bq/mole of CE). The results of a study of 85 Sr removal by P-CE and IN-CE show that the chemisorption capacity strongly depends not only on the ''hole'' size of crown-ethers but also on the nature of encapsulated complexes, including ferrocyanides of different types. 32 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Ion exchange in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchangers are used in many fields in the nuclear power industry. At nuclear power plants, organic ion exchange resins are mainly used for the removal of ionic and particulate contaminants from the primary circuit, condensate and fuel storage pond waters. Ion exchange resins are used for the solidification of low- and medium-active nuclear waste solutions. The number of applications of zeolites, and other inorganic ion exchangers, in the separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions has been increasing since the 1980s. In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, ion exchange is used for the solidification of low- and medium-active waste solutions, as well as for the partitioning of radioactive elements for further use. (Author)

  9. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  10. Separation of cesium by ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Alberto; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Devida, Claudio A.; Tadey, D.; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Maset, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline silico titanate (CST) has been tested as a selective inorganic ion exchanger to separate Cs 137 from the residual fission product s solution of the Mo 99 plant. The tests are described in detail and show decontamination factors higher than 6000 and a good elution yield

  11. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  12. A review of the radiation stability of ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey on the radiation stability of synthetic organic ion exchangers was published in this journal (Vol. 97, No. 1.). This paper is a brief review of the major findings of this survey along with similar information on synthetic inorganic ion exchangers. The primary goal of this literature survey is to review present knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiations on synthetic ion exchange materials used in radiochemical processing. The information available in the literature shows some general trends in observed qualitative effects by different types of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials. (author)

  13. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  14. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Ramani, K.S.; Varma, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO 3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO 3 +6M HNO 3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  15. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  16. 3.5 Radiation stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.

    1976-01-01

    The main knowledge is summed up of the radiation stability of ion exchangers. No basic changes occur in inorganic ion exchangers with the exception of the exchange capacity at doses of up to 10 9 rad. This also applies to coal-based ion exchangers. Tables are given showing the changes in specific volume, exchange capacity and weight of different types of organic ion exchangers in dependence on the radiation dose. The effects are discussed of the structure of organic cation and anion exchangers, polymeric strong basic anion exchangers, polycondensate anion exchangers and ion exchange membranes on their radiation stability. General experimental procedures are given for laboratory tests of the radiation stability of exchangers. (L.K.)

  17. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  19. A Cadmium Ion-selective Membrane Electrode Based on Strong Acidic Organic-inorganic Composite Cation-exchanger: Polyaniline Ce(IV Molybdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashfaq NABI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium ion-selective composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Ce(IV molybdate was used as electroactive component for the construction of a ion-selective membrane electrode. The membrane electrode showed a Nerstian response for Cd(II ions over a wide concentration range 5 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 with a sub-Nerstian slope of 27 mV per decade change in concentration of cadmium ions. The limit of detection was also ascertained to be 5 × 10-6 M. It has a fast response time 15 s and can be very well utilized for more than three months with out any appreciable divergence in potentials. The optimum pH for the smooth functioning of this electrode was found to be in the Ph range of 2.5 – 7.5. The electrode also showed better selectivity for Cd(II ions over many other interfering ions. The practical utility of membrane electrode was demonstrated by using as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Cd(II with EDTA and determination of cadmium content in drain water.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-10-01

    We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included

  1. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified organic osmolytes, the identification of which is expected to provide increased insight into the phenomenon of cryptobiosis....

  2. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  3. Ion exchange reactions of major inorganic cations (H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) on beidellite: Experimental results and new thermodynamic database. Toward a better prediction of contaminant mobility in natural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Valentin; Tertre, Emmanuel; Beaufort, Daniel; Regnault, Olivier; Sardini, Paul; Descostes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    normality of the aqueous phase because smectite can form different phases (e.g., floc, gel) when immersed in aqueous system. The model proposed can be easily included in reactive transport software and is applied in the present study to predict the evolution of beidellite surface composition toward major inorganic cations in the context of mining site remediation. Finally, the new thermodynamic database proposed could be used for a better understanding of ion-exchange reactions occurring in many environments where beidellite is present, from soils to smectite-bearing sedimentary formations

  4. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.

    1983-02-01

    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  5. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  6. Ion exchange kinetics of alkaline earths on Zr(IV) arsenosilicate cation exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, K.G.; Agrawal, S.; Varshney, K.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations was applied to study the ion exchange kinetics for the exchange reactions of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with H + -ions at various temperatures on the zirconium(IV) arsenosilicate phase. Under the conditions of particle diffusion, the rate of exchange was found to be independent of the metal ion concentration at and above 0.1 M in aqueous medium. Energy and entropy of activation were determined and found to vary linearly with the ionic radii and mobilities of alkaline earths, a unique feature observed for an inorganic ion exchanger. The results are useful for predicting the ion exchange processes occurring on the surface of an inorganic material of the type studied. (author)

  7. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  8. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  9. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  10. Inorganic sorbents for removal of radioactivity from aqueous waste streams: 1. Development of seeded ultrafiltration. 2. Ion exchange properties of hydrous titanium oxide. 3. The novel absorber evaluation club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes briefly three areas of work involving inorganic sorbents that have been carried out at AEA Technology, Harwell during the course of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). 1. Seed ultrafiltration, in which finely divided sodium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II), zirconium phosphate and a hydrous titanium oxide were used as a 'seed' cocktail, in combination with cross-flow membrane filtration, to decontaminate a simulate PWR primary coolant. All but one of the eight radionuclides present were reduced in concentration by a factor of ten or more. 2. Some data on the ion-exchange properties of hydrous titanium oxides are presented. These include the cation exchange capacity for barium (as a stand-in for radium), kinetics of sorption and Na:Ti ratio at different values of pH. 3. Some of the data collected from tests carried out by the Novel Absorber Evaluation Club are presented for a number of sorbents that have been examined during the period of this CRP. (author). 1 ref., 5 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with dual detection of the conductivity and spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of common inorganic anionic species and cations in river and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of common inorganic anionic species (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), phosphate and silicate) and cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) were conducted using an ion-chromatography system with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry in tandem. The separation of ionic species on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin was accomplished using a mixture of 100 mM ascorbic acid and 4 mM 18-crown-6 as an acidic eluent (pH 2.6), after which the ions were detected using a conductivity detector. Subsequently, phosphate and silicate were analyzed based on derivatization with molybdate and spectrophotometry at 700 nm. The detection limits at S/N = 3 ranged from 0.11 to 2.9 µM for analyte ionic species. This method was applied to practical river water and wastewater with acceptable criteria for the anion-cation balance and comparisons of the measured and calculated electrical conductivity, demonstrating the usefulness of the present method for water quality monitoring.

  12. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  13. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  14. Inorganic anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; Jamil, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic anion exchangers are evaluated for Tc, I and S isotope removal from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities were examined. Selected exchangers were examined in detail for their selectivities, kinetics and mechanism of the sorption process (especially in NO 3 - , OH - and BO 3 - environments). Cement encapsulation and leaching experiments were made on the exchangers showing most promise for 'radwaste' treatment. (author)

  15. Effects of electron beam irradiation on inorganic exchanger AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.L.N.; Mathew, C.; Deshpande, R.S.; Jadhav, A.V.; Pande, B.M.; Shukla, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The heteropolyacid salt inorganic exchanger ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) was subjected to an electron dose upto 2 MGy to assess any possible radiation damage. The breakthrough and total exchange capacity of AMP for Cs + from simulated fission product solutions were determined for both control and irradiated samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were deployed to examine any marked microscopic changes taking place in this exchanger. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  17. Study of ion exchange equilibrium and determination of heat of ion exchange by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kailu; Yang Wenying

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography using pellicularia ion exchange resins and dilute solution can be devoted to the study of ion exchange thermodynamics and kinetics. Ion exchange equilibrium equation was obtained, and examined by the experiments. Based on ion exchange equilibrium, the influence of eluent concentration and resin capacity on adjusted retention volumes was examined. The effect of temperature on adjusted retention volumes was investigated and heats of ion exchange of seven anions were determined by ion chromatography. The interaction between anions and skeleton structure of resins were observed

  18. Study on actinoid isolation by antimonide ion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masamichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kubota, Masumitsu; Yamagishi, Isao

    1996-01-01

    To establish a containment of long-life nuclides and an effective reduction of waste volume is important to reduce the loadings on the natural environment. Chemical isolation of radioactive nuclides from wastes was attempted by using inorganic ion exchanger with high specificity and thermal stability. In this study, titanium antimonide was used as an ion exchanger to investigate the adsorption of trivalent metallic ions according to Kielland plot curves. When the ionic equivalent fraction (X-bar{sub M}) was around 0.005, Kielland plot curve of either of 3-valent metallic ions was bent, suggesting the exchanger had two different adsorption sites. The slope of the curve became smaller as an elevation of temperature. These results show that the ion radius was decreased resulting from partial elimination of the hydrated water of ion and thus, the steric conditions around the exchange site might be improved. (M.N.)

  19. Application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the ion exchange technologies currently used and under development in nuclear industry, in particular for waste management practices, along with the experience gained in their application and with the subsequent handling, treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange media for long term storage and/or disposal. The increased role of inorganic ion exchangers for treatment of radioactive liquid waste, both in nuclear power plant operations and in the fuel reprocessing sector, is recognised in this report. The intention of this report is to consolidate the previous publications, document recent developments and describe the state of the art in the application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste and the management of spent ion exchange materials

  20. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on ion exchange held at the Lake Balaton, Hungary, 28-31 May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos, P.; Marton, A.

    1986-01-01

    Major trends of ion exchange researches and applications were discussed at the 5th international conference on ion echange held at Lake Balaton, Balatonfuered, Hungary. The 5 plenary lectures and the 98 papers delivered in 4 sessions dealt with theoretical aspects of ion exchange, different types of ion exchange materials including organic and inorganic ones, analytical applications of ion exchange processes, e.g. ion chromatography, HPLC and special technological procedures. Several examples were presented for ion exchange separations of nuclear interest such as the decontamination of radioactive wastes, the radiochemical analysis of the primary coolant, uranium recovery, the application of selective inorganic sorbents. (V.N.)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed oxide tin-titanium to be used in recovery of cadmium and nickel and photoluminescent studies; Sintese e caracterizacao de trocadores ionicos inorganicos a base de oxidos mistos estanho-titanio para utilizacao na recuperacao de cadmio e niquel e estudos fotoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed tin-titanium oxide for recovery of cadmium and nickel metals from aqueous effluents, discarded in the environment mainly through Ni-Cd battery. The exchangers were synthesized by sol-gel modified method using a mixture of tin(IV) chloride and titanium(III) chloride and ammonium hydroxide, as precursors reagents. The materials obtained: SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scattering electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (powder method) and electronic spectroscopy (excitation and emission) for the europium doped exchanger. The same materials also were synthesized in polymeric matrix too and can be used in column, because the synthesized materials showed crystals size in nano metric scale. It was determined by the distribution ratios for metals taking as parameters the influence of pH, the concentration of metals (by adsorption isotherms) and the contact time (by adsorption kinetic). The inorganic ion exchanger presented high exchange capacity with adsorption percent above 90 por cent for the studied conditions, quickly kinetic, heterogeneous exchange surfaces, physic adsorption and spontaneous process of exchange. To the doped exchanger spectroscopy properties were studied and also it was calculated the intensity parameters and it was found a satisfactory quantum yield. (author)

  2. The selectivity of zirconium phosphate for caesium in electrochemical ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain, M.J.

    1988-11-01

    The properties of amorphous zirconium phosphate are investigated as an inorganic ion exchanger for use in liquid waste treatment by electrochemical ion exchange. Experiments to determine and increase the selectivity for caesium exchange over sodium are discussed, including various pulsed waveforms and studies with rotating membranes. Automation of a sampling system with pH and atomic absorption measurements is described. (author)

  3. New sorbents and ion exchangers for nuclear waste solution remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Peng, G.Z.; Cahill, R.A.; Bellinghausen, P.; Aly, H.I.; Scott, K.; Wang, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is now a concerted effort underway to clean up the accumulated nuclear wastes as the major sites around the country. Because of the complexity of the mixtures in the holding tanks highly specific exchangers are required to fulfill a multitude of desired tasks. These include removal of Cs + , Sr 2+ , Tc, Actinides and possible recovery of rare and precious metals. No one exchanger or sequestrant can accomplish these tasks and a variety of exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers and new organo-inorganic exchangers towards Cs + , Sr 2+ and rare-earth ions in acid and basic media will be described. Preliminary data on the effect of high levels of sodium nitrate on the uptake of these ions will also be presented, as well as the changes observed in selectivity in simulated waste solutions. A possible separation scheme based on these data will be described

  4. Thermal studies on some new inorganic exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, G.S.; Satyanarayana, J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The new inorganic exchangers developed in this laboratory zirconium phosphate-ammonium molybdophosphate (ZrP-AMP), titanium phosphate-ammonium molybdophosphate (TiP-AMP) and alumina-ammonium molybdophosphate (alumina-AMP) have been investigated extensively to study the removal of Cs from high level nuclear waste. As a part of these studies thermal studies on these substances have been carried out to elucidate the information on thermal stability of these exchangers. Results obtained are presented here and discussed. (author)

  5. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Northwest National Laboratory) conducted this study as a joint effort between the ''Develop and Test Sorbents'' task for the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) and the ''Batch Testing of Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs)'' subtask, which is part of the Northwest National Laboratory Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. The objective of the study is to investigate radionuclide uptake of the newly produced CST materials under a variety of solution conditions and to compare the results obtained for this material with those obtained for other commercial and experimental exchangers

  6. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  7. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anthony, R.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  9. Testing and modelling the performance of inorganic exchangers for radionuclide removal from aqueous nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.; Paajanen, A.; Saarinen, L.

    1997-01-01

    Three different inorganic sorbents/ion exchangers have been tested in this work. Granular hexacyanoferrate-based ion exchanger was developed for Cs removal from radioactive liquid waste at NPPs. It was tested for Cs removal from waste solutions containing different complexing agents and detergents. Radiation stability and thermal stability test has shown, that this sorbent can be used for treatment of medium-active waste treatment. Active carbon materials were tested for Co removal from liquid waste effluents at NPPs. It was found that 60 Co cannot be removed from the evaporator concentrates with reasonable efficiency and a combined process with up-stream precipitation step is needed for better Co separation efficiency. Granular modified titanium oxide was tested for 90 Sr removal from the waste effluents and showed very high efficiency. A mathematical model was developed to analyze ion exchange performance in feeds of different chemical and radiochemical compositions. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN, OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Different implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI's offers consist in building global solution and preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration). Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France...) but also in other fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste. The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back collected by STMI. (author)

  11. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  12. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  13. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    radiation balance.4,5 Major water-soluble inorganic ions are associated with atmospheric ... molecular weight carboxylic acids in aerosol samples collected from a rural ... include biomass burning, agriculture, livestock and soil dust. Tropical ...

  14. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  15. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  16. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  17. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  18. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  19. Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Water-soluble Inorganic Ions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected in April–May 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions and low molecular weight carboxylic acids using ion chromatography. PM2.5 and PM10 low-volume samplers with quartz fibre filters were deployed and aerosol ...

  20. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  1. Minor Actinide Separations Using Ion Exchangers Or Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

  2. Localization of inorganic ions in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iren, F. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author has been unable to devise a generally applicable technique of ion localization in cells and tissues. He concludes that ion localization in living organisms remains difficult. From this study, a rough outline of how ions are transported into, through, and out of plant roots is drawn. (Auth.)

  3. A comparative study of ion exchange properties of antimony (III) tungstoselenite with those of antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardanan, C.; Nair, S.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new inorganic ion exchanger, antimony (III) tungstoselenite, has been prepared and characterised. Its exchange capacity and distribution coefficients for various metal ions and the effects of temperature and electrolyte concentrations on ion exchange capacity have been compared with antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite. Six binary separations using the exchanger have been carried out. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. Ion exchange process: History, evolution and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Carturan, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Sglavo, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review on some aspects and applications of ion exchange process in glasses, ferroelectric and polymers in the fields of optics, nanotechnology, gas sensors and chemical strengthening. The formation of nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses, as effect of ion or laser irradiation, is discussed. A discussion on the potentialities of ion exchange process in comparison to ion implantation in optical devices and nanotechnology is also introduced. Analytical techniques applied to the study of the ion exchange process are illustrated. The studies of ion exchange process in “Natural materials” constitute the content of a specific paragraph, for applications in water cleaning. Some initial considerations on the “old age” of this technique are introduced.

  5. Matrix influences on the determination of common ions by using ion chromatography part 1--determination of inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Lyko, Aleksandra; Kurzyca, Iwona

    2012-07-01

    Ion chromatography is the most popular instrumental analytical method used for the determination of anions and cations in water and wastewater. Isocratic ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is frequently used in laboratories carrying out routine analyses of inorganic anions. The paper presents the results of the research into the influence of selected inorganic anions dominant in environmental samples (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)) on the possibility of simultaneous determination of F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-) with the application of this most popular ion chromatography type in standard separation conditions. Four Dionex and four Metrohm anion-exchange columns were tested in standard separation conditions recommended by their manufacturers with both standard solutions and environmental samples with complex matrix.

  6. Innovative Highly Selective Removal of Cesium and Strontium Utilizing a Newly Developed Class of Inorganic Ion Specific Media - 16221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, Mark S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2009-01-01

    synthesize organic ion-exchangers is prohibitive and seriously limits the scope of applications for organic ion-exchangers. Further issues include resin swelling, potential hydrogen generation and precluding final disposal by vitrification without further issues. An alternative to these issues of organic ion-exchangers is emerging. Inorganic ion-exchangers offer a superior chemical, thermal and radiation stability which is simply not achievable with organic compounds. They can be used to remove both Cesium as well as Strontium with a high level of selectivity under a broad pH range. Inorganic ion-exchangers can operate at acidic pH where protons inhibit ion exchange in alternative technologies such as CST. They can also be used at high pH which is typically found in conditions present in many nuclear waste types. For example, inorganic ion-exchangers have shown significant Strontium uptake from pH 1.9 to 14. In contrast to organic ion-exchangers, inorganic ion-exchangers are not synthesized via complex multi-step organic synthesis. Therefore, inorganic ion-exchangers are substantially more cost-effective when compared to organic ion-exchangers as well as CST. Selective removal of specified isotopes through ion exchange is a common and proven treatment method for liquid waste, yet various aspects of existing technologies leave room for improvement with respect to both cost and effectiveness. We demonstrate a novel class of inorganic ion-exchangers for the selective removal of cesium and strontium (with future work planned for uranium removal), the first of a growing family of patent-pending, potentially elutable, and paramagnetic ion-exchange materials [1]. These highly selective inorganic ion-exchangers display strong chemical, thermal and radiation stability, and can be readily synthesized from low-cost materials, making them a promising alternative to organic ion-exchange resins and crystalline silico-titanate (CST). By nature, these inorganic media lend themselves more

  7. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  8. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle

  9. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  10. Preparation of alumina microspheres. Its application as in inorganic exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina microspheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper.

  11. Pyrolysis of spent ion-exchanger resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slametschka, Rainer; Braehler, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Initial tests have shown that ion exchangers (IEX) can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysis residues or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysis residues during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the caesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysis residues. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysis residues form a flowable solid material and not a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compacted or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolysed. (orig.)

  12. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  13. Ion exchange currents in vacuum accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Ion exchange currents (microdischarges) have been observed in short lengths of accelerator tube. The occurrence of these discharges can be related to the trajectories of ions in the tube. High-resolution mass spectra of the negative and positive ion components have been obtained. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Dou, Sen; Liu, Wencong

    A series of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via simple emulsion polymerization method. The Si-sPS/A latexes show good film-forming capability and the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are prepared by pouring the Si-sPS/A nanoparticle latexes into glass plates and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The potential of the membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is characterized preliminarily by studying their thermal stability, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol diffusion coefficient). The results indicate that these membranes possess excellent thermal stability and methanol barrier due to the existence of self-crosslinked silica network. In addition, the proton conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10 -3-10 -2 S cm -1 and all the membranes show much higher selectivity in comparison with Nafion ® 117. These results suggest that the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are particularly promising in DMFC applications.

  15. Chemical uranium enrichment with ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Obanawa, Heiichiro

    1991-01-01

    The uranium enrichment by using ion-exchange has been studied and developed since 1972. The ion-exchange rate has been improved approx. 3000 times and the electron exchange reaction, which occurs with ion-exchange reaction, was also accelerated with catalyst. Flow disturbance in a ion-exchange column has been fully studied and the value of turbulence has been reduced to 150μm. These results allowed us to design a very fine separation column, in which about 10000 stages can be obtained even when the column is more than 1 m in diameter. In the course of the development, a self-regenerating reaction between the redox agents was discovered and incorporated into the process, and has resulted in a reduction of 70 % in the separation energy requirement. (author)

  16. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-08-01

    Ion-exchange media, both bead resins and powdered filter media, are used in nuclear power plants to remove radioactivity from process water prior to reuse or environmental discharge. Since the ion- exchange media are made from synthetic hydrocarbon-based polymers, they may be susceptible to damage from biological activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the more basic aspects of biodegradation of ion-exchange media, specifically to evaluate the ability of microorganisms to utilize the ion-exchange media or materials sorbed on them as a food source. The ASTM-G22 test, alone and combined with the Bartha Pramer respirometric method, failed to indicate the biodegradability of the ion-exchange media. The limitation of these methods was that they used a single test organism. In later phases of this study, a mixed microbial culture was grown from resin waste samples obtained from the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor. These microorganisms were used to evaluate the susceptibility of different types of ion-exchange media to biological attack. Qualitative assessments of biodegradability were based on visual observations of culture growths. Greater susceptibility was associated with increased turbidity in solution indicative of bacterial growth, and more luxuriant fungal mycelial growth in solution or directly on the ion-exchange resin beads. 21 refs., 9 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Ion exchange and hydrolysis reactions in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, Risto.

    1993-09-01

    Among other uses, zeolites are efficient cation exchangers for aquatic pollution control. At present they they are mainly used in nuclear waste effluent treatment and in detergency. In the thesis, several ion exchange equilibria, important in these main fields of zeolite applications, were studied, with special emphasis on the formulation and calculation of the equilibria. The main interest was the development of thermodynamic formulations for the calculation of zeolite ion exchange equilibria in solutions of low or very low (trace) ion concentration, which are relevant for the removal of trace pollutants, such as radionuclides, from waste waters. Two groups of zeolite-cation systems were studied. First, binary Ca 2+ /Na + exchange in zeolites X and Y, which are of interest for detergency applications. Second, binary Cs + /Na + and Cs + /K + exchanges, and ternary Cs + /Na + /K + exchange in mordenite, which are important in nuclear waste effluent treatment. The thesis is based on five previous publications by author. (100 refs., 7 figs.)

  18. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of the inorganic exchangers ZrP and TiP in the treatment of industrial and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental preservation using technologies that do not attack it, generating non-toxic residues and reduced volumes, has been discussed. Hazardous effluents, containing metals, as chromium, have been poured in the rivers, degrading the water. Not different are the problems originated from some nuclear activities that generate wastes, as chemical research laboratories. Although those wastes are note poured in the environment, sometimes they are inadequately stored, what can cause serious accidents. To minimize this problem, those wastes must be treated by efficient techniques, as ion exchange. This method is easy of operating, separating and qualifying chemical species. Inorganic ion exchangers, in many cases, are the most indicated, since they present high chemical stability in oxidizing media, at high temperatures and at ionizing radiation. In this study, zirconium phosphate (ZrP) and titanium phosphate (TiP) have been chosen for the separation of chromium and cesium from wastes, analysed by the radioisotopes 51 Cr and 134 Cs, respectively. The inorganic ion exchangers were prepared to obtain the crystalline α-type, using silica-gel as support, to avoid column packing, that may occur due to the granulometry of the exchangers. Modifiers agents were used to improve the exchanger distribution on the support, increasing the contact surface and the interlayer distances. The exchangers were used in the H + and Na + forms. It was verified that the behavior of α-ZrP and α-TiP were similar, in both sorption and elution. The modifications in the exchangers provided an increase of 27% for 51 Cr sorption, related to that one without changes. The sorption percentage of Cr 3+ was 53.23% using ZrP-Si ion exchanger, and 83.31%, with ZrP-Si-HTMA-Na. For cesium, all the exchangers studied showed a sorption above 99% and an elution greater than 96% of the cesium retained. (author)

  20. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  2. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  3. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity

  4. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  5. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. KOP ion exchange plant officially opened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The KOP ion exchange plant, which was officially opened in February 1982, can be seen as an important milestone in the history of Klipfontein Organic Products. The plant, erected at a cost of R7 million, has enabled South Africa to achieve virtual self-sufficiency as far as resins are concerned. It will produce R5 million worth of resins per annum, and it has been estimated that it will save the country R3 million per annum in foreign exchange. The plant is the only of its kind in Africa, and will be able to meet 98% of the ion exchange resin requirements of the Republic

  7. Investigation of electrostatic ion chromatography for the separation of inorganic ions

    OpenAIRE

    Twohill, Eadaoin

    2002-01-01

    The new technique of ‘electrostatic ion chromatography’ (ion chromatography using a zwittenomc stationary phase) has been applied to the separation of ions using pure water as an eluent, without the addition of any inorganic buffers or organic modifiers. The nature of the separation, le cationic or anionic, is dependent upon the nature of the zwittenomc stationary phase. In the work presented here, the zwittenomc surfactant Zwittergent 3-14 was used to functionalise an octadecylsihca stationa...

  8. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  9. A novel approach to Ca-Sr separation in the determination of 90Sr using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Pavia Univ.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for 90 Sr determination in calcium rich samples is presented. It is based on the precipitation of calcium oxalate in homogeneous solution and under controlled conditions to minimize the comprecipitation of strontium. The latter is subsequently separated as carbonate and radiochemical purification is completed by ion exchange chromatography on two inorganic exchangers: PRTD (partially reduced tin dioxide) and CUCR (copper chromate). The procedure was applied to environmental samples such as ashed sediment, fish and vegetable and results are reported. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Ion-exchange properties of natural mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelishchev, N.F.; Volodin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    Ion exchange properties are studied of natural mordenite Si(Al=4.75) exhibiting adequate mechanical characteristics and sufficient resistance to high temperature acids. Consideration is given to the pattern of exchange ions distribution among mordenite and chloride solutions of K, Cs, Rb, Sr. Mordenite shows sharp selectivity towards large alkali metal cations, particularly Cs + . In these processes the exchange isotherms are characterized by the constant selectivity towards a counterion. For the Sr 2+ -2Na + exchange the isotherm shows a change of selectivity after a definite counterion concentration has been reached in the solution. Correlation between the exchange thermodynamic constants makes it possible to propose the following range of mordenite selectivity towards the cations under study: Cs>Rb>K>Na>Sr

  11. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  12. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, R S [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III).

  13. Ion exchange and liquid column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    Major accomplishments in liquid chromatography for the past two years and reported in journals available to December 31, 1979 are reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on principles and methodology with some representative examples of application included. Applications are illustrated in two rather lenghtly tables, one covering inorganic ions and the other covering organic compounds. 544 references, 8 books, and 15 reviews are listed in the bibliography

  14. Inorganic-ligand exchanging time effect in PbS quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Hong, John; Hou, Bo; Cho, Yuljae; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate time-dependent inorganic ligand exchanging effect and photovoltaic performance of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystal films. With optimal processing time, volume shrinkage induced by residual oleic acid of the PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) was minimized and a crack-free film was obtained with improved flatness. Furthermore, sufficient surface passivation significantly increased the packing density by replacing from long oleic acid to a short iodide molecule. It thus facilities exciton dissociation via enhanced charge carrier transport in PbS CQD films, resulting in the improved power conversion efficiency from 3.39% to 6.62%. We also found that excess iodine ions on the PbS surface rather hinder high photovoltaic performance of the CQD solar cell.

  15. Inorganic-ligand exchanging time effect in PbS quantum dot solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Hong, John; Hou, Bo; Cho, Yuljae; Sohn, Jung Inn, E-mail: junginn.sohn@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: seungnam.cha@eng.ox.ac.uk; Cha, SeungNam, E-mail: junginn.sohn@eng.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: seungnam.cha@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Kim, Jong Min [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    We investigate time-dependent inorganic ligand exchanging effect and photovoltaic performance of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystal films. With optimal processing time, volume shrinkage induced by residual oleic acid of the PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) was minimized and a crack-free film was obtained with improved flatness. Furthermore, sufficient surface passivation significantly increased the packing density by replacing from long oleic acid to a short iodide molecule. It thus facilities exciton dissociation via enhanced charge carrier transport in PbS CQD films, resulting in the improved power conversion efficiency from 3.39% to 6.62%. We also found that excess iodine ions on the PbS surface rather hinder high photovoltaic performance of the CQD solar cell.

  16. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  17. Ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Radiation grafting is gaining attention as a method for producing high performance materials. This method can be applied to add functions to existing polymer plastics. The author participated in the research program on the production of ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting and its applicability at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Consequently, it was clarified that it was possible to introduce the cation exchange group, represented by sulfonic and carboxyl groups, and the anion exchange group, represented by the quarternary ammonium group, to polypropylene fiber available on the market. The ion exchange capacity was able to be controlled by the degree of grafting, i.e. approximately up to 3 meq/g in both strong acid and strong base and approximately up to 5 meq/g in weak acid were obtained. The adsorption performance of ammonia, a representative malodorous substance, was also studied using test cation exchange fiber. The adsorption rate of H type strong acid cation exchange fiber was great, due to the H type having neutral reaction, and the adsorption capacity matched the ion exchange capacity. Although the Cu and Ni types features coordinated adsorption and their adsorption rates were from 1/2 to 1/3 of that of the H type, their adsorption capacities showed increase along with the metal adsorbed. (author)

  18. Retention Behaviour of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Ions on Synthesized Zirconium Titanate Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abdel-Galil, E.A.; Moustafa, M.E.; Mahmoud, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Zr(IV) titanate as inorganic ion exchange material has been synthesized and utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous waste solutions. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The results suggest that the adsorption of the studied metals Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions on Zr(IV) titanate was favourable for the Freundlich isotherm more than Langmuir isotherm. The numerical values of 1/n for the studied metal ions were found to be smaller than the one (1/n L ) was found to be R L > 1 which confirmed that the prepared Zr(IV) titanate unfavourable the Langmuir isotherm. Based on the obtained results, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on Zr(IV) titanate (ZrTi) column from aqueous waste solutions were carried out.

  19. Ion exchange in ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.P.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ion exchange properties of Na-ZSM5 have been studied using a number of univalent and divalent cations at 25degC and 65degC. All the univalent cations studied achieved 100 per cent exchange. The thermodynamic affinity sequence Cs > Rb=NH 4 =H 3 O>K>Na>Li was found at both temperatures for a sample with Si/Al=39. Standard enthalpies of exchange ΔH o were calculated using the van't' Hoff isochore and standard entropies of exchange were then calculated from ΔH o and ΔG o . Multivalent cations were unable to achieve 100 per cent exchange. The maximum exchange was found to increase through the series Ca 2+ cations ( 57 Fe enriched) on dehydration and rehydration following sorption and desorption of ethanol. At least 3 sites for Fe 2+ were observed in the dehydrated zeolite. (author)

  20. Determination of inorganic ions in natural water by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Eewiat Edin Put; Abdul Khalik Wood; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Md Suhaimi Elia

    2010-01-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) is a well established methodology for analysis of ionic species. The concentration of ionic species was determined using suppressed IC with conductivity detection. Anion species were determined in a single 15-min run with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 eluent. Cation species were analysed by direct injection of 1 ml and isocratic elution with a methanesulfonic acid (MSA) eluent. Natural water were collected from various sources such as rainwater, lake, river and groundwater. Analysis performance of IC system was validated by evaluating the linear regression of calibration curve, recovery of spike sample and quality control sample. (author)

  1. Ion exchange/adsorbent pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A decontamination of greater than 99% of the actinides and fission products contained in radioactive waste water can be obtained using ion exchange resins. A system for achieving this result is described in this paper. This ion exchange pilot-plant design is the culmination of five years of study of the decontamination of radioactive waste streams by ion exchange resins and other adsorbents at Mound. In order to maintain maximum flexibility of treatments, this pilot-plant design is a conceptual design with specific flows, resins, and column specifications, but with many optional features and no rigid equipment specifications. This flexibility allows the system to be amenable to almost any radioactive waste stream. Very specific designs can be constructed from this conceptual design for the treatment of any specific waste stream. Operating and capital costs are also discussed. 1 figure, 5 tables

  2. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  3. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A ampersand 038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports

  4. Electrochemical ion-exchange for medium active liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridger, N.J.; Turner, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical ion-exchange has already been demonstrated to be a robust, effective process for the treatment of active liquid wastes -with high decontamination and volume reduction factors, and only a low energy requirement. The primary aim of this new programme is to scale up this process - initially to 0.1m 3 /h, and ultimately to 1 3 m/h. A new 0.4m 2 electrode module has been designed and constructed, together with 3m 3 feed tanks for the first phase of this work. Further development work is also being carried out on alternative electrode designs and fabrication methods, as well as new exchange media (including inorganic absorbers and organic chelating resins) in order to optimize selectivity performance. (author)

  5. Development of composite ion exchangers and their use in treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1997-01-01

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified by using binding organic material for preparation of larger size particles having higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in packed beds possible. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetics of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. The contents of active component in composite absorber can be varied over a very broad range (5-95% of the dry weight of the composite absorber). These composite absorbers have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various radioactive and/or industrial waste waters, removal of natural and/or artificial radionuclides and heavy or toxic metals from underground water, determination of radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co, U, Ra) in the environment, etc. Examples of some of these applications are presented in this report. (author). 21 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs

  6. Comparative study of the ionic exchange of Ca++, Sr++, and Ba++ cations on resins and inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Batanero, P.

    1969-03-01

    With a view to applying the results to certain problems related to chemical separations in activation analysis, a study has been made, of the possibilities of separating the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr and Ba on organic resins and inorganic exchangers using the radioactive indicator method. The partition coefficients of the cations Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ have been measured on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin in the presence of EDTA - NTA - EGTA and DCTA as complexing agents, and on zirconium phosphate, tungstate and molybdate in the presence of HCl and NH 4 Cl. Methods have been developed for separating mixtures of alkaline-earth elements using DCTA-NH 4 + followed by elution on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin columns and on zirconium phosphate. Amongst the complexing agents used on the ion-exchange resins the most promising appears to be DCTA which leads to partition coefficients Ca, Sr and Ba which are very different. The results of measurements of partition coefficients on zirconium phosphate (NH 4 + form) using DCTA-NH 4 + show the interesting possibilities of separations on columns. The separation of the alkaline-earth elements on zirconium phosphate seems to be less quantitative than on Dowex 50 resin; it is however much faster in the former case and this can be useful for treating short half-life radioisotopes in activation analysis. (author) [fr

  7. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  8. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  9. Simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and cations in explosive residues by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Bo; Wang, Tian-Ran; Guo, Bao-Yuan; Hashi, Yuki; Guo, Can-Xiong; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-07-15

    A non-suppressed ion chromatographic method by connecting anion-exchange and cation-exchange columns directly was developed for the separation and determination of five inorganic anions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, nitrite, and chlorate) and three cations (sodium, ammonium, and potassium) simultaneously in explosive residues. The mobile phase was composed of 3.5mM phthalic acid with 2% acetonitrile and water at flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Under the optimal conditions, the eight inorganic ions were completely separated and detected simultaneously within 16 min. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the anions and cations were in the range of 50-100 microg/L and 150-320 microg/L, respectively, the linear correlation coefficients were 0.9941-0.9996, and the R.S.D. of retention time and peak area were 0.10-0.29% and 5.65-8.12%, respectively. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of the explosive samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Calmodulin-lanthanide ion exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccigross, J.; O'Donnell, C.; Nelson, D.

    1985-01-01

    A flow dialysis apparatus suitable for the study of high affinity metal binding proteins has been utilized to study calmodulin-metal exchange kinetics. Calmodulin labeled with Eu-155 and Gd-153 was dialyzed against buffer containing various competing metal ions. The rate of metal exchange was monitored by a gamma-ray scintillation detector. The kinetics of exchange are first order, and the rates fall into two categories: Ca (II) and CD (II) in one, and the lanthanides Eu (III), Gd (III), and La (III) in the other

  11. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references

  12. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  13. Charge exchange in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransden, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    Charge exchange reactions in which electrons are transferred from one ion (or atom) to another during a collision have been studied both as interesting examples of rearrangement collisions and because of important applications in plasma physics. This article reviews the modern theory developed for use at non-relativistic energies, but excluding the thermal and very low energy region. (author)

  14. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades

  15. Ion Exchange Kinetics of some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions onto Poly(Acrylic Acid-Acrylo nitrle) Potassium Titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, M.M.; El-Sadek, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified using binding organic materials for preparation of larger size particles heaving higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in peaked beds possible-modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetic of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. These composites have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various industrial waste waters. Removal of natural or artificial and the heavy metals, Pb, Cd and Zn ions. the influence of initial metal ion concentration and ph on metal ion removal has been studied. The process was found to follow a first order rate kinetics. The intra-particle diffusion of ions through pores in the adsorbent was to be the main rate limiting step. The selectivity order towards the ions was Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II)

  16. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  17. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  18. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  19. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  20. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  1. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

  2. Poster 29. Modelling of ion exchange processes in ultrapure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, A.; Torstenfelt, B.; Fejes, P.; Foutch, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The ion exchange process of the Reactor Water Clean-up (RWCU) system has been studied to better use the maximum possible exchange capacity of the ion exchange resin. Laboratory data have been correlated with computer simulations of the ion exchange process. Data were correlated using a mixed-bed ion exchange model for ultralow ionic concentrations developed at Oklahoma State University. Experimental results of the ion exchange column operation in the concentration range of 10 -3 M boric acid is compared with the simulated performance predicted by the computer model. The model is found to agree reasonably well with the data. (author)

  3. Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed

  4. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  5. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  6. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  7. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the...

  8. Angiogenesis in calcium phosphate scaffolds by inorganic copper ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barralet, Jake; Gbureck, Uwe; Habibovic, Pamela; Vorndran, Elke; Gerard, Catherine; Doillon, Charles J

    2009-07-01

    Angiogenesis in a tissue-engineered device may be induced by incorporating growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), genetically modified cells, and=or vascular cells. It represents an important process during the formation and repair of tissue and is essential for nourishment and supply of reparative and immunological cells. Inorganic angiogenic factors, such as copper ions, are therefore of interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their low cost, higher stability, and potentially greater safety compared with recombinant proteins or genetic engineering approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare tissue responses to 3D printed macroporous bioceramic scaffolds implanted in mice that had been loaded with either VEGF or copper sulfate. These factors were spatially localized at the end of a single macropore some 7 mm from the surface of the scaffold. Controls without angiogenic factors exhibited only poor tissue growth within the blocks; in contrast, low doses of copper sulfate led to the formation of microvessels oriented along the macropore axis. Further, wound tissue ingrowth was particularly sensitive to the quantity of copper sulfate and was enhanced at specific concentrations or in combination with VEGF. The potential to accelerate and guide angiogenesis and wound healing by copper ion release without the expense of inductive protein(s) is highly attractive in the area of tissue-engineered bone and offers significant future potential in the field of regenerative biomaterials.

  9. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu +2 , Ni +2 , Cr +3 , Fe +3 ), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  10. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species

  11. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroch, C.J. [Wastren, Inc., Westminster, CO (United States); Grant, P.J. [Wastren, Inc., Hummelstown, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  12. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination

  13. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > ∼11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH ∼13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was ∼12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Studies on sorption of plutonium on inorganic exchangers from sodium carbonate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pius, I C; Charyulu, M M; Sivaramakrishnan, C K [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Venkataramani, B [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sorption of Pu(IV) from sodium carbonate medium has been investigated by using different inorganic exchangers alumina, silica gel and hydrous titanium oxide. Distribution ratios of Pu(IV) for its sorption on these exchangers from sodium carbonate medium were found to be sufficiently high indicating the suitability of these exchangers for the removal of Pu(IV). The presence of uranium and dibutyl phosphate do not have any effect on distribution ratio. The 10% Pu(IV) breakthrough capacities for above exchangers have been determined with 5 ml bed at a flow rate of 30 ml/hour. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Method of pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Masami; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of noxious sulfur oxide and ammonia on the pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins discharged from nuclear power plants. Method: In the case where the pyrolysis is made for the cationic exchange resins having sulfonic acids as the ion-exchange group, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals capable of reacting with sulfonic acid groups to form solid sulfates are previously deposited by way of ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. In another case of the anionic exchange resins having quarternary ammonium groups as the ion-exchange groups, halogenic elements capable of reacting with the ammonium groups to form solid ammonium salts are deposited to the ion-exchange resins through ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. As a result, the amount of the binders used can be reduced, and this method can be used in a relatively simple processing facility. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  17. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent

  18. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  19. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  20. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  1. Distribution of Components in Ion Exchange Materials Taken from the K East Basin and Leaching of Ion Exchange Materials by Nitric/Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric/Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Hoopes, F.V.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid followed by mixed nitric/oxalic acid leach treatments to decontaminate ion exchange materials that have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East (KE)Basin sludge. The ion exchange materials contain organic ion exchange resins and zeolite inorganic ion exchange material. Based on process records, the ion exchange resins found in the K Basins is a mixed-bed, strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite NRW-037. The zeolite material is Zeolon-900, a granular material composed of the mineral mordenite. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the ion exchange material can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Elutriation and washing steps are designed to remove the organic resins from the K Basin sludge. To help understand the effects of the anticipated separation steps, tests were performed with well-rinsed ion exchange (IX) material from KE Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed IX having small quantities of added KE canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). Tests also were performed to determine the relative quantities of organic and inorganic IX materials present in the H-08 K Basin sludge material. Based on chemical analyses of the separated fractions, the rinsed and dry IX material H-08 BEAD G was found to contain 36 weight percent inorganic material (primarily zeolite). The as-received (unrinsed) and dried H-08 material was estimated to contain 45 weight percent inorganic material

  2. Ion Exchange Properties of Georgian Natural Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimer Tsitsishvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion-exchange properties of natural zeolites of Georgia with a relatively low Si/Al ratio have been studied: analcimes are characterized by selectivity series: Na+>K+>Ag+>NH4+>Ca+2>Sr+2>Li+; for phillipsites selectivity sequences are different for calcium- and potassium forms; selectivity sequence for scolecite is: Sr+2>Ba+2>Rb+>Ca+2>Cs+>K+>NH4+>Na+>Mg+2>Li+>Cd+2>Cu+2> Mn+2> Zn+2>Co+2>Ni+2.

  3. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  4. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  5. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  6. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the potential for ion-exchange media (resin beads or powdered filter media) to support biological growth. A mixed microbial culture was grown from resin wastes obtained from the BNL HFBR by mixing the resin with a nutrient salt solution containing peptone and yeast extract. Bacterial and fungal growths appeared in the solution and on the resins after 7 to 10 days incubation at 337/degree/C. The mixed microbial cultures were used to inoculate several resin types, both irradiated and unirradiated. 12 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  8. Ion exchange media testing for processing recyclable and nonrecyclable liquids at Diablo Canyon Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.L.; Miller, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on several ion exchange materials tested for processing nonrecyclable and recyclable liquid wastes at Diablo Canyon Power Plant. These ion exchange materials include inorganic Durasil media, natural and synthetic zeolites, and various organic resins. Additional tests were performed using a polyelectrolyte pretreatment technique to enhance processing of liquid wastes by ion exchange. A 9:1 ratio of cation to anion resin, consisting of IRN-77 and Sybron A-642 was effective in decontaminating cesium and cobalt radionuclides for low conductivity nonrecyclable liquids. A mixture of zeolite and Durasil media was most effective in removing cesium and cobalt from nonrecyclable high conductivity liquids. The experimental Dow resins achieved the best results in decontaminating recyclable liquids and minimized the effluent levels of chlorides, sulfates, and silica

  9. Solidification of 137Cs into potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.; Haukka, S.; Wallace, J.

    1989-01-01

    An inorganic ion exchange, potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II), has been studied for the separation of 137 Cs from nuclear waste solutions. This exchanges is highly selective for cesium over other alkali metal ions and can be synthesized in granular form suitable for column operations. Pilot-plant experiments were carried out at a NPP to test the exchanges for solidification of 137 Cs from an evaporator concentrate. The results were encouraging: decontamination factors and volume reduction factors were both very high. A full-scale separation plant is now under construction plans call for the exchanges, loaded with 137 Cs, to be disposed of in stainless steel columns, sealed by welding and enclosed in concrete block. According to the authors this multibarrier procedure provides a safe final disposal solution

  10. Ion exchange separation of rare earths. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghi, Nguyen danh; Matous, K.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal conditions of separating selected rare earths by two ion exchange chromatography using Ostion KS cation exchange resin were studied. The effect of acetic acid concentration in the sorption solution was investigated. The elution process was studied in dependence on the concentration of Na 2 H 2 EDTA, on the total concentration of EDTA 4- ion, on elution agent flow, and on temperature. The optimal conditions were determined by evaluating integral elution curves and changes in acid concentration for systems Y-Pr, La-Pr, Er-Pr, Eu-Pr as follows: The sorption solution requires the presence of Na 2 H 2 EDTA of 0.03M in concentration. The basic elution solution was prepared in the following way: 0.183M Na 2 Mg 2 EDTA, 9.6x10 -3 M Na 2 H 2 EDTA, 3.84x10 -3 M CH 3 COOH, 2.30x10 -2 M CH 3 COONH 4 , 2.30x10 -2 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Approximate pH 5.7 to 6.0. The optimal elution solution was prepared by diluting the basic solution so that the total concentration of EDTA 4- equalled 0.075M. The optimal flow was determined to be 0.86 ml.cm -2 .min -1 at a temperature of 55 degC. (author)

  11. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent

  12. Application to ion exchange study of an interferometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    The numerous experiments carried out on ion exchange between clay suspensions and solutions have so far been done by studying the equilibrium between the two phases; by this method it is very difficult to obtain the kinetic properties of the exchange reactions. At method consisting of observation with an interferential microscope using polarised white light shows up the variations in concentration which take place during the ion exchange between an ionic solution and a montmorillonite slab as well as between an ionic solution and a grain of organic ion exchanger. By analysing the results it will be possible to compare the exchange constants of organic ion exchangers with those of mineral ion exchangers. (author) [fr

  13. The mechanism of ion exchange on ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeyens, J.C.A.; McDougall, G.J.; Smit, J. van R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews some published and unpublished data on the ion-exchange properties of AMP. The three NH 4 + ions are only partially exchanged for large monovalent ions. In the case of NH 4 + /K + exchange, the energy lost by the breaking of H bonds between the NH 4 + ions and anionic cage oxygen atoms beyond the point of maximum exchange is no longer compensated for by bond strengthening in the anion due to contraction of the cage. With Rb + , Cs + and T1 + , limited convertibility results from the lattice expansion required to accommodate these larger ions. During exchange, part of the cations pass through the anionic cages, thereby causing considerable lattice disorder. The maximum exchange capacity of AMP for the alkali metal ions is not a simple function of cation radius. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of zirconium phosphate ion exchanger samples with respect to the separation of highly active actinoid elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treplan, J.

    1972-01-01

    Inorganic ion exchangers are of growing interest in connection with separation processes of α-radiators of high specific activity, or with high gamma doses, because they have a considerably higher radiation resistance at their disposal compared to the commonly used organic ion exchangers. In opposition to their use, however, are the worse properties regarding capacity, chemical resistivity, exchange rate and reproducibility of the ion exchange bed. In the present work, an attempt has been made to influence the properties of a typical representative of this group, zirconium phosphate (ZP), by systematic changing of the preparation parameters in such a manner that a sufficient capacity is obtained regarding tri-valent ions. In addition, information is to be gathered in order to clarify the connection between exchanger property and structure of the ZP. (orig./LH) [de

  15. Preparations of an inorganic-framework proton exchange nanochannel membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhao, G.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a proton exchange membrane composed of straight and aligned proton conducting nanochannels is developed. Preparation of the membrane involves the surface sol-gel method assisted with a through-hole anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template to form the framework of the PEM nanochannels. A monomolecular layer (SO3Hsbnd (CH2)3sbnd Sisbnd (OCH3)3) is subsequently added onto the inner surfaces of the nanochannels to shape a proton-conducting pathway. Straight nanochannels exhibit long range order morphology, contributing to a substantial improvement in the proton mobility and subsequently proton conductivity. In addition, the nanochannel size can be altered by changing the surface sol-gel condition, allowing control of the active species/charge carrier selectivity via pore size exclusion. The proton conductivity of the nanochannel membrane is reported as high as 11.3 mS cm-1 at 70 °C with a low activation energy of 0.21 eV (20.4 kJ mol-1). First-principle calculations reveal that the activation energy for proton transfer is impressively low (0.06 eV and 0.07 eV) with the assistance of water molecules.

  16. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  17. The Quantitative Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Impurities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    .... This procedure involve adsorption of uranium onto Bio-Rad AG 1X8 or MP-1 ion exchange resins in 8 M HCl, separation of uncomplexed or weakly complexed matrix ions with an 8 M HCl wash, and subsequent...

  18. Enrichment of lithium isotope .sup.6./sup.Li by ion exchange resin with specific particle size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, J.; Ďurišová, Jana; Jelínek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 1 (2017), s. 13-18 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : lithium * isotope separation * elution chromatography * ion exchange chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  19. Electrodeionization 2: the migration of nickel ions adsorbed in a flexible ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of nickel ions from a low cross-linked ion-exchange resin using an applied electrical potential gradient was studied. The potential gradient across a bed of ion-exchange particles, in which nickel ions were absorbed, was varied by two methods. One involved a change of cell voltage across

  20. Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect

  1. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullberg, L.; Clearfield, A.

    1981-01-01

    An equilibrium study of the Na + -Cs + -H + exchange on crystalline α-zirconium phosphate has been carried out. Isotherms for the ion exchange have been determined and phases formed during the exchange have been identified. The surface groups of the exchanger were found to greatly prefer cesium to sodium. For exchange in the interior, cesium was found to be preferred to sodium for 0 to 50% of exchange, while sodium is slightly preferred to cesium for the second half of exchange. The influence of surface equilibria on the total exchange mechanism is discussed. (author)

  2. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  3. Removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water using polyacrylamide ferric antimonate as new ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Composite ion exchangers consist of one or more ion exchangers combined with another material, which can be inorganic or organic and may it be an ion exchanger. The reason for manufacturing a composite material is to produce a granular material, with sufficient strength for column use, from ion exchangers that do not form, or only form weak, granules themselves. Attempts in this study are focused to prepare composite ion exchangers for treatment of wastewater. Heavy metals when present in water in concentrations exceeding the permitted limits are injurious to the health. Hence, it is very important to treat such waters to remove the metal ions present before it is supplied for any useful purpose. Therefore, many investigations have studied to develop more effective process to treat such waste stream. Ion-exchange has been widely adopted in heavy metal containing wastewater and most of the ion-exchangers (i.e. ion-exchange media) currently being used are commercially mass-produced organic resins.Therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water.1-Preparation of polyacrylamide ferric antimonate composite.2-Characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, DTA and TG analyses.3-Chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (ph heating temperature and reaction temperature).4-Kinetic studies of some heavy metals.5-Ion exchange isotherm.6-Breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain condition.

  4. Contact isotopic- and contact ion-exchange between two adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Mohan, R.; Haimerl, M.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of contact ion exchange processes between an ion exchange membrane and resin ion exchange beads, stirred in pure water, was investigated. A general criterion was derived, which indicates whether diffusion of the ions between the intermingling electric double layers or the collision frequency between the two adsorbents is the rate dermining step. Since the latter process proved to be rate controlling under our experimental conditions, the corresponding rate equations were derived under various initial and boundary conditions. Experimentally, the kinetics of contact isotopic exchange of Cs + - and Na + -ions as well as of the reverse contact ion exchange process of Cs + -versus Na + -ions were investigated by using Na 22 and Cs 137 radioisotopes. The experiments reveal in quantitative accord with the theory that the rate of collision controlled contact ion exchange processes depends mainly on the 'exchange coefficient', the separation factor and the collision frequency. While the latter two quantities were determined independently by separate experiments, the 'exchange coefficient' was evaluated from a contact isotopic exchange experiment. (orig.) [de

  5. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  6. Minimization of storage and disposal volumes by treatment of liquids by highly selective ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.; Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Novel highly selective inorganic ion exchangers provide new efficient methods for the treatment of nuclear waste liquids. These methods have several advantages compared to conventional technologies such as evaporation, direct solidification or treatment by organic ion exchange resins. Due to high selectivity, the radionuclides can be concentrated to a very small volume even from high-salt effluents. This means that the volume waste will be very small compared to other methods, which brings considerable savings in the cost of intermediate storage and final disposal. Process equipment are highly compact and require little supervision, which brings down the capital and operation costs. The new selective inorganic ion exchangers CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat (manufactured by Fortum Engineering Ltd., Finland) have the highest selectivities and processing capacities, exceeding those of zeolites by several orders of magnitude. The materials are now in use in a number of nuclear sites worldwide, including those in the USA, Europe and Japan. Installations include mobile and stationary systems. Considerable experience has been gained in the use of these new materials. Lessons learned, as well as advantages and economic benefits of these highly selective exchangers will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  7. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  8. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  9. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).

  10. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  11. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  12. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hure, J.; Platzer, R.; Bittel, R.; Wey, R.

    1958-01-01

    The study of the use of ion exchangers at high temperature has been carried out mainly with a view to purifying water in reactor circuits. The advantages of keeping high resistivity (from many hundreds to a few million ohm-cm) water within a reactor circuit are known; the decreased corrosion reduction in the amount of radiolysis, decreased radioactivity in the circuits and piping, the elements other than those forming water which are carried with the water usually becoming radioactive as they pass through the reactor. If the water circulation takes place at temperatures less than 75 deg. C continuous purification can be easily carried out by using organic ion exchange resins in agitated beds. However at higher temperatures particularly those above 100 deg. C it is not possible to use these media because of the rapid degradation of the high polymers used. Also the action of the radiation, for example that emanating from the products fixed on the ion exchange media permanently destroys the organic chains making up the skeleton of the resins. We have therefore sought after other compounds which are efficient demineralizer, but which have a structure such that high temperature and radiation do not bring about deterioration. We have especially investigated three main types: - natural ion exchangers having an inorganic structure (montmorillonite type clays); - natural inorganic compounds which have been treated to give them ion exchange properties (activated carbons); - synthetic inorganic compounds (salts having a low solubility such as zirconium and thorium phosphates and hydroxides). In this research we have endeavoured to obtain products which are stable in the presence of water at high temperatures, insoluble and not broken down into fine particles (that is to say not polluting the high resistivity water) and which are capable of giving up H + or OH - ions in exchange for the ions contained in the water or at least capable of forming insoluble compounds with these

  13. High-performance liquid ion-pair chromatography in inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    In literature review for the recent 15 years theoretical foundations, regularities and mechanisms of ionized compound retention in reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography are considered, possibilities and prospects of its application in inorganic analysis being demonstrated. Analytic characteristics of the methods for the determination of inorganic anions (I - , IO 3 - , MoO 4 2- , etc.), as well as metals (Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Mo, W, Ru, lanthanides, etc.) in the form of chelates, are given

  14. Electrochemical ion-exchange for active liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bridger, N.J.; Jones, C.P.

    1992-10-01

    Electrochemical ion exchange (EIX) has been firmly established as an effective process for the treatment of a wide range of liquid radioactive wastes. Both organic (for low specific activity streams) and inorganic systems (for higher activity wastes) have been demonstrated. A low cost current feeder electrode has also been developed, with a projected lifetime of > 6 years. While cation EIX can be used for the treatment of low salt content streams, combination with anion EIX to control the pH can extend its range of application. At the same time, it is also able to remove activity complexed in an anionic form. AEIX has also demonstrated its ability to remove radionuclides with insoluble hydroxides (eg Co, U and Pu) from both high and low salt content streams. EIX has been successfully scaled-up form the bench-top scale by increasing electrode size by a factor of 11, and then by operating five units in parallel. An improvement in performance of by a factor 3 was observed over a simple increase in area, due to the minimization of edge effects in the larger units. The most significant advantage of EIX is its compactness -with plant sizes of 1000). (Author)

  15. Thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for some uni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Indion FF-IP. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as ...

  16. A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Simon; Phung, Le T

    2005-12-01

    Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+ Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone CopZ and periplasmic silver binding protein SilE). Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. For example, Cd2+-efflux pumps of bacteria are either inner membrane P-type ATPases or three polypeptide RND chemiosmotic complexes consisting of an inner membrane pump, a periplasmic-bridging protein and an outer membrane channel. In addition to the best studied three-polypeptide chemiosmotic system, Czc (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2), others are known that efflux Ag+, Cu+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Resistance to inorganic mercury, Hg2+ (and to organomercurials, such as CH3Hg+ and phenylmercury) involve a series of metal-binding and membrane transport proteins as well as the enzymes mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase, which overall convert more toxic to less toxic forms. Arsenic resistance and metabolizing systems occur in three patterns, the widely-found ars operon that is present in most bacterial genomes and many plasmids, the more recently recognized arr genes for the periplasmic arsenate reductase that functions in anaerobic respiration as a terminal electron acceptor, and the aso genes for the periplasmic arsenite oxidase that functions as an initial electron donor in aerobic resistance to arsenite.

  17. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  18. Ion exchange nonwoven fabric chemical filter. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    This report outlined the characteristics of EPIX filter and its complex with activated carbon to eliminate organic compounds from solvent. Elimination performance of this filter was determined using an ion chromatographic analyzer. EPIX filter showed high performance to eliminate trace amount of ionic compounds. The rate of elimination was both 99% or more for NH 3 and SO 2 in an early phase of filtration. Release of dust as well as impurities was significantly reduced by the use of EPIX filter. Gases once adsorbed on the filter were not released even at an elevated temperature of atmosphere. Combined use of non-woven fabrics was possible. For EPIX filter, there are three kinds; strong acid cation exchange filter and strong/weak basic anion filters. The weak basic anion filter has been applied to the conventional apparatus in wafer makers because the filter was very effective for selective boron trapping. When polyethyleneterephthalate was used as the base polymer, radical groups produced on the polymer were co-polymerized with monomer substances. The lifetime of filter was estimated on a base of gas concentration and wind velocity to determine the time to replace with a new one. Furthermore, the loss of pressure became less than a half when EPIX filter was used. (M.N.)

  19. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Kunio; Fujii, Toshiaki; Takai, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi

    1991-01-01

    Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting has the capabilities for wide application as high performance materials. Extensive studies were made to evaluate the ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting for removing some toxic or malodorous gases, continuing from the previous work (presented in Ebara Engng. Review, No. 146), in which the ability of removing ammonia with cation exchange fiber was investigated. The results of this study can be summarized by the following conclusions: (1) Methods of evaluating the ability of removing ammonia, acetaldehyde, and some lower fatty acids in low concentration were established, (2) Besides being effective for the removal of acidic or basic gases, neutral gas such as acetaldehyde can also be removed by adding some functional compounds to the ion exchange fiber, and (3) Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting is effective as a deodorizing filter. (author)

  1. Study of kinetics, equilibrium and isotope exchange in ion exchange systems Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamberg, K.; Plicka, J.; Calibar, J.; Gosman, A.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of ion exchange in the Nasup(+)-Mgsup(2+)-strongly acidic cation exchanger system in a batch stirred reactor was studied. The samples of exchangers OSTION KS (containing DVB in the range of 1.5 - 12%) and AMBERLITE IR 120 for experimental work were used; the concentration of the aqueous nitrate solution was always 0.2M. The Nernst-Planck equation for description of diffusion of ions in a particle was used. The values of diffusion coefficients of magnesium ions in the exchangers and their dependence on the content of DVB were obtained by evaluating the experimental data and using the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium. (author)

  2. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  3. Sorption rate of uranyl ions by hyphan cellulose exchangers and by hydrated titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, F.; Burba, P.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sorption of uranyl ions by the cellulose exchanger Hyphan proceeds rather fast. Two steps are observed with half-times of the order of 10 s and 2 min. The majority of the uranyl ions is bound in 1 min. Sorption of uranyl ions by titanium dioxide is a very slow process. For particle sizes between 0,1 and 0,5 mm the half-time is about 3 h and equilibrium is attained in about 1 day. The effect of stirring suspensions of inorganic sorbents like titanium dioxide in solution is investigated in detail. Sorption of uranyl ions by titanium dioxide and change in pH in solution are measured simultaneously as a function of time. (orig.) [de

  4. Study of kinetics, equilibrium and isotope exchange in ion exchange systems Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plicka, J.; Stamberg, K.; Cabicar, J.; Gosman, A.

    1986-01-01

    The description of kinetics of ion exchange in ternary system was based upon three Nernst-Planck equations, each of them describing the particle diffusion flux of a given counterion as an independent process. For experimental verification, the strongly acidic cation exchanger OSTION KS 08 the shallow-bed technique, and 0.2 mol x dm -3 aqueous nitrate solutions were chosen. The kinetics of ion exchange in the system of cations Na + - Mg 2+ - UO 2 2+ was studied. The values of diffusion coefficients obtained by evaluating of kinetics of isotope exchange and binary ion exchange were used for calculation. The comparison of calculated exchange rate curves with the experimental ones was made. It was found that the exchanging counterions were affected by each other. (author)

  5. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer , the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs

  6. Application of ion chromatography to the determination of water-soluble inorganic and organic ions in atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Chun; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Duan, Feng-Kui; Zheng, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Cheng-Yi

    2004-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and convenient ion chromatography(IC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of twelve water-soluble inorganic anions(F- , Cl- , NO2(-), NO3(-), SO3(2-), SO4(2-) , PO4(3-)), and fifteen water-soluble organic ions(formate, acetate, MSA, oxalate, malonate, succinate, phthalates, etc.) in atmospheric aerosols. The linear concentrations ranged from 0.005 microg/m3 to 500 microg/m3 ( r = 0.999-0.9999). The relative standard deviation (RSD) were 0.43%-2.00% and the detection limits were from 2.7 ng/m3 to 88 ng/m3. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of those inorganic ions and organic ions in PM2.5 of Beijing.

  7. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  8. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO 4 -PAN absorber

  9. Ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Dessouki, A.; El-Assay, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of using various types of ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters, by analysis of the decrease in exchange capacity with absorbed dose. The resins studied are Sojuzchim-export-Moscow Cation Exchanger KU-2 and Anion Exchanger AV-17 and Merck Cation Exchanger I, and Merck Anion Exchangers II and III. Over the dose range 1 to 100 kGy, the systems show linearity between log absorbed dose and decrease in resin ion exchange capacity. The slope of this response function differs for the different resins, depending on their ionic form and degree of cross-linking. The radiation sensitivity increases in the order KU-2; Exchanger I; AV-17; Exchanger II; Exchanger III. Merck resins with moisture content of 21% showed considerably higher radiation sensitivity than those with 2 to 3% moisture content. The mechanism of radiation-induced denaturing of the ion exchanger resins involves cleavage and decomposition of functional substituents, with crosslinking playing a stabilizing role, with water and its radiolytic products serving to inhibit radical recombination and interfering with the protection cage effect of crosslinking. (author)

  10. Adsorption behaviour and kinetics of exchange of Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibria and kinetics of exchange of both Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion-exchanger, cobalt hexacyanocobaltate (III) (CoHCC) incorporated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN), has been studied. The apparent capacity of CoHCC-PAN for Zn2+ and Eu3+ was determined and found to be 0.353 and 0.69 meq/g, respectively. The higher capacity for Eu3+ ions than that for Zn2+ ions is due to the higher electrostatic interaction strength of the higher charge ion with the surface. Freundlich and Langmiur adsorption isotherms were used to investigate solute (Zn2+ or Eu3+) exchange phenomenon at the liquid/solid interface. The results indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit well for both Zn2+ and Eu3+. Sorption data have been also treated with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. The kinetics of Zn2+ or Eu3+ sorption on the composite seems to show that the reaction was proceed via two steps. The first one was fast and probably due to adsorption followed by a slow exchange reaction. In view of the data obtained on the effect of particle size and metal ion concentrations on the rate of exchange reaction, it is concluded that the mechanism for both ions was chemical control. Generally, it seems that there are two exchange sites chemically equivalent but present in pores of different sizes which lead to different degrees of dehydration of the ions sorbed on the two sites

  11. Proceedings of the Sandia Laboratories workshop on the use of titanate ion exchangers for defense waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwoebel, R.L.; Northrup, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts and visual aids from the following talks are presented: removal of radionuclides from Hanford defense waste solutions; waste management programs at Savannah River Plant; application of defense waste decontamination; americium and curium recovery from nuclear waste using inorganic ion exchanger materials; removal of trace 106 Ru in nuclear waste processing; and titanate characterization and consolidation processes. Copies of three memos are included: 90 Sr radiation effects on sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin; 238 239 Pu content in defense waste; and preparation and physical properties of sodium titanate in ion exchange resin

  12. Modeling of sorption processes on solid-phase ion-exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Ludmila; Kuan, Nguyen Anh

    2018-03-01

    Research of alkaline elements separation on solid-phase ion-exchangers is carried out to define the selectivity coefficients and height of an equivalent theoretical stage for both continuous and stepwise filling of column by ionite. On inorganic selective sorbents the increase in isotope enrichment factor up to 0.0127 is received. Also, parametrical models that are adequately describing dependence of the pressure difference and the magnitude expansion in the ion-exchange layer from the flow rate and temperature have been obtained. The concentration rate value under the optimum realization conditions of process and depending on type of a selective material changes in a range 1.021÷1.092. Calculated results show agreement with experimental data.

  13. Highly dispersive ion exchangers in the analytical chemistry of uranium, particularly regarding separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, R.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of water-insoluble polyvinyl pyrrolidon with uranium VI was investigated and a determination method for uranium was worked out in which the polyvinyl pyrrolidon was used as specific exchanger. Good separations of uranium from numerous transition metal ions were achieved here. The application of this exchanger for a fast and simple elution and determination method was of particular importance. A possible sorption mechanism was suggested based on the capacity curve of uranium with polyvinyl pyrrolidon and nitrogen and chloride content at maximum load. The sorption occurs by coordination of the carbonyl oxygen of single pyrrolidon rings with the protons of the complex acides and uranium. This assumption is supported by IR investigations. The sorbability of other inorganic acids was also investigated and possible structures were formulated for the sorption mechanism. In addition to this, ion exchangers were prepared based on cellulose by converting cellulose powder with aziridine and tris-1-aziridinyl-phosphine oxide. A polyethylene imine cellulose of high capacity was obtained in the conversion of cellulose powder with aziridine. This exchanger absorbs cobalt III very strongly. The exchanger loaded with cobalt III was used to separate the uranium as cyanato complex. The exchanger obtained in converting chlorated cellulose with tris-1-aziridinyl phosphine oxide also absorbs uranium VI very strongly. Thus a separation method of high specifity and selectivity was developed. (orig.) [de

  14. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  15. Application of pressurized ion exchange to separations of transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    High-pressure ion exchange chromatography, used first for nucleic acid separations, was applied to the production of the heavier actinides, particularly the transcurium elements. Its use at the TRU plant is described. Future developments are considered briefly

  16. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  17. Triple-membrane reduces need for ion exchange regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcour, H.

    1989-01-01

    Triple-membrane water treatment systems are comprised of ultrafiltration units for pretreatment, electrodialysis reversal primary demineralizers, reverse osmosis secondary demineralizers, portable ion exchange unit polishing demineralizers, and ultraviolet sterilizers. The triple-membrane process is designed to provide an unprecedented degree of pretreatment to maximize efficiency, durability and reliability of the reverse osmosis, whilst reducing the required regeneration frequency of the ion exchange demineralizer by one to two orders of magnitude. (author)

  18. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1964-09-01

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described

  19. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  20. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1964-09-15

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described.

  1. Preparation and characterization of some antimonates as ion exchangers and their application sorption of molybdenum from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Mowafy, E.A.; Ibrahim, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Various antimonate compounds are well known as important inorganic ion exchangers, since they have radiation stabilities and also high selectivities towards different cations. Ceric, silicon and ferric antimonates were prepared in our laboratories. Characterization of these materials has been described using different techniques, including thermal analysis, surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction and Ir-spectroscopy. The selectivities of these exchangers towards molybdenum have measured under different conditions and a comparison between them had been conducted to enable the suitable exchanger that can be used in the separation of molybdenum from fission products

  2. Samarium ion exchanged montmorillonite for high temperature cumene cracking reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nano material Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using TPD of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Bronsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene. (author)

  3. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  4. Mixed matrix microporous hollow fibers with ion-exchange functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyono, R.; Kiyono, R.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneous hollow fiber membranes with cation exchange functionality are prepared using a wet spinning technique. The spinning dope solutions are prepared by dispersing finely ground cation ion-exchange resin (CER) particles in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solution of polysulfone (PSF). The polymer

  5. Isotope exchange of strontium and molybdate ions in strontium polymolybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneous isotopic exchange reactions in strontium polymolybdates of Sr 2+ and MoO 4 2- ions in the strontium nitrate and sodium molybdate solutions have been studied using 90 Sr and 99 Mo as tracers. Electrometric methods have been used to study the compositions of strontium molybdates obtained by adding strontium chloride to a progressively acidified solution of sodium molybdate. It has been found that the exchange fraction increases with increasing chain length of strontium polymolybdate. The exchange equilibrium constant (K ex ) has been calculated between 298 and 348 K as well as ΔG deg, ΔH deg and ΔS deg. The results indicate that Sr 2+ cations have a much higher affinity for exchangers than MoO 4 2- anions. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm it has been shown that the exchange capacity (X m ) for both ions is affected by the ion adsorption process at low temperatures and by the ion exchange process at high temperatures. At high concentrations, the recrystallization process contributes to on the cation exchange but is ineffective on the anion exchange mechanism. (author)

  6. Thermochemical treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Petrov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Trusov, B.G.; Semenov, K.N.; Klimov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IER) is a principal type of radioactive waste constantly generated by nuclear plants of various functions. The reduction of volume of this waste and its treatment to the forms suitable for long-term disposal is an urgent problem facing the present-day atomic energetics. Nowadays the technological process THOR (Studsvik, Sweden) based on the thermodestruction of IER is the best developed and realized on the industrial scale. Unfortunately, this process requires expensive equipment and great energy consumption for the moisture to be evaporated and thereafter IER to be destroyed by heat. Meanwhile the capability of some elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ti etc.) has long been known and practical use found for active interaction with water in combustion regime. This property of the metals has been used in the development of new technology of treatment of IERs in SIA ''Radon''. Wet IER is mixed with powder metal fuel (PMF) which represents a mixture of metal powder, a quantity of burning activator and some technological additives. On initiation, the mixture of IER with PMF burns without extra energy supply to generate enough heat for the moisture to be evaporated and products of IER decomposition to be destroyed and evaporated. To burn out the products of IER evaporation the air is used. The thermodynamic simulation data and the results of experiments using a pilot plant show that radionuclides contained in IER are chemically bound in ash residue consisting of metal oxides, spinel, silicates, etc. According to the experimental data, radionuclides in amounts of 90% or more of Cs-137 and up to 95% of Sr-90 and Co-60 are fixed in the ash residue. The residue volume is several times less than the initial volume of IER. Concentrations of hazard gases in off-gases do not exceed maximum permissible ones accepted in different countries. The technological process is easy to perform, it does not require sophisticated equipment and great energy consumption which

  7. Isotopic exchange reaction between barium ion and tri barium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, G.B.; Cetin, I.

    1982-01-01

    Heterogeneous exchange reaction of tri barium phosphate in barium chloride solution has been studied using 133 Ba as a tracer. The results show that the exchange fraction increases as barium chloride concentration increases for different mole ratio of the exchange ion on the solid surface and in the solution. The phenomenon was studied with respect to the previous treatment of the precipitate leading to different crystal sizes and the effect of reaction time. (author)

  8. THE ROLE OF INORGANIC ION IMBALANCE IN AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but to a large part have not attempted to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role that various total dissolved solids in effluents have on regula...

  9. Process and device for the extraction of ions from a clear liquid or one containing matter in suspension with a ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitani, Enzo; Teissie, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Process for the continuous extraction of ions from a clear liquid or one containing matter in suspension by the use of a bed of ion exchange grains which is fluidized inside a column by circulation of the liquid, characterized by the fact that the said bed is subject to cyclic pulsations, in order to obtain sorting of the grains by density, the heavier grains having fixed the maximum ions. This invention can be applied for the continuous extraction of any type of anion or cation or exchangeable salt by means of resins or inorganic exchangers, to avoid clogging and abrasion problems, and to obtain maximum extraction rate and capacity. An example is given of the treatment of a suspension for the extraction of uranium [fr

  10. Ion exchange removal of technetium from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange methods for removing technetium from waste salt solutions have been investigated by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). These experiments have shown: Commercially available anion exchange resins show high selectivity and capacity for technetium. In column runs, 150 column volumes of salt solution were passed through an ion exchange column before 50% 99 Tc breakthrough was reached. The technetium can be eluted from the resin with nitric acid. Reducing resins (containing borohydride) work well in simple hydroxide solutions, but not in simulated salt solutions. A mercarbide resin showed a very high selectivity for Tc, but did not work well in column operation

  11. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  12. The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienwald, B.; Heitmann, P.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was investigated by measurement of their effect on the protein fluorescence. Fluorescence titrations of the native enzyme with uranyl nitrate show that there is a specific binding of uranyl ions to the enzyme. It was deduced that each subunit of the enzyme binds one uranyl ion. The binding constant was estimated to be in the order of 10 7 M -1 . The enzyme which contains a small number of chemically modified carboxyl groups was not able to bind uranyl ions specifically. The modification of carboxyl groups was carried out by use of a water soluble carbodiimide and the nucleophilic reagent N-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hexamethylenediamine. The substrate analogue calcium pyrophosphate displaced the uranyl ions from their binding sites at the enzyme From the results it is concluded that carboxyl groups of the active site are the ligands for the binding of uranyl ions. (author)

  13. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry for organic and inorganic molecular analysis in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Rita van; Vaeck, Luc van; Adriaens, Annemie; Adams, Freddy

    2003-01-01

    The use of mass spectra in secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) to characterise the molecular composition of inorganic and organic analytes at the surface of solid samples is investigated. Methodological aspects such as mass resolution, mass accuracy, precision and accuracy of isotope abundance measurements, influence of electron flooding and sample morphology are addressed to assess the possibilities and limitations that the methodology can offer to support the structural assignment of the detected ions. The in-sample and between-sample reproducibility of relative peak intensities under optimised conditions is within 10%, but experimental conditions and local hydration, oxidation or contamination can drastically affect the mass spectra. As a result, the use of fingerprinting for identification becomes compromised. Therefore, the preferred way of interpretation becomes the deductive structural approach, based on the use of the empirical desorption-ionisation model. This approach is shown to allow the molecular composition of inorganic and organic components at the surface of solids to be characterised. Examples of inorganic speciation and identification of organic additives with unknown composition in inorganic salt mixtures are given. The methodology is discussed in terms of foreseen developments with respect to the use of polyatomic primary ions

  14. Mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates. 17. Dehydration behavior of lithium ion exchanged phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A; Pack, S P; Troup, J M [Ohio Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The phases formed by the dehydration of lithium exchanged ..cap alpha..-zirconium phosphate, Zr(HP0/sub 4/).H/sub 2/0, were determined by a combination of X-ray, TGA and DTA studies. Samples containing 10, 20, 30 ..... 100% of theoretical lithium ion capacity were examined. The data are summarized in a phase diagram which however is not an equilibrium diagram because of the slowness of approach to equilibrium. The numerous phases obtained and the ease with which they rearrange indicates a high mobility for the incorporated cations. This suggested that ..cap alpha..-zirconium phosphate may behave as a solid electrolyte and indeed this was demonstrated by having it serve in that capacity in a small sodium sulfur battery.

  15. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  16. Enrichment of 15N by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Masao; Ohtsuka, Haruhisa; Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    1996-01-01

    15 N isotope separation was studied using cation exchange resins which consist of functional groups: sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid and phenol at various concentration of the eluent LiOH. The isotope separation coefficients for these ion exchange resins were observed to be nearly equal, in spite of the large difference in ion exchange characteristics. The effect of flow rate on 15 N isotope separation was also studied, and the results indicate that the operation at high flow rate would be preferable for the industrial process of 15 N enrichment. Based on the preliminary investigations, a continuous operation using a series of ion exchange columns has been carried out in order to achieve high enrichment of 15 N. (author)

  17. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  18. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  19. Ion exchange of natural natrolite in melted salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihian, H.; Nekuei, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ion exchange potential of natrolite towards K + , TI + , Cs +2 , Ca +2 , Ni +2 , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ in their melted salts was investigated. The effect of temperature, reaction time and zeolite to salt ratio on the exchange relation was studied. The exchange of ca 2+ , Ni 2+ , cu 2+ , and Co 2+ was negligible and was equal to 2.59, 6.29, 3.14 and 5.04 percent respectively whereas the exchange of K + , Tl + , Cs + was relatively high and equal to 82.36,66.67 and 42.98 percent respectively

  20. Magneto-paper electrophoresis in the separation of inorganic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, H.G.; Datta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of the separation of lanthanide ions by paper electrophoresis and magneto-paper electrophoresis is reported. The separation of La(III)-Gd(III), La(III)-Dy(III), Lu(III)-Gd(III), Lu(III)-Ho(III) etc. was achieved by magneto paper electrophoresis using 0.1M KCl as carrier electrolyte. Separation of different oxidation states of the same element like Cu(I)-Cu(II), Ce(III)-Ce(IV), Mn(CN) 6 3 - -Mn(CN) 6 4 - , Co(C 2 O 4 ) 2 2 - -Co(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3 - , V(CN) 6 3 - -VO(CN) 5 3 - , W(CN) 8 4 - -W(CN) 8 3 - and Ru(CN) 6 3 - Ru(CN) 6 4 - was also achieved by magneto paper electrophoretic technique using different carrier electrolytes. (Author)

  1. Chromate ion-exchange study for cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of high chromate selectivity, the ion-exchange process for Cr(IV) recovery from cooling tower blowdown is yet to be commercially popular. Possible degradation of the ion-exchange resin by the oxidative action of Cr(IV) during ion exchange has been considered as the prime obstacle. Resins have been manufactured with fairly acceptable properties to withstand both physical attrition and chemical oxidation. Demonstrated during the course of this research is early, gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough during fixed-bed column runs at acidic pH in the presence of competing sulfate and chloride anions. The advantage of high chromate selectivity is essentially lost due to the early Cr(VI) breakthrough because the column runs are always terminated after a pre-determined level of Cr(VI) has appeared in the treated water. Experimental results provide sufficient evidence that this is not due to poor column kinetics or electrolyte penetration. The chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been investigated in order to explain the foregoing anomalies for the chromate-exchange process. The knowledge of chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been used to overcome the shortcoming of gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough. This study shows that: (a) a continuous counter-current ion-exchange system theoretically offers much higher Cr(VI) removal capacity compared to conventional single-unit fixed-bed system for any pre-determined level of Cr(VI) breakthrough; (b) by modifying the resin composition, the gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough can be greatly eliminated

  2. THERMODYNAMICS OF ION-EXCHANGED NATURAL CLINOPTILOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural clinoptilolite from Castle Creek, Idaho, and its cation-exchanged variants (Na-Cpt, NaK-Cpt, K-Cpt, and Ca-Cpt) were studied by high-temperature calorimetry. The hydration enthalpy for all clinoptilolites is about -30 kJ/mol H2O (liquid water reference state) at 25 C. T...

  3. Ion-exchange properties of microporous tungstates: novel adsorbents for nuclear waste management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.; Eddowes, R.C.; Keegan, E.A.; Scales, N.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrothermally prepared tungsten oxide-based phase, ATS-1 (ANSTO Tungstate Sorbent), of nominal composition, Na 0.3 Mo 0.1 W 0.9O3 .χH 2 O, has been shown to display promising selectivity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ cations from acidic simulant, indicative of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILLW) produced from 99 Mo radioisotope production at the ANSTO site. The development of an inorganic ion-exchanger that displays such selectivity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ in acidic solutions has previously eluded researchers in the field of inorganic ion-exchangers. The ATS-1 adsorbent also displays exquisite selectivity for lead (and polonium) in low to high acidity solutions, and as such is being further investigated as a method to reduce the radiological hazard from 210 Pb and 210 Po during the processing of uranium ore bodies. The adsorption of Cs + , Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ cations by ATS-1 has been extensively investigated with respect to the kinetics of adsorption, capacity and the effect of competing cations viz. Na + , K + . The ATS-1 adsorbent has also been successfully granulated with an inert, organic matrix, which has consequently allowed the study of cation adsorption using more application-based, column separations. The results of these investigations suggest that these materials have potential application in several nuclear waste management issues in Australia at the present

  4. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Radiocarbon detection by ion charge exchange mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkis, Michael; Wei, Tao

    2007-01-01

    A method for detection of radiocarbon at low levels is described and the results of tests are presented. We refer to this method as ion charge exchange mass spectrometry (ICE-MS). The ICE-MS instrument is a two stage mass spectrometer. In the first stage, molecular interferences which would otherwise affect radiocarbon detection at mass 14 are eliminated by producing high charge state ions directly in the ion source (charge state ≥2). 14 N interference is eliminated in the second stage by converting the beam to negative ions in a charge exchange cell. The beam is mass-analysed at each stage. We have built a test apparatus consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a pair of analysing magnets with a charge exchange cell in between, followed by an electrostatic analyser to improve the signal to background ratio. With this apparatus we have measured charge exchange probabilities for (C n+ → C - ) from 4.5 to 40.5 keV (n = 1-3). We have studied the sources of background including assessment of limits for nitrogen interference by searching for negative ions from charge exchange of 14 N ions. Our system has been used to detect 14 C in enriched samples of CO 2 gas with 14 C/ 12 C isotopic ratio down to the 10 -9 level. Combined with a measured sample consumption rate of 4 ng/s, this corresponds to a capability to detect transient signals containing only a few μBq of 14 C activity, such as may be obtained from chromatographic separation. The method will require further development to match the sensitivity of AMS with a gas ion source; however, even in its present state its sensitivity is well suited to tracer studies in biomedical research and drug development

  6. Electrodialytic separation of alkali-element ions with the aid of ion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurskii, V.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Electrodialytic separation of ions bearing charges of the same sign with the aid of ion-exchange membranes has been examined in the literature in relation to the so-called ideal membranes, which do not exhibit selectivity with respect to one ion type in ion exchange. It has been shown that separation on such membranes is effective only for counterions differing in size of charge. A matter of greater importance from the practical standpoint is the possibility of using electrodialysis for separating ions bearing like charges and having similar properties, including ionic forms of isotopes of the same element. In this paper they report a comparative study of ion separation, with reference to the Cs-Na pair, by electrodialysis through various types of cation-exchange membranes. Changes of the solution concentration in the cathode compartment were monitored by measurement of 22 Na and 137 Cs activities

  7. The use of fibrous ion exchangers in gold hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, R. M.; Sampaio, C. H.; Cortina, J. L.; Soldatov, V.; Shunkevich, A.

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a family of ion-exchange fibers, FIBAN, containing primary and secondary amine groups. These ion exchangers have a fiber diameter of 20 40 Μm, high osmotic and mechanic stability, a high rate of adsorption and regeneration, and excellent dynamic characteristics as filtering media. Inparticular, this article discusses the use of FIBAN fibrous ion exchangers in the recovery of gold cyanide andbase-metal cyanides (copper and mercury) from mineral-leaching solutions. The influence of polymer structure and water content on their extraction ability is described, along with key parameters of gold hydrometallurgy such as extraction efficiency, selectivity, pH dependence, gold cyanide loading, kinetics, and stripping.

  8. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes

  9. Ion exchange in the 1980's in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddey, T.B.S.

    1981-01-01

    In South Africa ion exchange plants have been modified into very sophisticated plants. This article looks at the development of- and application of resins and their manufacturing. At first it looks into how the equipment side has developed and changed in the last twenty years. High purity water production, desalination, waste water treatment and other applications of ion exchange in mineral recovery, like uranium, gold and base metals, and in chemical areas, like sugar processing, catalysis, tartaric acid and soda ash, are also discussed. Klipfontein Organic Products is setting up a plant to manufacture the whole range of ion exchange resins and thus to make SA needs to be independent of overseas suppliers of resin

  10. Modality analysis of anchored ion exchange tower using Ansys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Lei Zeyong

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange towers are exposed to serious damage in the event of earthquakes. It is very necessary to study the seismic resistance of ion exchange tower. A finite element model of anchored ion exchange tower was made by Ansys. The first 10 ranks of inherent frequencies were made out, and three-dimensional main vibratory model figures were drawn out. The maximal stress along x-axis and y-axis and the main displacement were found at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. It is concluded that the breakage of tower wall easily occurs at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. Therefore, it is very important to reinforce the junction of the tower body, and the strengthening plate should lie near the bottom of wall. (authors)

  11. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  12. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  13. Ionization and charge exchange in atom collision with multicharged ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Single-electron ionization and charge exchange are considered in collisions of an atom with an ion of charge Z> or =3 and at velocities v>Z -1 /sup // 3 . The approach is based on the Keldysh quasiclassical method. The ionization and charge exchange processes are described within the framework of a single formalism. Effects of rotation and translation are taken into account. The calculated total and partial cross sections agree well with the available experimental data. OFF

  14. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Kalnins, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The exchange of transition metal (M 2+ ) ions from manganese through cobalt, nickel, copper to zinc with γ-zirconium phosphate was examined. By using acetate salts the hydrogen ion concentration is kept low enough to achieve high loadings. The fully loaded solids have the composition ZrM(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O. Near quantitative uptakes are achieved at 100 0 C. The interlayer spacings change very little with loading indicating that γ-zirconium phosphate is able to accommodate cations and water molecules without appreciable increase in volume. The copper exchanged phase readily forms an acetylacetonate when shaken with 2,4-pentanedione. (author)

  15. Bench-Scale Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), as well as international atomic energy commission, facilities use ion exchange materials for purification of aqueous streams in the nuclear industry. Unfortunately, the use of the ion exchange materials creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resins often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposable alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  16. Treatment of radioactive wastewaters by chemical precipitation and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Precipitation and ion exchange methods are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to decontaminate wastewaters containing small amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs while minimizing waste generation. Distribution coefficients have been determined for strontium and cesium as functions of Ca, Na, and Mg concentrations from bench- and pilot-scale data for ion exchange resins and zeolites using actual wastewaters. Models have been used to estimate the total amount of waste that would be generated at full-scale operation. Based on these data, four process flowsheets are being tested at full-scale. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  18. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  19. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  20. Selection of magnetic anion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongjie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Jinnan; Shuang, Chengdong

    2012-01-01

    Four magnetic anion exchange resins (MAERs) were used as adsorbents to purify drinking water. The effect of water quality (pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc.) on the performance of MAER for the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was also investigated. Among the four studied MAERs, the strong base resin named NDMP-1 with high water content and enhanced exchange capacity exhibited the highest removal rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (48.9% removal rate) and UV-absorbing substances (82.4% removal rate) with a resin dose of 10 mL/L after 30 min of contact time. The MAERs could also effectively remove inorganic matter such as sulfate, nitrate and fluoride. Because of the higher specific UV absorbance (SUVA) value, the DOM in the raw water was found to be removed more effectively than that in the clarified water by NDMP resin. The temperature showed a weak influence on the removal of DOC from 6 to 26 degrees C, while a relatively strong one at 36 degrees C. The removal of DOM by NDMP was also affected to some extent by the pH value. Moreover, increasing the sulfate concentration in the raw water could decrease the removal rates of DOC and UV-absorbing substances.

  1. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids

  2. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Frianeza, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    α-titanium phosphate, Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, was found to form two sodium ion exchanged phases. A half exchanged phase of ideal composition TiNaH(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O formed first. However, before all of the titanium phosphate was converted to this phase a second phase of higher Na + content formed. Thus, a three phase solid existed until sufficient sodium ion uptake (approximately 5.5 meq/g) produced only the two exchanged phases. Finally, the half exchanged phase was converted to the more highly loaded one and this latter phase existed from 6 to 8 meq/g of Na + uptake. Severe disordering of the crystal lattice during exchange is proposed to explain this unusual exchange behavior. A broad range of titanium phosphate-zirconium phosphate solid solutions was found to form. Their behavior towards Na + -H + exchange was determined and interpreted on the basis of the known behavior of the pure phases. Mixed Ti-Zr solid solutions of their pyrophosphates were obtained at elevated temperatures. (author)

  3. Ion exchange filter transition plan for BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan; McElrath, Joel; Varnam, Jeremie; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis and quantification of reactor water, feedwater, and chemical and volume control system (CVCS) soluble metals and radioisotopes are essential for monitoring species that impact fuel performance, steam generator and heat exchanger performance, mitigation of stress corrosion cracking of reactor piping and internals, radiation fields and ensuring that dose mitigation techniques are effective. Soluble species in the CVCS, feedwater, reactor water and other process sample streams are usually collected on ion exchange membranes after the sample has passed through a 0.45 or 0.1 μm membrane filter. Cationic species are predominantly of interest. Most nuclear plants currently use cation exchange membranes from Toray Industries, Inc. In September 2012, it was reported that Toray Industries, Inc. would discontinue the manufacturing of cation exchange membranes at the end of 2012. Similar reports were received concerning ion exchange membranes manufactured by Pall Corporation. These reports prompted several plants and utilities to begin evaluating other products from various vendors to replace their current ion exchange membranes in preparation for a transition. With this possible change having a potential impact on the water chemistry analyses that are important for monitoring fuel reliability and corrosion and dose control, an initial scoping evaluation of ion exchange membrane availability from various vendor and plant experiences was conducted. Recommended approaches were provided to close identified gaps and reduce burden on nuclear plant chemistry laboratories. Additional work required in 2014, includes an independent laboratory review of membrane performance and in-plant demonstrations. These demonstrations and evaluations will assist the industry by providing the technical input needed to manage a change in membrane use so that preferred processes and media can be identified to minimize any adverse impacts on chemistry analyses that support chemistry control

  4. Development of composite ion exchanger for separation of cesium from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Varshney, L.

    2010-01-01

    137 Cs (t 1/2 = 30 years) is one of the major radioisotope present in high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Separation of 137 Cs from HLLW results in reduction of personal radiation exposure during the conditioning, transportation, storage and disposal. In addition, 137 Cs has enormous application as a radiation source in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachytherapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), an inorganic ion exchanger, has high selectivity and high exchange capacity for Cs. It exits as microcrystalline powder which is not amenable for column operation. ALIX is a composite material in which AMP is physically blended with inert polymeric substrate to improve its column property, exchange kinetics and increase its mechanical strength. The observed excellent properties of the composite are attributed to its engineered structure which is formed during its production. SEM analysis of ALIX shows that AMP crystals embedded in the cavities are not covered by the polymer which greatly enhances its availability for cesium exchange. The highly porous structure of the composite having 49% void volume facilitates faster kinetics of exchange of Cs from the aqueous phase and increased rate of reaction with alkali required during its dissolution

  5. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 10 4 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  6. Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-01-01

    Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals

  7. Ion exchange technology in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The application of ion exchange has been expanded to various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Major applications are in uranium production facilities, nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and waste treatment. Furthermore, application to isotope separation has been under development. The appendix contains a compilation of resin data. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters in this technical document

  8. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  9. Increasing selectivity of a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Hadrava, J.; Brožová, Libuše

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3160-3166 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * selectivity * permselectivity Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  10. Loading ion exchange resins with uranium for HTGR fuel kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Greene, C.W.

    1976-12-01

    Uranium-loaded ion exchange beads provide an excellent starting material in the production of uranium carbide microspheres for nuclear fuel applications. Both strong-acid (sulfonate) and weak-acid (carboxylate) resins can be fully loaded with uranium from a uranyl nitrate solution utilizing either a batch method or a continuous column technique

  11. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  12. Sorption of Molecular Oxygen by Metal-Ion Exchanger Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysanov, V. A.; Plotnikova, N. V.; Kravchenko, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kinetic features are studied of the chemisorption and reduction of molecular oxygen from water by metal-ion exchanger nanocomposites that differ in the nature of the dispersed metal and state of oxidation. In the Pd equilibrium sorption coefficient for oxygen dissolved in water ranges from 20 to 50, depending on the nature and oxidation state of the metal component.

  13. Device for processing regenerative wastes of ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Osamu; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Sankichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the operation and maintenance of a processing device by dividing radioactive wastes produced in the regenerative process of ion exchange resin into a regenerated usable recovery liquid and wastes. Constitution: Sulfuric acid is recovered by a diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing sulfuric acid that are generated in the regenerative process of cation-exchange resin and also caustic soda is recovered by the diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing caustic soda that are generated in the regenerative process of anion-exchange resin. The sulfuric acid and caustic soda thus recovered are used for the regeneration of ion-exchange resin. A concentrator is provided for concentrating the sulfuric acid and caustic soda water solution to concentration suitable for the regeneration of these ion-exchange resins. Also provided is a recovery device for recovering water generated from the concentrator. This device is of so simple a constitution that its operation and maintenance can be performed very easily, thereby greatly reducing the quantity of waste liquid required to be stored in drums. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Influence of Active Layer on Separation Potentials of Nanofiltration Membranes for Inorganic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadekar, Shardul S; Vidic, Radisav D

    2017-05-16

    Active layers of two fully aromatic and two semi-aromatic nanofiltration membranes were studied along with surface charge at different electrolyte composition and effective pore size to elucidate their influence on separation mechanisms for inorganic ions by steric, charge, and dielectric exclusion. The membrane potential method used for pore size measurement is underlined as the most appropriate measurement technique for this application owing to its dependence on the diffusional potentials of inorganic ions. Crossflow rejection experiments with dilute feed composition indicate that both fully aromatic membranes achieved similar rejection despite the differences in surface charge, which suggests that rejection by these membranes is exclusively dependent on size exclusion and the contribution of charge exclusion is weak. Rejection experiments with higher ionic strength and different composition of the feed solution confirmed this hypothesis. On the other hand, increase in the ionic strength of feed solution when the charge exclusion effects are negligible due to charge screening strongly influenced ion rejection by semi-aromatic membranes. The experimental results confirmed that charge exclusion contributes significantly to the performance of semi-aromatic membranes in addition to size exclusion. The contribution of dielectric exclusion to overall ion rejection would be more significant for fully aromatic membranes.

  15. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  16. Comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical products using simultaneous mixed-mode (ion-exchange/reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Paull, Brett

    2014-08-01

    Liquid chromatographic assays were developed using a mixed-mode column coupled in sequence with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column to allow the simultaneous comprehensive analysis of inorganic/organic anions and cations, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and excipients (carbohydrates). The approach utilized dual sample injection and valve-mediated column switching and was based upon a single high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump. The separation consisted of three distinct sequential separation mechanisms, namely, (i) ion-exchange, (ii) mixed-mode interactions under an applied dual gradient (reversed-phase/ion-exchange), and (iii) hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Upon first injection, the Scherzo SS C18 column (Imtakt) provided resolution of inorganic anions and cations under isocratic conditions, followed by a dual organic/salt gradient to elute active pharmaceutical ingredients and their respective organic counterions and potential degradants. At the top of the mixed-mode gradient (high acetonitrile content), the mobile phase flow was switched to a preconditioned hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column, and the standard/sample was reinjected for the separation of hydrophilic carbohydrates, some of which are commonly known excipients in drug formulations. The approach afforded reproducible separation and resolution of up to 23 chemically diverse solutes in a single run. The method was applied to investigate the composition of commercial cough syrups (Robitussin®), allowing resolution and determination of inorganic ions, active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, and numerous well-resolved unknown peaks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Co2+ ion exchange with NaY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, I.; Solache-Rios, M.; Bulbulian, S.; Bosch, P.

    1993-01-01

    Co 2+ ion exchange from aqueous cobalt chloride-sodium chloride solutions with NaY zeolite has been investigated. The effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ by dehydrated Y zeolite at 150 degrees C is unusual. A fast sorption uptake is observed in which 1.73 mequiv/g of zeolite of Na + ions is replaced by cobalt ions, followed by a desorption process where the uptake decreases to 1.56 mequiv/g of zeolite. This behavior is explained by the location and coordination of cobalt in Y zeolite sites. It is suggested that the maximum uptake corresponds to cobalt ions being simultaneously in two sites; tetrahedrally coordinated in the sodalite units and octahedrally coordinated in the large cavities. It is also suggested that the desorption process is a consequence of a reaction between Cl - ions and the tetrahedral species. 20 refs., 4 figs

  18. Comparative study on ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by application of tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reactions using industrial grade ion exchange resins Amberlite IRA-400. The experiments were performed to understand the effect of temperature and concentration of ionic solution on kinetics of exchange reactions. Both the exchange reactions were greatly influenced by rise in temperature, which result in higher percentage of ions exchanged. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions, the calculated values of specific reaction rate/min -1 , and amount of ions exchanged/mmol were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (orig.)

  19. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  20. Improvements in and relating to ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    It has been found that the relatively expensive ion exchange materials normally used can be extensively replaced by relatively inexpensive material comprised of long-weathered basalt. This has been found to effect rapid and efficient ion exchange with a capacity comparable with, and in some cases greater than, the usual artificial materials. The basalt should contain at least 50% by weight of particles of size below 3cm mesh. Olivine basalt has proved particularly effective. Examples given include removal of Cu and Co, application to water softening, and to the removal of 137 Cs from milk. Other applications mentioned include removal of Ca, 90 Sr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cr, extraction of metal ions from seawater, purification of industrial effluents, etc. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclide separation by hydrothermal treatment and ion exchange: a highly effective method for treatment of liquid effluents - 59217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Rieck, Ronald; Avramenko, V.A.; Sergienko, V.I.; Antonov, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid low level radioactive effluents, when solidified in e.g. cement matrix, contribute to a significant extent to the waste amount to be disposed of in final repositories. Accordingly, since many years scientists and engineers investigate processes to remove the radioactive nuclides selectively from the effluents, to split the raw solution into two separate fractions: a large fraction with activity concentrations below the limits for free release; and a small fraction, containing the activity in concentrated form on e. g. ion exchanger materials (ion exchange has proven to be the most promising method for such 'nuclide separation'). The challenge to be taken up is: When (and this is most often the case) the effluent contains organic materials and complexing agents, the formation of e. g. the 60-Co-EDTA complex prohibits its fixation to the ion exchangers. Accordingly the complexing agent needs to be removed or destroyed. The Institute for Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences has applied the method of hydrothermal treatment (at elevated temperature and pressure, 200 deg. C, 200 bar), supported by Hydrogen Peroxide oxidation, to allow virtually complete removal of radioactive nuclides on inorganic ion exchangers. Pilot plants have been operated successfully in Russian power stations, and an operational plant has been designed. The method is being extended for an interesting and promising application: spent organic ion exchange resins, loaded up to the medium activity level, represent a serious disposal problem. With the hydrothermal process, in a process cycle, the activity can be stripped from the resins, the organic content is destroyed, and the activity is fixed on an inorganic absorber, well suited for final disposal. (authors)

  2. Thermal responsive ion selectivity of uranyl peroxide nanocages: an inorganic mimic of K{sup +} ion channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yunyi; Sun, Xinyu; Liu, Tianbo [Department of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-06-06

    An actinyl peroxide cage cluster, Li{sub 48+m}K{sub 12}(OH){sub m}[UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2})(OH)]{sub 60} (H{sub 2}O){sub n} (m∼20 and n∼310; U{sub 60}), discriminates precisely between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions when heated to certain temperatures, a most essential feature for K{sup +} selective filters. The U{sub 60} clusters demonstrate several other features in common with K{sup +} ion channels, including passive transport of K{sup +} ions, a high flux rate, and the dehydration of U{sub 60} and K{sup +} ions. These qualities make U{sub 60} (a pure inorganic cluster) a promising ion channel mimic in an aqueous environment. Laser light scattering (LLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies revealed that the tailorable ion selectivity of U{sub 60} clusters is a result of the thermal responsiveness of the U{sub 60} hydration shells. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Thermal responsive ion selectivity of uranyl peroxide nanocages. An inorganic mimic of K{sup +} ion channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yunyi; Sun, Xinyu; Liu, Tianbo [Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences

    2016-06-06

    An actinyl peroxide cage cluster, Li{sub 48+m}K{sub 12}(OH){sub m}[UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2})(OH)]{sub 60} (H{sub 2}O){sub n} (m∼20 and n∼310; U{sub 60}), discriminates precisely between Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions when heated to certain temperatures, a most essential feature for K{sup +} selective filters. The U{sub 60} clusters demonstrate several other features in common with K{sup +} ion channels, including passive transport of K{sup +} ions, a high flux rate, and the dehydration of U{sub 60} and K{sup +} ions. These qualities make U{sub 60} (a pure inorganic cluster) a promising ion channel mimic in an aqueous environment. Laser light scattering (LLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies revealed that the tailorable ion selectivity of U{sub 60} clusters is a result of the thermal responsiveness of the U{sub 60} hydration shells.

  4. Separation of seven arsenic species by ion-pair and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Sven Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were subjected to ion-exchange and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. The ion exchange method was superior in selectivity and time of analysis for the arsenic anions. The ammonium ions...... used for the ion-pair method only resulted in separation of some of the anionic arsenic compounds. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for on-line arsenic-specific detection....

  5. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  6. Ion-Exchange Processes and Mechanisms in Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Icenhower, J.P.; Darab, J.G.; Shuh, D.K.; Baer, D.R.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Engelhard, M.H.; Steele, J.L.; Rodriguez, E.A.; Liu, P.; Ivanov, K.E.; Booth, C.H.; Nachimuthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Leaching of alkalis from glass is widely recognized as an important mechanism in the initial stages of glass-water interactions. Pioneering experimental studies [1-3] nearly thirty-five years ago established that alkali (designated as M + ) are lost to solution more rapidly than network-forming cations. The overall chemical reaction describing the process can be written as: (triple b ond)Si-O-M + H + → (triple b ond)Si-OH + M + (1) or (triple b ond)Si-O-M + H 3 O + → (triple b ond)Si-OH + M + + H 2 O. (2) Doremus and coworkers [4-7] fashioned a quantitative model where M + ions in the glass are exchanged for counter-diffusing H 3 O + or H + . Subsequent investigations [8], which have relied heavily on reaction layer analysis, recognized the role of H 2 O molecules in the alkali-exchange process, without minimizing the importance of charged hydrogen species. Beginning in the 1980s, however, interest in M + -H + exchange reactions in silicate glasses diminished considerably because important experimental observations showed that network hydrolysis and dissolution rates were principally controlled by the chemical potential difference between the glass and solution (chemical affinity) [9]. For nuclear waste glasses, formation of alteration products or secondary phases that remove important elements from solution, particularly Si, was found to have very large impacts on glass dissolution rates [10,11]. Consequently, recent work on glass/water interactions has focused on understanding this process and incorporating it into models [12]. The ion-exchange process has been largely ignored because it has been thought to be a short duration, secondary or tertiary process that had little or no bearing on long-term corrosion or radionuclide release rates from glasses [13]. The only significant effect identified in the literature that is attributed to alkali ion exchange is an increase in solution pH in static laboratory tests conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratios

  7. Isotopic Ligand Exchange of Some Hexa-Coordinated Inorganic Complexes with Halide Ions in Solution and in Crystals; Echanges Isotopiques de Coordinats de Complexes Inorganiques Hexacoordonnes Avec des Ions Halogenures en Solution et dans les Cristaux; Izotopnyj obmen ligand v nekotorykh geksakoordinirovannykh ne- organicheskikh kompleksakh s ionami galoidov v rastvore i kristallakh; Intercambio Isotopico de Ligandos de Complejos Inorganicos Hexacoordinados y Iones Haluro en Solucion y en Cristales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G. B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie der Universitaet Koeln, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-10-15

    The kinetics of isotopic exchange reactions give information about the lability of complexes in solution and about the mechanisms of substitution. The exchange of {sup 82}Br-labelled [Rh(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}Br]{sup 2+} and [Ii(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}Br]{sup 2+} complexes with Br{sup -} ions, of trans-[Rh(en){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sup +} and trans- [Co(en){sub 2} Cl{sub 2}]{sup +}]+ with Cl{sup -} ions, of trans- [Co(en){sub 2}Br{sub 2}]{sup +} with Br{sup -} and of [OSCl{sub 6}]{sup 2-} and [OsI{sub 6}]{sup 2-} with Cl{sup -} and I{sup -} ions, respectively, was investigated in acid solutions. The iridium pentamminebromo complex exchanges about 60 times slower than the corresponding rhodium pentamminebromo complex. The rate constant for the Rh- complex was found to be k = (1.03 {+-} 0,02) x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1} at 100 Degree-Sign C, for the Ir-complex k{sub 100 Degree-Sign C} = 1.7 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1}. For both complexes the exchange rate R is first-order in the complex concentration; in acid solution R is nearly independent of the bromide and hydrogen concentration as well as of the ionic strength. This indicates that the exchange takes place by a dissociation mechanism. Activation energies of 24 and 23 kcal/ mole forthe Rh- and Ir-complex, respectively, were calculated. Rate constants of the {sup 36}Cl isotopic exchange between 60 and 100 Degree-Sign C were measured for the trans- [Rh(en){sub 2} Cl{sub 2}]{sup +} complex and an Arrhenius activation energy of 25 kcal/mole was determined. Here again the increase of the rate R is of first order in the complex concentration; but it is only slightly dependent on the hydrogen and chloride concentration. The exchange seems to occur by aquation. In methanolic HCl solution the exchange rate of this complex is immeasurably slow at 60 Degree-Sign C. The halide exchanges of trans-[Co(en){sub 2} Cl{sub 2}]{sup +} and trans [Co(en){sub 2} Br{sub 2}]{sup +} were measured in methanolic solutions between 30 and 60 Degree-Sign C. Further

  8. Layered double hydroxides as the next generation inorganic anion exchangers: Synthetic methods versus applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Natalia; Gilmour, Robert; Gerda, Vasyl; Mičušík, Matej; Omastova, Maria; Heister, Katja; Man, Pascal; Fraissard, Jacques; Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    This work is the first report that critically reviews the properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the level of speciation in the context of water treatment application and dynamic adsorption conditions, as well as the first report to associate these properties with the synthetic methods used for LDH preparation. Increasingly stronger maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of various contaminants in drinking water and liquid foodstuffs require regular upgrades of purification technologies, which might also be useful in the extraction of valuable substances for reuse in accordance with modern sustainability strategies. Adsorption is the main separation technology that allows the selective extraction of target substances from multicomponent solutions. Inorganic anion exchangers arrived in the water business relatively recently to achieve the newly approved standards for arsenic levels in drinking water. LDHs (or hydrotalcites, HTs) are theoretically the best anion exchangers due to their potential to host anions in their interlayer space, which increases their anion removal capacity considerably. This potential of the interlayer space to host additional amounts of target aqueous anions makes the LDHs superior to bulk anion exchanger. The other unique advantage of these layered materials is the flexibility of the chemical composition of the metal oxide-based layers and the interlayer anions. However, until now, this group of "classical" anion exchangers has not found its industrial application in adsorption and catalysis at the industrial scale. To accelerate application of LDHs in water treatment on the industrial scale, the authors critically reviewed recent scientific and technological knowledge on the properties and adsorptive removal of LDHs from water on the fundamental science level. This also includes review of the research tools useful to reveal the adsorption mechanism and the material properties beyond the nanoscale. Further, these properties are

  9. Application of radioactive tracers in upgradation of industrial grade ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    The exchange rates of ion exchange are determined by application of 131 I as a tracer isotope. The exchange study carried out in this investigation deals with understanding the effectiveness of ion exchange resin (in iodide form) Amberlite IRA-400 at different concentrations of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) with temperature of solution varying from 27-48 degC by keeping amount of ion exchange resin constant (1.0 g). The exchange study is also carried out by varying amount of ion exchange resins, for fixed temperature (27.0 degC) and for fixed concentration of potassium iodide solution (0.005 M). (author)

  10. The changes in the microstructure of ion-exchanged clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartowska Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three natural bentonites and their monoionic forms were investigated by the X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. SEM photographs were analysed using the Photoshop CS4 software and the pore parameters were calculated. The parameters were compared to a interplanar spacing d001 value changes between different homoionic forms. The results suggest the connection between the type of exchangeable cation with the structural parameters of the pores and physicomechanical parameters of the soil, therefore the ion exchange method could be used for controlling soil properties corresponding to their suitability for use in the industry.

  11. Regenerating ion-exchangers used in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.; Espenscheid, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The process claimed restores the ion exchange capacity of a strong base anion exchange resin used for recovering uranium from solutions used to leach uranium from subterranean formations. The resin is eluted with hydrochloric acid to remove uranium in the form of uranyl carbonate anions. It is then washed with a solution containing 0.5 to 100 g/l of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or mixtures of both carbonate and bicarbonate until it is free of materials which are either soluble in the solution or react with the solution

  12. Study on rare earths complexes separation by means of different type of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of different types of ion exchangers for purification and separation of rare earths complexes has been examined. The experimental work has been carried out on 14 chelating ion exchangers. The investigation results proved the great usefulness chelating ion exchangers especially of amino acid and phosphorus-type. Application of that type ion exchangers in column chromatographic process gave the excellent rare earths separation as well as enabled to obtain their preparates of high purity. 218 refs, 21 figs, 27 tabs

  13. Responses of hydrochemical inorganic ions in the rainfall-runoff processes of the experimental catchments and its significance for tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W.-Z.; Lu, J.-J.; Zhao, X.; Peters, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at the rainfall-runoff tracing using inorganic ions, the experimental study is conducted in the Chuzhou Hydrology Laboratory with special designed experimental catchments, lysimeters, etc. The various runoff components including the surface runoff, interflow from the unsaturated zone and the groundwater flow from saturated zone were monitored hydrometrically. Hydrochemical inorganic ions including Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3- + CO32-, NO3-, F-, NH4-, PO42-, SiO2 and, pH, EC, 18O were measured within a one month period for all processes of rainfall, various runoff components and groundwater within the catchment from 17 boreholes distributed in the Hydrohill Catchment, few soil water samples were also included. The results show that: (a) all the runoff components are distinctly identifiable from both the relationships of Ca2+ versus Cl-/SO42-, EC versus Na+/(Na+ + Ca2+) and, from most inorganic ions individually; (b) the variation of inorganic ions in surface runoff is the biggest than that in other flow components; (c) most ions has its lowermost concentration in rainfall process but it increases as the generation depths of runoff components increased; (d) quantitatively, ion processes of rainfall and groundwater flow display as two end members of that of other runoff components; and (e) the 18O processes of rainfall and runoff components show some correlation with that of inorganic ions. The results also show that the rainfall input is not always the main source of inorganic ions of various runoff outputs due to the process of infiltration and dissolution resulted from the pre-event processes. The amount and sources of Cl- of runoff components with various generation mechanisms challenge the current method of groundwater recharge estimation using Cl-.

  14. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  15. Treatment of low-activity-level process wastewaters by Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.; Watson, J.S.; Robinson, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses application of the Thomas model for predicting breakthrough curves from ion exchange column tests, methods for scale-up of experimental small-scaled ion exchange columns to industrial scale columns, and methods for predicting effluent compositions in a continuous countercurrent ion exchange system. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    KEY WORDS: Duolite A-102 D ion exchange resin, Equilibrium constant, Endothermic ion exchange reaction,. Enthalpy, Thermodynamic study. INTRODUCTION. For proper selection of ion exchange resin in a particular technical application, it is essential to have adequate knowledge regarding their physical and chemical ...

  17. Using contemporary liquid chromatography theory and technology to improve capillary gradient ion-exchange separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Bert; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wouters, Sam; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2014-11-28

    The gradient-performance limits of capillary ion chromatography have been assessed at maximum system pressure (34.5 MPa) using capillary columns packed with 4.1 μm macroporous anion-exchange particles coated with 65 nm positively-charged nanobeads. In analogy to the van-Deemter curve, the gradient performance was assessed applying different flow rates, while decreasing the gradient time inversely proportional to the increase in flow rate in order to maintain the same retention properties. The gradient kinetic-performance limits were determined at maximum system pressure, applying tG/t0=5, 10, and 20. In addition, the effect of retention on peak width was assessed in gradient mode for mono-, di-, and trivalent inorganic anions. The peak width of late-eluting ions can be significantly reduced by using concave gradient, resulting in better detection sensitivity. A signal enhancement factor of 8 was measured for a late-eluting ion when applying a concave instead of a linear gradient. For the analysis of a complex anion mixture, a coupled column with a total length of 1.05 m was operated at the kinetic-performance limit applying a linear 250 min gradient (tG/t0=10). The peak capacity varied between 200 and 380 depending on analyte retention, and hence on charge and size of the ion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium isotope fractionation in ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.A.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Significant fractionation of the isotopes of calcium has been observed during elution through short ion-exchange columns packed with Dowex 50W-X8 resin. A double isotopic tracer was used to provide correction for instrumental fractionation effects. The absolute 40 Ca/ 44 Ca ratio is determined by this method to 0.05% and provides a measure of the fractionation of all Ca isotopes. It is found that the lighter isotopes are preferentially retained by the resin, with variations in 40 Ca/ 44 Ca between the first and last fractions of up to 1.1%. An estimate of the separation factor between batch solute and resin gives epsilon = 2.1 x 10 -4 . Details of the chemical or physical mechanisms causing isotope fractionation of Li, Na, Ca, and other elements during ion-exchange chromatography are not yet clear

  19. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  20. Operating experience with ion exchanger beds in CIRUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, V.N.; Hajra, P.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience with the ion exchanger beds in CIRUS reactor is narrated. Ion exchangers are provided for demineralisation of make up water and purification of closed loop water circuits. Exhaustion of resin is assessed on the basis of CO 2 concentration in the helium vent gas of the heavy water system. It is recommended that valves in the resin columns for rod handling bays be located outside the enclosure and each bed to reduce man-rem consumption during maintenance. Repeated backwash of the bed reduces chocking of water space with resin fines. Preventive maintenance avoids leakage past valves. Active resin from the resin beds is removed by hydraulic transfer method. (M.G.B.)

  1. Ion exchange and luminescence of Eu3+ in Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushkov, A.A.; Shilov, S.M.; Pak, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration of Nafion perfluorosulphonic membranes at 110 deg C results in a significant reduction of their void space volume, the accessibility of sulphonic groups and the total exchange capacity towards Eu 3+ cations. Nevertheless, the ion exchange sorption of Eu 3+ takes place in accordance with stoichiometric ratio [-SO 3 H]/[Eu 3+ ]=3. The membranes thermal pretreatment also affects noticeably the spectroscopic features of the fastened Eu 3+ ions, such as the relationship between the intensities of the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and magnetic dipolar 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, the excited state life time, as well as the luminescence quenching in the course of water adsorption

  2. Charge exchange in collisions of beryllium with its ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Dalgarno, Alexander; Côté, Robin; Bodo, Enrico

    2011-11-14

    Close-coupling calculations of the resonance and near resonance charge exchange in ion-atom collisions of Be at low and intermediate energies are presented. Accurate ab initio calculations are carried out of the Born-Oppenheimer potentials and the non-adiabatic couplings that are due to the finite nuclear masses and drive the near resonance charge exchange. We show that the near resonance charge exchange cross section follows Wigner's threshold law of inelastic processes for energies below 10(-8) eV and that the zero temperature rate constant for it is 4.5 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1). At collision energies much larger than the isotope shift of the ionization potentials of the atoms, we show that the near resonance charge exchange process is equivalent to the resonance charge exchange with cross sections having a logarithmic dependence. We also investigate the perturbation to the charge exchange process due to the non-adiabatic interaction to an electronic excited state. We show that the influence is negligible at low temperatures and still small at intermediate energies despite the presence of resonances.

  3. Characterization and Cadmium Ion-Removing Property of Adsorbents Synthesized from Inorganic Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooishi, Kou; Ogino, Kana; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji, E-mail: hnisioka@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Department of Material Science and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Adsorbents for removing cadmium ions from water were synthesized from inorganic wastes such as oyster shells, drinking-water-treatment sludge (DWTS), and waste glass. The oyster shells and DWTS were pretreated by heating for 2 h at 1173 K before hydrothermal synthesis was started. The Al/(Al+Si) ratio was adjusted, and then, the mixture of pretreated materials was hydrothermally treated in a sodium hydroxide solution for 72 h at 423 K to synthesize the adsorbents. The synthesized adsorbent specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main components of these specimens were aluminum-substituted tobermorite and sodalite. The formation of sodalite was dependent on the mass ratio of DWTS to glass. The maximum amount of cadmium ions were removed when the mass ratio of the pretreated material was 1:1:1. In the cadmium removal test, the adsorbent with this mass ratio removed almost 100% of the cadmium in a solution with a concentration of 10 mg L-1. Even in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of potassium ions or 10000-fold excess of sodium ions, approximately 80% of the cadmium ions were removed.

  4. Studies on the ion-exchange behavior of chromium ferrocyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, W U; Srivastava, S K; Singh, Raj Pal; Kumar, Satish [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The sorption of univalent, bivalent and trivalent ions has been studied on chromium ferrocyanide gel. The distribution of various metal cations were determined by shaking the exchanger (0.1 g) and 20 ml of 0.005M metal ion solution of pH 2-3, until equilibrium was attained. The concentration of Pb/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/ and Al/sup 3 +/ were determined by EDTA, ZrO/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, UO/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 2 +/ were estimated spectrophotometrically and radiometric methods were used for Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Tl/sup +/, Ag/sup +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ metal ions. The distribution coefficients of various univalent, bivalent and trivalent metal ions (0.002M) were also determined as a function of NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3/ concentrations and pH. The studies reveal a high sorption capacity for Cs/sup +/, Tl/sup +/, Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/ and Th/sup 4 +/. The sorption of monovalent cations show purely ion exchange mechanism while the uptake of bivalent and trivalent cations is non-equivalent in nature. Single elution of Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/ and Tl/sup +/ has been performed from the columns of this exchanger and the recovery is almost complete in all the cases. Cu/sup 2 +/ and Ag/sup +/ get completely adsorbed on the gel column and their elution is not possible probably due to the formation of some new solid phases. Depending on the Ksub(d) values of the metal ions, a large number of separations of radiochemical as well as analytical importance can be performed on the columns of this exchanger material. It is apparent from the Ksub(d) values that a number of separations as Hg/sup 2 +/ from Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/; Mg/sup 2 +/ from Mn/sup 2 +/: Fe/sup 3 +/ from Al/sup 3 +/; and Th/sup 4 +/ from ZrO/sup 2 +/ can be performed on the columns of this exchanger.

  5. Permeability and storage ability of inorganic X12Y12 fullerenes for lithium atom and ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsif, Sajida; Ayub, Khurshid

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, permeability and storage ability (exohedral and endohedral) of inorganic fullerenes X12Y12 (X = B, Al and Y = N, P) for lithium atom/ion (Li/Li+) is studied theoretically at M05-2X method. The translation of Li/Li+ through Al12P12 nano-cages is not only a kinetically feasible process but also has very high separation ratio in the favor of lithium atom over lithium ion. Adsorption/encapsulation energies of alkali metal on/in nano-cages show strong correlation with the size of the nano-cage. The percent changes in H-L gap for Li+-X12Y12 are about 1-25%, whereas the corresponding changes for Li-X12Y12 are 30-72%.

  6. Thermodynamics of ion-exchange on ferric antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, J.P.; Muktawat, K.P.S.

    1981-01-01

    A simple approach to ion-exchange equilibria on ferric antimonate has been applied. The values of selectivity coefficients for Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ have been measured using equilibrium experiments at constant ionic strength and at different temperatures from 20 to 60 0 C. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant and values of ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 are reported. (author)

  7. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  8. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  9. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  10. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  11. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ayres, M.J.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Silva, G.L.J.P.; Silva, M.L.C.P.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of yttrium and rare earths separation from Brazilian xenotime are presented. The research consist in five stage: 1) Preparation of yttrium, erbium and lutetium standard solutions, from solubilization of pure oxides 2) yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange chromatrography 3) Separation and recovery of EDTA 4) Precipitation and calcination and 4) Analytical control of process. (C.G.C.) [pt

  13. Synthesis of ion-exchange resin for selective thorium and uranyl ions sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Konstantin; Sachkov, Victor

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the method of ion-exchange resin synthesis selective to radionuclides (uranium and thorium) is presented. The method includes synthesis of polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous matrix with size of 0.1-0.2 mm, and its subsequent transformation by nitration and then reduction by tin (II) chloride. For passivation of active primary amines partially oxidation by oxygen from air is used. Obtained ion-exchange resin has ratio of sorption sum U+Th to sorption sum of other total rare-earth elements as 1:1.88 at ratio of solid to liquid phase 1:200. The proposed method of ion-exchange resin synthesis is scaled-up for laboratory reactors with volume of 5 and 50 liters.

  14. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Żaneta; Kiełbratowska, Bogumiła; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals.

  15. Ion exchange properties of zeolite-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Takhtarova, G N; Topchieva, K V [Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Fizicheskoi Khimii

    1975-03-01

    In the paper the reaction of sodium ion exchange for ammonium cations, cations of calcium and lanthanum in the amorphous aluminium silicate Na/sub 0,856/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiO/sub 2/)/sub 9,831/, zeolite Na/sub 1/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiO/sub 2/)/sub 2,33/ and zeolite containing catalyst Na/sub 1,09/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiOsub(2))/sub 7,93/ were studied; exchange isotherms of sodium for ammonium, calcium and lanthanium are presented. Results received in the study indicate high selectivity of zeolite for calcium and lanthanum cations in comparison with amorphous aluminium silicate and also display electroselectivity effect. The highest separation coefficient takes place for lanthanum in the sodium exchange in zeolite.

  16. Ion exchange resin fouling of molybdenum in recovery uranium processess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Zhao Guirong

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between anion exchange resin fouling and molybdic acid polymerization was studied. By using potentiometer titration and laser-Raman spectroscopy the relationship of molybdic acid polymerization and the pH value of solution or the molybdenum concentration was determined. It was shown that as the concentration of initial molybdenum in solution decreases from 0.2 mol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, the pH value of starting polymerization decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The experimental results show that the fouling of 201 x 7 resin in the acidic solution is mainly caused by the adsorbing of Mo 3 O 26 4- ion and occupying the exchange radical site of the resin. Under the leaching conditions the molybdenum and phosphate existing in the leaching liquor can form 12-molybdo-phosphate ion. It also leads to resin fouling. The molybdenum on the fouled resin can synergically be desorbed by mixed desorbents containing ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate. The desorbed resin can be used for uranium adsorption and the desorbed molybdenum can be recovered by ion exchange method

  17. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage to process materials used in radioactive waste management has been a topic of little interest in the past. In recent years, as a result of the increasing number of accidents reported in the open literature, there has been some desire to examine the radiation decomposition of ion exchange materials and its consequences to the interim and long-term management of radioactive wastes. Extensive literature surveys and some confirmatory laboratory investigations conducted conclusively demonstrate that radiation damage to ion exchangers has the potential to cause problems of corrosion, elution of adsorbed ionic species, generation of flammable and explosive gaseous products and agglomeration of particulates to form rigid monoliths. This paper is an overview of present knowledge and a presentation of the results of our investigations of this phenomenon. The distinct lack of systematic studies to evaluate the problems of radiation damage to process materials used in the consolidation and isolation of high specific activity radionuclides still leaves considerable gaps in our knowledge of the processes and consequences of radiation effects on ion exchangers used in radioactive waste management

  18. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Silicon, as an alloy-type anode material, has recently attracted lots of attention because of its highest known Li+ storage capacity (4200 mAh/g). But lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Silicon nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes can overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon as inorganic glue replacing conventional polymer binder. This inorganic glue method can solve the loss of contact issue in conventional silicon particle anode and enables successful cycling of various sizes of silicon particles, both nano-particles and micron particles. With a limited capacity of 800 mAh/g, relatively large silicon micron-particles can be stably cycled over 200 cycles. The very cheap production of these silicon particle anodes makes our method promising and competitive in lithium ion battery industry. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Dynamics of inorganic nutrients in intertidal sediments: porewater, exchangeable and intracellular pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eGarcia-Robledo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: the porewater (PW nutrients and the exchangeable (EX ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC, highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC and EX and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance and organic matter (OM contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain. MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an

  20. Modeling the ion transfer and polarization of ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Warmbier, Robert; Schneider, Ralf; Schröder, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    An explicit numerical model for the charge balancing ion transfer across monopolar ion exchange membranes under conditions of bioelectrochemical systems is presented. Diffusion and migration equations have been solved according to the Nernst-Planck Equation and the resulting ion concentrations, pH values and the resistance values of the membrane for different conditions were computed. The modeling results underline the principle limitations of the application of ion exchange membranes in biological fuel cells and electrolyzers, caused by the inherent occurrence of a pH-gradient between anode and cathode compartment, and an increased ohmic membrane resistance at decreasing electrolyte concentrations. Finally, the physical and numerical limitations of the model are discussed.

  1. Chemical studies on the synthesis and characterization of some ion- exchange materials and its use in the treatment of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Now inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in analytical chemistry, based originally on their thermal and radiation resistance as well as their stability to chemical attack.Vanadate salts are one of the main categories of inorganic ion exchange materials widely used in separation and preconcentration of some toxic and hazardous elements from different waste media. Attempts in this study are focused on the preparation of two inorganic ion exchange materials ,Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) for treatment of hazardous waste.These material were characterized using X-ray spectra (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the materials have been found that they are highly selective for Pb(II) and Cs(I)ions. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG, ΔS and ΔH) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions on Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + and Pb 2+ ions for Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) as cation exchangers were studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperatures and drying temperatures. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energies and entropies of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ ions were determined at 25, 45 and 65±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ are physically adsorbed. Finally, separations of the above

  2. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs + from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs + of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr + greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report

  3. Charge-exchange collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdanov, T.P.; Janev, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of electron transfer between neutral atoms and multiply charged ions is considered at low and medium energies. It is assumed that a large number of final states are available for the electron transition so that the electron-capture process is treated as a tunnel effect caused by the strong attractive Coulomb field of the multicharged ions. The electron transition probability is obtained in a closed form using the modified-comparison-equation method to solve the Schroedinger equation. An approximately linear dependence of the one-electron transfer cross section on the charge of multicharged ion is found. Cross-section calculations of a number of charge-exchange reactions are performed

  4. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  5. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  6. Design and performance evaluation of a microfluidic ion-suppression module for anion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sam; Wouters, Bert; Jespers, Sander; Desmet, Gert; Eghbali, Hamed; Bruggink, Cees; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2014-08-15

    A microfluidic membrane suppressor has been constructed to suppress ions of alkaline mobile-phases via an acid-base reaction across a sulfonated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-based membrane and was evaluated for anion-exchange separations using conductivity detection. The membrane was clamped between two chip substrates, accommodating rectangular microchannels for the eluent and regenerant flow, respectively. Additionally, a clamp-on chip holder has been constructed which allows the alignment and stacking of different chip modules. The response and efficacy of the microfluidic chip suppressor was assessed for a wide range of eluent (KOH) concentrations, using 127 and 183μm thick membranes, while optimizing the flow rate and concentration of the regenerant solution (H2SO4). The optimal operating eluent flow rate was determined at 5μL/min, corresponding to the optimal van-Deemter flow velocity of commercially-available column technology, i.e. a 0.4mm i.d.×250mm long column packed with 7.5μm anion-exchange particles. When equilibrated at 10mM KOH, a 99% decrease in conductivity signal could be obtained within 5min when applying 10mM H2SO4 regenerant at 75μL/min. A background signal as low as 1.2μS/cm was obtained, which equals the performance of a commercially-available electrolytic hollow-fiber suppressor. When increasing the temperature of the membrane suppressor from 15 to 20°C, ion suppression was significantly improved allowing the application of 75mM KOH. The applicability of the chip suppressor has been demonstrated with an isocratic baseline separation of a mixture of seven inorganic ions, yielding plate numbers between 5300 and 10,600 and with a gradient separation of a complex ion mixture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelity, L.A.

    1967-01-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  8. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelity, L A [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1967-12-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs.

  9. Identification of homemade inorganic explosives by ion chromatographic analysis of post-blast residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Cameron; Shellie, Robert A; Potter, Oscar G; O'Reilly, John W; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2008-02-29

    Anions and cations of interest for the post-blast identification of homemade inorganic explosives were separated and detected by ion chromatographic (IC) methods. The ionic analytes used for identification of explosives in this study comprised 18 anions (acetate, benzoate, bromate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, chromate, cyanate, fluoride, formate, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate and thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, barium(II), calcium(II), chromium(III), ethylammonium, magnesium(II), manganese(II), methylammonium, potassium(I), sodium(I), strontium(II), and zinc(II)). Two IC separations are presented, using suppressed IC on a Dionex AS20 column with potassium hydroxide as eluent for anions, and non-suppressed IC for cations using a Dionex SCS 1 column with oxalic acid/acetonitrile as eluent. Conductivity detection was used in both cases. Detection limits for anions were in the range 2-27.4ppb, and for cations were in the range 13-115ppb. These methods allowed the explosive residue ions to be identified and separated from background ions likely to be present in the environment. Linearity (over a calibration range of 0.05-50ppm) was evaluated for both methods, with r(2) values ranging from 0.9889 to 1.000. Reproducibility over 10 consecutive injections of a 5ppm standard ranged from 0.01 to 0.22% relative standard deviation (RSD) for retention time and 0.29 to 2.16%RSD for peak area. The anion and cation separations were performed simultaneously by using two Dionex ICS-2000 chromatographs served by a single autoinjector. The efficacy of the developed methods was demonstrated by analysis of residue samples taken from witness plates and soils collected following the controlled detonation of a series of different inorganic homemade explosives. The results obtained were also confirmed by parallel analysis of the same samples by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with excellent agreement being obtained.

  10. Ion-exchange behaviour of hydrous zirconia in mixed solvents: capacity and kinetics of exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Ghoneimy, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of the Li + form of hydrous zirconia for Na + and Cs + increases in the presence of methanol. This may be due to the greater stability of Li + in methanol/water than in pure water and to dehydration of Na + and Cs + and their stronger interaction with the exchange sites, which may facilitate their replacing Li + . The ion-exchange capacity of zirconia for NO 3 - , Cl - and Br - is almost the same in aqueous solution and is not affected by addition of up to 90% (v/v) methanol, which probably shows that these anions are electrostatically bound in zirconia without specific interactions. The internal diffusion coefficients of the Na + /H + and Cl - /OH - systems decrease in the presence of alcohol: the decrease is highest with methanol and similar for ethanol and propan-2-ol. This is discussed in the light of ion solvation and alcohol penetration inside zirconia. (author)

  11. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  12. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  13. Respective influence of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and diffusion factors on ion exchanger operation. Application to the ion exchanger NYMPHEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoud, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nymphea is an annular ion exchanger, with a resin bed 30 centimeter-thick, used for purification of the water from the spent fuel storage pool at La Hague reprocessing plant. Very low concentration solutions (10 -12 eq/l for cobalt) are purified by Nymphea, and parameter must be extrapolated from the range 0.01 - 0.0001 eq/l to very low concentrations. A model is developed, describing ion state inside the grains. The limiting step in Nymphea operation is external diffusion. Diffusion time is determined by mean grain size which should be accurately defined for extrapolation of results from monodispersed distribution (often the case in laboratories) to polydispersed (often the case in industry). Operation of an ion exchanger can be simulated for any ion number in solution. In steady state condition of concentration pool purification increases with flow rate. Simulation in transient operation allows the determination of all the concentrations in function of time and hence to calculate the time to reach the maximum permissible concentration for cobalt. This time depends upon calcium pollution (by fuel can dissolution, atmospheric pollution) which is not accurately known [fr

  14. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-01-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the D α spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion D α spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  15. The PILO process: zeolites and titanates in the treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.; Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.; Faelt, L.

    1981-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins from power reactor operation contain more than 95% of the total radioactivity of wet reactor wastes. Cementation and bituminization are the two methods applied in Sweden up to now for the immobilization of spent resins. Over the last years, however, research and development work has resulted in a proposed process (PILO), where > 99.9 % of cesium and strontium and around 90 % of other radioactive nuclides are eluted from the spent resins and sorbed in zeolites and titanates in a chromatographic process. The inorganic sorbents are dried after loading and sintered to yield long-term stable products, while the treated resins may be incinerated to give ash residues of fairly short-lived activity. The development work has included production, characterization and testing of different zeolites and titanates, bench-scale optimization of the chromatographic process using actual spent resins, heat treatment of the loaded inorganic sorbents, and resin incineration. Over-all system design studies including transport requirements, integrated process flowsheets, and cost estimates are now in progress. The aim is to have a sufficient basis during spring 1982 to decide on the merits of a PILO plant at the planned repository for low and medium level waste (SFR), to be commissioned in 1988. (Auth.)

  16. Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Mendoza, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange. The objective of this work was to acquire knowledge of the chromatographic behaviour of the alkaline earth cations calcium, barium and radium and the obtention of well-defined alpha spectra of 226 Ra. Three cationic ion exchange resins (Dower 50 W-X8, AG 50W-XB and Merck I) and three complexing agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid) at various pH values have been investigated. The three types of ions are fixed on the resins at pH 4.8; calcium is eluted at pH between 5 and 6 depending on the resin; barium and radium are eluted at pH values from 8 to 11. Radium is also eluted with a 2 M nitric acid solution, from which it can be electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk potassium fluoride as electrolyte at pH 14. The electrolysis is conducted for 18 hours with a current of mA. Under these conditions high resolution alpha spectra were obtained for 226 Ra, which was practically free from radioactive contaminants (Author)

  17. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  18. Nitrate and Perchlorate removal from groundwater by ion exchange; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, S; Halden, R

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a small scale ion exchange unit (Krudico, Inc of Auborn, IA) for removal of nitrate and perchlorate from groundwater at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. The unit was able to treat 3,600 gallons of Site 300 groundwater, at an average influent concentration of 100 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -) before breakthrough occurred. The unit contained 2.5 ft(sup 3) of Sybron SR-7 resin. Seventy gallons of regeneration waste were generated (water treated to waste ratio of 51:1). The effluent concentration was about 20 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -), which is equivalent to a treatment efficiency of at least 80%. There are several options for implementing this technology at Site 300. A target well, in the 817 area, has been selected. It has a 3 to 4 gpm flow rate, and concentrations of 90 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -) and 40(micro)g/L perchlorate. The different treatment options include ion exchange treatment of nitrate only, nitrate and perchlorate, or perchlorate only. Option 1: For the treatment of nitrate only, this unit will be able to treat 3,700 gallons of water before regeneration is required. If both columns of the ion exchange unit are used, 7,400 gallons could be treated before the columns will need to be regenerated (producing 140 gallons of waste, per cycle or every 1.5 days). The effluent nitrate concentration is expected to be about 17 mg/L. Annual operation and maintenance costs are estimated to be$0.14 per gallon of water treated. Option 2: If only perchlorate is to be removed with ion exchange at the 817 area, a smaller unit should be considered. A 55 gallon canister filled with ion exchange resin should be able to reduce perchlorate concentrations in the groundwater from 40(micro)g/L to non-detect levels for three years before the resin would need to be replaced. The contaminant-laden resin would be disposed of as hazardous waste. It is not practical to regenerate the resin because of the extreme difficulty of

  19. Investigation of the imaging properties of inorganic scintillation screens using high energetic ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberwirth, Alice [TU Darmstadt (Germany); JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Forck, Peter; Sieber, Thomas [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang; Lederer, Stephan [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kester, Oliver [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic scintillation screens are a common diagnostics tool in heavy ion accelerators. In order to investigate the imaging properties of various screen materials, four different material compositions were irradiated at GSI, using protons up to Uranium ions as projectiles. Beams were extracted from SIS18 with high energy (300 MeV/u) in slow and fast extraction mode. During irradiation the scintillation response of the screens was simultaneously recorded by two different optical setups to investigate light output, profile characteristics and emission spectra. It was observed, that fast extracted beams induce in general lower light output than slow extracted beams, while the light output per deposited energy decreases with atomic number. The analysis of the spectral emission as well as investigations with classical optical methods showed no significant defect-building in all materials, not even under irradiation with increasing beam intensity or over long time periods. The investigated scintillation screens can be considered as stable under irradiation with high energetic heavy ion pulses and are appropriate for beam diagnostics applications in future accelerator facilities like FAIR. Characteristic properties and application areas of the screens are presented in the poster.

  20. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  1. Epoxy-silica hybrid organic–inorganic electrolytes with a high Li-ion conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vélez, J.F.; Procaccini, R.A.; Aparicio, M.; Mosa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolytes were prepared by co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-glycidoxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) doped with lithium acetate as self-supported materials and thin-films. The effects of the relative molar content of LiAc on the physicochemical properties of electrolytes, such as morphology, thermal, chemical and electrochemical properties were investigated. Two and four probes test cells were designed for comparative studies of ionic conductivity of hybrid electrolytes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Similar ionic conductivities were obtained using both measurement methods, reaching a maximum ionic conductivity value of around 10 −6 S/cm at 25 °C. The conductivity mechanism presents Arrehenius behavior with the increase of the temperature from 25 °C to 120 °C. The electrochemical stability window is found to be in the range of 0–5 V, which ensures that hybrid organic–inorganic materials are potential electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  2. Ion exchange in ultramarine blue. Studies using radioactive tracers (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenvec, H.

    1963-05-01

    A study has been made of the exchange reaction between the constituent sodium in ultramarine blue, and silver in the form of a silver nitrate solution; an attempt hat been made to define the influence of the solvent of the silver nitrate on the kinetics of the exchange reaction. Five solvents have been used: water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and acetone. The reaction rates are controlled by a diffusion process inside the ultramarine grains, whatever the solvent used. It seems that the solvated ionic radius of the diffusing ion is one of the factors influencing the rate of reaction. Furthermore, the solvated ionic radius varies with temperature; this variation is different for each solvent and should explain the differences observed in the activation energies. (author) [fr

  3. Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Basic Principles and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Philip M; Rochfort, Keith D; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2017-01-01

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline basic laboratory protocols to partially purify a soluble serine peptidase from bovine whole brain tissue, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described.

  4. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Anisotropic exchange interaction for magnetic ion pairs in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeggi, M.C.G.

    1975-12-01

    The sources of possible contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for a pair of orbitally non degenerate magnetic ions are investigated. The problem being formulated with the help of the operator form of perturbation theory and irreducible tensor operators. Apart from the usual dipole-dipole effective interaction, mainly induced by the electronic spin-spin dipole coupling corrected by covalency, other mechanisms mediated by the spin-orbit coupling appear. These are a consequence of an appropriate description of the spin-orbit operators for a system which allows for delocalization of the magnetic electrons. A process similar to that known as pseudodipolar appears from contributions in which spin orbit combined with the Coulomb repulsion and with one-electron interactions (acting analogously as for the ''kinetic exchange'') produce compensating effects in third and fourth order, respectively. However, this effect does not appear to be describable in terms of the phenomenological exchange, as is usually assumed. (Passeggi, M.C.G.)

  6. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.

    1996-04-01

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  7. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  8. Elements and inorganic ions as source tracers in recent Greenland snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alexandra M.; Shafer, Martin M.; Dibb, Jack E.; Polashenski, Chris M.; Schauer, James J.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric transport of aerosols leads to deposition of impurities in snow, even in areas of the Arctic as remote as Greenland. Major ions (e.g. Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, K+, SO42-) are frequently used as tracers for common aerosol sources (e.g. sea spray, dust, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions). Trace element data can supplement tracer ion data by providing additional information about sources. Although many studies have considered either trace elements or major ions, few have reported both. This study determined total and water-soluble concentrations of 31 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Pb, Pr, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, U, Y, Zn) in shallow snow pits at 22 sampling sites in Greenland, along a transect from Summit Station to sites in the northwest. Black carbon (BC) and inorganic ions were measured in colocated samples. Sodium, which is typically used as a tracer of sea spray, did not appear to have any non-marine sources. The rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements (Mg, Ca, Sr), and other crustal elements (Fe, Si, Ti, V) were not enriched above crustal abundances relative to Al, indicating that these elements are primarily dust sourced. Calculated ratios of non-sea salt Ca (nssCa) to estimated dust mass affirm the use of nssCa as a dust tracer, but suggest up to 50% uncertainty in that estimate in the absence of other crustal element data. Crustal enrichment factors indicated that As, Cd, Pb, non-sea-salt S, Sb, Sn, and Zn were enriched in these samples, likely by anthropogenic sources. Principal component analysis indicated more than one crustal factor, and a variety of factors related to anthropogenically enriched elements. Analysis of trace elements alongside major tracer ions does not change interpretation of ion-based source attribution for sources that are well-characterized by ions, but is valuable for assessing uncertainty in source attribution and identifying sources not represented by major ions.

  9. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  10. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  11. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  12. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  13. Treatment of spent ion exchange resins IAEA research coordination programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.; Wattal, P.K.; Chanana, N.

    1981-09-01

    Spent ion-exchange resins arising from steam condensate systems, reactor coolant clean-up systems and rad-waste procession, are considered as a specific solid waste management problem. This is the second report on the product characterisation with respect to thermal properties, flammability, bio-organic degradation and leaching behaviours. All these studies are based on polyester-styrene polymer as a matrix for fixation of these spent Ix-resins. Choice of this matrix was dealt with in the first report. (author)

  14. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  15. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  16. Lead titanate nanotubes synthesized via ion-exchange method: Characteristics and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liang; Cao Lixin; Li Jingyu; Liu Wei; Zhang Fen; Zhu Lin; Su Ge

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Lead titanate nanotubes PbTi 3 O 7 were firstly synthesized by ion-exchange method. → Sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability. → Lead titanate nanotubes show a distinct red shift on absorption edge. - Abstract: A two-step method is presented for the synthesis of one dimensional lead titanate (PbTi 3 O 7 ) nanotubes. Firstly, titanate nanotubes were prepared by an alkaline hydrothermal process with TiO 2 nanopowder as precursor, and then lead titanate nanotubes were formed through an ion-exchange reaction. We found that sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability with lead ions, while protonated titanate nanotubes have not. For the first time, we distinguished the difference between sodium titanate nanotubes and protonated titanate nanotubes in the ion-exchange process, which reveals a layer space effect of nanotubes in the ion-exchange reaction. In comparison with sodium titanate, the synthesized lead titanate nanotubes show a narrowed bandgap.

  17. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  19. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  20. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, D.

    1996-12-01

    An electrochemical method for metal ion separations, called Electrically Switched Ion Exchange, is described. Direct oxidation and reduction of an electroactive film attached to an electrode surface is used to load and unload the film with alkali metal cations. The electroactive films under investigation are Ni hexacyanoferrates, which are deposited on the surface by applying an anodic potential to a Ni electrode in a solution containing the ferricyanide anion. Reported film preparation procedures were modified to produce films with improved capacity and stability. Electrochemical behavior of the derivatized electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The films show selectivity for Cs in concentrated sodium solutions. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in oxidation state of the film and imaging experiments have demonstrated that the redox reactions are spatially homogenous across the film. Requirements for a bench scale unit were identified

  1. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  2. Electrodeionization 1: migration of nickel ions absorbed in a rigid, macroporous cation-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of nickel ions from a packed bed of ion-exchange material under an applied potential is studied. This process involves the use of an electrodialysis type cell in which the centre compartment is filled with a packed bed of ion-exchange particles. The bed width, concentration of nickel in

  3. Preparation of SiO2-KCoFC composite ion-exchanger for removal of Cs in the soil decontamination waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Joon; Moon, Jei kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The soil decontamination process has been developed for remediate the soil wastes excavated from the TRIGA research reactor sites. Even though the process was proven to be very effective for decontaminate the radioactive nuclides such as cesium and cobalt, the secondary spent solution should be treated with an appropriate method to minimize the waste volume. There are mainly two components in the spent decontamination solution of Cs and Co. The Co in the waste solution can be removed easily by precipitation under a basic condition. However, since the Cs is hardly removed by precipitation, an appropriate selective removal method should be employed. In this study, an inorganic composite ion exchanger of SiO 2 -KCoFC was prepared by sol-gel method for a removal of Cs in the decontamination waste solution. An optimum condition for a preparation of the composite ion exchanger and the adsorption performances of the prepared composite ion exchangers were evaluated

  4. Ion-Isotopic Exchange Reaction Kinetics using Anion Exchange Resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characterization of ion exchange resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A based on kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reactions for which the short lived radioactive isotopes 131I and 82Br were used as a tracers. The study was performed for different concentration of ionic solution varying from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L and temperature in the range of 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C. The results indicate that as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, iodide exchange reaction take place at the faster rate. For both the ion-isotopic exchange reactions, under identical experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate increases with increase in the ionic concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. It was observed that at 35.00C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1, amount of ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were 0.270, 0.342, 0.092 and 11.8 respectively for Dowex 550A LC resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.156, 0.241, 0.038 and 7.4 as that obtained for Indion-930A resins. From the results, it appears that Dowex 550A LC resins show superior performance over Indion-930A resins under identical experimental conditions.

  5. Ion-exchange equilibria and diffusion in engineered backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, A.; Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Engineered backfill can add confidence to confinement times of high-level nuclear waste stored in geologic media. This paper discusses the design and operation of a unique radial-flow diffusion cell to determine ion migration rates in backfill material under realistic repository conditions. New experimental results were reported for diffusion of CsCl in a background of NaCl into compacted bentonite and bentonite/quartz mixtures. Representation of the measured diffusion rates by the traditional, homogeneous porous-medium model significantly underestimates cesium penetration distances into the backfill. Surface diffusion is suggested as an additional mechanism by which cations transport in swollen montmorillonite; the surface diffusion coefficients for cesium is determined to be approximately 10 -7 cm 2 /s. An electrostatic site-binding model is developed for ion-exchange equilibria on montmorillonite clay. The effect of pH, ionic strength, and specific adsorption are evaluated and compared favorably to new, experimental exchange isotherms measured on disaggregated clay. The electrostatic site-binding model permits a prediction of the influence of backfill compaction on K/sub d/ values. We find that for strongly adsorbing cations, compactions has little effect. However, anions exhibit significant Donnan exclusion with clay compaction. 40 references, 12 figures

  6. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

    2006-01-01

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry.

  7. Radiation stability of sodium titanate ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    Sodium titanate and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin are being considered as ion exchangers to remove 90 Sr and actinides from the large volume of defense waste stored at Hanford Site in Washington. Preliminary studies to determine the radiation effect on Sr +2 and I - capacity of these ion-exchange materials were conducted. Samples of sodium titanate powder, sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin, as well as the nitrate form of macroreticular anion resin were irradiated with up to 2 x 10 9 Rads of 60 Co gamma rays. Sodium titanate cation capacity decreased about 50% while the sodium titanate loaded macroeticular resin displayed a dramatic decrease in cation capacity when irradiated with 10 8 -10 9 Rad. The latter decrease is tentatively ascribed to radiation damage to the organic portion which subsequently inhibits interaction with the contained sodium titanate. The anion capacity of both macroreticular resin and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin exhibited significant decreases with increasing radiation exposure. These results suggest that consideration should be given to the potential effects of radiation degradation if column regeneration is to be used. 5 figures, 2 tables

  8. Data quality objectives for Ion Exchange Module (IXM) disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I.

    1995-01-01

    This Data Quality Objective (DQO) document presents the data needs and accuracy requirements for sampling ion exchange modules at the K Basins, 100 K Area, to determine if there is a hydrogen gas buildup within the modules. This document was produced by PNL, with the assistance of Neptune and Associates, and was partly funded (for facilitator) by DOE-HQ as a demonstration DQO for EM activities. PNL involved a number of PNL, WHC and support contract staff (including external technical consultants) in meetings to define the data needed, along with the necessary accuracy, to resolve issues associated with hydrogen accumulation in Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) that were generated prior to July 1994 and only have one nuc-fil vent. IXMs generated after July 1994 have multiple nuc-fil vents and do not require sampling. PNL transmitted this DQO to WHC on January 31, 1995. This Supporting Document is to assure that the document is captured into the document retrieval system. WHC review focused on the acceptability of the technical conclusions such that the data collected will meet minimum operational, safety and environmental needs

  9. Synthesis of layered sodium lanthanum selenide through ion exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, Laura J.; Strickland, Nicholas; Martin, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    Layered hexagonal KLaSe2 (α-NaFeO 2 -type) was synthesized using the reactive flux method and analyzed by powder XRD to determine its lattice constants (space group R-3m, a = 4.40508(5) A, c = 22.7838(5) A). NaLaSe 2 , which normally crystallizes as a disordered rock salt structure with mixed Na+/La + 3 sites, was synthesized through a solid state ion exchange reaction at 585 deg. C from a 1:3 molar ratio mixture of KLaSe 2 :NaI. The product of this reaction was hexagonally layered NaLaSe 2 (space group R-3m, a = 4.3497(3) A, c = 20.808(2) A) isostructural to KLaSe 2 . This product was analyzed by comparison with members of the set of solid solutions Na (1-x) K (x) LaSe 2 to confirm that the extent ion exchange in this reaction was complete. Cubic (disordered) NaLaSe 2 was also reacted with KI to yield the poorly crystalline hexagonally layered product with the approximate formula Na 0.79 K 0.21 LaSe 2

  10. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  11. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, C.A.; Toguri, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  12. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Studies of the hydrous titanium oxide ion exchanger. 4. Rate of the isotopic exchange of sodium ions between the exchanger in the Na+ form and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Kasuga, Fuminori

    1995-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of Na + between hydrous titanium(IV) oxides, precipitated at pH 6 and 13, in the Na + form and aqueous solution of sodium salt was determined radiochemically. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 6 is controlled by the diffusion of Na + in the exchanger particles (particle diffusion). The diffusion coefficient and its activation energy are 1.9 x 10 -11 m 2 s -1 (pH 12, 5.0degC) and 29 kJ mol -1 (pH 12), respectively. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 13 is also controlled by the particle diffusion. The rate is much slower than that in the other; this can be explained by assuming the existence of two kinds of independently diffusing ions (fast and slow species) in the exchanger. The diffusion coefficients are of the order of 10 -12 and 10 -13 m 2 s -1 for the fast and the slow species, respectively. Their activation energies are 48-60 kJ mol -1 at pH 12. The marked difference in kinetics between two exchanges was interpreted in terms of the difference in the acid-base property and in the microstructure of the matrix. (author)

  14. Application of ion-exchange unit in uranium extraction process in China (to be continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chuanwen

    2004-01-01

    The application conditions of five different ion exchange units in uranium milling plant and wastewater treatment plant of uranium mine in China are introduced, including working parameters, existing problems and improvements. The advantages and disadvantages of these units are reviewed briefly. The procedure points to be followed in selecting ion exchange unit are recommended in the engineering design. The primary views are presented upon the application prospects of some ion exchange units in uranium extraction process in China

  15. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility ion exchange module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is in need of providing an emergency ion exchange system to remove cesium or strontium from the pool cell in the event of a capsule failure. The emergency system is call the WESF Emergency Ion Exchange System and the packaging is called the WESF ion exchange module (WIXM). The packaging system will meet the onsite transportation requirements for a Type B, highway route controlled quantity package as well as disposal requirements for Category 3 waste

  16. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  17. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  18. Diffusion of inorganic ion aqueous solution into hydrophilic polymer fiber and molecular orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Akio

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption process of iodine to nylon 6 (polyamide-6), as well as deiodination process, has been an issue of controversy in the past half century from the view points related to the conversion of hydrogen bonding (α phase vs. γ phase). In the researches since late '80s, it has been revealed that the adsorption or inclusion of iodine to polyamides causes formations of various kind of structures to be called complexes whether they are crystalline or amorphous, and the formation of complex is reflected on the physical properties (especially on adsorption and ion mobility). Among them, it has been reported about both the doubly-oriented samples and the non-oriented samples that the ion diffusion causes molecular chain orientation during the complex formation. In the present experiment the change of molecular orientation in the early stage of the complex formation is studied by the time-resolved measurement with synchrotron radiation facility at SPring-8. Through-view and edge-view diffraction patterns of doubly oriented nylon 6 and non-oriented one were measured at 0.1 nm wavelength introducing I2-KI aqueous solution. It is observed that the formation of complex (i.e. diffusion of polyiodine) is attained in about 0.3 to 0.4 sec. even in non-oriented sample. From the analysis of the diffraction behavior, it is summarized that the inclusion of iodine into the crystalline phase of nylon 6 is possible from either sides of the molecular directions, namely normal diffusion and parallel diffusion. It is concluded that the diffusion and adsorption of inorganic ions including polyiodine to polyamide causes not only the formation of complexes in the crystalline phase but also give motive force to change structure in the surrounding non-crystalline region. (S. Funahashi)

  19. [Characteristics of mass size distributions of water-soluble, inorganic ions during summer and winter haze days of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Liu, Zi-Rui; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the size distribution characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in haze days, the particle samples were collected by two Andersen cascade impactors in Beijing during summer and winter time and each sampling period lasted two weeks. Online measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 using TEOM were also conducted at the same time. Sources and formation mechanism of water soluble inorganic ions were analyzed based on their size distributions. The results showed that average concentrations of PM10 and PM 2.5 were (245.5 +/- 8.4) microg x m(-3) and (120.2 +/- 2.0) microg x m(-3) during summer haze days (SHD), and were (384.2 +/- 30.2) microg x m(-3) and (252.7 +/- 47.1) microg x m(-3) during winter haze days (WHD), which suggested fine particles predominated haze pollution episode in both seasons. Total water-soluble inorganic ions concentrations were higher in haze days than those in non-haze days, especially in fine particles. Furthermore, concentrations of secondary inorganic ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) increased quicker than other inorganic ions in fine particles during haze days, indicating secondary inorganic ions played an important role in the formation of haze pollution. Similar size distributions were found for all Sinorganic water soluble ions except for NO3(-), during SHD and WHD. SO4(2-) and NH4(+) dominated in the fine mode (PM1.0) while Mg2+ and Ca2+ accumulated in coarse fraction, Na+, Cl- and K+ showed a bimodal distribution. For NO3(-), however, it showed a bimodal distribution during SHD and a unimodal distribution dominated in the fine fraction was found during WHD. The average mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of SO4(2-) was 0.64 microm in SHD, which suggested the formation of SO4(2-) was mainly attributed to in-cloud processes. Furthermore, a higher apparent conversion rate of sulfur dioxide (SOR) was found in SHD, indicating more fine particles were produced by photochemical reaction in haze days than that in non-haze days. The

  20. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  1. Small Column Ion Exchange Design and Safety Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, T.; Rios-Armstrong, M.; Edwards, R.; Herman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) is a transformational technology originally developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-30) office and is now being deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to significantly increase overall salt processing capacity and accelerate the Liquid Waste System life-cycle. The process combines strontium and actinide removal using Monosodium Titanate (MST), Rotary Microfiltration, and cesium removal using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST, specifically UOP IONSIV(reg s ign)IE-911 ion exchanger) to create a low level waste stream to be disposed in grout and a high level waste stream to be vitrified. The process also includes preparation of the streams for disposal, e.g., grinding of the loaded CST material. These waste processing components are technically mature and flowsheet integration studies are being performed including glass formulations studies, application specific thermal modeling, and mixing studies. The deployment program includes design and fabrication of the Rotary Microfilter (RMF) assembly, ion-exchange columns (IXCs), and grinder module, utilizing an integrated system safety design approach. The design concept is to install the process inside an existing waste tank, Tank 41H. The process consists of a feed pump with a set of four RMFs, two IXCs, a media grinder, three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), and all supporting infrastructure including media receipt and preparation facilities. The design addresses MST mixing to achieve the required strontium and actinide removal and to prevent future retrieval problems. CST achieves very high cesium loadings (up to 1,100 curies per gallon (Ci/gal) bed volume). The design addresses the hazards associated with this material including heat management (in column and in-tank), as detailed in the thermal modeling. The CST must be size reduced for compatibility with downstream processes. The design addresses material transport into and out of the grinder and

  2. Physico-chemical forms of natural radionuclides in drilled well waters and their removal by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Appreciable concentrations of natural uranium and its daughter radionuclides may occur in drinking water obtained from drilled wells when the bedrock contains these nuclides. Effective methods are needed to remove these radionuclides. A wide range of ion exchange materials, both organic and inorganic, were evaluated for the removal of 234,238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb from ground waters. Screenin tests were carried out, in which distribution coefficients (KD) were determined for the ion exchangers. The ion exchangers that gave the highest KD's were tested in column-mode experiments for the removal of the radionuclides from drilled well water. The most efficient exchanger for the removal of U from neutral and slightly alkaline waters was the strong base anion resin. The chelating aminophosphonate resin removed uranium very efficiently from slightly acidic water. As well, it was an efficient exchanger for the removal of toxic and harmful transition metals from drilled well waters. The strong and weak acid cation resins and zeolite A removed radium most efficiently. Large fractions of the total activity of polonium and lead were found to adsorb on equipment in the ion exchange studies. In investigation of this, the well waters were filtered through membranes to determine the soluble and particle-bound forms of 234,238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb. Eight of the waters were of Ca type and two were of Na-Cl type. Some of the waters also had high concentrations of Fe, Mn and humic substances. Uranium was present entirely in soluble form, probably as uranyl ion in soluble carbonate complexes. 226 Ra was in soluble form in the waters with low concentrations of Fe and Mn, but 10% of the total radium activity was bound to particles in Fe-Mn-rich waters. The speciation of Po is complex in natural waters; polonium was present in both soluble and particle-bound forms. A correlation was observed between the fractions of particle-bound 210 Po and the concentrations of iron in

  3. Conversion of fuel hulls to zirconate ion exchangers for stabilization of wastes from the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual reprocessing and waste management scheme for Zircaloy clad ThO 2 fuel was formulated to eliminate problems associated with concurrent dissolution of fuel and cladding in the conventional chop-leach headend step. These problems are avoided by use of a modified headend step to form oxide fuel and cladding process streams. A chlorinating agent then converts the cladding hulls and adhering fuel into volatile and nonvolatile chloride fractions. The former product is processed, by use of the Zircaloy conversion process, to form an inorganic ion exchange material and combined with HLLW from subsequent fuel reprocessing to form a stable and refractory waste form. The nonvolatile chloride fraction would be recovered, processed to remove chloride ions, and recombined with the main oxide fuel process stream for further treatment by use of the Thorex process

  4. Development of Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Selective Ion Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Orth, Rick J.; Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    The electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) process, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, provides an alternative separation method to selectively remove ions from process and waste streams. In the ESIX process, in which an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto a high surface area electrode, uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the electrochemical potential of the film. This paper addresses engineering issues necessary to fully develop ESIX for specific industrial alkali cation separation challenges. The cycling and chemical stability and alkali cation selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) electroactive films were investigated. The selectivity of NiHCF was determined using cyclic voltammetry and a quartz crystal microbalance to quantify ion uptake in the film. Separation factors indicated a high selectivity for cesium and a moderate selectivity for potassium in high sodium content solutions. A NiHCF film with improved redox cycling and chemical stability in a simulated pulp mill process stream, a targeted application for ESIX, was also prepared and tested

  5. Ion exchange resins for water purification : properties and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, A.S.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The report is divided into three sections. The first section contains a general introduction to ion exchange resins used in various processes, the second section describes characteristic properties of the polymer materials and the inter relation between them. This will, in turn, be useful to interpret the data obtained from the various tests carried out on the resins in the laboratory. In the third section of the report, are given the details of each method used for a particular test to be carried out on a routine basis. Each method describes the principle involved, the reagents and apparatus used in the experiment, the actual procedure and calculations and recording of the data. 3 refs. (author)

  6. Design of an ion exchange column for plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.A. de; Matsuda, H.T.; Santos Tome Lobao, A. dos; Quesada, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange column design for plutonium recovering from scraps of the MOX fuel elements fabrication is presented. The proposed column is constructed in 304 stainless steel and borosilicate glass provided of heating-jacket and temperature control and pressure relief devices. Safety aspects required for alpha emitters handling have been also considered. The design and construction were performed totally at Brazilian Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research. The equipment will be used in the plutonium separation step as a part of an installation named Facilidad Alfa at the Centro Atomico de Constituyentes-CNEA/Buenos Aires, where other processes, including dissolution denitration by microwaves and final steps of MOX pellets re-fabrication will be performed. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  7. Bovine plasma protein fractionation by ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, F; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2004-12-01

    An ion exchange chromatography process was developed to separate the main protein fractions of bovine blood plasma using a composite material, Q-HyperD resin, and a gel material, DEAE-Sepharose. The experiments were carried out at semipreparative scale. It was necessary to establish analytical methods of electrophoresis and HPLC to identify the fractionated proteins. Results show that these materials are able to adequately fractionate different protein groups from the raw blood plasma. This method may be used to avoid chemical fractionation using agents such as ethanol or PEG and, thus, decrease protein denaturation of the different fractions to be used for research or pharmaceutical purposes. The Q-HyperD resin presents a better retention capacity for plasma protein than DEAE-Sepharose under the experimental conditions employed.

  8. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  9. Advances in the disposal of radioactive ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years, more stringent regulations have been imposed on the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, the disposal of high-activity ion exchange resins has been affected by the recent requirements intended to enhance waste stability. High-activity resins must now be either solidified or placed in a ''high-integrity'' container. The allowable levels of free liquids in the containers have also been reduced. Solidification of resins has long been applied at nuclear power stations, but new designs in high-integrity containers and dewatering techniques to enhance the waste stability and ensure regulatory compliance have been developed and are being introduced for use at power stations

  10. Ion exchange and adsorption in nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.W.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Godbee, H.; Mallory, C.W.; Burney, G.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry involves a number of operations. Uranium ore must first be mined and the uranium recovered from the ore, purified, and concentrated. After the uranium has been enriched and fabricated into fuel elements, it is placed in nuclear reactors where it produces energy, fission products, and transmutation products. Finally, if the fuel cycle is completed, the uranium and useful transmutation products are recovered and separated from each other as well as from the fission products. The uranium may be recycled or used elsewhere, while most of the fission products become waste. Ion exchange finds use in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle; these uses are the subject of this paper

  11. Viscosity calculations of simulated ion-exchange resin waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon Woo; Park, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyung Ho; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae; BRUNELOT, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melter (CCM) located in the NETEC-KEPCO has been used to vitrify simulated ion-exchange resin. During vitrification, the CCM operations were tightly constrained by glass viscosity as an important process parameter. Understanding the role of viscosity and quantifying viscosity is highly required in the determination of optimized feed formulations and in the selection of the processing temperature. Therefore, existing process models of glass viscosity based on a relationship between the glass composition, its structure polymerization, and the temperature were searched and adapted to our borosilicate glass systems. Calculated data using a viscosity model based on calculation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) were in good agreement with the measured viscosity data of benchmark glasses

  12. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  13. Manifestation of exchange effects in heavy-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three different approaches to taking into account exchange effects in heavy-ion collisions are studied. Within the first of them, the lowest eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are treated as forbidden states. In the second approach, the eigenstates of the normalization kernel of the resonating-group model that correspond to zero eigenvalues are treated as forbidden states. The third approach takes additionally into account semiforbidden states. The 16 O + 16 O system is considered. A hybrid approach that combines the methods of discrete and continuous mathematics is developed for calculating the widths of narrow resonance states. The resonance width calculated within the approach that takes into account semiforbidden states proves to be sharply different from the widths obtained within traditional approaches.

  14. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste

  15. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates in human saliva samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-11-15

    Environmental tobacco smoke is a major factor influencing the indoor air quality. Various toxic compounds emitted during tobacco smoking into the environment have a significant influence on the chemical composition of human biological fluids. The thiocyanate concentration in saliva is a biochemical measure, frequently used as an objective indicator of tobacco consumption. The goal of this study was to find significant relationships between salivary thiocyanates and other inorganic ions, which are constituents of natural saliva (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), PO(4)(3-)) and to present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions in human saliva samples collected from passive, moderate and heavy smokers.

  16. Separation of zirconium from hafnium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, Elaine C.B.; Palhares, Hugo G.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q., E-mail: elainecfelipe@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: hugopalhares@gmail.com, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are two of the most important metals for the nuclear industry. Hafnium occurs in all zirconium ores usually in the range 2 - 3%. However, for the most nuclear industry applications, it is necessary to use a zirconium of extremely pure level. The current work consists in the separation of zirconium and hafnium by the ion exchange method in order to obtain a zirconium concentrate of high purity. The zirconium and hafnium liquors were produced from the leaching of the Zr(OH){sub 4} and Hf(OH){sub 4} with nitric acid for 24 hours. From these two liquors it was prepared one solution containing 7.5 x 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} of Zr and 5.8 x 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of Hf with acidity of 1 M. Ion exchange experiments were carried out in batch with the resins Dowex 50WX4, Dowex 50WX8 100, Dowex 50WX8 50, Amberlite IR-120 and Marathon C at constant temperature 28 deg C. Other variables such as, acidity and agitation were kept constant. The data were adjusted to Langmuir equation in order to calculate the maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) of the resins, the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for Zr and Hf and the separation factor (α{sub Hf}{sup Zr} ). The results of maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) for Zr and Hf, in mmol g{sup -}1, showed that the most suitable resins for columns experiments are: Dowex 50WX4 50 (q{sub max} Z{sub r} = 2.21, Hf = 0.18), Dowex 50WX8 50 (q{sub max} Zr = 1.89, Hf = 0.13) and Amberlite (q{sub max} Zr = 1.64, Hf = 0.12). However, separations factors, α{sub Hf}{sup Zr}, showed that the resins are not selective. (author)

  17. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  18. Development of electrochemical ion exchange electrodes for the treatment of wastes containing chromium or cesium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental preservation using technologies that do not attack it, generating non-toxic residues and reduced volumes, has been discussed. Hazardous effluents, containing metals, as chromium, have been poured in the soils and rivers, degrading the water. Not different are the problems originated from some nuclear activities that generate wastes, as in chemical research laboratories. Although those wastes are not poured in the environment, sometimes they are inadequately stored, what can cause serious accidents. With the purpose of solving this problem, there are some techniques to waste treatment, between them there is the electrochemical ion exchange (EIX). EIX is an advanced process that has advantages over traditional ion exchange and the fact of using the electron as the only reagent, reduces the volume of the solution to be treated. This technique consists of development of an electrode, where an ion exchanger is physically incorporated in an electrode structure with a binder. In this study, cationic resin Amberlite CG-50 and zirconium phosphate have been chosen for the separation of chromium and cesium from waste, respectively. They were chosen because they present high chemical stability in oxidizing media and at ionizing radiation. The quantity of charcoal, graphite and binder used in formulation of electrode have been studied either. Before choosing the best electrode, it was verified sorption percentage of 99,3% for chromium and 99,8% for cesium. The greater advantage of this process is the total elution of chromium as much as cesium, without reagents addition, being possible to reuse the electrode without losing its capacity. Beside on the results, a continuous process for the wastes containing Cr and Cs, using a flux electrolytic cell (CELFLUX) of high retention capacity, was presented. The high efficiency of this cell for both retention and elution, leading to an important reduction of waste volume, and, every more, making possible the

  19. Research into releasing inorganic phosphate and base from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1994-01-01

    Research into radiation damage of nucleotide is an important area in radiation biology. In this paper, the yield of inorganic phosphate and base released from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a 30 keV N + ion beam was investigated in several aspects. The effect of particle fluence on yield and the influence of treatment with 0.1 N NaOH was deduced. By analysis, it is known that the alkali treatment not only increases the yield of inorganic phosphate, but also damages and splits the base released from irradiated 5'-dTMP. When the irradiated samples are treated by 0.1 N NaOH immediately, the yield of inorganic phosphate is increased by a factor of 1.7 and the concentration of base decreased to half of the original value. But the yield of inorganic phosphate could be increased by a factor of 2.8 after 40 min of alkali treatment. On the other hand, when 5'dTMP was irradiated by the ion beam, the G(Pi) obtained was above 0.44, higher than with γ-radiation. (Author)

  20. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  1. Ion exchange separation of nitrate from uranium compounds and its determination by spectrophotometry and ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure for the separation of nitrate from uranium compounds by retaintion of uranyl ion on a cationic ion exchanger and its determination in the effluent is described. Nitrate is analysed by the spectrometric method with 1-phenol-2,4-dissulphonic acid. This determination covers the 1 to 10 μg NO - 3 /mL range and requires an amount of 10 to 100 μg NO - 3 . The main interference is uranium (VI) due its own intense yellow color. This difficulty is overcome by the complete separation of UO 2 ++ with the cationic resin. Alternatively, the ion chromatography technique is used for the determination of nitrate in the effluent of the cationic resin. The determination was easily made by the comparison of the nitrate peak hights of the analyte and the standard solutions. The ion chromatography method is very sensitive (0,3 μg NO - 3 /mL), reproducible and suitable for routine analysis and permits the determination of fraction of part per million of nitrate in uranium. The results of nitrate determination using both spectrophotometric and ion chromatography techniques are compared. The method is being routinely applied for the quality control of uranium compounds in the fuel cycle, specially uranium oxide, ammonium diuranate, uranium peroxide and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. (Author) [pt

  2. Isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Itami, Akira

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide ion exchanger and aqueous solutions was radiochemically measured to obtain fundamental data which are useful for elucidating the ion-exchange kinetics of the material for the transition metal elements. The rate can be understood by considering that the cobalt ions were present in the exchanger as three kinds of species: (A 1 ) Free ions which can diffuse in the exchanger particles, (A 2 ) Weakly bound ions to the exchange sites which exchange rapidly with A 1 , and (B) Covalently fixed ions to the exchange sites which exchange very slowly with A 1 . At low fraction of B, the rate is controlled by the diffusion of A 1 with the effective diffusion coefficient, D eff , the values of which depend on the concentration ratios of A 2 to A 1 . When B predominates over the A species, the concentration ratios of B to A 1 affect greatly D eff . The values of D eff and their activation energy(20 kJ/mol) were also estimated

  3. An isotopic method to distinguish between ion exchange and adsorption of diazonium cations of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohl, M.; Fejes, P.; Horvath, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ion exchange isotherms of two different diazonium cations have been determined on synthetic mordenite and faujasite using 22 Na as radiotracer. Under similar conditions (but with no radiotracer) the isotherms were followed spectrophotometrically so that a comparison between the amounts of ion exchanged and adsorbed cations can be made. (author)

  4. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  5. Isolation of nitrosylruthenium nitrato complexes by ion exchange and extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Liu, L.

    TBP Levextrel and cation exchange resins were used to separate RuNO nitrato complexes of different nitric acid concentrations. 7402 quaternary ammonium salt Levextrel was used instead of an anionic exchange resin to separate anionic and neutral complex ions. The results indicated that D 3 and D 4 , which can easily be extracted by TBP, were anionic and neutral complex ions

  6. A method for embedding granulated or spent ion-exchanging organic substances in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Jejes, P.

    1976-01-01

    A method of embedding in concrete a spent ion-exchanging organic substance originating from a scrubbing-circuit of a nuclear reactor Prior to solidification of the mixture, a substance is incorporated therewith said substance being capable of preventing water in the grains of the ion-exchanging substance from penetrating into the solidified product

  7. Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Jun; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs

  8. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  9. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  10. Effects of aluminum on growth, polyamine metabolism, and inorganic ions in suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Daniel J. Jr. Coughin; Subhash C. Minocha

    1996-01-01

    The influence of age of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspensions on aluminum (Al) effects was studied by adding AICI3 (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) to the media on each day of a 7-day culture period and analyzing for changes in total cell mass, polyamines, arginine decarboxylase activity, and inorganic ions after 24 h of...

  11. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  12. Ion mobility spectrometry-hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry of anions: part 1. Peptides to proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to study the conformations of negatively-charged peptide and protein ions. Results are presented for ion conformers of angiotensin 1, a synthetic peptide (SP), bovine insulin, ubiquitin, and equine cytochrome c. In general, the SP ion conformers demonstrate a greater level of HDX efficiency as a greater proportion of the sites undergo HDX. Additionally, these ions exhibit the fastest rates of exchange. Comparatively, the angiotensin 1 ions exhibit a lower rate of exchange and HDX level presumably because of decreased accessibility of exchange sites by charge sites. The latter are likely confined to the peptide termini. Insulin ions show dramatically reduced HDX levels and exchange rates, which can be attributed to decreased conformational flexibility resulting from the disulfide bonds. For the larger ubiquitin and protein ions, increased HDX is observed for larger ions of higher charge state. For ubiquitin, a conformational transition from compact to more elongated species (from lower to higher charge states) is reflected by an increase in HDX levels. These results can be explained by a combination of interior site protection by compact conformers as well as decreased access by charge sites. The elongated cytochrome c ions provide the largest HDX levels where higher values correlate with charge state. These results are consistent with increased exchange site accessibility by additional charge sites. The data from these enhanced IMS-HDX experiments are described in terms of charge site location, conformer rigidity, and interior site protection.

  13. Transition from the constant ion mobility regime to the ion-atom charge-exchange regime for bounded collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggie, Jonathan; Sternberg, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and analytical study of a planar, collisional, direct-current, plasma-wall problem is presented. The fluid model for the problem is first validated by comparing numerical solutions with experimental data for low-pressure (∼0.1 Pa) electrode sheaths with wall potentials on the order of -100 V. For electric potential, ion number density, and ion velocity, good agreement was found between theory and experiment from within the sheath out to the bulk plasma. The frictional drag resulting from ion-neutral collisions is described by a model incorporating both linear and quadratic velocity terms. In order to study the transition from the constant ion mobility regime (linear friction) to the ion-atom charge-exchange collision regime (quadratic friction), the theoretical model was examined numerically for a range of ion temperatures and ion-neutral collision rates. It was found that the solution profiles in the quasineutral plasma depend on the ion temperature. For low ion temperatures they are governed mainly by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, whereas for high temperatures they are governed by the constant ion mobility regime. Quasineutral plasma models corresponding to these two limiting cases were solved analytically. In particular, an analytical plasma solution is given for the ion-atom charge exchange regime that includes the effects of ion inertia. In contrast to the quasineutral plasma, the sheath is always governed for low to moderate collision rates by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, independent of the ion temperature. Varying the collision rate, it was shown that when the wall potential is sufficiently high, the sheath cannot be considered collisionless, even if the collision rate is quite small

  14. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Praseodymium ion doped phosphate glasses for integrated broadband ion-exchanged waveguide amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, B.J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective near-infrared emission (1380-1525 nm) is observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses. • Effective bandwidth of {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm. • Channel waveguides have been fabricated by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method. • Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier. - Abstract: Effective near-infrared emission covering the fifth optical telecommunication window (1380-1525 nm) has been observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate (NMAP) glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω{sub 2} (6.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}), Ω{sub 4} (20.30 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and Ω{sub 6} (0.40 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a high inversion asymmetrical and strong covalent environment in the optical glasses. The effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}) of the corresponding {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm, and the maximum stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub em-max}) at 1468 nm is derived to be 1.14 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}. Channel waveguide was fabricated successfully by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method with mode field diameter of 8.8 μm in the horizontal direction and 6.7 μm in the vertical direction. Broad effective bandwidth, large emission cross-section and perfect thermal ion-exchangeability indicate that Pr{sup 3+}-doped NMAP phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier, especially operating at E- and S-bands which belong to the fifth optical telecommunication window.

  16. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  17. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  18. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenter; Hoenik, V. [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno [Institute of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Artificial ferrimagnets (AFi) have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with He ions on a single layer reference electrode of magnetic tunnel junctions is possible. For some applications a combination of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning and artificial ferrimagnets as a reference electrode is desirable. The effect of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning on pinned artificial ferrimagnets with a Ru interlayer which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions as well as pinned AFis with a Cu interlayer has been tested. Special attention has been given to the question whether the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling can withstand the ion dose necessary to turn the exchange bias.

  19. Investigations on imaging properties of inorganic scintillation screens under irradiation with high energetic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberwirth, Alice

    2016-09-15

    This work represents the investigations in imagine properties of inorganic scintillation screens as diagnostic elements in heavy ion accelerator facilities, that were performed at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (Darmstadt, Germany) and TU Darmstadt. The screen materials can be classified in groups of phosphor screens (P43 and P46 phosphor), single crystals (cerium-doped Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and polycrystalline aluminum oxides (pure and chromium-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Out of these groups, a selection of seven screens were irradiated by five different projectiles (proton, nitrogen, nickel, xenon and uranium), that were extracted from SIS18 in fast (1 μs) and slow (300-400 ms) extraction mode at a specific energy of E{sub spec}=300 MeV/u. The number of irradiating particles per pulse was varied between 10{sup 7} and 2.10{sup 10} ppp and the scintillation response was recorded by a complex optical system. The records served on the one hand for investigations in the two-dimensional response to the irradiating beam, namely the light output L, the light yield Y and the characteristics of the beam profiles in horizontal and vertical direction. On the other hand the wavelength spectrum of the scintillation was recorded for investigations in variations of the material structure. A data analysis was performed based on a dedicated Python script. Additionally three conventional methods (UV/Vis transmission spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, Raman fluorescence spectroscopy) were performed after the beam times for investigations in the material structure. Nevertheless, neither structural variations nor material defects, induced by the ion irradiation, were proven within the accuracy range of the used instrumentation and the given ion fluences. Besides the irradiation under varying beam intensity, radiation hardness tests with fast and slow extracted Nickel pulses at 2.10{sup 9} ppp and a specific energy around E{sub spec}∼300 MeV/u were performed and the

  20. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well ...

  1. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate ion-exchanger: Its application for selective removal of lead (II from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate was synthesized using the sol–gel technique. The synthesis conditions such as reactant concentrations and temperature were changed to optimize the ion exchange properties of the hybrid organic–inorganic ion exchange material. Zirconium oxychloride (0.1 M was added to 0.1 M potassium iodate in the presence of 0.4 M acrylamide and heated at 70 °C for 6 h to yield the polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate with maximum capacity. The ion exchange capacity was found to be 3.27 meq/g for Pb(II. The hybrid material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, SEM and EDX studies. Sorption studies showed that the hybrid cation exchanger has a high selectivity to Pb(II in comparison to other metal ions. Its selectivity was evaluated by performing some important binary separations like Hg(II–Pb(II, Cu(II–Pb(II, Ni(II–Pb(II, Fe(III–Pb(II and Cd(II–Pb(II. In addition, the selective separation of Pb(II was also achieved from a synthetic mixture containing a large number of metal ions with a recovery of ∼98.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the selective removal of Pb(II from wastewater samples.

  3. Ion-exchange equilibrium of Fe3+-Cl- and UO22+-Cl- systems in a porous anion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Kawakami, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Mitsunaga

    1985-01-01

    The ion-exchange equilibrium behavior of complex ions was investigatided in the systems of UO 2 2+ - Cl - and Fe 3+ - Cl - using an anion exchanger. It was performed by examining the dependency of adsorption distribution and selectivity of complexes on the micro structure of ion-exchangers, and temperature-dependency of selectivity. Changes in micropore structure of the ion-exchanger were found to have a significant effect on selectivity; the coefficient of selectivity and the average valence of the adsorbed species increased as the discrete pore ratio used as the index for pore structure decreased. In this study, equilibrium reactions were regarded as a sort of addition reaction for a easier analysis. This analysis based on the concept of addition chemical potential suggested that decreases in the discrete pore ratio were advantageous for the adsorption of complex ion species with higher valence, and average valence of the adsorbed species within the exchanger was shifted to the higher side. For this reason, it is assumed that the coefficient of selectivity became larger with a decrease in the discrete pore ratio. There is also a marked change in the coefficient of selectivity with temperature, and this becomes greater the higher the temperature. The ΔH of the present system accompanying the complex forming reaction is estimated to be 7 to 8 kcal/mol, and this value suggests that the temperature effect of the complex forming reaction contributes greatly to the change in selectivity with temperature. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterizaton of inorganic materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Rengarajan

    Development of low-cost energy storage devices is critical for wide-scale implementation of intermittent renewable energy technologies and improving the electricity grid. Commercial devices remain prohibitively expensive or lack the performance specifications for a wider market reach. Na-ion batteries would perfectly suited for these large-scale applications as the raw materials (such as soda ash, salt, etc.) are plentiful, inexpensive and geographically unconstrained. However, extensive materials research on insertion electrodes is required for better understanding of the electrochemical and structural properties and engineering high performance Na-ion batteries. This thesis research involves exploratory study on new insertion materials with various crystallographic structure-types and extensive characterization of promising new inorganic compositions. Tunnel-type materials, sodium nickel phosphate-Na4Ni7(PO4)6, and sodium cobalt titanate- Na0.8Co0.4Ti1.6O4, were investigated to capitalize on the intrinsic structural stability offered by framework materials. Sol-gel and solid-state reaction synthetic techniques were employed for inorganic powder synthesis. Galvanostatic and potentiostatic testing confirm reversible sodium insertion/de-insertion reactions albeit with inadequate electrochemical characteristics (high voltage hysteresis> 1V). Subsequent efforts involved investigating layer-structured materials supporting fast ionic transport for better electrochemical performance. P2-sodium nickel titanate, Na2/3[Ni1/3Ti2/3]O2 (P2NT), with prismatic sodium co-ordination, was synthesized by solid-state technique. The 'bifunctional' oxide contains Ni2+/4+ and Ti4+/3+ redox couples with redox potentials of 3.6 V, 0.7 V vs. Na/Na+, respectively. This bifunctional approach would simplify electrode processing and provide cost reduction opportunities in battery manufacturing. The structural changes monitored using ex-situ XRD demonstrate a favorably broad solid

  5. Accelerated electron exchange between U4+ and UO22+ by foreign metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obanawa, Heiichiro; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Takeda, Kunihiko

    1990-01-01

    The rate constant of U 4+ -UO 2 2+ electron exchange (k et ) was increased by more than 100 times in the presence of various metal ions. The larger rate constant was observed for the smaller difference of the standard reduction potential strength between metal ion and UO 2 2+ ion (Δμ θ e ). Detailed investigation of the electron exchange reaction in the presence of Mo 5+ suggested that the mechanism of the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by metal ions is the outer-sphere type independent of U-Clcomplex ions. (author)

  6. Pilot plant of continuous ion-exchange in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, T.; Otero de Becerra, J.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development on continuous ion-exchange processes has been a major item in hydrometallurgy. This new technology has been under development during the last 15 years in the leading countries at uranium hydrometallurgy. The fluidized bed multi-stage column technique is proven to be the most attractive one, and since 1977 several commercial plants have begun production, some of them with a throughput of 500 cubic meters of pregnant liquour per hour. J.E.N. undertook the study of this new technology for uranium recovery in the early 70's. In 1979 a pilot plant had been installed, based on previous laboratory and smaller pilot plant experience. The plant was designed following JEN's own technology and has been operating successfully at a flow rate of near 0.5 cubic meters per hour. The test runs and the main processing, engineering and operation features are described. At present a demonstation plant is under design, and this installation will provide the necessary know-how for the construction and operation of a commercial scale plant. (author)

  7. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, Laura V.; Pacheco S, Joel O.; Pacheco P, Marquidia; Monroy G, Fabiola; Emeterio H, Miguel; Ramos F, Fidel

    2006-01-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment

  8. Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation.

  9. Ion-exchange chromatography for the characterization of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-09-10

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is a historical technique widely used for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of charge heterogeneity. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of theoretical and practical aspects of modern IEX applied for the characterization of therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). The section on method development describes how to select a suitable stationary phase chemistry and dimensions, the mobile phase conditions (pH, nature and concentration of salt), as well as the temperature and flow rate, considering proteins isoelectric point (pI). In addition, both salt-gradient and pH-gradient approaches were critically reviewed and benefits as well as limitations of these two strategies were provided. Finally, several applications, mostly from pharmaceutical industries, illustrate the potential of IEX for the characterization of charge variants of various types of biopharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wastewater treatment with ion-exchange chitin membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, A.; Fjeld, R. A.; Visacky, V.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin, poly(N-acetyl-D glucosamine) and chitosan, its deacetylated derivates have recently obtained attention as bio-sorbents, because they shown a great ability to accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants. It was found that recovery of metals is strongly affected by pH. At low acidic pH range 4-5 chitin membrane exhibits better selectivity for lead than for cadmium or zinc. Sorption preference for metals decreases in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn. For uranium, as well for strontium was observed significant increase of recovery at decrease of pH to slightly acidic, close to neutral value. It was shown that chemical behavior of chitin membrane is excellent; ion-exchange nature of chitin was not changed during chitin membrane manufacturing process. Using of chitin membrane instead of chitin flake column brings significant increasing of driving force of the separation process, limited in the case of column experimental design by diffusion coefficient, while in the case of membrane process only by mass transfer coefficient. (authors)

  11. Design of zeolite ion-exchange columns for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory plans to use chabazite zeolites for decontamination of wastewater containing parts-per-billion levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Treatability studies indicate that such zeolites can remove trace amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from wastewater containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These studies who that zeolite system efficiency is dependent on column design and operating conditions. Previous results with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and near-full-scale columns indicate that optimized design of full-scale columns could reduce the volume of spent solids generation by one-half. The data indicate that shortcut scale-up methods cannot be used to design columns to minimize secondary waste generation. Since the secondary waste generation rate is a primary influence on process cost effectiveness, a predictive mathematical model for column design is being developed. Equilibrium models and mass-transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange (Ca, Mg, Na, Cs, and Sr). Mathematical models of these data to determine the breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions will be used to optimize the final design of full-scale treatment plant. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  13. Interactions of Native Cyclodextrins with Metal Ions and Inorganic Nanoparticles: Fertile Landscape for Chemistry and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochowicz, Daniel; Kornowicz, Arkadiusz; Lewiński, Janusz

    2017-11-22

    Readily available cyclodextrins (CDs) with an inherent hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface are macrocyclic entities that display a combination of molecular recognition and complexation properties with vital implications for host-guest supramolecular chemistry. While the host-guest chemistry of CDs has been widely recognized and led to their exploitation in a variety of important functions over the last five decades, these naturally occurring macrocyclic systems have emerged only recently as promising macrocyclic molecules to fabricate environmentally benign functional nanomaterials. This review surveys the development in the field paying special attention to the synthesis and emerging uses of various unmodified CD-metal complexes and CD-inorganic nanoparticle systems and identifies possible future directions. The association of a hydrophobic cavity of CDs with metal ions or various inorganic nanoparticles is a very appealing strategy for controlling the inorganic subunits properties in the very competitive water environment. In this review we provide the most prominent examples of unmodified CDs' inclusion complexes with organometallic guests and update the research in this field from the past decade. We discuss also the coordination flexibility of native CDs to metal ions in CD-based metal complexes and summarize the progress in the synthesis and characterization of CD-metal complexes and their use in catalysis and sensing as well as construction of molecular magnets. Then we provide a comprehensive overview of emerging applications of native CDs in materials science and nanotechnology. Remarkably, in the past few years CDs have appeared as attractive building units for the synthesis of carbohydrate metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) in a combination of alkali-metal cations. The preparation of this new class of highly porous materials and their applications in the separation of small molecules, the loading of drug molecules, as well as

  14. [Application of simultaneous determination of inorganic ionic species by advanced ion chromatography for water quality monitoring of river water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-04-01

    In this study, our recent work on advanced ion chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of inorganic ionic species such as common anions (SO4(2-), Cl(-) and NO3(-)) and cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), nutrients (phosphate and silicate) and hydrogen ion/alkalinity are summarized first. Then, the applications using these methods for monitoring environmental water quality are also presented. For the determination of common anions and cations with nutrients, the separation was successfully performed by a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange column of TSKgel Super IC-A/C (Tosoh, 150 mm x 6.0 mm i. d.) and a mixture solution of 100 mmol/L ascorbic acid and 4 mmol/L 18-crown-6 as acidic eluent with dual detection of conductivity and spectrophotometry. For the determination of hydrogen ion/alkalinity, the separation was conducted by TSKgel ODS-100Z column (Tosoh, 150 mm x 4.5 mm i. d.) modified with lithium dodecylsulfate and an eluent of 40 mmol/L LiCl/0.1 mmol/L lithium dodecylsulfate/0.05 mmol/L H2SO4 with conductivity detector. The differences of ion concentration between untreated and treated wastewater showed the variation of ionic species during biological treatment process in a sewage treatment plant. Occurrence and distribution of water-quality conditions were related to the bioavailability and human activity in watershed. From these results, our advanced ion chromatographic methods have contributed significantly for water quality monitoring of environmental waters.

  15. Exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms; Change de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize the most significant theoretical and experimental results obtained so far on the exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms. (author) [French] Dans l'expose qui suit, nous resumons les resultats theoriques et experimentaux interessants obtenus jusqu'a nos jours dans le domaine de l'echange de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres. (auteur)

  16. Use of the ion exchange method for determination of stability constants of uranyl ions with three soil humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zuyi; Du Jinzhou

    1994-01-01

    The ion exchange equilibrium method proposed by Ardakani and Stevenson has not been widely used to determine the stability constants of metal-soil organic matter complexes. In this paper the Ardakani-Stevenson's method has been modified and the stability constants of uranyl ion complexes with three soil humic acids were determined by using the modified Ardakani-Stevenson's method. (orig.)

  17. A new method of analysis of peroxydisulfate using ion chromatography and its application to the simultaneous determination of peroxydisulfate and other common inorganic ions in a peroxydisulfate matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul E; Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2011-01-21

    A new method for the determination of peroxydisulfate using ion chromatography has been developed. Elution of peroxydisulfate was effected by isocratic elution using 200 mM NaOH at 40°C. A modification of the method using gradient elution was able to simultaneously determine other common inorganic ions (nitrate, nitrite, sulfate and chloride) down to significantly low concentrations in a peroxydisulfate matrix. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 0.5-5%, for peak areas and ion was 0.2 ppm and for the other ions were ≤2×10(-2) ppm. The calibration curves were linear with slope and intercepts close to 1 and 0, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  19. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  20. Intercalation of gaseous thiols and sulfides into Ag+ ion-exchanged aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aki; Saimen, Hiroki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Kimura, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo

    2005-08-02

    Ag(+) ion-exchanged layered aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate (AlP) with the interlayer distance of 0.85 nm was synthesized by the ion-exchange of proton in triphosphate with Ag(+) ion. The amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion depended on the concentration of AgNO(3) aqueous solution. Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP adsorbed gaseous thiols and sulfides into the interlayer region. The adsorption amounts of thiols were more than those of sulfides, thiols with one mercapto group > thiol with two mercapto groups > sulfides, and depended on the amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion in the interlayer region. The thiols with one mercapto group were intercalated to expand the interlayer distance of Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP, whereas there was no expansion in the adsorption of sulfide. In the case of thiol with two mercapto groups, there was observed contraction of the interlayer distance through the bridging with Ag(+) ions of the upper and lower sides of the interlayer region.