Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices
Kosteleski, Adrian John
The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound
Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.
Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A
2007-01-10
In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.
Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenia Pechkova
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.
The role of biomimetism in developing nanostructured inorganic matrices for drug delivery.
Roveri, Norberto; Palazzo, Barbara; Iafisco, Michele
2008-08-01
Biomimetism of synthetic biomaterials can be carried out at different levels, such as composition, structure, morphology, bulk and surface chemical-physical properties. Biomaterials can be turned into biomimetic imprinting of all these characteristics in order not only to optimise their interaction with biological tissues, but also to mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. This review outlines the biomimetic chemical-physical properties of inorganic matrices in controlling drug release. This review is restricted to phosphates and silica among inorganic biomaterials proposed as drug delivery vehicles. By mimicking nature, we can design and synthesise inorganic smart materials that are reactive towards biological tissues and can release bioactive molecules by a kinetic that is controlled not only by the matrix tailored chemical-physical properties, but also by the response to stimuli induced by physiological or pathological processes.
Studies of Catalytic Properties of Inorganic Rock Matrices in Redox Reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay M. Dobrynkin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Intrinsic catalytic properties of mineral matrices of various kinds (basalts, clays, sandstones were studied, which are of interest for in-situ heavy oil upgrading (i.e., underground to create advanced technologies for enhanced oil recovery. The elemental, surface and phase composition and matrix particle morphology, surface and acidic properties were studied using elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, adsorption and desorption of nitrogen and ammonia. The data on the catalytic activity of inorganic matrices in ammonium nitrate decomposition (reaction with a large gassing, oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and hydrocracking of asphaltenes into maltenes (the conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into more valuable light hydrocarbons were discussed. In order to check their applicability for the asphaltenes hydrocracking catalytic systems development, basalt and clay matrices were used as supports for iron/basalt, nickel/basalt and iron/clay catalysts. The catalytic activity of the matrices in the reactions of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and hydrocracking of asphaltens was observed for the first time.
Metal-inorganic-organic matrices as efficient sorbents for hydrogen storage.
Azzouz, Abdelkrim; Nousir, Saadia; Bouazizi, Nabil; Roy, René
2015-03-01
Stabilization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) without re-aggregation is a major challenge. An unprecedented strategy is developed for achieving high dispersion of copper(0) or palladium(0) on montmorillonite-supported diethanolamine or thioglycerol. This results in novel metal-inorganic-organic matrices (MIOM) that readily capture hydrogen at ambient conditions, with easy release under air stream. Hydrogen retention appears to involve mainly physical interactions, slightly stronger on thioglycerol-based MIOM (S-MIOM). Thermal enhancement of desorption suggests also a contribution of chemical interactions. The increase of hydrogen uptake with prolonged contact times arises from diffusion hindrance, which appears to be beneficial by favoring hydrogen entrapment. Even with compact structures, MIOMs act as efficient sorbents with much higher efficiency factor (1.14-1.17 mmol H 2 m(-2)) than many other sophisticated adsorbents reported in the literature. This opens new prospects for hydrogen storage and potential applications in microfluidic hydrogenation reactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.
2017-09-01
Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.
Slow and fast light in metal/dielectric composites with passive and active host matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mal' nev, V.N., E-mail: vadimmalnev@yahoo.com; Shewamare, Sisay, E-mail: sisayshewa20@yahoo.com
2013-10-01
The optical properties of metal/dielectric composites (metal with dielectric core and pure metal inclusions) in passive and active host matrices are studied. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the composites with metal covered inclusions have two maxima at two resonant frequencies. Both types of composites show strong anomalous dispersion of the real part of refractive index. The active host matrices can considerably reduce the absorption and provide the conditions for the propagation of weakly damping light waves at the resonant frequencies. The weakly spreading wave packets of light with negative group velocity can be experimentally observed in these composites.
Dekker, R.; Hilderink, L.T.H.; Diemeer, Mart; Stouwdam, J.W.; Sudarsan, V; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Misra, D; Masscher, P.; Sundaram, K.; Yen, W.M.; Capobianco, J.
2006-01-01
The preparation and the optical properties of lanthanum fluoride (LaF3) nanoparticles doped with erbium and neodymium will be discussed. Organic and inorganic materials in the form of polymers and sol-gels were used to serve as the hosts for the inorganic nanoparticles, respectively. The organic
The use of silica aerogels as host matrices for chemical species
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woignier, T.; Primera, J.; Lamy, M.; Sempere, R.; Phalippou, J. [Laboratoire des Verres, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Fehr, C.; Anglaret, E. [Institut de Recherche et de Developpement, PRAM quartier petit morne, BP 214 97285 le Lamentin cedex 2, Martinique (France)
2004-12-15
Different sets of silica aerogels (classical aerogels, partially densified aerogels, and composite aerogels) have been studied for their prospective use as host matrices for chemical species. Two relevant parameters, the mechanical properties and permeability, are measured and compared in order to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the three different synthetic approaches. Mechanical resistance is measured by the static bending technique and permeability by an impregnation method. By adjusting the mechanical resistance and especially the mean pore-size, it is possible to control impregnation of liquid within the porous network of the aerogel. Facile liquid impregnation into mechanically durable aerogels allows one to synthesize different composites and multi-phase materials after soaking, drying and sintering. Three examples of applications are detailed: doped glass for the Faraday effect, glass-ceramics for nuclear waste containment, and liquid crystals in confined media.
Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Three New Inorganic ＂Host-gues＂ Polyoxomolybdates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨文斌; 卢灿忠; 庄鸿辉
2003-01-01
Since two interesting inorganic "host-guest" polyoxomolybdates 1 and 2 have been reported previously,we have now succeeded in selectively isolating three new acetated"host-guest"polyoxomolybdates 3-5,which considerably extend the range of structures in the cyclic polyoxomolybdate catalogue.3 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=1.22235(1)nm,b=1.52977(2)nm,c=1.54022(1)nm,a=113.746(1)°,β=96.742(1)°,γ=101.564(1)°,V=2.51892(4)nm3,Z=1,Dc=2.568g.cm-3.4and 5 crystallize in the monoclinic system:P2(1)/n,a=1.08298(2)nm,b=1.54029(1)nm,c=2.78893(5)nm,β=94.2730(10)°.V=4.63929(12)nm3,Z=2 and Dc=2.671g.cm-3 for 4,and C2/c,a=2.556g.cm-3 for 5.The structures of 3,4and 5 consist of 18-membered"host-guest" polyoxoanions[{Na(X)2}{(μ3-OH)4Mo8vMo10VIO52(μ2-CH3COO)2}0-(n+9)(X=CH3COO for 3,DMF for 4 and H2O for 5),which are connected via Na+ ions or hydrogen bonds into infinite extended frameworks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Mohammadi
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Several methods are available for control release of propranolol hydrochloride (PLH. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel technique to sustain PLH release from matrices. Materials and methods: Matrices of PLH containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC and various amounts of the inorganic cations Ca2+ and Al3+ were prepared. Dissolution of the matrices was carried out using the USP apparatus I. Analysis of release data was performed by some model independent and dependent approaches. Results: The release of PLH was affected by incorporation of different amounts (milliequivalents, meq of Ca2+ and Al3+. When the Ca2+amount increased from 0- 0.375 meq, the fraction of PLH which released within 480 min was augmented from 0.74 to 1 apparently via disintegrating effect of the cation. Al3+in the range 0- 0.125 meq, decreased the fractional release from 0.74 to 0.37 presumably by in situ cross- linking with polymer. Al3+ between 0.125 and 0.5 meq enhanced the release from 0.37 to 1 possibly due to the disintegrating effect. Among model independent metrics, the mean release time (MRT failed to represent the effect of the cations on the release but the release efficiency (RE as well as a suggested mean release rate (MRR correlated well with the experimental release rate. Due to the complexity of the release, the only suitable kinetic model was the Weibull distribution. The minimum and maximum Weibull release rate constants for matrices containing Al3+ were 0.0007-0.017 1/min. The corresponding values for the matrices with Ca2+ were 0.0029-0.0082 1/min. Conclusion: Through careful choice of the amount of Al3+in NaCMC matrices the release of PLH can be controlled at a desired rate. The best model independent approach is MRR and the most accurate model dependent method is Weibull distribution to describe the release data.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Serkan Sevinç; Sevim Ünügür Çelik; Ayhan Bozkurt
2015-04-01
As anhydrous proton conductive membranes, sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to at least 150° C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the homogeneity of the ternary composites. The maximum proton conductivity has been measured as 3.63 × 10−4S cm−1 at 150° C.
Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
In-Yup Jeon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.
Kulikov, S. G.; Veret-Lemarinier, A. V.; Galaup, J. P.; Chaput, F.; Boilot, J. P.
1997-03-01
Pure inorganic sol-gel matrices as well as hybrid organic/inorganic xerogels have been doped with porphyrins derivatives and studied using line narrowing techniques. The role of residual hydroxyl groups is investigated. Free-base porphyrins are protonated in pure inorganic hosts, but the matrix acidity is reduced in hybrid matrices or when fluorinated porphyrins derivatives are used. The linear electron-phonon coupling can be controlled with the choice of the organic group in organic/inorganic matrices. Persistent spectral hole widths increase with temperature according a glass-like Tn dependence and evidence of spectral diffusion is shown in one of these systems.
Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V
2015-12-09
Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host-guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 10(11) Jones with a fast response (3 dB cut-off at 3 kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200 nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs.
Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V.
2015-12-01
Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host-guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 1011 Jones with a fast response (3 dB cut-off at 3 kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200 nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs.
Pereira, Rodrigo M; Costa, Vanize C; Hartwig, Carla A; Picoloto, Rochele S; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A; Mesko, Marcia F
2016-01-15
A microwave-induced combustion (MIC) system based on the volatilization process was applied for subsequent halogen determination from noncombustible inorganic matrices. Portland cement samples were selected to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, allowing the subsequent determination of Cl and F by ion chromatography (IC). Samples were mixed with high-purity microcrystalline cellulose, wrapped with a polyethylene film and combusted in quartz closed vessels pressurized with oxygen (20bar). Water and NH4OH (10, 25 or 50m mol L(-1)) were evaluated for Cl and F absorption, but water was selected, using 5min of reflux after volatilization. Final solutions were also suitable for analysis by pontentiometry with ion-selective electrode (ISE) for both analytes, and no difference was found when comparing the results with IC. The accuracy of the proposed method for Cl was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs), and agreement with certified values ranged from 98% to 103%. Results were also compared to those using the procedure recommended by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) for the determination of total chlorides (C114-13), and no difference was found. Volatilization by MIC using a mixture of cement, cellulose and a biological CRM was carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy for F, and recovery was about 96%. The proposed method allowed suitable limits of detection for Cl and F by IC (99 and 18mg kg(-1), respectively) for routine analysis of cement. Using the proposed method, a relatively low standard deviation (method, were obtained. Therefore, the method for volatilization of Cl and F by MIC and subsequent determination by IC can be proposed as a suitable alternative for cement analysis.
Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.
Johansson, H.; Brabec, C.J.; Neugebauer, H.; Kvarnstrom, C.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.
1999-01-01
In this work, we report on the investigation of photoexcited states in conjugated polymer (donor) - fullerene (acceptor) interpenetrating networks (polythiophene derivatives - PC61BM) embedded into conventional polymer hosts like polystyrene, polyvinylcarbazole, polycarbonate or polyvinylbenzenechlo
Hu, Jing-Xiao; Ran, Jia-Bing; Chen, Si; Jiang, Pei; Shen, Xin-Yu; Tong, Hua
2016-07-11
By in situ combining the dual cross-linking matrices of the carboxylated agarose (CA) and the silk fibroin (SF) with the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals, the CA-SF/HA composites with optimal physicochemical and biological properties were obtained, which were designed to meet the clinical needs of load-bearing bone repair. With the synergistic modulation of the dual organic matrices, the HA nanoparticles presented sheet and rod morphologies due to the preferred orientation, which successfully simulated the biomineralization in nature. The chemical reactivity of the native agarose (NA) was significantly enhanced via carboxylation, and the CA exhibited higher thermal stability than the NA. In the presence of SF, the composites showed optimal mechanical properties that could meet the standard of bone repair. The degradation of the composites in the presence of CA and SF was significantly delayed such that the degradation rate of the implant could satisfy the growth rate of the newly formed bone tissue. The in vitro tests confirmed that the CA-SF/HA composite scaffolds enabled the MG63 cells to proliferate and differentiate well, and the CA/HA composite presented greater capability of promoting the cell behaviors than the NA/HA composite. After 24 days of implantation, newly formed bone was observed at the tibia defect site and around the implant. Extensive osteogenesis was presented in the rats treated with the CA-SF/HA composites. In general, the CA-SF/HA composites prepared in this work had the great potential to be applied for repairing large bone defects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grotti, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.it; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador; Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain)
2008-05-15
Interfering effects caused by inorganic matrices (inorganic acids as well as easily ionized elements) in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy have been modeled by regression analysis of experimental data obtained using the 'stirred tank method'. The main components of the experimental set-up were a magnetically-stirred container and two peristaltic pumps. In this way the matrix composition was gradually and automatically varied, while the analyte concentration remained unchanged throughout the experiment. An inductively coupled plasma spectrometer with multichannel detection based on coupled charge device was used to simultaneously measure the emission signal at several wavelengths when the matrix concentration was modified. Up to 50 different concentrations were evaluated in a period of time of 10 min. Both single interfering species (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, sodium and calcium) and different mixtures (aqua regia, sulfonitric mixture, sodium-calcium mixture and sodium-nitric acid mixture) were investigated. The dependence of the emission signal on acid concentration was well-fitted by logarithmic models. Conversely, for the easily ionized elements, 3-order polynomial models were more suitable to describe the trends. Then, the coefficients of these models were used as 'signatures' of the matrix-related signal variations and analyzed by principal component analysis. Similarities and differences among the emission lines were highlighted and discussed, providing a new insight into the interference phenomena, mainly with regards to the combined effect of concomitants. The combination of the huge amount of data obtained by the stirred tank method in a short period of time and the speed of analysis of principal component analysis provided a judicious means for the selection of the optimal internal standard in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.
Mehta, Madan Lal
1990-01-01
Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading
Stephanov, M A; Wettig, T
2005-01-01
We review elementary properties of random matrices and discuss widely used mathematical methods for both hermitian and nonhermitian random matrix ensembles. Applications to a wide range of physics problems are summarized. This paper originally appeared as an article in the Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
Krylov, Piotr
2017-01-01
This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nardova, A.K.; Filippov, E.A. [All Research Institute of Chemical Technologies, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolenko, Y.B. [and others
1996-05-01
This report presents the results of investigations of plutonium immobilization from solutions on inorganic matrices with the purpose of producing a solid waste form. High-temperature sorption is described which entails the adsorption of radionuclides from solutions on porous, inorganic matrices, as for example silica gel. The solution is brought to a boil with additional thermal process (calcination) of the saturated granules.
Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices
Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime
2014-01-01
The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zyczkowski, Karol [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Al. Lotnikow 32/44, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kus, Marek [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Al. Lotnikow 32/44, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Slomczynski, Wojciech [Instytut Matematyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich 7 Physik, Universitaet Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2003-03-28
An ensemble of random unistochastic (orthostochastic) matrices is defined by taking squared moduli of elements of random unitary (orthogonal) matrices distributed according to the Haar measure on U(N) (or O(N)). An ensemble of symmetric unistochastic matrices is obtained with use of unitary symmetric matrices pertaining to the circular orthogonal ensemble. We study the distribution of complex eigenvalues of bistochastic, unistochastic and orthostochastic matrices in the complex plane. We compute averages (entropy, traces) over the ensembles of unistochastic matrices and present inequalities concerning the entropies of products of bistochastic matrices.
Zyczkowski, K.; Slomczynski, W.; Kus, M.; Sommers, H. -J.
2001-01-01
An ensemble of random unistochastic (orthostochastic) matrices is defined by taking squared moduli of elements of random unitary (orthogonal) matrices distributed according to the Haar measure on U(N) (or O(N), respectively). An ensemble of symmetric unistochastic matrices is obtained with use of unitary symmetric matrices pertaining to the circular orthogonal ensemble. We study the distribution of complex eigenvalues of bistochastic, unistochastic and ortostochastic matrices in the complex p...
GENERALIZED NEKRASOV MATRICES AND APPLICATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mingxian Pang; Zhuxiang Li
2003-01-01
In this paper, the concept of generalized Nekrasov matrices is introduced, some properties of these matrices are discussed, obtained equivalent representation of generalized diagonally dominant matrices.
Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-05
Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.
BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄廷祝; 黎稳
2002-01-01
The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.
Circulant conference matrices for new complex Hadamard matrices
Dita, Petre
2011-01-01
The circulant real and complex matrices are used to find new real and complex conference matrices. With them we construct Sylvester inverse orthogonal matrices by doubling the size of inverse complex conference matrices. When the free parameters take values on the unit circle the inverse orthogonal matrices transform into complex Hadamard matrices. The method is used for $n=6$ conference matrices and in this way we find new parametrisations of Hadamard matrices for dimension $ n=12$.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cappellini, Valerio [' Mark Kac' Complex Systems Research Centre, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Campus Duisburg, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Bruzda, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol [Instytut Fizyki im. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: valerio@ictp.it, E-mail: h.j.sommers@uni-due.de, E-mail: w.bruzda@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: karol@cft.edu.pl
2009-09-11
Ensembles of random stochastic and bistochastic matrices are investigated. While all columns of a random stochastic matrix can be chosen independently, the rows and columns of a bistochastic matrix have to be correlated. We evaluate the probability measure induced into the Birkhoff polytope of bistochastic matrices by applying the Sinkhorn algorithm to a given ensemble of random stochastic matrices. For matrices of order N = 2 we derive explicit formulae for the probability distributions induced by random stochastic matrices with columns distributed according to the Dirichlet distribution. For arbitrary N we construct an initial ensemble of stochastic matrices which allows one to generate random bistochastic matrices according to a distribution locally flat at the center of the Birkhoff polytope. The value of the probability density at this point enables us to obtain an estimation of the volume of the Birkhoff polytope, consistent with recent asymptotic results.
Cappellini, V; Bruzda, W; Zyczkowski, K
2009-01-01
Ensembles of random stochastic and bistochastic matrices are investigated. While all columns of a random stochastic matrix can be chosen independently, the rows and columns of a bistochastic matrix have to be correlated. We evaluate the probability measure induced into the Birkhoff polytope of bistochastic matrices by applying the Sinkhorn algorithm to a given ensemble of random stochastic matrices. For matrices of order N=2 we derive explicit formulae for the probability distributions induced by random stochastic matrices with columns distributed according to the Dirichlet distribution. For arbitrary $N$ we construct an initial ensemble of stochastic matrices which allows one to generate random bistochastic matrices according to a distribution locally flat at the center of the Birkhoff polytope. The value of the probability density at this point enables us to obtain an estimation of the volume of the Birkhoff polytope, consistent with recent asymptotic results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohong Wang
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that
Complex Hadamard matrices from Sylvester inverse orthogonal matrices
Dita, Petre
2009-01-01
A novel method to obtain parametrizations of complex inverse orthogonal matrices is provided. These matrices are natural generalizations of complex Hadamard matrices which depend on non zero complex parameters. The method we use is via doubling the size of inverse complex conference matrices. When the free parameters take values on the unit circle the inverse orthogonal matrices transform into complex Hadamard matrices, and in this way we find new parametrizations of Hadamard matrices for dim...
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
A Simple Cocyclic Jacket Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moon Ho Lee
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new class of cocyclic Jacket matrices over complex number field with any size. We also construct cocyclic Jacket matrices over the finite field. Such kind of matrices has close relation with unitary matrices which are a first hand tool in solving many problems in mathematical and theoretical physics. Based on the analysis of the relation between cocyclic Jacket matrices and unitary matrices, the common method for factorizing these two kinds of matrices is presented.
On greedy and submodular matrices
Faigle, U.; Kern, Walter; Peis, Britta; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Segal, Michael
2011-01-01
We characterize non-negative greedy matrices, i.e., 0-1 matrices $A$ such that max $\\{c^Tx|Ax \\le b,\\,x \\ge 0\\}$ can be solved greedily. We identify submodular matrices as a special subclass of greedy matrices. Finally, we extend the notion of greediness to $\\{-1,0,+1\\}$-matrices. We present
Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaolin Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.
Justino, Júlia
2017-06-01
Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.
On the tensor Permutation Matrices
Rakotonirina, Christian
2011-01-01
A property that tensor permutation matrices permutate tensor product of rectangle matrices is shown. Some examples, in the particular case of tensor commutation matrices, for studying some linear matricial equations are given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Thomas
Bipartite graphs and digraphs are used to describe algebraic operations on a free matrix, including Moore-Penrose inversion, finding Schur complements, and normalized LU factorization. A description of the structural properties of a free matrix and its Moore-Penrose inverse is proved, and necessa...... and sufficient conditions are given for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a free matrix to be free. Several of these results are generalized with respect to a family of matrices that contains both the free matrices and the nearly reducible matrices....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Thomas
Bipartite graphs and digraphs are used to describe algebraic operations on a free matrix, including Moore-Penrose inversion, finding Schur complements, and normalized LU factorization. A description of the structural properties of a free matrix and its Moore-Penrose inverse is proved, and necessa...... and sufficient conditions are given for the Moore-Penrose inverse of a free matrix to be free. Several of these results are generalized with respect to a family of matrices that contains both the free matrices and the nearly reducible matrices....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Narendra Singh
2003-01-01
Assuming a relation between the quark mass matrices of the two sectors a unique solution can be obtained for the CKM ﬂavor mixing matrix. A numerical example is worked out which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.
On some problems of inorganic supramolecular chemistry.
Pervov, Vladislav S; Zotova, Anna E
2013-12-02
In this study, some features that distinguish inorganic supramolecular host-guest objects from traditional architectures are considered. Crystalline inorganic supramolecular structures are the basis for the development of new functional materials. Here, the possible changes in the mechanism of crystalline inorganic supramolecular structure self-organization at high interaction potentials are discussed. The cases of changes in the host structures and corresponding changes in the charge states under guest intercalation, as well as their impact on phase stability and stoichiometry are considered. It was demonstrated that the deviation from the geometrical and topological complementarity conditions may be due to the additional energy gain from forming inorganic supramolecular structures. It has been assumed that molecular recognition principles can be employed for the development of physicochemical analysis and interpretation of metastable states in inorganic crystalline alloys.
Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan
2016-10-01
In the existing study, a new, simple and low cost process for separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace level of inorganic Sb and Se from natural waters, beverages and foods using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS, is proposed. The process is based on charge transfer sensitized complex formations of Sb(III) and Se(IV) with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride (Neutral red, NRH(+)) in presence of pyrogallol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as both sensitivity enhancement and counter ion at pH 6.0. Under the optimized reagent conditions, the calibration curves were highly linear in the ranges of 8-300ngL(-1) and 12-250ngL(-1) (r(2)≥0.993) for Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The limits of detection were 2.45 and 3.60ngL(-1) with sensitivity enhancement factors of 155 and 120, respectively. The recovery rate was higher than 96% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.3% for five replicate measurements of 25, 75 and 150ngL(-1) Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs), and was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable speciation and determination of the contents of total Sb/Sb(III), and total Se/Se(IV) after UA-CPE of the pretreated sample matrices with and without pre-reduction with a mixture of l-cysteine and tartaric acid. Their Sb(V) and Se(VI) contents were calculated from the differences between total Sb and Sb(III) and/or total Se and Se(IV) levels.
Černý, Radovan
The separation of compounds by inorganic/organic boundary is of less importance for the structure determination by diffraction methods. More important for the diffraction is how the atoms build up larger building units and the crystal itself. A molecular/non-molecular boundary is therefore relevant for the choice of a structure determination method. Non-molecular compounds - also called extended solids - are constructed by bonds that extend "infinitely" in three dimensions through a crystal. These non-molecular crystals usually crystallize with higher symmetries, and atoms often occupy special Wyckoff positions. A review of actual methodology is given first, and then highlights and pitfalls of structure determination from powder diffraction, its problems and their solutions are shown and discussed using selected examples.
Matrices in Engineering Problems
Tobias, Marvin
2011-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo
Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.
Rawls, Rebecca
1981-01-01
Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)
Infinite matrices and sequence spaces
Cooke, Richard G
2014-01-01
This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi
Introduction to matrices and vectors
Schwartz, Jacob T
2001-01-01
In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.
Paraunitary matrices and group rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barry Hurley
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Design methods for paraunitary matrices from complete orthogonal sets of idempotents and related matrix structuresare presented. These include techniques for designing non-separable multidimensional paraunitary matrices. Properties of the structures are obtained and proofs given. Paraunitary matrices play a central role in signal processing, inparticular in the areas of filterbanks and wavelets.
Domcke, Valerie
2016-01-01
We study natural lepton mass matrices, obtained assuming the stability of physical flavour observables with respect to the variations of individual matrix elements. We identify all four possible stable neutrino textures from algebraic conditions on their entries. Two of them turn out to be uniquely associated to specific neutrino mass patterns. We then concentrate on the semi-degenerate pattern, corresponding to an overall neutrino mass scale within the reach of future experiments. In this context we show that i) the neutrino and charged lepton mixings and mass matrices are largely constrained by the requirement of stability, ii) naturalness considerations give a mild preference for the Majorana phase most relevant for neutrinoless double-beta decay, $\\alpha \\sim \\pi/2$, and iii) SU(5) unification allows to extend the implications of stability to the down quark sector. The above considerations would benefit from an experimental determination of the PMNS ratio $|U_{32}/U_{31}|$, i.e. of the Dirac phase $\\delta...
Bapat, Ravindra B
2014-01-01
This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...
Gil, José J; José, Ignacio San
2015-01-01
Singular Mueller matrices play an important role in polarization algebra and have peculiar properties that stem from the fact that either the medium exhibits maximum diattenuation and/or polarizance, or because its associated canonical depolarizer has the property of fully randomizing, the circular component (at least) of the states of polarization of light incident on it. The formal reasons for which the Mueller matrix M of a given medium is singular are systematically investigated, analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the serial decompositions and the characteristic ellipsoids of M. The analysis allows for a general classification and geometric representation of singular Mueller matrices, of potential usefulness to experimentalists dealing with such media.
Nanoceramic Matrices: Biomedical Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Willi Paul
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Natural bone consisted of calcium phosphate with nanometer-sized needle-like crystals of approximately 5-20 nm width by 60 nm length. Synthetic calcium phosphates and Bioglass are biocompatible and bioactive as they bond to bone and enhance bone tissue formation. This property is attributed to their similarity with the mineral phase of natural bone except its constituent particle size. Calcium phosphate ceramics have been used in dentistry and orthopedics for over 30 years because of these properties. Several studies indicated that incorporation of growth hormones into these ceramic matrices facilitated increased tissue regeneration. Nanophase calcium phosphates can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of natural tissues; can modulate enhanced osteoblast adhesion and resorption with long-term functionality of tissue engineered implants. This mini review discusses some of the recent developments in nanophase ceramic matrices utilized for bone tissue engineering.
On Random Correlation Matrices
1988-10-28
the spectral features of the resulting matrices are unknown. Method 2: Perturbation about a Mean This method is discussed by Marsaglia and Okin,10...complete regressor set. Finally, Marsaglia and Olkin (1984, Reference 10) give a rigorous mathematical description of Methods 2 through 4 described in the...short paper by Marsaglia 46 has a review of these early contributions, along with an improved method. More recent references are the pragmatic paper
Concentration for noncommutative polynomials in random matrices
2011-01-01
We present a concentration inequality for linear functionals of noncommutative polynomials in random matrices. Our hypotheses cover most standard ensembles, including Gaussian matrices, matrices with independent uniformly bounded entries and unitary or orthogonal matrices.
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Universality of Covariance Matrices
Pillai, Natesh S
2011-01-01
We prove the universality of covariance matrices of the form $H_{N \\times N} = {1 \\over N} \\tp{X}X$ where $[X]_{M \\times N}$ is a rectangular matrix with independent real valued entries $[x_{ij}]$ satisfying $\\E \\,x_{ij} = 0$ and $\\E \\,x^2_{ij} = {1 \\over M}$, $N, M\\to \\infty$. Furthermore it is assumed that these entries have sub-exponential tails. We will study the asymptotics in the regime $N/M = d_N \\in (0,\\infty), \\lim_{N\\to \\infty}d_N \
M Wedderburn, J H
1934-01-01
It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp
Truncations of random unitary matrices
Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen
1999-01-01
We analyze properties of non-hermitian matrices of size M constructed as square submatrices of unitary (orthogonal) random matrices of size N>M, distributed according to the Haar measure. In this way we define ensembles of random matrices and study the statistical properties of the spectrum located inside the unit circle. In the limit of large matrices, this ensemble is characterized by the ratio M/N. For the truncated CUE we derive analytically the joint density of eigenvalues from which easily all correlation functions are obtained. For N-M fixed and N--> infinity the universal resonance-width distribution with N-M open channels is recovered.
Criteria of the Nonsingular H-Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO jian; LIU Futi; HUANG Tingzhu
2004-01-01
The nonsingular H-matrices play an important role in the study of the matrix theory and the iterative method of systems of linear equations,etc.It has always been searched how to verify nonsingular H-matrices.In this paper,nonsingular H-matrices is studies by applying diagonally dominant matrices,irreducible diagonally dominant matrices and comparison matrices and several practical criteria for identifying nonsingular H-matrices are obtained.
Vashaghian, Mahshid; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Roovers, Jan-Paul; Smit, Theodoor Henri
2016-12-01
Electrospun matrices are proposed as an alternative for polypropylene meshes in reconstructive pelvic surgery. Here, we investigated the effect of fiber diameter on (1) the mechanical properties of electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-blended-poly(caprolactone) (PLGA/PCL) matrices; (2) cellular infiltration; and (3) the newly formed extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro. We compared electrospun matrices with 1- and 8 μm fiber diameter and used nonporous PLGA/PCL films as controls. The 8-μm matrices were almost twice as stiff as the 1-μm matrices with 1.38 and 0.66 MPa, respectively. Matrices had the same ultimate tensile strength, but with 80% the 1-μm matrices were much more ductile than the 8-μm ones (18%). Cells infiltrated deeper into the matrices with larger pores, but cellular activity was comparable on both substrates. New ECM was deposited faster on the electrospun samples, but after 2 and 4 weeks the amount of collagen was comparable with that on nonporous films. The ECM deposited on the 1-μm matrices, and the nonporous film was about three times stiffer than the ECM found on the 8-μm matrices. Cell behavior in terms of myofibroblastic differentiation and remodeling was similar on the 1-μm matrices and nonporous films, in comparison to that on the 8-μm matrices. We conclude that electrospinning enhances the integration of host cells as compared with a nonporous film of the same material. The 1-μm matrices result in better mechanical behavior and qualitatively better matrix production than the 8-μm matrices, but with limited cellular infiltration. These data are useful for designing electrospun matrices for the pelvic floor.
Generalisations of Fisher Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan Heavens
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.
Generalisations of Fisher Matrices
Heavens, Alan
2016-01-01
Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters - both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a) situations where the data (in the form of (x,y) pairs) have errors in both x and y; (b) modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c) Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI) - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d) extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.
Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.
VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyan Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.
Polynomial Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esmaeili, Morteza [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: emorteza@cc.iut.ac.ir; Esmaeili, Mostafa [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2009-09-15
A Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrix with Fibonacci polynomial determinant is referred to as a polynomial Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrix. Several classes of polynomial Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrices are introduced. The notion of two-dimensional Fibonacci polynomial array is introduced and three classes of polynomial Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrices satisfying this property are given.
Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices
Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria
2012-01-01
With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…
Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices
Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria
2012-01-01
With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…
Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis
Hackbusch, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...
Innovative Immobilization Matrices.
Alvarez, Gisela S; Echazu, Maria I A; Bertinatto, Jessica A; Catalano, Paolo N; Copello, Guillermo J; Foglia, Maria L; Gonzalez, Joaquin A; Giorgieri, Sergio A; Iglesias, Silvia L; Mebert, Andrea M; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Tuttolomondo, Maria V; Villanueva, Emilia E; Desimone, Martín F
2016-01-01
We present a brief survey of some of the recent work of Professor Luis E. Díaz, performed together with his students and collaborators at the University of Buenos Aires. Dr Luis E. Díaz has been involved in research on biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences solving scientific and industry problems for over 40 years until he passed away. Prof. Díaz scientific interests included various topics from NMR spectroscopy to biomedicine but fundamentally he focused in various aspects of chemistry (analytical, organic, inorganic and environmental). This is not a complete survey but a sampling of prominent projects related to sol-gel chemistry with a focus on some of his recent publications.
Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.
Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David
2011-02-01
Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.
Estimating sparse precision matrices
Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross
2016-08-01
We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.
Generating random density matrices
Zyczkowski, Karol; Nechita, Ion; Collins, Benoit
2010-01-01
We study various methods to generate ensembles of quantum density matrices of a fixed size N and analyze the corresponding probability distributions P(x), where x denotes the rescaled eigenvalue, x=N\\lambda. Taking a random pure state of a two-partite system and performing the partial trace over one subsystem one obtains a mixed state represented by a Wishart--like matrix W=GG^{\\dagger}, distributed according to the induced measure and characterized asymptotically, as N -> \\infty, by the Marchenko-Pastur distribution. Superposition of k random maximally entangled states leads to another family of explicitly derived distributions, describing singular values of the sum of k independent random unitaries. Taking a larger system composed of 2s particles, constructing $s$ random bi-partite states, performing the measurement into a product of s-1 maximally entangled states and performing the partial trace over the remaining subsystem we arrive at a random state characterized by the Fuss-Catalan distribution of order...
Graph-theoretical matrices in chemistry
Janezic, Dusanka; Nikolic, Sonja; Trinajstic, Nenad
2015-01-01
Graph-Theoretical Matrices in Chemistry presents a systematic survey of graph-theoretical matrices and highlights their potential uses. This comprehensive volume is an updated, extended version of a former bestseller featuring a series of mathematical chemistry monographs. In this edition, nearly 200 graph-theoretical matrices are included.This second edition is organized like the previous one-after an introduction, graph-theoretical matrices are presented in five chapters: The Adjacency Matrix and Related Matrices, Incidence Matrices, The Distance Matrix and Related Matrices, Special Matrices
Hadamard Matrices and Their Applications
Horadam, K J
2011-01-01
In Hadamard Matrices and Their Applications, K. J. Horadam provides the first unified account of cocyclic Hadamard matrices and their applications in signal and data processing. This original work is based on the development of an algebraic link between Hadamard matrices and the cohomology of finite groups that was discovered fifteen years ago. The book translates physical applications into terms a pure mathematician will appreciate, and theoretical structures into ones an applied mathematician, computer scientist, or communications engineer can adapt and use. The first half of the book expl
Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.
Lu, Yi
2006-08-25
Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.
Bayes linear adjustment for variance matrices
Wilkinson, Darren J
2008-01-01
We examine the problem of covariance belief revision using a geometric approach. We exhibit an inner-product space where covariance matrices live naturally --- a space of random real symmetric matrices. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability specifications.
Sulfur cathode hosted in porous organic polymeric matrices
Zhang, Zhengcheng; Weng, Wei; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil
2016-02-09
A composite material includes a porous organic polymer and an electrochemically active material, wherein the porous organic polymer contains a plurality of pores having a diameter of from about 0.1 nm to about 100 nm, and the electrochemically active material is disposed within the pores.
Multiplicative equations over commuting matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babai, L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary); Beals, R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Cai, Jin-Yi [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
We consider the solvability of the equation and generalizations, where the A{sub i} and B are given commuting matrices over an algebraic number field F. In the semigroup membership problem, the variables x{sub i} are constrained to be nonnegative integers. While this problem is NP-complete for variable k, we give a polynomial time algorithm if k is fixed. In the group membership problem, the matrices are assumed to be invertible, and the variables x{sub i} may take on negative values. In this case we give a polynomial time algorithm for variable k and give an explicit description of the set of all solutions (as an affine lattice). The special case of 1 x 1 matrices was recently solved by Guoqiang Ge; we heavily rely on his results.
Free probability and random matrices
Mingo, James A
2017-01-01
This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.
Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry
Rawls, Rebecca
1978-01-01
This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...
Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purificação Coelho M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.
Iterative methods for Toeplitz-like matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huckle, T. [Universitaet Wurzburg (Germany)
1994-12-31
In this paper the author will give a survey on iterative methods for solving linear equations with Toeplitz matrices, Block Toeplitz matrices, Toeplitz plus Hankel matrices, and matrices with low displacement rank. He will treat the following subjects: (1) optimal (w)-circulant preconditioners is a generalization of circulant preconditioners; (2) Optimal implementation of circulant-like preconditioners in the complex and real case; (3) preconditioning of near-singular matrices; what kind of preconditioners can be used in this case; (4) circulant preconditioning for more general classes of Toeplitz matrices; what can be said about matrices with coefficients that are not l{sub 1}-sequences; (5) preconditioners for Toeplitz least squares problems, for block Toeplitz matrices, and for Toeplitz plus Hankel matrices.
Sign pattern matrices that admit M-, N-, P- or inverse M-matrices
Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.
2009-01-01
In this paper we identify the sign pattern matrices that occur among the N–matrices, the P–matrices and the M–matrices. We also address to the class of inverse M–matrices and the related admissibility of sign pattern matrices problem. Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) Spanish DGI grant number MTM2007-64477
Hamiltonian formalism and symplectic matrices; Formalisme Hamiltonien et Matrices symplectiques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertrand, P. [Project SPIRAL, Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds, BP 5027, Bd. H. Becquerel, 14076 Caen cedex 5 (France)
1997-12-31
This work consists of five sections. The first one introduces the Lagrangian formalism starting from the fundamental equation of the dynamics. The sections 2 to 4 are devoted to the Hamiltonian formalism and to symplectic matrices. Lie algebra and groups were avoided, although these notions are very useful if higher order effects have to be investigated. The paper is dealing with the properties of the transfer matrices describing different electromagnetic objects like, for instance: dipoles, quadrupoles, cyclotrons, electrostatic deflectors, spiral inflectors, etc. A remarkable property of the first order exact transfer matrices, is the symplecticity which in case of a 3-D object, described in 6-D phase space, provides 15 non-linear equations relating the matrix coefficients. The symplectic matrix ensemble forms an multiplication non-commuting group, consequently the product of n symplectic matrices is still a symplectic matrix. This permits the global description of a system of n objects. Thus, the notion symplecticity is fundamental for the selection of a given electromagnetic object, for its optimization and insertion in a line of beam transfer. The symplectic relations indicate actually that if a given beam characteristic is modified, then another characteristic will be affected and as a result the spurious effects can be limited when a line is to be adjusted. The last section is devoted to the application of the elaborated procedure to describe the drift of non-relativistic and relativistic particles, the dipole and the Muller inflector. Hopefully, this elementary Hamiltonian formalism will help in the familiarization with the symplectic matrices extensively utilized at GANIL 10 refs.
Preparation of immunogen-reduced and biocompatible extracellular matrices from porcine liver.
Park, Kyung-Mee; Park, Sung-Min; Yang, Se-Ran; Hong, Seok-Ho; Woo, Heung-Myong
2013-02-01
Decellularized biologic matrices are plausible biomedical materials for the bioengineering in liver transplantation. However, one of the concerns for safe medical application is the lack of objective assessment of the immunogen within the materials and the in vivo immune responses to the matrices. The purpose of this study was the production of immunogen-reduced and biocompatible matrices from porcine liver. In the present study, 0.1% SDS solution was effective for removing DNA fragments and sequences encoding possible immunogenic and viral antigens within the matrices. The PCR analysis showed that galactose-α-1,3 galactose β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (1,3 gal), swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), and porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) were completely removed in the matrices. Collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were preserved over 63%-71%, respectively, compared to those of native liver. The implanted decellularized tissues showed minimal host responses and naturally degraded within 10 weeks. In this study, we produced immunogen-reduced and biocompatible extracellular matrices from porcine liver. Although future investigations would be required to determine the mechanism of the host reaction, this study could provide useful information of porcine liver-derived biologic matrices for liver researches.
Fractal Structure of Random Matrices
Hussein, M S
2000-01-01
A multifractal analysis is performed on the universality classes of random matrices and the transition ones.Our results indicate that the eigenvector probability distribution is a linear sum of two chi-squared distribution throughout the transition between the universality ensembles of random matrix theory and Poisson .
Open string fields as matrices
Kishimoto, Isao; Masuda, Toru; Takahashi, Tomohiko; Takemoto, Shoko
2015-03-01
We show that the action expanded around Erler-Maccaferri's N D-brane solution describes the N+1 D-brane system where one D-brane disappears due to tachyon condensation. String fields on multi-branes can be regarded as block matrices of a string field on a single D-brane in the same way as matrix theories.
Open String Fields as Matrices
Kishimoto, Isao; Takahashi, Tomohiko; Takemoto, Shoko
2014-01-01
We show that the action expanded around Erler-Maccaferri's N D-branes solution describes the N+1 D-branes system where one D-brane disappears due to tachyon condensation. String fields on the multi-branes can be regarded as block matrices of a string field on a single D-brane in the same way as matrix theories.
Arnold's Projective Plane and -Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Uchino
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We will explain Arnold's 2-dimensional (shortly, 2D projective geometry (Arnold, 2005 by means of lattice theory. It will be shown that the projection of the set of nontrivial triangular -matrices is the pencil of tangent lines of a quadratic curve on Arnold's projective plane.
Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs
Huang, Danrun
2005-01-01
General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…
Scattering matrices with block symmetries
Życzkowski, Karol
1997-01-01
Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.
Making almost commuting matrices commute
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Suppose two Hermitian matrices A, B almost commute ({parallel}[A,B]{parallel} {<=} {delta}). Are they close to a commuting pair of Hermitian matrices, A', B', with {parallel}A-A'{parallel},{parallel}B-B'{parallel} {<=} {epsilon}? A theorem of H. Lin shows that this is uniformly true, in that for every {epsilon} > 0 there exists a {delta} > 0, independent of the size N of the matrices, for which almost commuting implies being close to a commuting pair. However, this theorem does not specifiy how {delta} depends on {epsilon}. We give uniform bounds relating {delta} and {epsilon}. The proof is constructive, giving an explicit algorithm to construct A' and B'. We provide tighter bounds in the case of block tridiagonal and tridiagnonal matrices. Within the context of quantum measurement, this implies an algorithm to construct a basis in which we can make a projective measurement that approximately measures two approximately commuting operators simultaneously. Finally, we comment briefly on the case of approximately measuring three or more approximately commuting operators using POVMs (positive operator-valued measures) instead of projective measurements.
Skills Underlying Coloured Progressive Matrices
Kirby, J. R.; Das, J. P.
1978-01-01
Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and a battery of ability tests were administered to a sample of 104 male fourth graders for purposes of investigating the relationships between 2 previously identified subscales of the Raven and the ability tests. Results indicated use of a spatial strategy and to a lesser extent, use of reasoning, indicating…
The diagonalization of cubic matrices
Cocolicchio, D.; Viggiano, M.
2000-08-01
This paper is devoted to analysing the problem of the diagonalization of cubic matrices. We extend the familiar algebraic approach which is based on the Cardano formulae. We rewrite the complex roots of the associated resolvent secular equation in terms of transcendental functions and we derive the diagonalizing matrix.
Spectral problems for operator matrices
Bátkai, A.; Binding, P.; Dijksma, A.; Hryniv, R.; Langer, H.
2005-01-01
We study spectral properties of 2 × 2 block operator matrices whose entries are unbounded operators between Banach spaces and with domains consisting of vectors satisfying certain relations between their components. We investigate closability in the product space, essential spectra and generation of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloísa Berbel Manaia
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张晓东; 杨尚骏
2001-01-01
本文探讨矩阵的一个重要子类（F-矩阵）的性质.F-矩阵包含以下在理论及应用中都很重要的三个矩阵类：对称正半定矩阵，M-矩阵和完全非负矩阵.我们首先证明F-矩阵的一些有趣性，特别是给出n-阶F-矩阵A满足detA=an…ann的充分必要条件.接着研究逆F-矩阵的性质，特别是证明逆M-矩阵和逆完全非负矩阵都是F-矩阵，从而满足Fischer不等式.最后我们引入F-矩阵一个子类:W-矩阵并证明逆W-矩阵也是F-矩阵.%We investigate a class of P0-matrices, called F-matrices, whichcontains well known three important classes of matrices satisfying Hadamard's inequality and Fischer's inequality-positive semidefinite symmetric matrices, M-matrices and totally nonnegative matrices. Firstly we prove some interesting properties of F-matrices and give the necessary and sufficient condition for an n×n F-matrix to satisfy det A=a11…ann. Then we investigate inverse F-matrices and prove both inverse M-matrices and inverse totally nonnegative matrices are F-matrices. Finally we introduce a new class of F-matrices, i.e. W-matrices and prove both W-matrices and inverse W-matrices are also F-matrices.
STABILITY FOR SEVERAL TYPES OF INTERVAL MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NianXiaohong; GaoJintai
1999-01-01
The robust stability for some types of tlme-varying interval raatrices and nonlineartime-varying interval matrices is considered and some sufficient conditions for robust stability of such interval matrices are given, The main results of this paper are only related to the verticesset of a interval matrices, and therefore, can be easily applied to test robust stability of interval matrices. Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the results.
Eigenvalue variance bounds for covariance matrices
Dallaporta, Sandrine
2013-01-01
This work is concerned with finite range bounds on the variance of individual eigenvalues of random covariance matrices, both in the bulk and at the edge of the spectrum. In a preceding paper, the author established analogous results for Wigner matrices and stated the results for covariance matrices. They are proved in the present paper. Relying on the LUE example, which needs to be investigated first, the main bounds are extended to complex covariance matrices by means of the Tao, Vu and Wan...
The Bessel Numbers and Bessel Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sheng Liang YANG; Zhan Ke QIAO
2011-01-01
In this paper,using exponential Riordan arrays,we investigate the Bessel numbers and Bessel matrices.By exploring links between the Bessel matrices,the Stirling matrices and the degenerate Stirling matrices,we show that the Bessel numbers are special case of the degenerate Stirling numbers,and derive explicit formulas for the Bessel numbers in terms of the Stirling numbers and binomial coefficients.
Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian
2009-01-01
Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|matrices...... of reciprocal Fibonacci numbers called Filbert matrices. We find a formula for the entries of the inverse quantum Hilbert matrix....
Simultaneous diagonalization of two quaternion matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZhouJianhua
2003-01-01
The simultaneous diagonalization by congruence of pairs of Hermitian quatemion matrices is discussed. The problem is reduced to a parallel one on complex matrices by using the complex adjoint matrix related to each quatemion matrix. It is proved that any two semi-positive definite Hermitian quatemion matrices can be simultaneously diagonalized by congruence.
Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.
Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie
2010-08-23
The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.
Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.
Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm
2016-10-25
Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β2-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum).
Bombardelli, Diego
2016-08-01
In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU(2), SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu models. In loving memory of Lilia Grandi.
Rotationally invariant ensembles of integrable matrices.
Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Shastry, B Sriram; Scaramazza, Jasen A
2016-05-01
We construct ensembles of random integrable matrices with any prescribed number of nontrivial integrals and formulate integrable matrix theory (IMT)-a counterpart of random matrix theory (RMT) for quantum integrable models. A type-M family of integrable matrices consists of exactly N-M independent commuting N×N matrices linear in a real parameter. We first develop a rotationally invariant parametrization of such matrices, previously only constructed in a preferred basis. For example, an arbitrary choice of a vector and two commuting Hermitian matrices defines a type-1 family and vice versa. Higher types similarly involve a random vector and two matrices. The basis-independent formulation allows us to derive the joint probability density for integrable matrices, similar to the construction of Gaussian ensembles in the RMT.
Rotationally invariant ensembles of integrable matrices
Yuzbashyan, Emil A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Scaramazza, Jasen A.
2016-05-01
We construct ensembles of random integrable matrices with any prescribed number of nontrivial integrals and formulate integrable matrix theory (IMT)—a counterpart of random matrix theory (RMT) for quantum integrable models. A type-M family of integrable matrices consists of exactly N -M independent commuting N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter. We first develop a rotationally invariant parametrization of such matrices, previously only constructed in a preferred basis. For example, an arbitrary choice of a vector and two commuting Hermitian matrices defines a type-1 family and vice versa. Higher types similarly involve a random vector and two matrices. The basis-independent formulation allows us to derive the joint probability density for integrable matrices, similar to the construction of Gaussian ensembles in the RMT.
Geological and Inorganic Materials.
Jackson, L. L.; And Others
1989-01-01
Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…
de Wit, Patrick
2017-01-01
Inorganic porous hollow fibers (IPHF) are interesting for various applications that can benefit from a high surface-area-to-volume ratio. Examples include membranes, catalysts, electrodes, and combinations of these. The thesis starts with providing an overview of conceivable materials of which IPHF
Flavonoids as matrices for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of transition metal complexes
Petkovic, Marijana; Petrovic, Biljana; Savic, Jasmina; Bugarcic, Zivadin D.; Dimitric-Markovic, Jasmina; Momic, Tatjana; Vasic, Vesna
2010-02-01
Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a suitable method for the analysis of inorganic and organic compounds and biomolecules. This makes MALDI-TOF MS convenient for monitoring the interaction of metallo-drugs with biomolecules. Results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin are suitable for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Pt(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Ru(III) complexes, giving different signal-to-noise ratios of the analyte peak. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes acquired with these flavonoid matrices are easy to interpret and have some advantages over the application of other commonly used matrices: a low number of matrix peaks are detectable and the coordinative metal-ligand bond is, in most cases, preserved. On the other hand, flavonoids do not act as typical matrices, as their excess is not required for the acquisition of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes.
Projection Matrices, Generalized Inverse Matrices, and Singular Value Decomposition
Yanai, Haruo; Takane, Yoshio
2011-01-01
Aside from distribution theory, projections and the singular value decomposition (SVD) are the two most important concepts for understanding the basic mechanism of multivariate analysis. The former underlies the least squares estimation in regression analysis, which is essentially a projection of one subspace onto another, and the latter underlies principal component analysis, which seeks to find a subspace that captures the largest variability in the original space. This book is about projections and SVD. A thorough discussion of generalized inverse (g-inverse) matrices is also given because
Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.
Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro
2004-05-01
Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.
Random matrices and Riemann hypothesis
Pierre, Christian
2011-01-01
The curious connection between the spacings of the eigenvalues of random matrices and the corresponding spacings of the non trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function is analyzed on the basis of the geometric dynamical global program of Langlands whose fundamental structures are shifted quantized conjugacy class representatives of bilinear algebraic semigroups.The considered symmetry behind this phenomenology is the differential bilinear Galois semigroup shifting the product,right by left,of automorphism semigroups of cofunctions and functions on compact transcendental quanta.
Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta
2014-01-01
Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...
Cosmetic crossings and Seifert matrices
Balm, Cheryl; Kalfagianni, Efstratia; Powell, Mark
2011-01-01
We study cosmetic crossings in knots of genus one and obtain obstructions to such crossings in terms of knot invariants determined by Seifert matrices. In particular, we prove that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for twisted Whitehead doubles of non-cable knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 12 crossings.
Superalgebraic representation of Dirac matrices
Monakhov, V. V.
2016-01-01
We consider a Clifford extension of the Grassmann algebra in which operators are constructed from products of Grassmann variables and derivatives with respect to them. We show that this algebra contains a subalgebra isomorphic to a matrix algebra and that it additionally contains operators of a generalized matrix algebra that mix states with different numbers of Grassmann variables. We show that these operators are extensions of spin-tensors to the case of superspace. We construct a representation of Dirac matrices in the form of operators of a generalized matrix algebra.
Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices
Deift, Percy
2000-01-01
This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.
Problem of hydroxyapatite dispersion in polymer matrices: a review.
Supová, Monika
2009-06-01
This review summarizes recent work on manufacturing biocomposites suitable for bone tissue engineering. There is a great need to engineer multi-phase (i.e. composite) materials that combine the advantages exhibited by each component of the material, with a structure and composition similar to that of natural bone. The discussion concentrates on the preparation of nanocomposites containing hydroxyapatite particles (one of the most widely used bioceramics materials) with polymer matrices. Special attention is paid to the preparation of nanocomposites with individual (non-aggregated) nanoparticles because this is a key problem in nanotechnology industrialization. Controlling the mixing between so two dissimilar phases is a critical challenge in the design of these inorganic-organic systems. Several approaches that may be applied to overcome this problem will be described in this review.
Inorganic Analytical Chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.
The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...
Searching for partial Hadamard matrices
Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix; Güemes, María-Belén; Martín, Elena; Osuna, Amparo
2012-01-01
Three algorithms looking for pretty large partial Hadamard matrices are described. Here "large" means that hopefully about a third of a Hadamard matrix (which is the best asymptotic result known so far, [dLa00]) is achieved. The first one performs some kind of local exhaustive search, and consequently is expensive from the time consuming point of view. The second one comes from the adaptation of the best genetic algorithm known so far searching for cliques in a graph, due to Singh and Gupta [SG06]. The last one consists in another heuristic search, which prioritizes the required processing time better than the final size of the partial Hadamard matrix to be obtained. In all cases, the key idea is characterizing the adjacency properties of vertices in a particular subgraph G_t of Ito's Hadamard Graph Delta (4t) [Ito85], since cliques of order m in G_t can be seen as (m+3)*4t partial Hadamard matrices.
A concise guide to complex Hadamard matrices
Tadej, W; Tadej, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol
2005-01-01
Complex Hadamard matrices, consisting of unimodular entries with arbitrary phases, play an important role in the theory of quantum information. We review basic properties of complex Hadamard matrices and present a catalogue of inequivalent cases known for dimension N=2,...,16. In particular, we explicitly write down some families of complex Hadamard matrices for N=12,14 and 16, which we could not find in the existing literature.
Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems
Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P
1966-01-01
Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late
Matrices with totally positive powers and their generalizations
Kushel, Olga Y.
2013-01-01
In this paper, eventually totally positive matrices (i.e. matrices all whose powers starting with some point are totally positive) are studied. We present a new approach to eventual total positivity which is based on the theory of eventually positive matrices. We mainly focus on the spectral properties of such matrices. We also study eventually J-sign-symmetric matrices and matrices, whose powers are P-matrices.
A NOTE ON THE STOCHASTIC ROOTS OF STOCHASTIC MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi-Ming HE; Eldon GUNN
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices. All stochastic roots of 2×2 stochastic matrices are found explicitly. A method based on characteristic polynomial of matrix is developed to find all real root matrices that are functions of the original 3×3 matrix, including all possible (function) stochastic root matrices. In addition, we comment on some numerical methods for computing stochastic root matrices of stochastic matrices.
Understanding the Carbon Isotopic Signature in Complex Environmental Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudio Natali
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Elemental and isotopic analyses of carbon in environmental matrices usually integrate multiple sources having distinct concentration (wt% and 13C/12C isotopic ratio. Interpretation necessarily needs the characterization of the diverse end-members that usually are constituted by carbonate, organic and elemental components. In this view, we developed a routine protocol based on the analytical coupling of elementary and isotopic compositions that is able to discriminate the inorganic (TIC and organic (TOC contributions to the total carbon (TC content. The procedure is only based on thermal destabilization of the different carbon species and has been successfully applied on different environmental matrices (rocks, soils, biological samples with a mean C elemental and isotopic recovery of 99% (SD = 3% and -0.3‰ (SD = 0.3‰, respectively. The thermal speciation lead us to define precise isotopic end-members whose are unaffected by any chemical treatment of the samples. The approach allows accurate mass balance calculation that represents a powerful tool to quantify the distinct carbon species.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Lizhen; CHEN Kefei
2004-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the structure of the orders of matrices (mod n), and present the relation between the orders of matrices over finite fields and their Jordan normal forms. Then we generalize 2-dimensional Arnold transformation matrix to two types of n-dimensional Arnold transformation matrices: A-type Arnold transformation matrix and B-type transformation matrix, and analyze their orders and other properties based on our earlier results about the orders of matrices.
The lower bounds for the rank of matrices and some sufficient conditions for nonsingular matrices.
Wang, Dafei; Zhang, Xumei
2017-01-01
The paper mainly discusses the lower bounds for the rank of matrices and sufficient conditions for nonsingular matrices. We first present a new estimation for [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] is an eigenvalue of a matrix) by using the partitioned matrices. By using this estimation and inequality theory, the new and more accurate estimations for the lower bounds for the rank are deduced. Furthermore, based on the estimation for the rank, some sufficient conditions for nonsingular matrices are obtained.
Recent advances in inorganic materials for LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.
Shi, C Y; Deng, C H
2016-05-10
In this review, various inorganic materials were summarized for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Due to its tremendous advantages, such as simplicity, high speed, high throughput, small analyte volumes and tolerance towards salts, LDI-MS has been widely used in various analytes. During the ionization process, a suitable agent is required to assist the ionization, such as an appropriate matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). However, it is normally difficult to analyze small molecules with the MALDI technique because conventional organic matrices may produce matrix-related peaks in the low molecular-weight region, which limits the detection of small molecules (m/z molecules. These inorganic materials can transfer energy and improve the ionization efficiency of analytes. In addition, functionalized inorganic materials can act as both an adsorbent and an agent in the enrichment and ionization of small molecules. In this review, we mainly focus on present advances in inorganic materials for the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules in the last five years, which contains the synthetic protocols of novel inorganic materials and the detailed results achieved by inorganic materials. On the other hand, this review also summarizes the application of inorganic materials as adsorbents in the selective enrichment of small molecules, which provides a new field for the application of inorganic materials.
A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun
2008-01-01
In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.
A partial classification of primes in the positive matrices and in the doubly stochastic matrices
G. Picci; J.M. van den Hof; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)
1995-01-01
textabstractThe algebraic structure of the set of square positive matrices is that of a semi-ring. The concept of a prime in the positive matrices has been introduced. A few examples of primes in the positive matrices are known but there is no general classification. In this paper a partial
Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knight Rob
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad
Dynamical invariance for random matrices
Unterberger, Jeremie
2016-01-01
We consider a general Langevin dynamics for the one-dimensional N-particle Coulomb gas with confining potential $V$ at temperature $\\beta$. These dynamics describe for $\\beta=2$ the time evolution of the eigenvalues of $N\\times N$ random Hermitian matrices. The equilibrium partition function -- equal to the normalization constant of the Laughlin wave function in fractional quantum Hall effect -- is known to satisfy an infinite number of constraints called Virasoro or loop constraints. We introduce here a dynamical generating function on the space of random trajectories which satisfies a large class of constraints of geometric origin. We focus in this article on a subclass induced by the invariance under the Schr\\"odinger-Virasoro algebra.
Wound care matrices for chronic leg ulcers: role in therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sano H
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Hitomi Sano,1 Sachio Kouraba,2 Rei Ogawa11Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sapporo Wound Care and Anti-Aging Laboratory, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Chronic leg ulcers are a significant health care concern. Although deep wounds are usually treated by flap transfers, the operation is invasive and associates with serious complications. Skin grafts may be a less invasive means of covering wounds. However, skin grafts cannot survive on deep defects unless high-quality granulation tissue can first be generated in the defects. Technologies that generate high-quality granulation tissue are needed. One possibility is to use wound care matrices, which are bioengineered skin and soft tissue substitutes. Because they all support the healing process by providing a premade extracellular matrix material, these matrices can be termed “extracellular matrix replacement therapies”. The matrix promotes wound healing by acting as a scaffold for regeneration, attracting host cytokines to the wound, stimulating wound epithelialization and angiogenesis, and providing the wound bed with bioactive components. This therapy has lasting benefits as it not only helps large skin defects to be closed with thin skin grafts or patch grafts but also restores cosmetic appearance and proper function. In particular, since it acts as a layer that slides over the subcutaneous fascia, it provides skin elasticity, tear resistance, and texture. Several therapies and products employing wound care matrices for wound management have been developed recently. Some of these can be applied in combination with negative pressure wound therapy or beneficial materials that promote wound healing and can be incorporated into the matrix. To date, the clinical studies on these approaches suggest that wound care matrices promote spontaneous wound healing or can be used to facilitate skin grafting, thereby avoiding the need to use
Inorganic Analytical Chemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.
The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W......, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi. The subjects of compound identification and bringing insoluble compounds in solution by alcaline melt digestion are also treated. A high number of small experiments are described....
Tensor Products of Random Unitary Matrices
Tkocz, Tomasz; Kus, Marek; Zeitouni, Ofer; Zyczkowski, Karol
2012-01-01
Tensor products of M random unitary matrices of size N from the circular unitary ensemble are investigated. We show that the spectral statistics of the tensor product of random matrices becomes Poissonian if M=2, N become large or M become large and N=2.
Products of Generalized Stochastic Sarymsakov Matrices
Xia, Weiguo; Liu, Ji; Cao, Ming; Johansson, Karl; Basar, Tamer
2015-01-01
In the set of stochastic, indecomposable, aperiodic (SIA) matrices, the class of stochastic Sarymsakov matrices is the largest known subset (i) that is closed under matrix multiplication and (ii) the inﬁnitely long left-product of the elements from a compact subset converges to a rank-one matrix. In
Soluble Human Intestinal Lactoferrin Receptor: Ca(2+)-Dependent Binding to Sepharose-Based Matrices.
Oshima, Yuta; Seki, Kohei; Shibuya, Masataka; Naka, Yuki; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Atsushi
2016-01-01
A soluble form of human intestinal lactoferrin receptor (shLFR) is identical to human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1), a galactofuranose-binding protein that acts as a host defense against invading pathogenic microorganisms. We found that recombinant shLFR, expressed in mammalian cells (CHO DG44, COS-1, and RK13), binds tightly to Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (FF)-based matrices in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This binding of shLFR to Sepharose 4 FF-based matrices was inhibited by excess D-galactose, but not by D-glucose, suggesting that shLFR recognizes repeating units of α-1,6-linked D-galactose in Sepharose 4 FF. Furthermore, shLFR could bind to both Sepharose 4B- and Sepharose 6B-based matrices that were not crosslinked in a similar manner as to Sepharose 4 FF-based matrices. Therefore, shLFR (hITLN-1) binds to Sepharose-based matrices in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This binding property is most likely related to the ability, as host defense lectins, to recognize sepharose (agarobiose)-like structures present on the surface of invading pathogenic microorganisms.
Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)
SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase) The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.
Abel-Grassmann's Groupoids of Modulo Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Rashad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The binary operation of usual addition is associative in all matrices over R. However, a binary operation of addition in matrices over Z n of a nonassociative structures of AG-groupoids and AG-groups are defined and investigated here. It is shown that both these structures exist for every integer n > 3. Various properties of these structures are explored like: (i Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z n is transitively commutative AG-groupoid and is a cancellative AG-groupoid ifn is prime. (ii Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z n of Type-II is a T3-AG-groupoid. (iii An AG-groupoid of matrices over Z n ; G nAG(t,u, is an AG-band, ift+ u=1(mod n.
Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.
Ashby, M T
2008-10-01
The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo
Vibrational relaxation of guest and host in mixed molecular crystals
Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.
1988-02-01
Vibrational relaxation (VR) of dilute impurity molecules (naphthalene, anthracene) in crystalline host matrices (durene, naphthalene) is studied with the ps photon echo technique. The results obtained by echoes on vibrations in the electronically excited state are compared to previous ps time delayed coherent Raman studies of ground state vibrations of the pure host matrix. The relaxation channels for guest and host, and the effects of molecular and crystal structure on VR rates are determined.
In Situ Fabrication of ZnS Semiconductor Nanoparticles in Layered Organic-inorganic Solid Template
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bao Lin ZHU; Xiao CHEN; Zhen Ming SUI; Li Mei XU; Chun Jie YANG; Ji Kuan ZHAO; Jie LIU
2004-01-01
Ordered ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles were in situ synthesized in metal halide perovskite organic/inorganic layered hybrids (CnH2n+1NH3)2ZnCl4 (n=10 and 12) by reaction of their spin-casting films with H2S gas. Transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the morphology and the structure of formed nanoparticles. Obtained results indicate an effective way to incorporate functional inorganic nanoparticles into structured organic matrices.
On Decompositions of Matrices over Distributive Lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yizhi Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Let L be a distributive lattice and Mn,q (L(Mn(L, resp. the semigroup (semiring, resp. of n × q (n × n, resp. matrices over L. In this paper, we show that if there is a subdirect embedding from distributive lattice L to the direct product ∏i=1mLi of distributive lattices L1,L2, …,Lm, then there will be a corresponding subdirect embedding from the matrix semigroup Mn,q(L (semiring Mn(L, resp. to semigroup ∏i=1mMn,q(Li (semiring ∏i=1mMn(Li, resp.. Further, it is proved that a matrix over a distributive lattice can be decomposed into the sum of matrices over some of its special subchains. This generalizes and extends the decomposition theorems of matrices over finite distributive lattices, chain semirings, fuzzy semirings, and so forth. Finally, as some applications, we present a method to calculate the indices and periods of the matrices over a distributive lattice and characterize the structures of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over it. We translate the characterizations of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over a distributive lattice into the corresponding ones of the binary Boolean cases, which also generalize the corresponding structures of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over general Boolean algebras, chain semirings, fuzzy semirings, and so forth.
Compressed Adjacency Matrices: Untangling Gene Regulatory Networks.
Dinkla, K; Westenberg, M A; van Wijk, J J
2012-12-01
We present a novel technique-Compressed Adjacency Matrices-for visualizing gene regulatory networks. These directed networks have strong structural characteristics: out-degrees with a scale-free distribution, in-degrees bound by a low maximum, and few and small cycles. Standard visualization techniques, such as node-link diagrams and adjacency matrices, are impeded by these network characteristics. The scale-free distribution of out-degrees causes a high number of intersecting edges in node-link diagrams. Adjacency matrices become space-inefficient due to the low in-degrees and the resulting sparse network. Compressed adjacency matrices, however, exploit these structural characteristics. By cutting open and rearranging an adjacency matrix, we achieve a compact and neatly-arranged visualization. Compressed adjacency matrices allow for easy detection of subnetworks with a specific structure, so-called motifs, which provide important knowledge about gene regulatory networks to domain experts. We summarize motifs commonly referred to in the literature, and relate them to network analysis tasks common to the visualization domain. We show that a user can easily find the important motifs in compressed adjacency matrices, and that this is hard in standard adjacency matrix and node-link diagrams. We also demonstrate that interaction techniques for standard adjacency matrices can be used for our compressed variant. These techniques include rearrangement clustering, highlighting, and filtering.
Selective inorganic thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others
1995-05-01
This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.
Structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts
Krivovichev, Sergey V
2009-01-01
Inorganic oxysalts are chemical compounds that contain oxygen - the most abundant element in the Earth's core. This book is the first systematic survey of structures of inorganic oxysalts considered from the viewpoint of modern scientific methods of description and visualisation of complex atomic arrangements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Arav
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Let H be an m×n real matrix and let Zi be the set of column indices of the zero entries of row i of H. Then the conditions |Zk∩(∪i=1k−1Zi|≤1 for all k (2≤k≤m are called the (row Zero Position Conditions (ZPCs. If H satisfies the ZPC, then H is said to be a (row ZPC matrix. If HT satisfies the ZPC, then H is said to be a column ZPC matrix. The real matrix H is said to have a zero cycle if H has a sequence of at least four zero entries of the form hi1j1,hi1j2,hi2j2,hi2j3,…,hikjk,hikj1 in which the consecutive entries alternatively share the same row or column index (but not both, and the last entry has one common index with the first entry. Several connections between the ZPC and the nonexistence of zero cycles are established. In particular, it is proved that a matrix H has no zero cycle if and only if there are permutation matrices P and Q such that PHQ is a row ZPC matrix and a column ZPC matrix.
Random Matrices and Lyapunov Coefficients Regularity
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2017-02-01
Analyticity and other properties of the largest or smallest Lyapunov exponent of a product of real matrices with a "cone property" are studied as functions of the matrices entries, as long as they vary without destroying the cone property. The result is applied to stability directions, Lyapunov coefficients and Lyapunov exponents of a class of products of random matrices and to dynamical systems. The results are not new and the method is the main point of this work: it is is based on the classical theory of the Mayer series in Statistical Mechanics of rarefied gases.
Statistical properties of random density matrices
Sommers, H J; Sommers, Hans-Juergen; Zyczkowski, Karol
2004-01-01
Statistical properties of ensembles of random density matrices are investigated. We compute traces and von Neumann entropies averaged over ensembles of random density matrices distributed according to the Bures measure. The eigenvalues of the random density matrices are analyzed: we derive the eigenvalue distribution for the Bures ensemble which is shown to be broader then the quarter--circle distribution characteristic of the Hilbert--Schmidt ensemble. For measures induced by partial tracing over the environment we compute exactly the two-point eigenvalue correlation function.
Statistical properties of random density matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Campus Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Zyczkowski, Karol [Instytut Fizyki im. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)
2004-09-03
Statistical properties of ensembles of random density matrices are investigated. We compute traces and von Neumann entropies averaged over ensembles of random density matrices distributed according to the Bures measure. The eigenvalues of the random density matrices are analysed: we derive the eigenvalue distribution for the Bures ensemble which is shown to be broader then the quarter-circle distribution characteristic of the Hilbert-Schmidt ensemble. For measures induced by partial tracing over the environment we compute exactly the two-point eigenvalue correlation function.
Direct dialling of Haar random unitary matrices
Russell, Nicholas J.; Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Laing, Anthony
2017-03-01
Random unitary matrices find a number of applications in quantum information science, and are central to the recently defined boson sampling algorithm for photons in linear optics. We describe an operationally simple method to directly implement Haar random unitary matrices in optical circuits, with no requirement for prior or explicit matrix calculations. Our physically motivated and compact representation directly maps independent probability density functions for parameters in Haar random unitary matrices, to optical circuit components. We go on to extend the results to the case of random unitaries for qubits.
A method for generating realistic correlation matrices
Garcia, Stephan Ramon
2011-01-01
Simulating sample correlation matrices is important in many areas of statistics. Approaches such as generating normal data and finding their sample correlation matrix or generating random uniform $[-1,1]$ deviates as pairwise correlations both have drawbacks. We develop an algorithm for adding noise, in a highly controlled manner, to general correlation matrices. In many instances, our method yields results which are superior to those obtained by simply simulating normal data. Moreover, we demonstrate how our general algorithm can be tailored to a number of different correlation models. Finally, using our results with an existing clustering algorithm, we show that simulating correlation matrices can help assess statistical methodology.
The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices
Pestana, J.
2014-01-01
Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S
2017-08-21
The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2016-01-15
In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.
THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen
2006-01-01
In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.
Sufficient Conditions of Nonsingular H-matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王广彬; 洪振杰; 高中喜
2004-01-01
From the concept of a diagonally dominant matrix, two sufficient conditions of nonsingular H-matrices were obtained in this paper. An example was given to show that these results improve the known results.
Optimizing the Evaluation of Finite Element Matrices
Kirby, Robert C; Logg, Anders; Scott, L Ridgway; 10.1137/040607824
2012-01-01
Assembling stiffness matrices represents a significant cost in many finite element computations. We address the question of optimizing the evaluation of these matrices. By finding redundant computations, we are able to significantly reduce the cost of building local stiffness matrices for the Laplace operator and for the trilinear form for Navier-Stokes. For the Laplace operator in two space dimensions, we have developed a heuristic graph algorithm that searches for such redundancies and generates code for computing the local stiffness matrices. Up to cubics, we are able to build the stiffness matrix on any triangle in less than one multiply-add pair per entry. Up to sixth degree, we can do it in less than about two. Preliminary low-degree results for Poisson and Navier-Stokes operators in three dimensions are also promising.
Orthogonal Polynomials from Hermitian Matrices II
Odake, Satoru
2016-01-01
This is the second part of the project `unified theory of classical orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable derived from the eigenvalue problems of hermitian matrices.' In a previous paper, orthogonal polynomials having Jackson integral measures were not included, since such measures cannot be obtained from single infinite dimensional hermitian matrices. Here we show that Jackson integral measures for the polynomials of the big $q$-Jacobi family are the consequence of the recovery of self-adjointness of the unbounded Jacobi matrices governing the difference equations of these polynomials. The recovery of self-adjointness is achieved in an extended $\\ell^2$ Hilbert space on which a direct sum of two unbounded Jacobi matrices acts as a Hamiltonian or a difference Schr\\"odinger operator for an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem. The polynomial appearing in the upper/lower end of Jackson integral constitutes the eigenvector of each of the two unbounded Jacobi matrix of the direct sum. We also point out...
A Few Applications of Imprecise Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahalad Borgoyary
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article introduces generalized form of extension definition of the Fuzzy set and its complement in the sense of reference function namely in imprecise set and its complement. Discuss Partial presence of element, Membership value of an imprecise number in the normal and subnormal imprecise numbers. Further on the basis of reference function define usual matrix into imprecise form with new notation. And with the help of maximum and minimum operators, obtain some new matrices like reducing imprecise matrices, complement of reducing imprecise matrix etc. Along with discuss some of the classical matrix properties which are hold good in the imprecise matrix also. Further bring out examples of application of the addition of imprecise matrices, subtraction of imprecise matrices etc. in the field of transportation problems.
Balanced random Toeplitz and Hankel Matrices
Basak, Anirban
2010-01-01
Except the Toeplitz and Hankel matrices, the common patterned matrices for which the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) are known to exist, share a common property--the number of times each random variable appears in the matrix is (more or less) same across the variables. Thus it seems natural to ask what happens to the spectrum of the Toeplitz and Hankel matrices when each entry is scaled by the square root of the number of times that entry appears in the matrix instead of the uniform scaling by $n^{-1/2}$. We show that the LSD of these balanced matrices exist and derive integral formulae for the moments of the limit distribution. Curiously, it is not clear if these moments define a unique distribution.
Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.
1994-01-01
The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper we present our experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic-inorganic composite (ORMOCER) materials follwoing an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Our photochromic spiro...
Boolean Inner product Spaces and Boolean Matrices
Gudder, Stan; Latremoliere, Frederic
2009-01-01
This article discusses the concept of Boolean spaces endowed with a Boolean valued inner product and their matrices. A natural inner product structure for the space of Boolean n-tuples is introduced. Stochastic boolean vectors and stochastic and unitary Boolean matrices are studied. A dimension theorem for orthonormal bases of a Boolean space is proven. We characterize the invariant stochastic Boolean vectors for a Boolean stochastic matrix and show that they can be used to reduce a unitary m...
Generalized Inverses of Matrices over Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩瑞珠; 陈建龙
1992-01-01
Let R be a ring,*be an involutory function of the set of all finite matrices over R. In this pa-per,necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a matrix to have a (1,3)-inverse,(1,4)-inverse,or Morre-Penrose inverse,relative to *.Some results about generalized inverses of matrices over division rings are generalized and improved.
A Euclidean algorithm for integer matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauritzen, Niels; Thomsen, Jesper Funch
2015-01-01
We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers.......We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers....
Infinite Products of Random Isotropically Distributed Matrices
Il'yn, A S; Zybin, K P
2016-01-01
Statistical properties of infinite products of random isotropically distributed matrices are investigated. Both for continuous processes with finite correlation time and discrete sequences of independent matrices, a formalism that allows to calculate easily the Lyapunov spectrum and generalized Lyapunov exponents is developed. This problem is of interest to probability theory, statistical characteristics of matrix T-exponentials are also needed for turbulent transport problems, dynamical chaos and other parts of statistical physics.
A Wegner estimate for Wigner matrices
Maltsev, Anna
2011-01-01
In the first part of these notes, we review some of the recent developments in the study of the spectral properties of Wigner matrices. In the second part, we present a new proof of a Wegner estimate for the eigenvalues of a large class of Wigner matrices. The Wegner estimate gives an upper bound for the probability to find an eigenvalue in an interval $I$, proportional to the size $|I|$ of the interval.
Matrices related to some Fock space operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Rudol
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Matrices of operators with respect to frames are sometimes more natural and easier to compute than the ones related to bases. The present work investigates such operators on the Segal-Bargmann space, known also as the Fock space. We consider in particular some properties of matrices related to Toeplitz and Hankel operators. The underlying frame is provided by normalised reproducing kernel functions at some lattice points.
Linear algebra for skew-polynomial matrices
Abramov, Sergei; Bronstein, Manuel
2002-01-01
We describe an algorithm for transforming skew-polynomial matrices over an Ore domain in row-reduced form, and show that this algorithm can be used to perform the standard calculations of linear algebra on such matrices (ranks, kernels, linear dependences, inhomogeneous solving). The main application of our algorithm is to desingularize recurrences and to compute the rational solutions of a large class of linear functional systems. It also turns out to be efficient when applied to ordinary co...
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe
2013-01-01
In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...
Infinite Products of Random Isotropically Distributed Matrices
Il'yn, A. S.; Sirota, V. A.; Zybin, K. P.
2017-01-01
Statistical properties of infinite products of random isotropically distributed matrices are investigated. Both for continuous processes with finite correlation time and discrete sequences of independent matrices, a formalism that allows to calculate easily the Lyapunov spectrum and generalized Lyapunov exponents is developed. This problem is of interest to probability theory, statistical characteristics of matrix T-exponentials are also needed for turbulent transport problems, dynamical chaos and other parts of statistical physics.
Selective inorganic thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-04-01
Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rybak, Aleksandra, E-mail: Aleksandra.Rybak@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaszuwara, Waldemar [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-05
Magnetic hybrid membranes based on ethylcellulose (EC), poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and various magnetic praseodymium and neodymium powder microparticles as fillers were obtained. Permeability, diffusion and sorption coefficients of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and synthetic air components were estimated for homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes using the Time Lag method based on constant pressure permeation technique. The microstructure studies and the phase analysis of magnetic membranes were also performed using SEM and XRD. The influence of magnetic parameters, like coercivity, remanence and saturation magnetization of created membranes on the gas transport properties was studied. The results showed that their coercivity depended on composition and microstructure of the magnetic powder. On the other hand, remanence and saturation magnetization increased with the increase of the powder addition in the membrane. It was found that the magnetic membrane's gas transport properties were improved with the increase of membrane's remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The decrease in powder particle size and associated increase of the membrane's coercivity also positively influenced the gas transport and separation properties of investigated membranes. It was observed that the magnetic ethylcellulose and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) membranes had higher gas permeability, while their permselectivity and solubility coefficient values were rather maintained or slightly increased. The results also showed that the magnetic powder content enhanced significantly gas diffusivity in EC and PPO membranes. It was also analyzed the dependence of the drift coefficient w on the magnetic parameters of investigated membranes. The correlation between the membrane selectivity, permeability and magnetic properties with their XRD characteristics was stated. - Highlights: • Membrane's production consisting of EC or PPO polymers and various magnetic powders. • Polymer hybrid membranes with the magnetic powder for air separation. • Experimental studies of transport processes through magnetic hybrid membranes. • Correlation between gas transport and magnetic properties with XRD characteristics. • Positive effect of the remanence growth on separation properties of membranes.
MERSENNE AND HADAMARD MATRICES CALCULATION BY SCARPIS METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. A. Balonin
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper deals with the problem of basic generalizations of Hadamard matrices associated with maximum determinant matrices or not optimal by determinant matrices with orthogonal columns (weighing matrices, Mersenne and Euler matrices, ets.; calculation methods for the quasi-orthogonal local maximum determinant Mersenne matrices are not studied enough sufficiently. The goal of this paper is to develop the theory of Mersenne and Hadamard matrices on the base of generalized Scarpis method research. Methods. Extreme solutions are found in general by minimization of maximum for absolute values of the elements of studied matrices followed by their subsequent classification according to the quantity of levels and their values depending on orders. Less universal but more effective methods are based on structural invariants of quasi-orthogonal matrices (Silvester, Paley, Scarpis methods, ets.. Results. Generalizations of Hadamard and Belevitch matrices as a family of quasi-orthogonal matrices of odd orders are observed; they include, in particular, two-level Mersenne matrices. Definitions of section and layer on the set of generalized matrices are proposed. Calculation algorithms for matrices of adjacent layers and sections by matrices of lower orders are described. Approximation examples of the Belevitch matrix structures up to 22-nd critical order by Mersenne matrix of the third order are given. New formulation of the modified Scarpis method to approximate Hadamard matrices of high orders by lower order Mersenne matrices is proposed. Williamson method is described by example of one modular level matrices approximation by matrices with a small number of levels. Practical relevance. The efficiency of developing direction for the band-pass filters creation is justified. Algorithms for Mersenne matrices design by Scarpis method are used in developing software of the research program complex. Mersenne filters are based on the suboptimal by
A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…
A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…
Representation-independent manipulations with Dirac matrices and spinors
2007-01-01
Dirac matrices, also known as gamma matrices, are defined only up to a similarity transformation. Usually, some explicit representation of these matrices is assumed in order to deal with them. In this article, we show how it is possible to proceed without any such assumption. Various important identities involving Dirac matrices and spinors have been derived without assuming any representation at any stage.
Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis
Rao, C N R
2015-01-01
This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required
Inorganic materials in industrial processes
Demadis, Konstantinos
2015-01-01
Although inorganic materials represent a small number to the extreme number of the organic ones, they play a number of crucial roles in several processes of industrial interest. Two significant technologically processes have been selected as “case studies” for this presentation: metallic corrosion and its control, and mitigation of inorganic deposits, both related to industrial water systems. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.
Condition number estimation of preconditioned matrices.
Kushida, Noriyuki
2015-01-01
The present paper introduces a condition number estimation method for preconditioned matrices. The newly developed method provides reasonable results, while the conventional method which is based on the Lanczos connection gives meaningless results. The Lanczos connection based method provides the condition numbers of coefficient matrices of systems of linear equations with information obtained through the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. Estimating the condition number of preconditioned matrices is sometimes important when describing the effectiveness of new preconditionerers or selecting adequate preconditioners. Operating a preconditioner on a coefficient matrix is the simplest method of estimation. However, this is not possible for large-scale computing, especially if computation is performed on distributed memory parallel computers. This is because, the preconditioned matrices become dense, even if the original matrices are sparse. Although the Lanczos connection method can be used to calculate the condition number of preconditioned matrices, it is not considered to be applicable to large-scale problems because of its weakness with respect to numerical errors. Therefore, we have developed a robust and parallelizable method based on Hager's method. The feasibility studies are curried out for the diagonal scaling preconditioner and the SSOR preconditioner with a diagonal matrix, a tri-daigonal matrix and Pei's matrix. As a result, the Lanczos connection method contains around 10% error in the results even with a simple problem. On the other hand, the new method contains negligible errors. In addition, the newly developed method returns reasonable solutions when the Lanczos connection method fails with Pei's matrix, and matrices generated with the finite element method.
Condition number estimation of preconditioned matrices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noriyuki Kushida
Full Text Available The present paper introduces a condition number estimation method for preconditioned matrices. The newly developed method provides reasonable results, while the conventional method which is based on the Lanczos connection gives meaningless results. The Lanczos connection based method provides the condition numbers of coefficient matrices of systems of linear equations with information obtained through the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. Estimating the condition number of preconditioned matrices is sometimes important when describing the effectiveness of new preconditionerers or selecting adequate preconditioners. Operating a preconditioner on a coefficient matrix is the simplest method of estimation. However, this is not possible for large-scale computing, especially if computation is performed on distributed memory parallel computers. This is because, the preconditioned matrices become dense, even if the original matrices are sparse. Although the Lanczos connection method can be used to calculate the condition number of preconditioned matrices, it is not considered to be applicable to large-scale problems because of its weakness with respect to numerical errors. Therefore, we have developed a robust and parallelizable method based on Hager's method. The feasibility studies are curried out for the diagonal scaling preconditioner and the SSOR preconditioner with a diagonal matrix, a tri-daigonal matrix and Pei's matrix. As a result, the Lanczos connection method contains around 10% error in the results even with a simple problem. On the other hand, the new method contains negligible errors. In addition, the newly developed method returns reasonable solutions when the Lanczos connection method fails with Pei's matrix, and matrices generated with the finite element method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujiwara, Masahiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kansai Center, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: m-fujiwara@aist.go.jp; Shiokawa, Kumi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Nakahara, Yoshiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kansai Center, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)
2008-03-10
We reported before that inorganic reaction occurring at the interface of W/O/W emulsion is advantageous to produce hollow spheres (microcapsules) of inorganic matrices such as silica. This process enables us to include various materials into inorganic matrices directly. Calcium phosphates were also produced from NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and Ca(OH){sub 2} by this interfacial reaction method. Various biomaterials are directly incorporated into crystalline calcium phosphate matrices, when the biomaterials are added to the inner water phase of the W/O/W emulsion. ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were effectively encapsulated in calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). The images of backscattered electron of FE-SEM observations indicated that ZrO{sub 2} particles were included in HAp, while they adhered to the surface of HAp in the case of a simple precipitation method. Biomacromolecules such as BSA and duplex DNA were also included in HAp using the inner water phases dissolving them. Fluorescent microscopy observations revealed that biomacromolecules incorporated in HAp localized in some domains of the HAp matrices. Biomacromolecules thus included were scarcely liberated into deionized water, indicating their strong encapsulation in HAp. This general and simple methodology will provide various composite materials of calcium phosphates, which are applicable to regenerative medicine, DDS, GDS and more.
Bayesian Nonparametric Clustering for Positive Definite Matrices.
Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2016-05-01
Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices emerge as data descriptors in several applications of computer vision such as object tracking, texture recognition, and diffusion tensor imaging. Clustering these data matrices forms an integral part of these applications, for which soft-clustering algorithms (K-Means, expectation maximization, etc.) are generally used. As is well-known, these algorithms need the number of clusters to be specified, which is difficult when the dataset scales. To address this issue, we resort to the classical nonparametric Bayesian framework by modeling the data as a mixture model using the Dirichlet process (DP) prior. Since these matrices do not conform to the Euclidean geometry, rather belongs to a curved Riemannian manifold,existing DP models cannot be directly applied. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel DP mixture model framework for SPD matrices. Using the log-determinant divergence as the underlying dissimilarity measure to compare these matrices, and further using the connection between this measure and the Wishart distribution, we derive a novel DPM model based on the Wishart-Inverse-Wishart conjugate pair. We apply this model to several applications in computer vision. Our experiments demonstrate that our model is scalable to the dataset size and at the same time achieves superior accuracy compared to several state-of-the-art parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms.
Using Elimination Theory to construct Rigid Matrices
Kumar, Abhinav; Patankar, Vijay M; N, Jayalal Sarma M
2009-01-01
The rigidity of a matrix A for target rank r is the minimum number of entries of A that must be changed to ensure that the rank of the altered matrix is at most r. Since its introduction by Valiant (1977), rigidity and similar rank-robustness functions of matrices have found numerous applications in circuit complexity, communication complexity, and learning complexity. Almost all nxn matrices over an infinite field have a rigidity of (n-r)^2. It is a long-standing open question to construct infinite families of explicit matrices even with superlinear rigidity when r=Omega(n). In this paper, we construct an infinite family of complex matrices with the largest possible, i.e., (n-r)^2, rigidity. The entries of an nxn matrix in this family are distinct primitive roots of unity of orders roughly exp(n^4 log n). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first family of concrete (but not entirely explicit) matrices having maximal rigidity and a succinct algebraic description. Our construction is based on elimination...
Mirror-Symmetric Matrices and Their Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李国林; 冯正和
2002-01-01
The well-known centrosymmetric matrices correctly reflect mirror-symmetry with no component or only one component on the mirror plane. Mirror-symmetric matrices defined in this paper can represent mirror-symmetric structures with various components on the mirror plane. Some basic properties of mirror-symmetric matrices were studied and applied to interconnection analysis. A generalized odd/even-mode decomposition scheme was developed based on the mirror reflection relationship for mirror-symmetric multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs). The per-unit-length (PUL) impedance matrix Z and admittance matrix Y can be divided into odd-mode and even-mode PUL matrices. Thus the order of the MTL system is reduced from n to k and k+p, where p(≥0)is the conductor number on the mirror plane. The analysis of mirror-symmetric matrices is related to the theory of symmetric group, which is the most effective tool for the study of symmetry.
Geometry of 2×2 hermitian matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG; Liping(黄礼平); WAN; Zhexian(万哲先)
2002-01-01
Let D be a division ring which possesses an involution a→ā. Assume that F = {a∈D|a=ā} is a proper subfield of D and is contained in the center of D. It is pointed out that if D is of characteristic not two, D is either a separable quadratic extension of F or a division ring of generalized quaternions over F and that if D is of characteristic two, D is a separable quadratic extension of F. Thus the trace map Tr: D→F,hermitian matrices over D when n≥3 and now can be deleted. When D is a field, the fundamental theorem of 2×2 hermitian matrices over D has already been proved. This paper proves the fundamental theorem of 2×2 hermitian matrices over any division ring of generalized quaternions of characteristic not two.
INERTIA SETS OF SYMMETRIC SIGN PATTERN MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A sign pattern matrix is a matrixwhose entries are from the set {+ ,- ,0}. The symmetric sign pattern matrices that require unique inertia have recently been characterized. The purpose of this paper is to more generally investigate the inertia sets of symmetric sign pattern matrices. In particular, nonnegative fri-diagonal sign patterns and the square sign pattern with all + entries are examined. An algorithm is given for generating nonnegative real symmetric Toeplitz matrices with zero diagonal of orders n≥3 which have exactly two negative eigenvalues. The inertia set of the square pattern with all + off-diagonal entries and zero diagonal entries is then analyzed. The types of inertias which can be in the inertia set of any sign pattern are also obtained in the paper. Specifically, certain compatibility and consecutiveness properties are established.
Generalized Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for Centrohermitian Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘仲云; 谭艳祥; 田兆录
2004-01-01
In this paper we first consider the existence and the general form of solution to the following generalized inverse eigenvalue problem(GIEP) : given a set of n-dimension complex vectors { xj }jm = 1 and a set of complex numbers { λj} jm = 1, find two n × n centrohermitian matrices A, B such that { xj }jm = 1 and { λj }jm= 1 are the generalized eigenvectors and generalized eigenvalues of Ax = λBx, respectively. We then discuss the optimal approximation problem for the GIEP. More concretely, given two arbitrary matrices, A-, B- ∈Cn×n , we find two matrices A* and B* such that the matrix (A* ,B* ) is closest to (A- ,B-) in the Frobenius norm, where the matrix (A*, B* ) is the solution to the GIEP. We show that the expression of the solution of the optimal approximation is unique and derive the expression for it.
PRM: A database of planetary reflection matrices
Stam, D. M.; Batista, S. F. A.
2014-04-01
We present the PRM database with reflection matrices of various types of planets. With the matrices, users can calculate the total, and the linearly and circularly polarized fluxes of incident unpolarized light that is reflected by a planet for arbitrary illumination and viewing geometries. To allow for flexibility in these geometries, the database does not contain the elements of reflection matrices, but the coefficients of their Fourier series expansion. We describe how to sum these coefficients for given illumination and viewing geometries to obtain the local reflection matrix. The coefficients in the database can also be used to calculate flux and polarization signals of exoplanets, by integrating, for a given planetary phase angle, locally reflected fluxes across the visible part of the planetary disk. Algorithms for evaluating the summation for locally reflected fluxes, as applicable to spatially resolved observations of planets, and the subsequent integration for the disk-integrated fluxes, as applicable to spatially unresolved exoplanets are also in the database
On classification of dynamical r-matrices
Schiffmann, O
1997-01-01
Using recent results of P. Etingof and A. Varchenko on the Classical Dynamical Yang-Baxter equation, we reduce the classification of dynamical r-matrices on a commutative subalgebra l of a Lie algebra g to a purely algebraic problem when l admits a g^l-invariant complement, where g^l is the centralizer of l in g. Using this, we then classify all non skew-symmetric dynamical r-matrices when g is a simple Lie algebra and l a commutative subalgebra containing a regular semisimple element. This partially answers an open problem in [EV] q-alg/9703040, and generalizes the Belavin-Drinfled classification of constant r-matrices. This classification is similar and in some sense simpler than the Belavin-Drinfled classification.
Octonion generalization of Pauli and Dirac matrices
Chanyal, B. C.
2015-10-01
Starting with octonion algebra and its 4 × 4 matrix representation, we have made an attempt to write the extension of Pauli's matrices in terms of division algebra (octonion). The octonion generalization of Pauli's matrices shows the counterpart of Pauli's spin and isospin matrices. In this paper, we also have obtained the relationship between Clifford algebras and the division algebras, i.e. a relation between octonion basis elements with Dirac (gamma), Weyl and Majorana representations. The division algebra structure leads to nice representations of the corresponding Clifford algebras. We have made an attempt to investigate the octonion formulation of Dirac wave equations, conserved current and weak isospin in simple, compact, consistent and manifestly covariant manner.
A Multipath Connection Model for Traffic Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. M. V. Prabhakaran
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P applications have witnessed an increasing popularity in recent years, which brings new challenges to network management and traffic engineering (TE. As basic input information, P2P traffic matrices are of significant importance for TE. Because of the excessively high cost of direct measurement. In this paper,A multipath connection model for traffic matrices in operational networks. Media files can share the peer to peer, the localization ratio of peer to peer traffic. This evaluates its performance using traffic traces collected from both the real peer to peer video-on-demand and file-sharing applications. The estimation of the general traffic matrices (TM then used for sending the media file without traffic. Share the media file, source to destination traffic is not occur. So it give high performance and short time process.
Block TERM factorization of block matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei
2004-01-01
Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.
Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
1996-12-31
The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.
Infinite matrices and their recent applications
Shivakumar, P N; Zhang, Yang
2016-01-01
This monograph covers the theory of finite and infinite matrices over the fields of real numbers, complex numbers and over quaternions. Emphasizing topics such as sections or truncations and their relationship to the linear operator theory on certain specific separable and sequence spaces, the authors explore techniques like conformal mapping, iterations and truncations that are used to derive precise estimates in some cases and explicit lower and upper bounds for solutions in the other cases. Most of the matrices considered in this monograph have typically special structures like being diagonally dominated or tridiagonal, possess certain sign distributions and are frequently nonsingular. Such matrices arise, for instance, from solution methods for elliptic partial differential equations. The authors focus on both theoretical and computational aspects concerning infinite linear algebraic equations, differential systems and infinite linear programming, among others. Additionally, the authors cover topics such ...
Edge fluctuations of eigenvalues of Wigner matrices
Döring, Hanna
2012-01-01
We establish a moderate deviation principle (MDP) for the number of eigenvalues of a Wigner matrix in an interval close to the edge of the spectrum. Moreover we prove a MDP for the $i$th largest eigenvalue close to the edge. The proof relies on fine asymptotics of the variance of the eigenvalue counting function of GUE matrices due to Gustavsson. The extension to large families of Wigner matrices is based on the Tao and Vu Four Moment Theorem. Possible extensions to other random matrix ensembles are commented.
Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri
This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...... matrix dynamics. Our empirical results show that the new mixing approach provides superior forecasts compared to multivariate volatility specifications using single sources of information....
Almost Hadamard matrices: general theory and examples
Banica, Teodor; Zyczkowski, Karol
2012-01-01
We develop a general theory of "almost Hadamard matrices". These are by definition the matrices $H\\in M_N(\\mathbb R)$ having the property that $U=H/\\sqrt{N}$ is orthogonal, and is a local maximum of the 1-norm on O(N). Our study includes a detailed discussion of the circulant case ($H_{ij}=\\gamma_{j-i}$) and of the two-entry case ($H_{ij}\\in\\{x,y\\}$), with the construction of several families of examples, and some 1-norm computations.
Extremal spacings of random unitary matrices
Smaczynski, Marek; Kus, Marek; Zyczkowski, Karol
2012-01-01
Extremal spacings between unimodular eigenvalues of random unitary matrices of size N pertaining to circular ensembles are investigated. Probability distributions for the minimal spacing for various ensembles are derived for N=4. We show that for large matrices the average minimal spacing s_min of a random unitary matrix behaves as N^(-1/(1+B)) for B equal to 0,1 and 2 for circular Poisson, orthogonal and unitary ensembles, respectively. For these ensembles also asymptotic probability distributions P(s_min) are obtained and the statistics of the largest spacing s_max are investigated.
Age differences on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.
Panek, P E; Stoner, S B
1980-06-01
Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices was administered to 150 subjects (75 males, 75 females) ranging in age from 20 to 86 yr. Subjects were placed into one of three age groups: adult (M age = 27.04 yr.), middle-age (M age = 53.36 yr.), old (M age = 73.78 yr.), with 25 males and 25 females in each age group. Significant differences between age groups on the matrices were obtained after partialing out the effects of educational level, while sex of subject was not significant.
Super Special Codes using Super Matrices
Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K
2010-01-01
The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.
Determinación y propiedades de H-matrices
SCOTT GUILLEARD, JOSÉ ANTONIO
2015-01-01
[EN] The essential topic of this memory is the study of H-matrices as they were introduced by Ostrowski and hereinafter extended and developed by different authors. In this study three slopes are outlined: 1) the iterative or automatic determination of H-matrices, 2) the properties inherent in the H-matrices and 3) the matrices related to H-matrices. H-matrices acquire every time major relevancy due to the fact that they arise in numerous applications so much in Mathematics,...
Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites
Park, Cheol; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.
2003-01-01
A novel class of polymer/clay nanocomposites has been invented in an attempt to develop transparent, lightweight, durable materials for a variety of aerospace applications. As their name suggests, polymer/ clay nanocomposites comprise organic/ inorganic hybrid polymer matrices containing platelet-shaped clay particles that have sizes of the order of a few nanometers thick and several hundred nanometers long. Partly because of their high aspect ratios and high surface areas, the clay particles, if properly dispersed in the polymer matrix at a loading level of 1 to 5 weight percent, impart unique combinations of physical and chemical properties that make these nanocomposites attractive for making films and coatings for a variety of industrial applications. Relative to the unmodified polymer, the polymer/ clay nanocomposites may exhibit improvements in strength, modulus, and toughness; tear, radiation, and fire resistance; and lower thermal expansion and permeability to gases while retaining a high degree of optical transparency.
Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shrray Srivastava
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of applications. The current paper is a review of current applications of polymers with inorganic back-bone networks, especially focusing on Si and Al based inorganic polymeric materials.
Universal portfolios generated by Toeplitz matrices
Tan, Choon Peng; Chu, Sin Yen; Pan, Wei Yeing
2014-06-01
Performance of universal portfolios generated by Toeplitz matrices is studied in this paper. The general structure of the companion matrix of the generating Toeplitz matrix is determined. Empirical performance of the threeband and nine-band Toeplitz universal portfolios on real stock data is presented. Pseudo Toeplitz universal portfolios are studied with promising empirical achievement of wealth demonstrated.
Parametrizations of Positive Matrices With Applications
Tseng, M C; Ramakrishna, V; Zhou, Hong
2006-01-01
This paper reviews some characterizations of positive matrices and discusses which lead to useful parametrizations. It is argued that one of them, which we dub the Schur-Constantinescu parametrization is particularly useful. Two new applications of it are given. One shows all block-Toeplitz states are PPT. The other application is to relaxation rates.
Generation Speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test.
Verguts, Tom; De Boeck, Paul; Maris, Eric
1999-01-01
Studied the role of response fluency on results of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) Test by comparing scores on a test of generation speed (speed of generating rules that govern the items) with APM test performance for 127 Belgian undergraduates. Discusses the importance of generation speed in intelligence. (SLD)
Deconvolution and Regularization with Toeplitz Matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Christian
2002-01-01
of these discretized deconvolution problems, with emphasis on methods that take the special structure of the matrix into account. Wherever possible, analogies to classical DFT-based deconvolution problems are drawn. Among other things, we present direct methods for regularization with Toeplitz matrices, and we show...
Extremal norms of graphs and matrices
Nikiforov, Vladimir
2010-01-01
In the recent years, the trace norm of graphs has been extensively studied under the name of graph energy. In this paper some of this research is extended to more general matrix norms, like the Schatten p-norms and the Ky Fan k-norms. Whenever possible the results are given both for graphs and general matrices.
Numerical Methods for Structured Matrices and Applications
Bini, Dario A; Olshevsky, Vadim; Tyrtsyhnikov, Eugene; van Barel, Marc
2010-01-01
This cross-disciplinary volume brings together theoretical mathematicians, engineers and numerical analysts and publishes surveys and research articles related to the topics where Georg Heinig had made outstanding achievements. In particular, this includes contributions from the fields of structured matrices, fast algorithms, operator theory, and applications to system theory and signal processing.
Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test
Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a
Positivity of Matrices with Generalized Matrix Functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fuzhen ZHANG
2012-01-01
Using an elementary fact on matrices we show by a unified approach the positivity of a partitioned positive semidefinite matrix with each square block replaced by a compound matrix,an elementary symmetric function or a generalized matrix function.In addition,we present a refined version of the Thompson determinant compression theorem.
Robust stability of interval parameter matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This note is devoted to the problem of robust stability of interval parameter matrices. Based on some basic facts relating the H∞ norm of a transfer function to the Riccati matrix inequality and Hamilton matrix, several test conditions with parameter perturbation bounds are obtained.
Constructing random matrices to represent real ecosystems.
James, Alex; Plank, Michael J; Rossberg, Axel G; Beecham, Jonathan; Emmerson, Mark; Pitchford, Jonathan W
2015-05-01
Models of complex systems with n components typically have order n(2) parameters because each component can potentially interact with every other. When it is impractical to measure these parameters, one may choose random parameter values and study the emergent statistical properties at the system level. Many influential results in theoretical ecology have been derived from two key assumptions: that species interact with random partners at random intensities and that intraspecific competition is comparable between species. Under these assumptions, community dynamics can be described by a community matrix that is often amenable to mathematical analysis. We combine empirical data with mathematical theory to show that both of these assumptions lead to results that must be interpreted with caution. We examine 21 empirically derived community matrices constructed using three established, independent methods. The empirically derived systems are more stable by orders of magnitude than results from random matrices. This consistent disparity is not explained by existing results on predator-prey interactions. We investigate the key properties of empirical community matrices that distinguish them from random matrices. We show that network topology is less important than the relationship between a species' trophic position within the food web and its interaction strengths. We identify key features of empirical networks that must be preserved if random matrix models are to capture the features of real ecosystems.
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
2008-01-01
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-11-30
We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.
Correspondence Analysis of Archeological Abundance Matrices
de Leeuw, Jan
2007-01-01
In this chapter we discuss the Correspondence Analysis (CA) techniques used in other chapters of this book. CA is presented as a multivariate exploratory technique, as a proximity analysis technique based on Benzecri distances, as a technique to decompose the total chi-square of frequency matrices, and as a least squares method to ﬁt association or ordination models.
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.
Spectral properties of random triangular matrices
Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra
2011-01-01
We provide a relatively elementary proof of the existence of the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of symmetric triangular patterned matrices and also show their joint convergence. We also derive the expressions for the moments of the LSD of the symmetric triangular Wigner matrix using properties of Catalan words.
Affine processes on positive semidefinite matrices
Cuchiero, Christa; Mayerhofer, Eberhard; Teichmann, Josef
2009-01-01
This paper provides the mathematical foundation for stochastically continuous affine processes on the cone of positive semidefinite symmetric matrices. These matrix-valued affine processes have arisen from a large and growing range of useful applications in finance, including multi-asset option pricing with stochastic volatility and correlation structures, and fixed-income models with stochastically correlated risk factors and default intensities.
Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KyoungSoo Han
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.
Karoui, Noureddine El
2009-01-01
We place ourselves in the setting of high-dimensional statistical inference, where the number of variables $p$ in a data set of interest is of the same order of magnitude as the number of observations $n$. More formally, we study the asymptotic properties of correlation and covariance matrices, in the setting where $p/n\\to\\rho\\in(0,\\infty),$ for general population covariance. We show that, for a large class of models studied in random matrix theory, spectral properties of large-dimensional correlation matrices are similar to those of large-dimensional covarance matrices. We also derive a Mar\\u{c}enko--Pastur-type system of equations for the limiting spectral distribution of covariance matrices computed from data with elliptical distributions and generalizations of this family. The motivation for this study comes partly from the possible relevance of such distributional assumptions to problems in econometrics and portfolio optimization, as well as robustness questions for certain classical random matrix result...
The primitive matrices of sandwich semigroups of generalized circulant Boolean matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jian-ping; CHEN Jin-song
2013-01-01
Let Gn(C) be the sandwich semigroup of generalized circulant Boolean matrices with the sandwich matrix C and GC (Jn) the set of all primitive matrices in Gn(C). In this paper, some necessary and suﬃ cient conditions for A in the semigroup Gn(C) to be primitive are given. We also show that GC (Jn) is a subsemigroup of Gn(C).
Detailed assessment of homology detection using different substitution matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing; WANG Wei
2006-01-01
Homology detection plays a key role in bioinformatics, whereas substitution matrix is one of the most important components in homology detection. Thus, besides the improvement of alignment algorithms, another effective way to enhance the accuracy of homology detection is to use proper substitution matrices or even construct new matrices.A study on the features of various matrices and on the comparison of the performances between different matrices in homology detection enable us to choose the most proper or optimal matrix for some specific applications. In this paper, by taking BLOSUM matrices as an example, some detailed features of matrices in homology detection are studied by calculating the distributions of numbers of recognized proteins over different sequence identities and sequence lengths. Our results clearly showed that different matrices have different preferences and abilities to the recognition of remote homologous proteins. Furthermore, detailed features of the various matrices can be used to improve the accuracy of homology detection.
Electrospun human keratin matrices as templates for tissue regeneration.
Sow, Wan Ting; Lui, Yuan Siang; Ng, Kee Woei
2013-04-01
The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of fabricating human hair keratin matrices through electrospinning and to evaluate the potential of these matrices for tissue regeneration. Keratin was extracted from human hair using Na2S and blended with poly(ethylene oxide) in the weight ratio of 60:1 for electrospinning. Physical morphology and chemical properties of the matrices were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Cell viability and morphology of murine and human fibroblasts cultured on the matrices were evaluated through the Live/Dead(®) assay and scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun keratin matrices were successfully produced without affecting the chemical conformation of keratin. Fibroblasts cultured on keratin matrices showed healthy morphology and penetration into matrices at day 7. Electrospun human hair keratin matrices provide a bioinductive and structural environment for cell growth and are thus attractive as alternative templates for tissue regeneration.
Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I
Cooke, D. O.
1976-01-01
Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis. (GS)
Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.
Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R
2010-08-01
Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine.
Higher-Order Singular Systems and Polynomial Matrices
2005-01-01
There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of quadruples of matrices defining singular linear time-invariant dynamical systems and a subset of the set of polynomial matrices. This correspondence preserves the equivalence relations introduced in both sets (feedback-similarity and strict equivalence): two quadruples of matrices are feedback-equivalent if, and only if, the polynomial matrices associated to them are also strictly equivalent. Los sistemas lineales singulares...
Inorganic Materials as Supports for Covalent Enzyme Immobilization: Methods and Mechanisms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paolo Zucca
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Several inorganic materials are potentially suitable for enzymatic covalent immobilization, by means of several different techniques. Such materials must meet stringent criteria to be suitable as solid matrices: complete insolubility in water, reasonable mechanical strength and chemical resistance under the operational conditions, the capability to form manageable particles with high surface area, reactivity towards derivatizing/functionalizing agents. Non-specific protein adsorption should be always considered when planning covalent immobilization on inorganic solids. A huge mass of experimental work has shown that silica, silicates, borosilicates and aluminosilicates, alumina, titania, and other oxides, are the materials of choice when attempting enzyme immobilizations on inorganic supports. More recently, some forms of elemental carbon, silicon, and certain metals have been also proposed for certain applications. With regard to the derivatization/functionalization techniques, the use of organosilanes through silanization is undoubtedly the most studied and the most applied, although inorganic bridge formation and acylation with selected acyl halides have been deeply studied. In the present article, the most common inorganic supports for covalent immobilization of the enzymes are reviewed, with particular focus on their advantages and disadvantages in terms of enzyme loadings, operational stability, undesired adsorption, and costs. Mechanisms and methods for covalent immobilization are also discussed, focusing on the most widespread activating approaches (such as glutaraldehyde, cyanogen bromide, divinylsulfone, carbodiimides, carbonyldiimidazole, sulfonyl chlorides, chlorocarbonates, N-hydroxysuccinimides.
Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors
Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.
2004-01-01
Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the
Decision Matrices: Tools to Enhance Middle School Engineering Instruction
Gonczi, Amanda L.; Bergman, Brenda G.; Huntoon, Jackie; Allen, Robin; McIntyre, Barb; Turner, Sheri; Davis, Jen; Handler, Rob
2017-01-01
Decision matrices are valuable engineering tools. They allow engineers to objectively examine solution options. Decision matrices can be incorporated in K-12 classrooms to support authentic engineering instruction. In this article we provide examples of how decision matrices have been incorporated into 6th and 7th grade classrooms as part of an…
19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...
Decision Matrices: Tools to Enhance Middle School Engineering Instruction
Gonczi, Amanda L.; Bergman, Brenda G.; Huntoon, Jackie; Allen, Robin; McIntyre, Barb; Turner, Sheri; Davis, Jen; Handler, Rob
2017-01-01
Decision matrices are valuable engineering tools. They allow engineers to objectively examine solution options. Decision matrices can be incorporated in K-12 classrooms to support authentic engineering instruction. In this article we provide examples of how decision matrices have been incorporated into 6th and 7th grade classrooms as part of an…
On Skew Circulant Type Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaolin Jiang
2014-01-01
inverse matrices of them by constructing the transformation matrices. Furthermore, the maximum column sum matrix norm, the spectral norm, the Euclidean (or Frobenius norm, and the maximum row sum matrix norm and bounds for the spread of these matrices are given, respectively.
Waller, Niels G
2016-01-01
For a fixed set of standardized regression coefficients and a fixed coefficient of determination (R-squared), an infinite number of predictor correlation matrices will satisfy the implied quadratic form. I call such matrices fungible correlation matrices. In this article, I describe an algorithm for generating positive definite (PD), positive semidefinite (PSD), or indefinite (ID) fungible correlation matrices that have a random or fixed smallest eigenvalue. The underlying equations of this algorithm are reviewed from both algebraic and geometric perspectives. Two simulation studies illustrate that fungible correlation matrices can be profitably used in Monte Carlo research. The first study uses PD fungible correlation matrices to compare penalized regression algorithms. The second study uses ID fungible correlation matrices to compare matrix-smoothing algorithms. R code for generating fungible correlation matrices is presented in the supplemental materials.
Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong
2007-01-01
The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.
Lectures on S-matrices and Integrability
Bombardelli, Diego
2016-01-01
In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the 2-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU(2), SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu models. This is part of a collection of lecture notes for the Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network at Durham University on 6-10 July 2015.
Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices
Legara, Erika Fille
2015-01-01
A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...
Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices
King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C
2014-01-01
Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.
Approximate inverse preconditioners for general sparse matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chow, E.; Saad, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
1994-12-31
Preconditioned Krylov subspace methods are often very efficient in solving sparse linear matrices that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. However, for general sparse indifinite matrices, the usual ILU preconditioners fail, often because of the fact that the resulting factors L and U give rise to unstable forward and backward sweeps. In such cases, alternative preconditioners based on approximate inverses may be attractive. We are currently developing a number of such preconditioners based on iterating on each column to get the approximate inverse. For this approach to be efficient, the iteration must be done in sparse mode, i.e., we must use sparse-matrix by sparse-vector type operatoins. We will discuss a few options and compare their performance on standard problems from the Harwell-Boeing collection.
Asymptotic properties of random matrices and pseudomatrices
Lenczewski, Romuald
2010-01-01
We study the asymptotics of sums of matricially free random variables called random pseudomatrices, and we compare it with that of random matrices with block-identical variances. For objects of both types we find the limit joint distributions of blocks and give their Hilbert space realizations, using operators called `matricially free Gaussian operators'. In particular, if the variance matrices are symmetric, the asymptotics of symmetric blocks of random pseudomatrices agrees with that of symmetric random blocks. We also show that blocks of random pseudomatrices are `asymptotically matricially free' whereas the corresponding symmetric random blocks are `asymptotically symmetrically matricially free', where symmetric matricial freeness is obtained from matricial freeness by an operation of symmetrization. Finally, we show that row blocks of square, lower-block-triangular and block-diagonal pseudomatrices are asymptotically free, monotone independent and boolean independent, respectively.
Non-Hermitean Wishart random matrices (I)
Kanzieper, Eugene
2010-01-01
A non-Hermitean extension of paradigmatic Wishart random matrices is introduced to set up a theoretical framework for statistical analysis of (real, complex and real quaternion) stochastic time series representing two "remote" complex systems. The first paper in a series provides a detailed spectral theory of non-Hermitean Wishart random matrices composed of complex valued entries. The great emphasis is placed on an asymptotic analysis of the mean eigenvalue density for which we derive, among other results, a complex-plane analogue of the Marchenko-Pastur law. A surprising connection with a class of matrix models previously invented in the context of quantum chromodynamics is pointed out. This provides one more evidence of the ubiquity of Random Matrix Theory.
Determinants of adjacency matrices of graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Abdollahi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We study the set of all determinants of adjacency matrices of graphs with a given number of vertices. Using Brendan McKay's data base of small graphs, determinants of graphs with at most $9$ vertices are computed so that the number of non-isomorphic graphs with given vertices whose determinants are all equal to a number is exhibited in a table. Using an idea of M. Newman, it is proved that if $G$ is a graph with $n$ vertices and ${d_1,dots,d_n}$ is the set of vertex degrees of $G$, then $gcd(2m,d^2$ divides the determinant of the adjacency matrix of $G$, where $d=gcd(d_1,dots,d_n$. Possible determinants of adjacency matrices of graphs with exactly two cycles are obtained.
MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE AND PRODUCT OF MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lau Ka-sing
2003-01-01
There is a well established multifractal theory for self-similar measures generated by non-overlapping contractive similutudes.Our report here concerns those with overlaps.In particular we restrict our attention to the important classes of self-similar measures that have matrix representations.The dimension spectra and the Lq-spectra are analyzed through the product of matrices.There are abnormal behaviors on the multifrac-tal structure and they will be discussed in detail.
Ferrers Matrices Characterized by the Rook Polynomials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MAHai-cheng; HUSheng-biao
2003-01-01
In this paper,we show that there exist precisely W(A) Ferrers matrices F(C1,C2,…,cm)such that the rook polynomials is equal to the rook polynomial of Ferrers matrix F(b1,b2,…,bm), where A={b1,b2-1,…,bm-m+1} is a repeated set,W(A) is weight of A.
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-07
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-05
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.
Connection matrices for ultradiscrete linear problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ormerod, Chris [School of Mathematics and Statistics F07, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)
2007-10-19
We present theory outlining associated linear problems for ultradiscrete equations. The appropriate domain for these problems is the max-plus semiring. Our main result is that despite the restrictive nature of the max-plus semiring, it is still possible to define a theory of connection matrices analogous to that of Birkhoff and his school for systems of linear difference equations. We use such theory to provide evidence for the integrability of an ultradiscrete difference equation.
Functional CLT for sample covariance matrices
Bai, Zhidong; Zhou, Wang; 10.3150/10-BEJ250
2010-01-01
Using Bernstein polynomial approximations, we prove the central limit theorem for linear spectral statistics of sample covariance matrices, indexed by a set of functions with continuous fourth order derivatives on an open interval including $[(1-\\sqrt{y})^2,(1+\\sqrt{y})^2]$, the support of the Mar\\u{c}enko--Pastur law. We also derive the explicit expressions for asymptotic mean and covariance functions.
Index matrices towards an augmented matrix calculus
Atanassov, Krassimir T
2014-01-01
This book presents the very concept of an index matrix and its related augmented matrix calculus in a comprehensive form. It mostly illustrates the exposition with examples related to the generalized nets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets which are examples of an extremely wide array of possible application areas. The present book contains the basic results of the author over index matrices and some of its open problems with the aim to stimulating more researchers to start working in this area.
On the exponentials of some structured matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Costa, F [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Signals, Systems and Communications, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)
2004-12-03
This paper provides explicit techniques to compute the exponentials of a variety of structured 4 x 4 matrices. The procedures are fully algorithmic and can be used to find the desired exponentials in closed form. With one exception, they require no spectral information about the matrix being exponentiated. They rely on a mixture of Lie theory and one particular Clifford algebra isomorphism. These can be extended, in some cases, to higher dimensions when combined with techniques such as Givens rotations.
The spectrum of kernel random matrices
Karoui, Noureddine El
2010-01-01
We place ourselves in the setting of high-dimensional statistical inference where the number of variables $p$ in a dataset of interest is of the same order of magnitude as the number of observations $n$. We consider the spectrum of certain kernel random matrices, in particular $n\\times n$ matrices whose $(i,j)$th entry is $f(X_i'X_j/p)$ or $f(\\Vert X_i-X_j\\Vert^2/p)$ where $p$ is the dimension of the data, and $X_i$ are independent data vectors. Here $f$ is assumed to be a locally smooth function. The study is motivated by questions arising in statistics and computer science where these matrices are used to perform, among other things, nonlinear versions of principal component analysis. Surprisingly, we show that in high-dimensions, and for the models we analyze, the problem becomes essentially linear--which is at odds with heuristics sometimes used to justify the usage of these methods. The analysis also highlights certain peculiarities of models widely studied in random matrix theory and raises some questio...
Quark flavor mixings from hierarchical mass matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Rohit [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Rayat Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Ropar (India); Zhou, Shun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-05-15
In this paper, we extend the Fritzsch ansatz of quark mass matrices while retaining their hierarchical structures and show that the main features of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix V, including vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke ≅ vertical stroke V{sub cd} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke ≅ vertical stroke V{sub ts} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke < vertical stroke V{sub td} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub ts} vertical stroke can be well understood. This agreement is observed especially when the mass matrices have non-vanishing (1, 3) and (3, 1) off-diagonal elements. The phenomenological consequences of these for the allowed texture content and gross structural features of 'hierarchical' quark mass matrices are addressed from a model-independent prospective under the assumption of factorizable phases in these. The approximate and analytical expressions of the CKM matrix elements are derived and a detailed analysis reveals that such structures are in good agreement with the observed quark flavor mixing angles and the CP-violating phase at the 1σ level and call upon a further investigation of the realization of these structures from a top-down prospective. (orig.)
Scattering Matrices and Conductances of Leaky Tori
Pnueli, A.
1994-04-01
Leaky tori are two-dimensional surfaces that extend to infinity but which have finite area. It is a tempting idea to regard them as models of mesoscopic systems connected to very long leads. Because of this analogy-scattering matrices on leaky tori are potentially interesting, and indeed-the scattering matrix on one such object-"the" leaky torus-was studied by M. Gutzwiller, who showed that it has chaotic behavior. M. Antoine, A. Comtet and S. Ouvry generalized Gutzwiller‧s result by calculating the scattering matrix in the presence of a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the surface. Motivated by these results-we generalize them further. We define scattering matrices for spinless electrons on a general leaky torus in the presence of a constant magnetic field "perpendicular" to the surface. From the properties of these matrices we show the following: (a) For integer values of B, Tij (the transition probability from cusp i to cusp j), and hence also the Büttiker conductances of the surfaces, are B-independent (this cannot be interpreted as a kind of Aharonov-Bohm effect since a magnetic force is acting on the electrons). (b) The Wigner time-delay is a monotonically increasing function of B.
On the Construction of Jointly Superregular Lower Triangular Toeplitz Matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jonas; Østergaard, Jan; Kudahl, Johnny
2016-01-01
superregular and product preserving jointly superregular matrices, and extend our explicit constructions of superregular matrices to these cases. Jointly superregular matrices are necessary to achieve optimal decoding capabilities for the case of codes with a rate lower than 1/2, and the product preserving......Superregular matrices have the property that all of their submatrices, which can be full rank are so. Lower triangular superregular matrices are useful for e.g., maximum distance separable convolutional codes as well as for (sequential) network codes. In this work, we provide an explicit design...
The modern origin of matrices and their applications
Debnath, L.
2014-05-01
This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show that matrices form a ring in abstract algebra. Some special matrices, including Hilbert's matrix, Toeplitz's matrix, Pauli's and Dirac's matrices in quantum mechanics, and Einstein's Pythagorean formula are discussed to illustrate diverse applications of matrix algebra. Included also is a modern piece of information that puts mathematics, science and mathematics education professionals at the forefront of advanced study and research on linear algebra and its applications.
Problems in structural inorganic chemistry
Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah
2013-01-01
This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.
Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois
2007-08-03
This article reviews several classes of inorganic semiconductor materials that can be used to form high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large area, flexible electronics. Examples ranging from thin films of various forms of silicon to nanoparticles and nanowires of compound semiconductors are presented, with an emphasis on methods of depositing and integrating thin films of these materials into devices. Performance characteristics, including both electrical and mechanical behavior, for isolated transistors as well as circuits with various levels of complexity are reviewed. Collectively, the results suggest that flexible or printable inorganic materials may be attractive for a range of applications not only in flexible but also in large-area electronics, from existing devices such as flat-panel displays to more challenging (in terms of both cost and performance requirements) systems such as large area radiofrequency communication devices, structural health monitors, and conformal X-ray imagers.
Deterministic sensing matrices in compressive sensing: a survey.
Nguyen, Thu L N; Shin, Yoan
2013-01-01
Compressive sensing is a sampling method which provides a new approach to efficient signal compression and recovery by exploiting the fact that a sparse signal can be suitably reconstructed from very few measurements. One of the most concerns in compressive sensing is the construction of the sensing matrices. While random sensing matrices have been widely studied, only a few deterministic sensing matrices have been considered. These matrices are highly desirable on structure which allows fast implementation with reduced storage requirements. In this paper, a survey of deterministic sensing matrices for compressive sensing is presented. We introduce a basic problem in compressive sensing and some disadvantage of the random sensing matrices. Some recent results on construction of the deterministic sensing matrices are discussed.
Matrices with restricted entries and q-analogues of permutations
Lewis, Joel Brewster; Morales, Alejandro H; Panova, Greta; Sam, Steven V; Zhang, Yan
2010-01-01
We study the functions that count matrices of given rank over a finite field with specified positions equal to zero. We show that these matrices are $q$-analogues of permutations with certain restricted values. We obtain a simple closed formula for the number of invertible matrices with zero diagonal, a $q$-analogue of derangements, and a curious relationship between invertible skew-symmetric matrices and invertible symmetric matrices with zero diagonal. In addition, we provide recursions to enumerate matrices and symmetric matrices with zero diagonal by rank, and we frame some of our results in the context of Lie theory. Finally, we provide a brief exposition of polynomiality results for enumeration questions related to those mentioned, and give several open questions.
Bickel, Peter J
2010-01-01
In the first part of this paper we give an elementary proof of the fact that if an infinite matrix $A$, which is invertible as a bounded operator on $\\ell^2$, can be uniformly approximated by banded matrices then so can the inverse of $A$. We give explicit formulas for the banded approximations of $A^{-1}$ as well as bounds on their accuracy and speed of convergence in terms of their band-width. In the second part we apply these results to covariance matrices $\\Sigma$ of Gaussian processes and study mixing and beta mixing of processes in terms of properties of $\\Sigma$. Finally, we note some applications of our results to statistics.
Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Dańko
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yen Wei; Kun-yuan Qiu
2000-01-01
We describe the sol-gel synthesis of a new family of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which various vinyl polymers are covalently bonded to and uniformly distributed in inorganic oxide matrices. The materials can be tailored to have both good toughness and hardness while maintaining excellent optical transparency. Doping the sol-gel metal oxides with optically active compounds such as D-glucose results in new optical rotatory composite materials. Removal of the dopant compounds from the composites affords mesoporous oxide materials, which represents a new, nonsurfactant-templated route to mesoporous molecular sieves. We have successfully immobilized a series of enzymes and other bioactive agents in mesoporous materials. Catalytical activities of the enzyme encapsulated in mesoporous materials were found to be much higher than those encapsulated in microporous materials.
Contrasting modes of inorganic carbon acquisition amongst Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) phylotypes.
Brading, Patrick; Warner, Mark E; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J
2013-10-01
Growing concerns over ocean acidification have highlighted the need to critically understand inorganic carbon acquisition and utilization in marine microalgae. Here, we contrast these characteristics for the first time between two genetically distinct dinoflagellate species of the genus Symbiodinium (phylotypes A13 and A20) that live in symbiosis with reef-forming corals. Both phylotypes were grown in continuous cultures under identical environmental conditions. Rubisco was measured using quantitative Western blots, and radioisotopic (14) C uptake was used to characterize light- and total carbon dioxide (TCO2 )-dependent carbon fixation, as well as inorganic carbon species preference and external carbonic anhydrase activity. A13 and A20 exhibited similar rates of carbon fixation despite cellular concentrations of Rubisco being approximately four-fold greater in A13. The uptake of CO2 over HCO3 - was found to support the majority of carbon fixation in both phylotypes. However, A20 was also able to indirectly utilize HCO3 - by first converting it to CO2 via external carbonic anhydrase. These results show that adaptive differences in inorganic carbon acquisition have evolved within the Symbiodinium genus, which thus carries fundamental implications as to how this functionally key genus will respond to ocean acidification, but could also represent a key trait factor that influences their productivity when in hospite of their coral hosts.
Factor structure of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices
Muniz, Monalisa; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Pasian, Sonia Regina
2016-01-01
Abstract This study's objective was to verify the factor structure of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM). The database used included the responses of 1,279 children, 50.2% of which were males with an average age of 8.48 years old and a standard deviation of 1.49 yrs. Confirmatory factor analyses were run to test seven models based on CPM theory and on a Brazilian study addressing the test's structure. The results did not confirm the CPM theoretical proposition concerning the scales b...
Generalized Jones matrices for anisotropic media.
Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis
2013-03-25
The interaction of arbitrary three-dimensional light beams with optical elements is described by the generalized Jones calculus, which has been formally proposed recently [Azzam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2279 (2011)]. In this work we obtain the parametric expression of the 3×3 differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM) for arbitrary optical media assuming transverse light waves. The dGJM is intimately connected to the Gell-Mann matrices, and we show that it provides a versatile method for obtaining the macroscopic GJM of media with either sequential or simultaneous anisotropic effects. Explicit parametric expressions of the GJM for some relevant optical elements are provided.
Jones matrices of perfectly conducting metallic polarizers
Boyer, Philippe
2014-01-01
We deduce from Monomode Modal Method the analytical expressions of transmission and reflexion Jones matrices of an infinitely conducting metallic screen periodically pierced by subwavelength holes. The study is restricted to normal incidence and to the case of neglected evanescent fields (far-field) which covers many common cases. When only one non-degenerate mode propagates in cavities, they take identical forms to those of a polarizer, with Fabry-Perot-like spectral resonant factors depending on bigrating parameters. The isotropic or birefringent properties are then obtained when holes support two orthogonal polarization modes. This basic formalism is finally applied to design compact and efficient metallic half-wave plates.
Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices
Knauer, Ulrich
2011-01-01
This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient
Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis.
Barott, Katie L; Venn, Alexander A; Perez, Sidney O; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin
2015-01-13
Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼ 4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H(+) activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts.
The inorganic constituents of echinoderms
Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.
1915-01-01
In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids
Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials
Matsumoto, O.
1980-01-01
Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, C.
1996-12-31
In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.
APPLICATIONS OF STAIR MATRICES AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS TO ITERATIVE METHODS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Xin-hui; SHEN Hai-long; LI Chang-jun
2006-01-01
Stair matrices and their generalizations are introduced. The definitions and some properties of the matrices were first given by Lu Hao. This class of matrices provide bases of matrix splittings for iterative methods. The remarkable feature of iterative methods based on the new class of matrices is that the methods are easily implemented for parallel computation. In particular, a generalization of the accelerated overrelaxation method (GAOR) is introduced. Some theories of the AOR method are extended to the generalized method to include a wide class of matrices. The convergence of the new method is derived for Hermitian positive definite matrices. Finally, some examples are given in order to show the superiority of the new method.
A CLASS OF DETERMINISTIC CONSTRUCTION OF BINARY COMPRESSED SENSING MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Dandan; Liu Xinji; Xia Shutao; Jiang Yong
2012-01-01
Compressed Sensing (CS) is an emerging technology in the field of signal processing,which can recover a sparse signal by taking very few samples and solving a linear programming problem.In this paper,we study the application of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes in CS.Firstly,we find a sufficient condition for a binary matrix to satisfy the Restricted Isometric Property (RIP).Then,by employing the LDPC codes based on Berlekamp-Justesen (B-J) codes,we construct two classes of binary structured matrices and show that these matrices satisfy RIP.Thus,the proposed matrices could be used as sensing matrices for CS.Finally,simulation results show that the performance of the Droposed matrices can be comparable with the widely used random sensing matrices.
Asymmetric random matrices: What do we need them for?
Drozdz, Stanislaw; Ioannides, Andreas A; 10.5506/APhysPolB.42.987
2011-01-01
Complex systems are typically represented by large ensembles of observations. Correlation matrices provide an efficient formal framework to extract information from such multivariate ensembles and identify in a quantifiable way patterns of activity that are reproducible with statistically significant frequency compared to a reference chance probability, usually provided by random matrices as fundamental reference. The character of the problem and especially the symmetries involved must guide the choice of random matrices to be used for the definition of a baseline reference. For standard correlation matrices this is the Wishart ensemble of symmetric random matrices. The real world complexity however often shows asymmetric information flows and therefore more general correlation matrices are required to adequately capture the asymmetry. Here we first summarize the relevant theoretical concepts. We then present some examples of human brain activity where asymmetric time-lagged correlations are evident and hence...
Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.
Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2015-11-01
Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.
Bromination of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.
Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco
2011-11-01
The bromination of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the bromination reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the bromination of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial bromine dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.
Moderate deviations for the eigenvalue counting function of Wigner matrices
Doering, Hanna
2011-01-01
We establish a moderate deviation principle (MDP) for the number of eigenvalues of a Wigner matrix in an interval. The proof relies on fine asymptotics of the variance of the eigenvalue counting function of GUE matrices due to Gustavsson. The extension to large families of Wigner matrices is based on the Tao and Vu Four Moment Theorem and applies localization results by Erd\\"os, Yau and Yin. Moreover we investigate families of covariance matrices as well.
Symmetric texture-zero mass matrices and its eigenvalues
Criollo, A
2012-01-01
Within the texture-zeros mechanism, first we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the characteristic polynomial coefficients so that it has real, simple and positive roots, we traduce these conditions in terms to the invariants of the congruent matrices. Next all symmetric texture-zero mass matrices are counted and classified. Finally we apply in a systematic way the result from the first part to analyze the six, four and two zeros texture matrices presented in the second part.
Wick's theorem and reconstruction schemes for reduced density matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Feiwu
2006-01-01
We first obtained a closed form of the Wick's theorem expressed in Grassman wedge product, which is similar to a binomial expansion. With this new expansion, new reconstruction schemes for reduced density matrices are derived rigorously. The higher order reduced density matrices are systematically decomposed into a sum of the lower order reduced density matrices which could be used to solve the contracted Schr(o)dinger equation.
Gravimetric chemical sensors based on silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids.
Xu, Jiaqiang; Zheng, Qi; Zhu, Yongheng; Lou, Huihui; Xiang, Qun; Cheng, Zhixuan
2014-09-01
Silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid material modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors have been examined for their ability to achieve highly sensitive and selective detection. Mesoporous silica SBA-15 serves as an inorganic host with large specific surface area, facilitating gas adsorption, and thus leads to highly sensitive response; while the presence of organic functional groups contributes to the greatly improved specific sensing property. In this work, we summarize our efforts in the rational design and synthesis of novel sensing materials for the detection of hazardous substances, including simulant nerve agent, organic vapor, and heavy metal ion, and develop high-performance QCM-based chemical sensors.
Racah matrices and hidden integrability in evolution of knots
Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.; Sleptsov, A.
2016-09-01
We construct a general procedure to extract the exclusive Racah matrices S and S bar from the inclusive 3-strand mixing matrices by the evolution method and apply it to the first simple representations R = [ 1 ], [2], [3] and [ 2 , 2 ]. The matrices S and S bar relate respectively the maps (R ⊗ R) ⊗ R bar ⟶ R with R ⊗ (R ⊗ R bar) ⟶ R and (R ⊗ R bar) ⊗ R ⟶ R with R ⊗ (R bar ⊗ R) ⟶ R. They are building blocks for the colored HOMFLY polynomials of arbitrary arborescent (double fat) knots. Remarkably, the calculation realizes an unexpected integrability property underlying the evolution matrices.
Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Two Special Acyclic Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debashish Sharma
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of each of its leading principal submatrices. The second problem involves reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a broom, the eigen data being the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of each of the leading principal submatrices of the required matrix. In order to solve the problems, we use the recurrence relations among leading principal minors and the property of simplicity of the extremal eigenvalues of acyclic matrices.
Self-dual interval orders and row-Fishburn matrices
Yan, Sherry H F
2011-01-01
Recently, Jel\\'{i}nek derived that the number of self-dual interval orders of reduced size $n$ is twice the number of row-Fishburn matrices of size $n$ by using generating functions. In this paper, we present a bijective proof of this relation by establishing a bijection between two variations of upper-triangular matrices of nonnegative integers. Using the bijection, we provide a combinatorial proof of the refined relations between self-dual Fishburn matrices and row-Fishburn matrices in answer to a problem proposed by Jel\\'{i}nek.
Applications of combinatorial matrix theory to Laplacian matrices of graphs
Molitierno, Jason J
2012-01-01
On the surface, matrix theory and graph theory seem like very different branches of mathematics. However, adjacency, Laplacian, and incidence matrices are commonly used to represent graphs, and many properties of matrices can give us useful information about the structure of graphs. Applications of Combinatorial Matrix Theory to Laplacian Matrices of Graphs is a compilation of many of the exciting results concerning Laplacian matrices developed since the mid 1970s by well-known mathematicians such as Fallat, Fiedler, Grone, Kirkland, Merris, Mohar, Neumann, Shader, Sunder, and more. The text i
Heat-resistant inorganic binders.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.
Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.
1980-01-01
Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)
Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.
2008-09-20
Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.
Bergamonti, Laura
2015-01-01
Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...
Matrices generadas por adición de díadas (matrices de rango 1): propiedades y aplicaciones
Ortigueira, Manuel D.
1996-01-01
Se estudian las matrices elementales de rango 1 (díadas). Para estas matrices se presentan fórmulas para su factorización, inversión, descomposición en valores propios y valores singulares. Estos resultados son aplicados en análisis recursivo a cualquier matriz, siempre que se descomponga en una suma de matrices de rango 1. Peer Reviewed
Matrices generadas por adición de díadas (matrices de rango 1): propiedades y aplicaciones
Ortigueira, Manuel D.
1996-01-01
Se estudian las matrices elementales de rango 1 (díadas). Para estas matrices se presentan fórmulas para su factorización, inversión, descomposición en valores propios y valores singulares. Estos resultados son aplicados en análisis recursivo a cualquier matriz, siempre que se descomponga en una suma de matrices de rango 1. Peer Reviewed
Investigation of degradation mechanisms in composite matrices
Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.
1982-01-01
Degradation mechanisms were investigated for graphite/polysulfone and graphite/epoxy laminates exposed to ultraviolet and high-energy electron radiations in vacuum up to 960 equivalent sun hours and 10 to the ninth power rads respectively. Based on GC and combined GC/MS analysis of volatile by-products evolved during irradiation, several free radical mechanisms of composite degradation were identified. The radiation resistance of different matrices was compared in terms of G values and quantum yields for gas formation. All the composite materials evaluated show high electron radiation stability and relatively low ultraviolet stability as indicated by low G values and high quantum for gas formation. Mechanical property measurements of irradiated samples did not reveal significant changes, with the possible exception of UV exposed polysulfone laminates. Hydrogen and methane were identified as the main by-products of irradiation, along with unexpectedly high levels of CO and CO2.
Diameter Preserving Surjection on Alternate Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Ping HUANG
2009-01-01
Let F be a field with |F| ≥ 3, Km be the set of all m × m (m ≥ 4) alternate matrices over F. The arithmetic distance of A, B ∈ Km is d(A, B) := rank(A- B). If d(A, B) = 2, then A and B are said to be adjacent. The diameter of Km is max{d(A, B) : A, B ∈ Km}. Assume that ψ : Km→ Km is a map. We prove the following are equivalent: (a) ψ is a diameter preserving surjection in both directions, (b) ψ is both an adjacency preserving surjection and a diameter preserving map, (c) ψ is a bijective map which preserves the arithmetic distance.
Spirooxazine Photoisomerization and Relaxation in Polymer Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Larkowska
2011-01-01
Full Text Available 9′-Hydroxy-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[indoline-2,3′[3H]naphtha[2,1-b]-1,4oxazine] (SPO-7OH was used in studies of photochromic transformations in polymer matrices. Illumination with UV lamp caused opening the spirostructure of the oxazine with formation of open merocyanine species absorbing at ca. 610 nm. The kinetic studies of thermal relaxation of the open form showed that this process can be described with a biexponential function including both photochemical reaction and rheological behaviour of the polymeric environment. Basing on Arrhenius plot of the rate constant ascribed to the photochemical reaction, the activation energy was determined, which was 66.1 and 84.7 kJ/mole for poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone matrix, respectively.
Carbon nanomaterials in silica aerogel matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamilton, Christopher E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez, Manuel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duque, Juan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gupta, Gautam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Kimberly A D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Silica aerogels are ultra low-density, high surface area materials that are extremely good thermal insulators and have numerous technical applications. However, their mechanical properties are not ideal, as they are brittle and prone to shattering. Conversely, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene-based materials, such as graphene oxide, have extremely high tensile strength and possess novel electronic properties. By introducing SWCNTs or graphene-based materials into aerogel matrices, it is possible to produce composites with the desirable properties of both constituents. We have successfully dispersed SWCNTs and graphene-based materials into silica gels. Subsequent supercritical drying results in monolithic low-density composites having improved mechanical properties. These nanocomposite aerogels have great potential for use in a wide range of applications.
Momentum representation for equilibrium reduced density matrices
Golovko, V A
2011-01-01
The hierarchy of equations for reduced density matrices that describes a thermodynamically equilibrium quantum system obtained earlier by the author is investigated in the momentum representation. In the paper it is shown that the use of the momentum representation opens up new opportunities in studies of macroscopic quantum systems both nonsuperfluid and superfluid. It is found that the distribution over momenta in a quantum fluid is not a Bose or Fermi distribution even in the limit of practically noninteracting particles. The distribution looks like a Maxwellian one although, strictly speaking, it is not Maxwellian. The momentum distribution in a quantum crystal depends upon the interaction potential and the crystalline structure. The momentum distribution in a superfluid contains a delta function. The momentum distribution for the condensate in a superfluid crystal consists of delta peaks that are arranged periodically in momentum space. The periodical structure remains if the condensate crystal is not su...
Statistical properties of random scattering matrices
Seba, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Seba, Petr; Zyczkowski, Karol; Zakrzewski, Jakub
1996-01-01
We discuss the properties of eigenphases of S--matrices in random models simulating classically chaotic scattering. The energy dependence of the eigenphases is investigated and the corresponding velocity and curvature distributions are obtained both theoretically and numerically. A simple formula describing the velocity distribution (and hence the distribution of the Wigner time delay) is derived, which is capable to explain the algebraic tail of the time delay distribution observed recently in microwave experiments. A dependence of the eigenphases on other external parameters is also discussed. We show that in the semiclassical limit (large number of channels) the curvature distribution of S--matrix eigenphases is the same as that corresponding to the curvature distribution of the underlying Hamiltonian and is given by the generalized Cauchy distribution.
Matrices over runtime systems at exascale
Agullo, Emmanuel
2012-11-01
The goal of Matrices Over Runtime Systems at Exascale (MORSE) project is to design dense and sparse linear algebra methods that achieve the fastest possible time to an accurate solution on large-scale multicore systems with GPU accelerators, using all the processing power that future high end systems can make available. In this poster, we propose a framework for describing linear algebra algorithms at a high level of abstraction and delegating the actual execution to a runtime system in order to design software whose performance is portable accross architectures. We illustrate our methodology on three classes of problems: dense linear algebra, sparse direct methods and fast multipole methods. The resulting codes have been incorporated into Magma, Pastix and ScalFMM solvers, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.
Unbiased community detection for correlation matrices
MacMahon, Mel
2013-01-01
A challenging problem in the study of large complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented at identifying such modules and suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, the attempts made so far have merely replaced network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be fundamentally biased due to its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on Random Matrix Theory, the unbiased correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. After successfully benchmarking our methods, we apply them to s...
A convergence analysis of SOR iterative methods for linear systems with weak H-matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Cheng-yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is well known that SOR iterative methods are convergent for linear systems, whose coefficient matrices are strictly or irreducibly diagonally dominant matrices and strong H-matrices (whose comparison matrices are nonsingular M-matrices. However, the same can not be true in case of those iterative methods for linear systems with weak H-matrices (whose comparison matrices are singular M-matrices. This paper proposes some necessary and sufficient conditions such that SOR iterative methods are convergent for linear systems with weak H-matrices. Furthermore, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the convergence results obtained in this paper.
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramírez, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Eduardo
2012-10-01
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincaré, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n - 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices Γab in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices Γab can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient αs. We then give a general algorithm that computes the α-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors Bab with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, "minimal" algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)
2012-10-06
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiarong Shi
Full Text Available In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM. We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.
Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.
Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun
2015-01-01
In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.
Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.
2002-01-01
The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 1080 ??g-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 3700 ??g-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively.
Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliane Ayres
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.
29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...
29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...
A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices
Laurent, M.; Seminaroti, M.; Paschos, V.; Widmayer, P.
2015-01-01
Robinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new characterization of
A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices
M. Laurent (Monique); M. Seminaroti (Matteo); V. Paschos; P. Widmayer
2015-01-01
htmlabstractRobinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new characte
Mutation classes of skew-symmetrizable 3x3 matrices
Seven, Ahmet
2010-01-01
In this paper, we determine representatives for the mutation classes of skew-symmetrizable 3x3 matrices and associated graphs using a natural minimality condition, generalizing and strengthening results of Beineke-Brustle-Hille and Felikson-Shapiro-Tumarkin. Furthermore, we obtain a new numerical invariant for the mutation operation on skew-symmetrizable matrices of arbitrary size.
The Exponent Set of Central Symmetric Primitive Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈佘喜; 胡亚辉
2004-01-01
This paper first establishes a distance inequality of the associated diagraph of a central symmetric primitive matrix, then characters the exponent set of central symmetric primitive matrices, and proves that the exponent set of central symmetric primitive matrices of order n is {1, 2,… ,n-1}. There is no gap in it.
The Modern Origin of Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show…
A Lex-BFS-based recognition algorithm for Robinsonian matrices
M. Laurent (Monique); M. Seminaroti (Matteo); V. Paschos; P. Widmayer
2015-01-01
htmlabstractRobinsonian matrices arise in the classical seriation problem and play an important role in many applications where unsorted similarity (or dissimilarity) information must be re- ordered. We present a new polynomial time algorithm to recognize Robinsonian matrices based on a new
The determinants of some multilevel Vandermonde and Toeplitz matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cervellino, A [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, PSI Villigen and ETH Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ciccariello, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Galilei' and Unita INFM, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2005-11-11
The closed algebraic expressions of the determinants of some multivariate (multilevel) Vandermonde matrices and the associated Toeplitz/Karle-Hauptman matrices are worked out. The formula can usefully be applied to evaluate the determinant of the Karle-Hauptman matrix generated by a principal basic set of reflections, the knowledge of which determines the full diffraction pattern of an ideal crystal.
Fusion for AdS/CFT boundary S-matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nepomechie, Rafael I. [Physics Department, University of Miami,P.O. Box 248046, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Pimenta, Rodrigo A. [Physics Department, University of Miami,P.O. Box 248046, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos,Caixa Postal 676, CEP 13569-905, São Carlos (Brazil)
2015-11-24
We propose a fusion formula for AdS/CFT worldsheet boundary S-matrices. We show that, starting from the fundamental Y=0 boundary S-matrix, this formula correctly reproduces the two-particle bound-state boundary S-matrices.
Revisiting amino acid substitution matrices for identifying distantly related proteins.
Yamada, Kazunori; Tomii, Kentaro
2014-02-01
Although many amino acid substitution matrices have been developed, it has not been well understood which is the best for similarity searches, especially for remote homology detection. Therefore, we collected information related to existing matrices, condensed it and derived a novel matrix that can detect more remote homology than ever. Using principal component analysis with existing matrices and benchmarks, we developed a novel matrix, which we designate as MIQS. The detection performance of MIQS is validated and compared with that of existing general purpose matrices using SSEARCH with optimized gap penalties for each matrix. Results show that MIQS is able to detect more remote homology than the existing matrices on an independent dataset. In addition, the performance of our developed matrix was superior to that of CS-BLAST, which was a novel similarity search method with no amino acid matrix. We also evaluated the alignment quality of matrices and methods, which revealed that MIQS shows higher alignment sensitivity than that with the existing matrix series and CS-BLAST. Fundamentally, these results are expected to constitute good proof of the availability and/or importance of amino acid matrices in sequence analysis. Moreover, with our developed matrix, sophisticated similarity search methods such as sequence-profile and profile-profile comparison methods can be improved further. Newly developed matrices and datasets used for this study are available at http://csas.cbrc.jp/Ssearch/.
The Modern Origin of Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show…
Reprint of Testing scattering matrices: a compendium of recipes
Hovenier, J.W.; van der Mee, C.V.M.
2010-01-01
Scattering matrices describe the transformation of the Stokes parameters of a beam of radiation upon scattering of that beam. The problems of testing scattering matrices for scattering by one particle and for single scattering by an assembly of particles are addressed. The treatment concerns
Sarymsakov matrices and coordination tasks for multi-agent systems
Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming
2012-01-01
The convergence of products of stochastic matrices has proven to be critical in establishing the effectiveness of distributed coordination algorithms for multi-agent systems. After reviewing some classic and recent results on infinite backward products of stochastic matrices, we provide a new
Random Matrices, Combinatorics, Numerical Linear Algebra and Complex Networks
2012-02-16
Littlewood-Offord theorems and the condition number of random discrete matrices, Annals of Mathematics , to appear. [29] T. Tao and V. Vu, The condition...Wigner. On the distribution of the roots of certain symmetric matrices. Annals of Mathematics , 67(2):325327, 1958. Department of Mathematics, Yale, New Haven, CT 06520 E-mail address: van.vu@yale.edu
On Factorization of Coupled Channel Scattering S Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We investigate the problem on how to factorize a coupled channel scattering S matrix into a product of simple S matrices. Simple S matrix solutions are found, respecting unitarity, analyticity and being real analytic. The phase shift and its physical meaning produced by these simple S matrices are discussed.
Topological algebras of rapidly decreasing matrices and generalizations
Glockner, Helge
2010-01-01
It is a folklore fact that the rapidly decreasing matrices of countable size form an associative topological algebra whose set of quasi-invertible elements is open, and such that the quasi-inversion map is continuous. We provide a direct proof, which applies more generally to a large class of algebras of weighted matrices with entries in a Banach algebra.
Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Janiak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Etingof
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Following the works by Wiegmann-Zabrodin, Elbau-Felder, Hedenmalm-Makarov, and others, we consider the normal matrix model with an arbitrary potential function, and explain how the problem of finding the support domain for the asymptotic eigenvalue density of such matrices (when the size of the matrices goes to infinity is related to the problem of Hele-Shaw flows on curved surfaces, considered by Entov and the first author in 1990-s. In the case when the potential function is the sum of a rotationally invariant function and the real part of a polynomial of the complex coordinate, we use this relation and the conformal mapping method developed by Entov and the first author to find the shape of the support domain explicitly (up to finitely many undetermined parameters, which are to be found from a finite system of equations. In the case when the rotationally invariant function is βz^2, this is done by Wiegmann-Zabrodin and Elbau-Felder. We apply our results to the generalized normal matrix model, which deals with random block matrices that give rise to *-representations of the deformed preprojective algebra of the affine quiver of type Â_{m-1}. We show that this model is equivalent to the usual normal matrix model in the large N limit. Thus the conformal mapping method can be applied to find explicitly the support domain for the generalized normal matrix model.
Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duncan H. Gregory
2013-06-01
Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...
Time series, correlation matrices and random matrix models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinayak [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, Thomas H. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, México and Centro Internacional de Ciencias, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico)
2014-01-08
In this set of five lectures the authors have presented techniques to analyze open classical and quantum systems using correlation matrices. For diverse reasons we shall see that random matrices play an important role to describe a null hypothesis or a minimum information hypothesis for the description of a quantum system or subsystem. In the former case various forms of correlation matrices of time series associated with the classical observables of some system. The fact that such series are necessarily finite, inevitably introduces noise and this finite time influence lead to a random or stochastic component in these time series. By consequence random correlation matrices have a random component, and corresponding ensembles are used. In the latter we use random matrices to describe high temperature environment or uncontrolled perturbations, ensembles of differing chaotic systems etc. The common theme of the lectures is thus the importance of random matrix theory in a wide range of fields in and around physics.
The semi-dynamical reflection equation: solutions and structure matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avan, J; Zambon, C [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (CNRS UMR 8089), Saint-Martin 2 avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)], E-mail: avan@u-cergy.fr, E-mail: cristina.zambon@u-cergy.fr
2008-05-16
Explicit solutions of the non-constant semi-dynamical reflection equation are constructed, together with suitable parametrizations of their structure matrices. Considering the semi-dynamical reflection equation with rational non-constant Arutyunov-Chekhov-Frolov structure matrices, and a specific meromorphic ansatz, it is found that only two sets of the previously found constant solutions are extendible to the non-constant case. In order to simplify future constructions of spin-chain Hamiltonians, a parametrization procedure is applied explicitly to all elements of the semi-dynamical reflection equation available. Interesting expressions for 'twists' and R-matrices entering the parametrization procedure are found. In particular, some expressions for the R-matrices seem to appear here for the first time. In addition, a new set of consistent structure matrices for the semi-dynamical reflection equation is obtained.
H-MATRICES AND S-DOUBLY DIAGONALLY DOMINANT MATRICES%H-矩阵和S-双对角占优矩阵
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨月婷; 徐成贤
2004-01-01
In this paper, the concept of the s-doubly diagonally dominant matrices is introduced and the properties of these matrices are discussed. With the properties of the s-doubly diagonally dominant matrices and the properties of comparison matrices, some equivalent conditions for H-matrices are presented. These conditions generalize and improve existing results about the equivalent conditions for H-matrices. Applications and examples using these new equivalent conditions are also presented, and a new inclusion region of k-multiple eigenvalues of matrices is obtained.
Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications
Zhang, Xiang C
2014-01-01
This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n
Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
J.H.Choy
2007-01-01
1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...
Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1999-08-01
Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.
Limits of spiked random matrices II
Bloemendal, Alex
2011-01-01
The top eigenvalues of rank r spiked real Wishart matrices and additively perturbed Gaussian orthogonal ensembles are known to exhibit a phase transition in the large size limit. We show that they have limiting distributions for near-critical perturbations, fully resolving the conjecture of Baik, Ben Arous and P\\'ech\\'e (2005). The starting point is a new (2r+1)-diagonal form that is algebraically natural to the problem; for both models it converges to a certain random Schr\\"odinger operator on the half-line with r x r matrix-valued potential. The perturbation determines the boundary condition, and the low-lying eigenvalues describe the limit jointly over all perturbations in a fixed subspace. We treat the real, complex and quaternion (beta = 1,2,4) cases simultaneously. We also characterize the limit laws in terms of a diffusion related to Dyson's Brownian motion, and further in terms of a linear parabolic PDE; here beta is simply a parameter. At beta = 2 the PDE appears to reconcile with known Painlev\\'e fo...
NOTE ON REGULAR D-OPTIMAL MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李乔良
2003-01-01
Let A be aj ×d (0,1) matrix. It is known that ifj = 2k-1is odd, then det(AAT) ≤(j+1)((j+1)d/4j)j; ifj is even, then det(AAT) ≤ (j+1)((j+2)d/4(j+1))j. A is called a regularD-optimal matrix if it satisfies the equality of the above bounds. In this note, it is proved thatifj = 2k - 1 is odd, then A is a regular D-optimal matrix if and only if A is the adjacent matrixof a (2k - 1, k, (j + 1)d/4j)-BIBD; if j ＝ 2k is even, then A is a regular D-optimal matrix ifand only if A can be obtained from the adjacent matrix B of a (2k + 1, k + 1, (j + 2)d/4(j + 1))-BIBD by deleting any one row from B. Three 21 × 42 regular D-optimal matrices, which wereunknown in [11], are also provided.
Generalized graph states based on Hadamard matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Shawn X. [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Yu, Nengkun [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); UTS-AMSS Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Computation and Quantum Information Processing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zeng, Bei [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada)
2015-07-15
Graph states are widely used in quantum information theory, including entanglement theory, quantum error correction, and one-way quantum computing. Graph states have a nice structure related to a certain graph, which is given by either a stabilizer group or an encoding circuit, both can be directly given by the graph. To generalize graph states, whose stabilizer groups are abelian subgroups of the Pauli group, one approach taken is to study non-abelian stabilizers. In this work, we propose to generalize graph states based on the encoding circuit, which is completely determined by the graph and a Hadamard matrix. We study the entanglement structures of these generalized graph states and show that they are all maximally mixed locally. We also explore the relationship between the equivalence of Hadamard matrices and local equivalence of the corresponding generalized graph states. This leads to a natural generalization of the Pauli (X, Z) pairs, which characterizes the local symmetries of these generalized graph states. Our approach is also naturally generalized to construct graph quantum codes which are beyond stabilizer codes.
Striations in PageRank-Ordered Matrices
Pennycuff, Corey
2016-01-01
Patterns often appear in a variety of large, real-world networks, and interesting physical phenomena are often explained by network topology as in the case of the bow-tie structure of the World Wide Web, or the small world phenomenon in social networks. The discovery and modelling of such regular patterns has a wide application from disease propagation to financial markets. In this work we describe a newly discovered regularly occurring striation pattern found in the PageRank ordering of adjacency matrices that encode real-world networks. We demonstrate that these striations are the result of well-known graph generation processes resulting in regularities that are manifest in the typical neighborhood distribution. The spectral view explored in this paper encodes a tremendous amount about the explicit and implicit topology of a given network, so we also discuss the interesting network properties, outliers and anomalies that a viewer can determine from a brief look at the re-ordered matrix.
On some Toeplitz matrices and their inversions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dutta
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, using the difference operator B(a[m], we introduce a lower triangular Toeplitz matrix T which includes several difference matrices such as Δ(1,Δ(m,B(r,s,B(r,s,t, and B(r̃,s̃,t̃,ũ in different special cases. For any x ∈ w and m∈N0={0,1,2,…}, the difference operator B(a[m] is defined by (B(a[m]xk=ak(0xk+ak-1(1xk-1+ak-2(2xk-2+⋯+ak-m(mxk-m,(k∈N0 where a[m] = {a(0, a(1, …, a(m} and a(i = (ak(i for 0 ⩽ i ⩽ m are convergent sequences of real numbers. We use the convention that any term with negative subscript is equal to zero. The main results of this article relate to the determination and applications of the inverse of the Toeplitz matrix T.
Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices
Haas, J. C.
2016-12-01
When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011
Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.
1997-10-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.
The quest for inorganic fullerenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)
2015-10-07
Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.
Random matrices as models for the statistics of quantum mechanics
Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Mantica, Giorgio
1986-05-01
Random matrices from the Gaussian unitary ensemble generate in a natural way unitary groups of evolution in finite-dimensional spaces. The statistical properties of this time evolution can be investigated by studying the time autocorrelation functions of dynamical variables. We prove general results on the decay properties of such autocorrelation functions in the limit of infinite-dimensional matrices. We discuss the relevance of random matrices as models for the dynamics of quantum systems that are chaotic in the classical limit. Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy.
On the asymptotic distribution of block-modified random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arizmendi, Octavio, E-mail: octavius@cimat.mx [Department of Probability and Statistics, CIMAT, Guanajuato (Mexico); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching, Germany and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Vargas, Carlos, E-mail: obieta@math.tugraz.at [Department of Mathematical Structure Theory, Technische Universität Graz, Steyrergasse 30/III, 8010 Graz (Austria)
2016-01-15
We study random matrices acting on tensor product spaces which have been transformed by a linear block operation. Using operator-valued free probability theory, under some mild assumptions on the linear map acting on the blocks, we compute the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of the modified matrices in terms of the initial asymptotic distribution. Moreover, using recent results on operator-valued subordination, we present an algorithm that computes, numerically but in full generality, the limiting eigenvalue distribution of the modified matrices. Our analytical results cover many cases of interest in quantum information theory: we unify some known results and we obtain new distributions and various generalizations.
Kerov's interlacing sequences and random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bufetov, Alexey, E-mail: alexey.bufetov@gmail.com [Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Independent University of Moscow and Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-11-15
To a N × N real symmetric matrix Kerov assigns a piecewise linear function whose local minima are the eigenvalues of this matrix and whose local maxima are the eigenvalues of its (N − 1) × (N − 1) submatrix. We study the scaling limit of Kerov's piecewise linear functions for Wigner and Wishart matrices. For Wigner matrices the scaling limit is given by the Verhik-Kerov-Logan-Shepp curve which is known from asymptotic representation theory. For Wishart matrices the scaling limit is also explicitly found, and we explain its relation to the Marchenko-Pastur limit spectral law.
ANOVA like analysis for structured families of stochastic matrices
Dias, Cristina; Santos, Carla; Varadinov, Maria; Mexia, João T.
2016-12-01
Symmetric stochastic matrices width a width a dominant eigenvalue λ and the corresponding eigenvector α appears in many applications. Such matrices can be written as M =λ α αt+E¯. Thus β = λ α will be the structure vector. When the matrices in such families correspond to the treatments of a base design we can carry out a ANOVA like analysis of the action of the treatments in the model on the structured vectors. This analysis can be transversal-when we worked width homologous components and - longitudinal when we consider contrast on the components of each structure vector. The analysis will be briefly considered at the end of our presentation.
Lipschitz correspondence between metric measure spaces and random distance matrices
Gadgil, Siddhartha
2011-01-01
Given a metric space with a Borel probability measure, for each integer $N$ we obtain a probability distribution on $N\\times N$ distance matrices by considering the distances between pairs of points in a sample consisting of $N$ points chosen indepenedently from the metric space with respect to the given measure. We show that this gives an asymptotically bi-Lipschitz relation between metric measure spaces and the corresponding distance matrices. This is an effective version of a result of Vershik that metric measure spaces are determined by associated distributions on infinite random matrices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯素梅
2002-01-01
实矩阵A称为是almostP-矩阵,如果A的行列式是正的,而所有真主子式是负的.本文给出了almostP-矩阵的一些性质以及almostP-矩阵与弱almostP-矩阵之间的关系.%An almost P-matrix A is one with real entries whose determinant is negative and all proper minors are positive. Obtain some properties for almost P-matrices, and the relationship between almost P-matrices and weak almost P-matrices.
User-Friendly Tools for Random Matrices: An Introduction
2012-12-03
The set of positive-semidefinite matrices with size d forms a closed, convex cone in the real- linear space of Hermitian matrices of dimension d...valued function h on matrices that is concave or convex. The expectation of a random matrix can be viewed as a convex combination, and the cone of...hope shatters when we subject it to interrogation. It is not hard to find the reason that (3.3.2) fails. Note that the identity (3.3.1) depends on the
Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C
2014-01-01
In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...
Flach, Joost; van der Waal, Mark B; van den Nieuwboer, Maurits; Claassen, Eric; Larsen, Olaf F A
2017-06-13
Probiotic microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into food matrices in order to confer proposed health benefits on the consumer. It is important that the health benefits, sensory properties, shelf-life and probiotic gastrointestinal tract (GIT) survival of these products are carefully balanced as they determine functionality and drive consumer acceptance. The strain-specific effects of probiotic species are imperative in this process but carrier matrices may play a pivotal role as well. This study therefore recapitulates the wealth of knowledge on carrier matrices and their interaction with probiotic strains. The most substantiated carrier matrices, factors that influence probiotic functionality and matrix effects on shelf-life, GIT survival and clinical efficacy are reviewed. Results indicate that carrier matrices have a significant impact on the quality of probiotic products. Matrix components, such as proteins, carbohydrates and flavoring agents are shown to alter probiotic efficacy and viability. In vivo studies furthermore revealed strain-dependent matrix effects on the GIT survival of probiotic bacteria. However, only a limited number of studies have specifically addressed the effects of carrier matrices on the aforementioned product-parameters; most studies seem to focus solely on the strain-specific effects of probiotic microorganisms. This hampers the innovation of probiotic products. More human studies, comparing not only different probiotic strains but different carrier matrices as well, are needed to drive the innovation cycle.
Inorganic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy.
Huang, Huang-Chiao; Barua, Sutapa; Sharma, Gaurav; Dey, Sandwip K; Rege, Kaushal
2011-11-07
Inorganic nanoparticles have received increased attention in the recent past as potential diagnostic and therapeutic systems in the field of oncology. Inorganic nanoparticles have demonstrated successes in imaging and treatment of tumors both ex vivo and in vivo, with some promise towards clinical trials. This review primarily discusses progress in applications of inorganic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and treatment, with an emphasis on in vivo studies. Advances in the use of semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles (spheres, shells, rods, cages), iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and ceramic nanoparticles in tumor targeting, imaging, photothermal therapy and drug delivery applications are discussed. Limitations and toxicity issues associated with inorganic nanoparticles in living organisms are also discussed.
Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers
Carlo,Hugo Lemes; FONSECA, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr,Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti,Mário Alexandre Coelho
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously de...
Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue Duan
2010-01-01
@@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.
Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications
Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B
2015-01-01
Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081
Organic-Inorganic Composites Toward Biomaterial Application.
Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sugawara-Narutaki, Ayae; Ohtsuki, Chikara
2015-01-01
Bioactive ceramics are known to exhibit specific biological affinities and are able to show direct integration with surrounding bone when implanted in bony defects. However, their inadequate mechanical properties, such as low fracture toughness and high Young's modulus in comparison to natural bone, limit their clinical application. Bone is a kind of organic-inorganic composite where apatite nanocrystals are precipitated onto collagen fibre networks. Thus, one way to address these problems is to mimic the natural composition of bone by using bioactive ceramics via material designs based on organic-inorganic composites. In this chapter, the current research on the development of the various organic-inorganic composites designed for biomaterial applications has been reviewed. Various compounds such as calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate can be used for the inorganic phases to design composites with the desired mechanical and biological properties of bone. Not only classical mechanical mixing but also coating of the inorganic phase in aqueous conditions is available for the fabrication of such composites. Organic modifications using various polymers enable the control of the crystalline structure of the calcium carbonate in the composites. These approaches on the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites provide important options for biomedical materials with novel functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.
Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B
2015-01-01
Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.
ON THE STIFFNESS OF DEMINERALIZED DENTIN MATRICES
Ryou, Heonjune; Turco, Gianluca; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne
2015-01-01
Resin bonding to dentin requires the use of self-etching primers or acid etching to decalcify the surface and expose a layer of collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix. Acid-etching reduces the stiffness of demineralized dentin from approximately 19 GPa to 1 MPa, requiring that it floats in water to prevent it from collapsing during bonding procedures. Several publications show that crosslinking agents like gluteraladehyde, carbodiimide or grape seed extract can stiffen collagen and improve resin-dentin bond strength. Objective The objective was to assess a new approach for evaluating the changes in stiffness of decalcified dentin by polar solvents and a collagen cross-linker. Methods Fully demineralized dentin beams and sections of etched coronal dentin were subjected to indentation loading using a cylindrical flat indenter in water, and after treatment with ethanol or ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). The stiffness was measured as a function of strain and as a function of loading rate from 1 to 50 µm/sec. Results At a strain of 0.25% the elastic modulus of the fully demineralized dentin was approximately 0.20 MPa. It increased to over 0.90 MPa at strains of 1%. Exposure to ethanol caused an increase in elastic modulus of up to four times. Increasing the loading rate from 1 to 50 µm/sec caused an increase in the apparent modulus of up to three times in both water and ethanol. EDC treatment caused increases in the stiffness in fully demineralized samples and in acid-etched demineralized dentin surfaces in situ. Significance Changes in the mechanical behavior of demineralized collagen matrices can be measured effectively under hydration via indentation with cylindrical flat indenters. This approach can be used for quantifying the effects of bonding treatments on the properties of decalcified dentin after acid etching, as well as to follow the loss of stiffness over time due to enzymatic degradation. PMID:26747822
Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists
Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K
2008-01-01
This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.
Transfer matrices of dipoles with bending radius variation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
With the increasing demand of high brightness in light source, the uniform dipole can not meet the needs of low emittance, and thus the dipole with bending radius variation is introduced in this paper. The transfer matrix of a non-uniform dipole whose bending radius is linearly changed is chosen as an example and a very simple calculation formula of non-uniform dipole transfer matrices is given. The transfer matrices of some common profile non-uniform dipoles are also listed. The comparison of these transfer matrices and the matrices calculated with slices method verifies the numerical accuracy of this formula. This method can make the non-uniform beam dynamic problem simpler, very helpful for emittance research and lattice design with non-uniform dipoles.
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Hopf monoids from class functions on unitriangular matrices
Aguiar, Marcelo; Thiem, Nathaniel
2012-01-01
We build, from the collection of all groups of unitriangular matrices, Hopf monoids in Joyal's category of species. Such structure is carried by the collection of class function spaces on those groups, and also by the collection of superclass function spaces, in the sense of Diaconis and Isaacs. Superclasses of unitriangular matrices admit a simple description from which we deduce a combinatorial model for the Hopf monoid of superclass functions, in terms of the Hadamard product of the Hopf monoids of linear orders and of set partitions. This implies a recent result relating the Hopf algebra of superclass functions on unitriangular matrices to symmetric functions in noncommuting variables. We determine the algebraic structure of the Hopf monoid: it is a free monoid in species, with the canonical Hopf structure. As an application, we derive certain estimates on the number of conjugacy classes of unitriangular matrices.
矩阵逆半群%Inverse Semigroups of Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱用文
2008-01-01
We discuss some fundamental properties of inverse semigroups of matrices, and prove that the idempotents of such a semigroup constitute a subsemilattice of a finite Boolean lattice,and that the inverse semigroups of some matrices with the same rank are groups. At last, we determine completely the construction of the inverse semigroups of some 2 x 2 matrices: such a semigroup is isomorphic to a linear group of dimension 2 or a null-adjoined group, or is afinite semilattice of Abelian linear groups of finite dimension, or satisfies some other properties.The necessary and sufficient conditions are given that the sets consisting of some 2 × 2 matrices become inverse semigroups.
Large deviations of the maximal eigenvalue of random matrices
Borot, Gaëtan; Majumdar, Satya; Nadal, Céline
2011-01-01
We present detailed computations of the 'at least finite' terms (three dominant orders) of the free energy in a one-cut matrix model with a hard edge a, in beta-ensembles, with any polynomial potential. beta is a positive number, so not restricted to the standard values beta = 1 (hermitian matrices), beta = 1/2 (symmetric matrices), beta = 2 (quaternionic self-dual matrices). This model allows to study the statistic of the maximum eigenvalue of random matrices. We compute the large deviation function to the left of the expected maximum. We specialize our results to the gaussian beta-ensembles and check them numerically. Our method is based on general results and procedures already developed in the literature to solve the Pastur equations (also called "loop equations"). It allows to compute the left tail of the analog of Tracy-Widom laws for any beta, including the constant term.
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Racah matrices and hidden integrability in evolution of knots
Mironov, A; Morozov, An; Sleptsov, A
2016-01-01
We construct a general procedure to extract the exclusive Racah matrices S and \\bar S from the inclusive 3-strand mixing matrices by the evolution method and apply it to the first simple representations R =[1], [2], [3] and [2,2]. The matrices S and \\bar S relate respectively the maps (R\\otimes R)\\otimes \\bar R\\longrightarrow R with R\\otimes (R \\otimes \\bar R) \\longrightarrow R and (R\\otimes \\bar R) \\otimes R \\longrightarrow R with R\\otimes (\\bar R \\otimes R) \\longrightarrow R. They are building blocks for the colored HOMFLY polynomials of arbitrary arborescent (double fat) knots. Remarkably, the calculation realizes an unexpected integrability property underlying the evolution matrices.
Determinant and inverse of join matrices on two sets
Mattila, Mika
2011-01-01
Let $(P,\\preceq)$ be a lattice and $f$ a complex-valued function on $P$. We define meet and join matrices on two arbitrary subsets $X$ and $Y$ of $P$ by $(X,Y)_f=(f(x_i\\wedge y_j))$ and $[X,Y]_f=(f(x_i\\vee x_j))$ respectively. Here we present expressions for the determinant and the inverse of $[X,Y]_f$. Our main goal is to cover the case when $f$ is not semimultiplicative since the formulas presented earlier for $[X,Y]_f$ cannot be applied in this situation. In cases when $f$ is semimultiplicative we obtain several new and known formulas for the determinant and inverse of $(X,Y)_f$ and the usual meet and join matrices $(S)_f$ and $[S]_f$. We also apply these formulas to LCM, MAX, GCD and MIN matrices, which are special cases of join and meet matrices.
Automorphisms of sl(2) and dynamical r-matrices
Tsiganov, A V
1996-01-01
Two outer automorphisms of infinite-dimensional representations of $sl(2)$ algebra are considered. The similar constructions for the loop algebras and yangians are presented. The corresponding linear and quadratic $R$-brackets include the dynamical $r$-matrices.
The Dirac operator and gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces
1997-01-01
Gamma matrices for quantum Minkowski spaces are found. The invariance of the corresponding Dirac operator is proven. We introduce momenta for spin 1/2 particles and get (in certain cases) formal solutions of the Dirac equation.
Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...
Morphic images of binary words and Parikh matrices
Isawasan, Pradeep; Venkat, Ibrahim; Subramanian, K. G.; Sarmin, Nor Haniza
2014-07-01
A word is a finite sequence of symbols. Parikh matrix of a word, introduced by Mateescu et al (2000), has become an effective tool in the study of certain numerical properties of words based on subwords. There have been several investigations on various properties of Parikh matrices such as M-ambiguity, M-equivalence, subword equalities and inequalities, commutativity and so on. Recently, Parikh matrices of words that are images under certain morphisms have been studied for their properties. On the other hand, Parikh matrices of words involving a certain ratio property called weak-ratio property have been investigated by Subramanian et al (2009). Here we consider two special morphisms called Fibonacci and Tribonacci morphisms and obtain properties of Parikh matrices of images of binary words under these morphisms, utilizing the notion of weak-ratio property.
A SURVEY ON SEMI-TENSOR PRODUCT OF MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Daizhan CHENG; Hongsheng QI; Ancheng XUE
2007-01-01
Semi-tensor product of matrices is a generalization of conventional matrix product for the case when the two factor matrices do not meet the dimension matching condition. It was firstly proposed about ten years ago. Since then it has been developed and applied to several different fields.In this paper we will first give a brief introduction. Then give a survey on its applications to dynamic systems, to logic, to differential geometry, to abstract algebra, respectively.
Maximum-likelihood estimation prevents unphysical Mueller matrices
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2005-01-01
We show that the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, recently introduced in the context of quantum process tomography, can be applied to the determination of Mueller matrices characterizing the polarization properties of classical optical systems. Contrary to linear reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method yields physically acceptable Mueller matrices even in presence of uncontrolled experimental errors. We illustrate the method on the case of an unphysical measured Mueller matrix taken from the literature.
Embedding cocyclic D-optimal designs in cocyclic Hadamard matrices
Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix
2012-01-01
In this paper a method for embedding cocyclic submatrices with ``large'' determinants of orders 2t in certain cocyclic Hadamard matrices of orders 4t is described (t an odd integer). If these determinants attain the largest possible value, we are embedding D-optimal designs. Applications to the pivot values that appear when Gaussian Elimination with complete pivoting is performed on these cocyclic Hadamard matrices are studied.
An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices
Turnbull, H W
2004-01-01
Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.
Remarks on a one-parameter family of singular matrices
Sharma, Ramesh; Pariso, Chris; Duda, Michelle
2015-01-01
This short article will present to the reader a family of matrices that form an algebra over the reals. This presentation provides both current and former students of modern abstract algebra a better illustration of the concepts of rings, fields, and algebra itself. In addition, this article relates eigenspaces of 3×3 matrices with the arithmetic-geometric mean equality, an attribute that teachers might enjoy utilizing as a teaching tool in their classes.
Local Law of Addition of Random Matrices on Optimal Scale
Bao, Zhigang; Erdős, László; Schnelli, Kevin
2016-11-01
The eigenvalue distribution of the sum of two large Hermitian matrices, when one of them is conjugated by a Haar distributed unitary matrix, is asymptotically given by the free convolution of their spectral distributions. We prove that this convergence also holds locally in the bulk of the spectrum, down to the optimal scales larger than the eigenvalue spacing. The corresponding eigenvectors are fully delocalized. Similar results hold for the sum of two real symmetric matrices, when one is conjugated by Haar orthogonal matrix.
Boundary transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vlaar, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Vlaar@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2015-07-15
A simple relation between inhomogeneous transfer matrices and boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ) equations is exhibited for quantum integrable systems with reflecting boundary conditions, analogous to an observation by Gaudin for periodic systems. Thus, the boundary quantum KZ equations receive a new motivation. We also derive the commutativity of Sklyanin’s boundary transfer matrices by merely imposing appropriate reflection equations, in particular without using the conditions of crossing symmetry and unitarity of the R-matrix.
A method of diagonalization for sfermion mass matrices
Aranda, Alfredo; Noriega-Papaqui, R
2009-01-01
We present a method of diagonalization for the sfermion mass matrices of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). It provides analytical expressions for the masses and mixing angles of rather general hermitian sfermion mass matrices, and allows the study of scenarios that extend the usual constrained - MSSM. Three signature cases are presented explicitly and a general study of flavor changing neutral current processes is outlined in the discussion.
Procrustes Problems for General, Triangular, and Symmetric Toeplitz Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Toeplitz Procrustes problems are the least squares problems for the matrix equation AX=B over some Toeplitz matrix sets. In this paper the necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained about the existence and uniqueness for the solutions of the Toeplitz Procrustes problems when the unknown matrices are constrained to the general, the triangular, and the symmetric Toeplitz matrices, respectively. The algorithms are designed and the numerical examples show that these algorithms are feasible.
Moment Matrices, Border Bases and Real Radical Computation
Lasserre, Jean-Bernard; Laurent, Monique; Mourrain, Bernard; Rostalski, Philipp; Trébuchet, Philippe
2013-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are efficient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorpora...
Preliminary Analysis on Matric Suction for Barren Soil
Azhar, A. T. S.; Fazlina, M. I. S.; Aziman, M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Azman, K.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.
2016-11-01
Most research conducted on slope failures can broadly be attributed to the convergence of three factors, i.e. rainfall, steepness of slope, and soil geological profile. The mechanism of the failures is mainly due to the loss of matric suction of soils by rainwater. When rainwater infiltrates into the slopes, it will start to saturate the soil, i.e., reduce the matric suction. A good understanding of landslide mechanisms and the characteristics of unsaturated soil and rock in tropical areas is crucial in landslide hazard formulation. Most of the slope failures in unsaturated tropical residual soil in Malaysia are mainly due to infiltration, especially during intense and prolonged rainfall, which reduces the soil matric suction and hence decreases the stability of the slope. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the matric suction for barren soil and to model an unsaturated slope with natural rainfall to evaluate the effects of matric suction on rainfall intensity. A field test was carried out using the Watermark Soil Moisture Sensor to determine the matric suction. The sensor was connected to a program called SpecWare 9 Basic which also used Data Logging Rain gauge Watermark 1120 to measure the intensity and duration of rainfall. This study was conducted at the Research Centre for Soft Soil which is a new Research and Development (R & D) initiative by Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja. Field observation showed that the highest daily suction was recorded during noon while the lowest suction was obtained at night and early morning. The highest matric suction for loose condition was 31.0 kPa while the highest matric suction for compacted condition was 32.4 kPa. The results implied that the field suction variation was not only governed by the rainfall, but also the cyclic evaporation process. The findings clearly indicated that the changes in soil suction distribution patterns occurred due to different weather conditions.
Host-guest supramolecular nanosystems for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.
Wang, Lei; Li, Li-li; Fan, Yun-shan; Wang, Hao
2013-07-26
Extensive efforts have been devoted to the construction of functional supramolecular nanosystems for applications in catalysis, energy conversion, sensing and biomedicine. The applications of supramolecular nanosystems such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon materials for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have been reviewed by other groups. Here, we will focus on the recent momentous advances in the implementation of typical supramolecular hosts (i.e., cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils and metallo-hosts) and their nanosystems in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the evolutive process of supramolecular nanosystems from the structural control and characterization to their diagnostic and therapeutic function exploitation and even the future potentials for clinical translation.
Aubret, Antoine; Houel, Julien; Pereira, Antonio; Baronnier, Justine; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Dubertret, Benoit; Dujardin, Christophe; Kulzer, Florian; Pillonnet, Anne
2016-08-31
We report the successful encapsulation of colloidal quantum dots in an inorganic matrix by pulsed laser deposition. Our technique is nondestructive and thus permits the incorporation of CdSe/CdS core/shell colloidal quantum dots in an amorphous yttrium oxide matrix (Y2O3) under full preservation of the advantageous optical properties of the nanocrystals. We find that controlling the kinetic energy of the matrix precursors by means of the oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber facilitates the survival of the encapsulated species, whose well-conserved optical properties such as emission intensity, luminescence spectrum, fluorescence lifetime, and efficiency as single-photon emitters we document in detail. Our method can be extended to different types of nanoemitters (e.g., nanorods, dots-in-rods, nanoplatelets) as well as to other matrices (oxides, semiconductors, metals), opening up new vistas for the realization of fully inorganic multilayered active devices based on colloidal nano-objects.
Inference for High-dimensional Differential Correlation Matrices.
Cai, T Tony; Zhang, Anru
2016-01-01
Motivated by differential co-expression analysis in genomics, we consider in this paper estimation and testing of high-dimensional differential correlation matrices. An adaptive thresholding procedure is introduced and theoretical guarantees are given. Minimax rate of convergence is established and the proposed estimator is shown to be adaptively rate-optimal over collections of paired correlation matrices with approximately sparse differences. Simulation results show that the procedure significantly outperforms two other natural methods that are based on separate estimation of the individual correlation matrices. The procedure is also illustrated through an analysis of a breast cancer dataset, which provides evidence at the gene co-expression level that several genes, of which a subset has been previously verified, are associated with the breast cancer. Hypothesis testing on the differential correlation matrices is also considered. A test, which is particularly well suited for testing against sparse alternatives, is introduced. In addition, other related problems, including estimation of a single sparse correlation matrix, estimation of the differential covariance matrices, and estimation of the differential cross-correlation matrices, are also discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liang-Liang Liu; Qin Wang; Dan Xia; Ting-Ting Shen; Ming-Hui Yu; Wei-Sheng Liu; Yu Tang
2013-01-01
Optical hybrid materials based on inorganic hosts and organic sensitizer guests hold promise for a virtually unlimited number of applications.In particular,the interaction and the combination of the properties of a defined inorganic matrix and a specific sensitizer could lead to synergistic effects in luminescence enhancing and tuning.The current article focuses on the intercalation assembly of optical hybrid materials based on the layered terbium hydroxide (LTbH) hosts and organic divalent carboxylic sensitizer anion guests by a hydrothermal process.The studies on the interactions between hosts and guests indicate that the type and arrangement of organic guests in the layer spacing of the LTbH hosts can make a difference in the luminescence of the hybrid inorganic-organic materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elise A Lamont
Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of tularemia, is categorized as a Class A select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention due to its ease of dissemination and ability to cause disease. Oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal tularemia may occur due to ingestion of contaminated food and water. Despite the concern to public health, little research is focused on F. tularensis detection in food and environmental matrices. Current diagnostics rely on host responses and amplification of F. tularensis genetic elements via Polymerase Chain Reaction; however, both tools are limited by development of an antibody response and limit of detection, respectively. During our investigation to develop an improved culture medium to aid F. tularensis diagnostics, we found enhanced F. tularensis growth using the spent culture filtrate. Addition of the spent culture filtrate allowed for increased detection of F. tularensis in mixed cultures of food and environmental matrices. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS analysis identified several unique chemicals within the spent culture supernatant of which carnosine had a matching m/z ratio. Addition of 0.625 mg/mL of carnosine to conventional F. tularensis medium increased the growth of F. tularensis at low inoculums. In order to further enrich F. tularensis cells, we developed a DNA aptamer cocktail to physically separate F. tularensis from other bacteria present in food and environmental matrices. The combined enrichment steps resulted in a detection range of 1-106 CFU/mL (starting inoculums in both soil and lettuce backgrounds. We propose that the two-step enrichment process may be utilized for easy field diagnostics and subtyping of suspected F. tularensis contamination as well as a tool to aid in basic research of F. tularensis ecology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng
2009-01-01
Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.
Updating weighting matrices by Cross-Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esteban Fernández Vázquez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available El enfoque clásico para estimar modelos espaciales parte de la elección de una matriz de pesos espaciales que refleje la interacción entre las diferentes zonas. Se asume que la regla para definir esta matriz es que sea lo más parecida a la «verdadera» red de relaciones espaciales, pero para el investigador es difícil dilucidar cuándo la elección de esta matriz es correcta. Este paso clave en el proceso de estimación de modelos espaciales es una elección arbitraria, como Anselin (2002 señaló, y puede ser visto como uno de sus principales problemas metodológicos. En esta nota se propone no imponer los elementos de la matriz, sino su estimación basándose en la técnica de Entropía Cruzada (CE. Como las matrices de pesos espaciales son frecuentemente normalizadas por filas, cada una de ellas se puede entender como una distribución de probabilidad. La econometría basada en medidas de entropía es una herramienta útil para la obtención de distribuciones de probabilidad desconocidas, y su aplicación permite la estimación de los elementos de la matriz de pesos espaciales. Así, la matriz ya no depende de una elección impuesta por el investigador, sino de una estimación empírica. Este artículo compara los estimadores clásicos con los basados en medidas de entropía por medio de simulaciones de Monte Carlo en varios escenarios. Los resultados muestran que estas estimaciones superan a las obtenidas por estimadores tradicionales, especialmente cuando la especificación de la matriz no es similar a la real. Este resultado destaca la utilidad de las técnicas CE a la hora de reducir el grado de arbitrariedad impuesta en la estimación de modelos espaciales.
Estimated correlation matrices and portfolio optimization
Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre
2004-11-01
Correlations of returns on various assets play a central role in financial theory and also in many practical applications. From a theoretical point of view, the main interest lies in the proper description of the structure and dynamics of correlations, whereas for the practitioner the emphasis is on the ability of the models to provide adequate inputs for the numerous portfolio and risk management procedures used in the financial industry. The theory of portfolios, initiated by Markowitz, has suffered from the “curse of dimensions” from the very outset. Over the past decades a large number of different techniques have been developed to tackle this problem and reduce the effective dimension of large bank portfolios, but the efficiency and reliability of these procedures are extremely hard to assess or compare. In this paper, we propose a model (simulation)-based approach which can be used for the systematical testing of all these dimensional reduction techniques. To illustrate the usefulness of our framework, we develop several toy models that display some of the main characteristic features of empirical correlations and generate artificial time series from them. Then, we regard these time series as empirical data and reconstruct the corresponding correlation matrices which will inevitably contain a certain amount of noise, due to the finiteness of the time series. Next, we apply several correlation matrix estimators and dimension reduction techniques introduced in the literature and/or applied in practice. As in our artificial world the only source of error is the finite length of the time series and, in addition, the “true” model, hence also the “true” correlation matrix, are precisely known, therefore in sharp contrast with empirical studies, we can precisely compare the performance of the various noise reduction techniques. One of our recurrent observations is that the recently introduced filtering technique based on random matrix theory performs
On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices
Pestana, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
CMV matrices in random matrix theory and integrable systems: a survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nenciu, Irina [Courant Institute, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)
2006-07-14
We present a survey of recent results concerning a remarkable class of unitary matrices, the CMV matrices. We are particularly interested in the role they play in the theory of random matrices and integrable systems. Throughout the paper we also emphasize the analogies and connections to Jacobi matrices.
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.
2015-01-01
A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.
2015-01-01
A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…
RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou
2006-01-01
Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.
Retinal pigment epithelium cell alignment on nanostructured collagen matrices.
Ulbrich, Stefan; Friedrichs, Jens; Valtink, Monika; Murovski, Simo; Franz, Clemens M; Müller, Daniel J; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin
2011-01-01
We investigated attachment and migration of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (primary, SV40-transfected and ARPE-19) on nanoscopically defined, two-dimensional matrices composed of parallel-aligned collagen type I fibrils. These matrices were used non-cross-linked (native) or after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking to study cell attachment and migration by time-lapse video microscopy. Expression of collagen type I and IV, MMP-2 and of the collagen-binding integrin subunit α(2) were examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. SV40-RPE cells quickly attached to the nanostructured collagen matrices and aligned along the collagen fibrils. However, they disrupted both native and cross-linked collagen matrices within 5 h. Primary RPE cells aligned more slowly without destroying either native or cross-linked substrates. Compared to primary RPE cells, ARPE-19 cells showed reduced alignment but partially disrupted the matrices within 20 h after seeding. Expression of the collagen type I-binding integrin subunit α(2) was highest in SV40-RPE cells, lower in primary RPE cells and almost undetectable in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, integrin α(2) expression levels directly correlated with the degree of cell alignment in all examined RPE cell types. Specific integrin subunit α(2)-mediated matrix binding was verified by preincubation with an α(2)-function-blocking antibody, which impaired cell adhesion and alignment to varying degrees in primary and SV40-RPE cells. Since native matrices supported extended and directed primary RPE cell growth, optimizing the matrix production procedure may in the future yield nanostructured collagen matrices serving as transferable cell sheet carriers.
High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibb, F.G.F. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.gibb@sheffield.ac.uk; McTaggart, N.A.; Travis, K.P.; Burley, D. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hesketh, K.W. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., B709 Springfields, Preston PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)
2008-03-15
Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like {sup 129}I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.
An Algebraic Relation between Consimilarity and Similarity of Quaternion Matrices and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongsong Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper, by means of complex representation of a quaternion matrix, discusses the consimilarity of quaternion matrices, and obtains a relation between consimilarity and similarity of quaternion matrices. It sets up an algebraic bridge between consimilarity and similarity, and turns the theory of consimilarity of quaternion matrices into that of ordinary similarity of complex matrices. This paper also gives algebraic methods for finding coneigenvalues and coneigenvectors of quaternion matrices by means of complex representation of a quaternion matrix.
Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping’an Ma
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.
Microporous Inorganic Membranes as Proton Exchange Membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vichi, F.M. Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I. Anderson, Marc A
2002-08-28
Porous oxide electrolyte membranes provide an alternative approach to fabricating proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on inorganic materials. This study focused on elucidating the properties of these inorganic membranes that make them good electrolyte materials in membrane electrode assemblies; in particular, we investigated several properties that affect the nature of proton conductivity in these membranes. This report discusses our findings on the effect of variables such as site density, amount of surface protonation and surface modification on the proton conductivity of membranes with a fixed pore structure under selected conditions. Proton conductivities of these inorganic membranes are similar to conductivities of nafion, the polymeric membrane most commonly used in low temperature fuel cells.
Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magdalena Swierczewska
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.
Randomized Algorithms for Matrices and Data
Mahoney, Michael W.
2012-03-01
This chapter reviews recent work on randomized matrix algorithms. By “randomized matrix algorithms,” we refer to a class of recently developed random sampling and random projection algorithms for ubiquitous linear algebra problems such as least-squares (LS) regression and low-rank matrix approximation. These developments have been driven by applications in large-scale data analysis—applications which place very different demands on matrices than traditional scientific computing applications. Thus, in this review, we will focus on highlighting the simplicity and generality of several core ideas that underlie the usefulness of these randomized algorithms in scientific applications such as genetics (where these algorithms have already been applied) and astronomy (where, hopefully, in part due to this review they will soon be applied). The work we will review here had its origins within theoretical computer science (TCS). An important feature in the use of randomized algorithms in TCS more generally is that one must identify and then algorithmically deal with relevant “nonuniformity structure” in the data. For the randomized matrix algorithms to be reviewed here and that have proven useful recently in numerical linear algebra (NLA) and large-scale data analysis applications, the relevant nonuniformity structure is defined by the so-called statistical leverage scores. Defined more precisely below, these leverage scores are basically the diagonal elements of the projection matrix onto the dominant part of the spectrum of the input matrix. As such, they have a long history in statistical data analysis, where they have been used for outlier detection in regression diagnostics. More generally, these scores often have a very natural interpretation in terms of the data and processes generating the data. For example, they can be interpreted in terms of the leverage or influence that a given data point has on, say, the best low-rank matrix approximation; and this
Kim, Hyun Sung; Pham, Tung Cao Thanh; Yoon, Kyung Byung
2012-05-16
The demand for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with exceptional NLO properties is very large, and hence the search for such materials should be continued not only to enhance their functions in current applications but also to help expedite the materialization of photonics in which photons instead of electrons are used for signal processing, transmission, and storage. This article summarizes the preparation, characteristics, and the future perspectives of novel second order nonlinear optical (2NLO) materials prepared by orientation-controlled incorporation of 2NLO molecules into zeolite channels and third order nonlinear optical (3NLO) materials prepared by compartmentalization of very small (<1.3 nm) PbS QDs within zeolite nanopores under different environments, and the novel chemistry newly unveiled during the preparation of novel zeolite based NLO materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
Macromolecular crowding for tailoring tissue-derived fibrillated matrices.
Magno, Valentina; Friedrichs, Jens; Weber, Heather M; Prewitz, Marina C; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Werner, Carsten
2017-06-01
Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials characteristics only. In this work, we demonstrate how macromolecular crowding (MMC) - the supplementation of matrix reconstitution media with synthetic or natural macromolecules in ways to create excluded volume effects (EVE) - can be employed for tailoring important structural and biophysical characteristics of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices. Porcine kidneys were decellularized, ground and the obtained extracellular matrix (ECM) preparations were reconstituted under varied MMC conditions. We show that MMC strongly influences the fibrillogenesis kinetics and impacts the architecture and the elastic modulus of the reconstituted matrices, with diameters and relative alignment of fibrils increasing at elevated concentrations of the crowding agent Ficoll400, a nonionic synthetic polymer of sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrate how MMC modulates the distribution of key ECM molecules within the reconstituted matrix scaffolds. As a proof of concept, we compared different variants of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices in cell culture experiments referring to specific requirements of kidney tissue engineering approaches. The results revealed that MMC-tailored matrices support the morphogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into capillary networks and of murine kidney stem cells (KSCs) into highly branched aggregates. The established methodology is concluded to provide generally applicable new options for tailoring tissue-specific multiphasic matrices in vitro. Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials
Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)
2014-10-20
It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.
Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Guo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.
Osteocalcin/fibronectin-functionalized collagen matrices for bone tissue engineering.
Kim, S G; Lee, D S; Lee, S; Jang, J-H
2015-06-01
Collagen is the most abundant protein found in the extracellular matrix and is widely used to build scaffolds for biomedical applications which are the result of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In the present study, we constructed a rhOCN/FNIII9-10 fusion protein and rhOCN/FNIII9-10-functionalized collagen matrices and investigated the potential value for bone tissue engineering. In vitro studies carried out with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed that rhOCN/FNIII9-10 fusion protein promoted cell adhesion and the mRNA levels of osteogenic markers including osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen type I. In addition, rhOCN/FNIII9-10-functionalized collagen matrices showed significant induction of the ALP activity more than rhFNIII9-10-functionalized collagen matrices or collagen matrices alone. These results suggested that rhOCN/FNIII9-10-functionalized collagen matrices have potential for bone tissue engineering.
Learning Discriminative Stein Kernel for SPD Matrices and Its Applications.
Zhang, Jianjia; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Luping; Li, Wanqing
2016-05-01
Stein kernel (SK) has recently shown promising performance on classifying images represented by symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices. It evaluates the similarity between two SPD matrices through their eigenvalues. In this paper, we argue that directly using the original eigenvalues may be problematic because: 1) eigenvalue estimation becomes biased when the number of samples is inadequate, which may lead to unreliable kernel evaluation, and 2) more importantly, eigenvalues reflect only the property of an individual SPD matrix. They are not necessarily optimal for computing SK when the goal is to discriminate different classes of SPD matrices. To address the two issues, we propose a discriminative SK (DSK), in which an extra parameter vector is defined to adjust the eigenvalues of input SPD matrices. The optimal parameter values are sought by optimizing a proxy of classification performance. To show the generality of the proposed method, three kernel learning criteria that are commonly used in the literature are employed as a proxy. A comprehensive experimental study is conducted on a variety of image classification tasks to compare the proposed DSK with the original SK and other methods for evaluating the similarity between SPD matrices. The results demonstrate that the DSK can attain greater discrimination and better align with classification tasks by altering the eigenvalues. This makes it produce higher classification performance than the original SK and other commonly used methods.
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): performance and functional correlates.
Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Falkum, Erik; Mohn, Christine; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Bull, Helen; Evensen, Stig; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Ueland, Torill
2014-12-30
Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature in psychotic disorders and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is now widely used to assess neurocognition in this group. The MATRICS has been translated into several languages, including Norwegian; although this version has yet to be investigated in an adult clinical population. Further, the relationship between the MATRICS and different measures of functioning needs examination. The purpose of this study was to describe neurocognition assessed with the Norwegian version of the MATRICS battery in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders compared to age and gender matched healthy controls and to examine the association with educational-, occupational- and social-functioning in the patient group. One hundred and thirty one patients and 137 healthy controls completed the battery. The Norwegian version of the MATRICS was sensitive to the magnitude of neurocognitive impairments in patients with psychotic disorders, with patients displaying significant impairments on all domains relative to healthy controls. Neurocognition was also related to both self-rated and objective functional measures such as social functioning, educational- and employment-history.
Laplacian matrices of weighted digraphs represented as quantum states
Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Kumar, Atul
2017-03-01
Representing graphs as quantum states is becoming an increasingly important approach to study entanglement of mixed states, alternate to the standard linear algebraic density matrix-based approach of study. In this paper, we propose a general weighted directed graph framework for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs. We generalize the standard framework of defining density matrices from simple connected graphs to density matrices using both combinatorial and signless Laplacian matrices associated with weighted directed graphs with complex edge weights and with/without self-loops. We also introduce a new notion of Laplacian matrix, which we call signed Laplacian matrix associated with such graphs. We produce necessary and/or sufficient conditions for such graphs to correspond to pure and mixed quantum states. Using these criteria, we finally determine the graphs whose corresponding density matrices represent entangled pure states which are well known and important for quantum computation applications. We observe that all these entangled pure states share a common combinatorial structure.
Hypersymmetric functions and Pochhammers of 2×2 nonautonomous matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. F. Antippa
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the hypersymmetric functions of 2×2 nonautonomous matrices and show that they are related, by simple expressions, to the Pochhammers (factorial polynomials of these matrices. The hypersymmetric functions are generalizations of the associated elementary symmetric functions, and for a specific class of 2×2 matrices, having a high degree of symmetry, they reduce to these latter functions. This class of matrices includes rotations, Lorentz boosts, and discrete time generators for the harmonic oscillators. The hypersymmetric functions are defined over four sets of independent indeterminates using a triplet of interrelated binary partitions. We work out the algebra of this triplet of partitions and then make use of the results in order to simplify the expressions for the hypersymmetric functions for a special class of matrices. In addition to their obvious applications in matrix theory, in coupled difference equations, and in the theory of symmetric functions, the results obtained here also have useful applications in problems involving successive rotations, successive Lorentz transformations, discrete harmonic oscillators, and linear two-state systems.
Dirac Matrices and Feynman's Rest of the Universe
Kim, Young S
2012-01-01
There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four $\\gamma$ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group $SL(4,r)$. The second set consists of ten generators of the $Sp(4)$ group which he derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. In classical mechanics, it is possible to extend the symmetry of the coupled oscillators to the SL(4,r) regime with fifteen Majorana matrices, while quantum mechanics allows only ten generators. This difference can serve as an illustrative example of Feynman's rest of the universe. The universe of the coupled oscillators consists of fifteen generators, and the ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups $SL(4,r)$ and $Sp(4)$ are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3,3) and O(3,2) respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman's rest...
Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.
1994-09-01
The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper we present our experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic- inorganic composite (Ormocer) materials following an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Our photochromic spirooxazine-Ormocer gels and coatings possess better photochromic response and color-change speed than the corresponding photochromic polymer coatings and similar photochemical stability to the latter. Further developments are proposed as to tackle the temperature dependence problem and further tap the potentialities of the photochromic dye-Ormocer material for practical applications.
Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders
Musil, Sean
Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.
Inorganic-organic hybrid white light phosphors.
Wang, Ming-Sheng; Guo, Guo-Cong
2016-11-03
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have brought about a revolution in lighting and display. A very hot field in recent years has been to develop white-light phosphors, aiming to achieve better colour stability, better reproducibility, and a simpler fabrication process for LEDs and OLEDs. This feature article reviews the development of inorganic-organic hybrid white-light phosphors, including coordination compounds of small organic molecules, organically templated inorganic compounds (phosphates, borates, sulfides, halides), metal-functionalized organic polymers, and organically coated nanoparticles.
MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim
2009-02-01
temperature or below. For many spectroscopic measurements, low temperatures have been achieved by co-condensing the actinide vapor in rare gas or inert molecule host matrices. Spectra recorded in matrices are usually considered to be minimally perturbed. Trapping the products from gas-phase reactions that occur when trace quantities of reactants are added to the inert host gas has resulted in the discovery of many new actinide species. Selected aspects of the matrix isolation data were discussed in chapter 17. In the present chapter we review the spectroscopic matrix data in terms of its relationship to gas-phase measurements, and update the description of the new reaction products found in matrices to reflect the developments that have occurred during the past two years. Spectra recorded in matrix environments are usually considered to be minimally perturbed, and this expectation is borne out for many closed shell actinide molecules. However, there is growing evidence that significant perturbations can occur for open shell molecules, resulting in geometric distortions and/or electronic state reordering. Studies of actinide reactions in the gas phase provide an opportunity to probe the relationship between electronic structure and reactivity. Much of this work has focused on the reactions of ionic species, as these may be selected and controlled using various forms of mass spectrometry. As an example of the type of insight derived from reaction studies, it has been established that the reaction barriers for An+ ions are determined by the promotion energies required to achieve the 5fn6d7s configuration. Gas-phase reaction studies also provide fundamental thermodynamic properties such as bond dissociation and ionization energies. In recent years, an increased number of gas-phase ion chemistry studies of bare (atomic) and ligated (molecular) actinide ions have appeared, in which relevant contributions to fundamental actinide chemistry have been made. These studies were initiated
k-控制阵%k-dominating Fuzzy Matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙华春
2006-01-01
The definition of k-dominating fuzzy matrices has been introduced. The relation between k-dominating fuzzy matrices and circularly k-dominating fuzzy matrices is discussed. We point out that the convergence or oscillating index of the power sequence of an n × n k-dominating matrix is bounded by (n-1)k+m from above; and if it is oscillating, then the period index is a factor of k.%给出k-控制阵的定义,讨论k-控制阵与k-圈控制阵的关系,指出k-控制阵的周期是k的一个因子,指数不大于(n-1)k+m.
Square matrices of order 2 theory, applications, and problems
Pop, Vasile
2017-01-01
This unique and innovative book presents an exciting and complete detail of all the important topics related to the theory of square matrices of order 2. The readers exploring every detailed aspect of matrix theory are gently led toward understanding advanced topics. They will follow every notion of matrix theory with ease, accumulating a thorough understanding of algebraic and geometric aspects of matrices of order 2. The prime jewel of this book is its offering of an unusual collection of problems, theoretically motivated, most of which are new, original, and seeing the light of publication for the first time in the literature. Nearly all of the exercises are presented with detailed solutions and vary in difficulty from easy to more advanced. Many problems are particularly challenging. These, and not only these, invite the reader to unleash their creativity and research capabilities and to discover their own methods of attacking a problem. Matrices have a vast practical importance to mathematics, science, a...
Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidney Pacheco
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.
Scattering matrices in non-uniformly lined ducts
Demir, Ahmet
2017-02-01
Sudden area expansion and sudden area contraction in an infinitely long duct with discontinuous locally reacting lining are defined by respective mixed boundary value problems. In the absence of a sudden area change, a separate problem with an infinite duct having bifid lining on its wall is described. Introducing Fourier transform along the duct axis boundary value problems is solved by the well-known Wiener-Hopf technique, and then, corresponding scattering matrices are constructed. To show the proper use of scattering matrices in the case of several discontinuities and also validation and comparison purposes, transmitted field in a duct with an inserted expansion chamber whose walls are treated by acoustically absorbent material is derived by the help of the relevant scattering matrices. A perfect agreement is observed when the transmitted fields are compared numerically with a similar work exists in the literature.
Opening the Rome-Southampton window for operator mixing matrices
Arthur, R; Garron, N; Kelly, C; Lytle, A T
2011-01-01
We show that the running of operators which mix under renormalization can be computed fully non-perturbatively as a product of continuum step scaling matrices. These step scaling matrices are obtained by taking the "ratio" of Z matrices computed at different energies in an RI-MOM type scheme for which twisted boundary conditions are an essential ingredient. Our method allows us to relax the bounds of the Rome-Southampton window. We also explain why such a method is important in view of the light quark physics program of the RBC-UKQCD collaborations. To illustrate our method, using n_f=2+1 domain-wall fermions, we compute the non-perturbative running matrix of four-quark operators needed in K->pipi decay and neutral kaon mixing. Our results are then compared to perturbation theory.
Convex Optimization methods for computing the Lyapunov Exponent of matrices
Protasov, Vladimir Yu
2012-01-01
We introduce a new approach to evaluate the largest Lyapunov exponent of a family of nonnegative matrices. The method is based on using special positive homogeneous functionals on $R^{d}_+,$ which gives iterative lower and upper bounds for the Lyapunov exponent. They improve previously known bounds and converge to the real value. The rate of convergence is estimated and the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated on several problems from applications (in functional analysis, combinatorics, and lan- guage theory) and on numerical examples with randomly generated matrices. The method computes the Lyapunov exponent with a prescribed accuracy in relatively high dimensions (up to 60). We generalize this approach to all matrices, not necessar- ily nonnegative, derive a new universal upper bound for the Lyapunov exponent, and show that such a lower bound, in general, does not exist.
Asymmetric correlation matrices: an analysis of financial data
Livan, G.; Rebecchi, L.
2012-06-01
We analyse the spectral properties of correlation matrices between distinct statistical systems. Such matrices are intrinsically non-symmetric, and lend themselves to extend the spectral analyses usually performed on standard Pearson correlation matrices to the realm of complex eigenvalues. We employ some recent random matrix theory results on the average eigenvalue density of this type of matrix to distinguish between noise and non-trivial correlation structures, and we focus on financial data as a case study. Namely, we employ daily prices of stocks belonging to the American and British stock exchanges, and look for the emergence of correlations between two such markets in the eigenvalue spectrum of their non-symmetric correlation matrix. We find several non trivial results when considering time-lagged correlations over short lags, and we corroborate our findings by additionally studying the asymmetric correlation matrix of the principal components of our datasets.
Inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices with applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazem I. El Shekh Ahmed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices will be derived and introduced as a new technique for generation of periodic autoregression models to get the desired spectrum and extract the parameters of the model from it when the information of the standard multi-companion matrices is not enough for the extracting of the parameters of the model. We will find explicit expressions for the generalized eigenvectors of the inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrices such that each generalized eigenvector depends on the corresponding eigenvalue therefore we obtain a parameterization of the inverse of invertible standard multi-companion matrix through the eigenvalues and these additional quantities. The results can be applied to statistical estimation, simulation and theoretical studies of periodically correlated and multivariate time series in both discrete and continuous-time series.
Composition of quantum operations and products of random matrices
Roga, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol
2011-01-01
Spectral properties of evolution operators corresponding to random maps and quantized chaotic systems strongly interacting with an environment can be described by the ensemble of non-hermitian random matrices from the real Ginibre ensemble. We analyze evolution operators Psi=Psi_s...Psi_1 representing the composition of s random maps and demonstrate that their complex eigenvalues are asymptotically described by the law of Burda et al. obtained for a product of s independent random complex Ginibre matrices. Numerical data support the conjecture that the same results are applicable to characterize the distribution of eigenvalues of the s-th power of a random Ginibre matrix. Squared singular values of Psi are shown to be described by the Fuss-Catalan distribution of order s. Results obtained for products of random Ginibre matrices are also capable to describe the s-step evolution operator for a model deterministic dynamical system - a generalized quantum baker map subjected to strong interaction with an environm...
Induced Ginibre ensemble of random matrices and quantum operations
Fischmann, J; Khoruzhenko, B A; Sommers, H -J; Zyczkowski, K
2011-01-01
A generalisation of the Ginibre ensemble of non-Hermitian random square matrices is introduced. The corresponding probability measure is induced by the ensemble of rectangular Gaussian matrices via a quadratisation procedure. We derive the joint probability density of eigenvalues for such induced Ginibre ensemble and study various spectral correlation functions for complex and real matrices, and analyse universal behaviour in the limit of large dimensions. In this limit the eigenvalues of the induced Ginibre ensemble cover uniformly a ring in the complex plane. The real induced Ginibre ensemble is shown to be useful to describe statistical properties of evolution operators associated with random quantum operations, for which the dimensions of the input state and the output state do differ.
Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Alexander Zahariev; Assen Girginov
2003-04-01
The kinetics of growth of complex anodic alumina films was investigated. These films were formed by filling porous oxide films (matrices) having deep pores. The porous films (matrices) were obtained voltastatically in (COOH)2 aqueous solution under various voltages. The filling was done by re-anodization in an electrolyte solution not dissolving the film. Data about the kinetics of re-anodization depending on the porosity of the matrices were obtained. On the other hand, the slopes of the kinetic curves during reanodization were calculated by two equations expressing the dependence of these slopes on the ionic current density. A discrepancy was ascertained between the values of the calculated slopes and those experimentally found. For this discrepancy a possible explanation is proposed, related to the temperature increase in the film, because of that the real current density significantly increases during re-anodization.
Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices
Chamis, Christos C.
2009-01-01
Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.
A Workshop on Algebraic Design Theory and Hadamard Matrices
2015-01-01
This volume develops the depth and breadth of the mathematics underlying the construction and analysis of Hadamard matrices and their use in the construction of combinatorial designs. At the same time, it pursues current research in their numerous applications in security and cryptography, quantum information, and communications. Bridges among diverse mathematical threads and extensive applications make this an invaluable source for understanding both the current state of the art and future directions. The existence of Hadamard matrices remains one of the most challenging open questions in combinatorics. Substantial progress on their existence has resulted from advances in algebraic design theory using deep connections with linear algebra, abstract algebra, finite geometry, number theory, and combinatorics. Hadamard matrices arise in a very diverse set of applications. Starting with applications in experimental design theory and the theory of error-correcting codes, they have found unexpected and important ap...
The road to deterministic matrices with the restricted isometry property
Bandeira, Afonso S; Mixon, Dustin G; Wong, Percy
2012-01-01
The restricted isometry property (RIP) is a well-known matrix condition that provides state-of-the-art reconstruction guarantees for compressed sensing. While random matrices are known to satisfy this property with high probability, deterministic constructions have found less success. In this paper, we consider various techniques for demonstrating RIP deterministically, some popular and some novel, and we evaluate their performance. In evaluating some techniques, we apply random matrix theory and inadvertently find a simple alternative proof that certain random matrices are RIP. Later, we propose a particular class of matrices as candidates for being RIP, namely, equiangular tight frames (ETFs). Using the known correspondence between real ETFs and strongly regular graphs, we investigate certain combinatorial implications of a real ETF being RIP. Specifically, we give probabilistic intuition for a new bound on the clique number of Paley graphs of prime order, and we conjecture that the corresponding ETFs are R...
Asymmetric matrices in an analysis of financial correlations
Kwapien, J; Górski, A Z; Oswiecimka, P
2006-01-01
Financial markets are highly correlated systems that reveal both the inter-market dependencies and the correlations among their different components. Standard analyzing techniques include correlation coefficients for pairs of signals and correlation matrices for rich multivariate data. In the latter case one constructs a real symmetric matrix with real non-negative eigenvalues describing the correlation structure of the data. However, if one performs a correlation-function-like analysis of multivariate data, when a stress is put on investigation of delayed dependencies among different types of signals, one can calculate an asymmetric correlation matrix with complex eigenspectrum. From the Random Matrix Theory point of view this kind of matrices is closely related to Ginibre Orthogonal Ensemble (GinOE). We present an example of practical application of such matrices in correlation analyses of empirical data. By introducing the time lag, we are able to identify temporal structure of the inter-market correlation...
Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure
Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra
2011-01-01
We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).
On the exponential of matrices in su(4)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Zhou, Hong [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Signals, Systems and Communications, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)
2006-03-24
This paper provides explicit techniques to compute the exponentials of a variety of anti-Hermitian matrices in dimension 4. Many of these formulae can be written down directly from the entries of the matrix. Whenever any spectral calculations are required, these can be done in closed form. In many instances only 2 x 2 spectral calculations are required. These formulae cover a wide variety of applications. Conditions on the matrix which render it to admit one of three minimal polynomials are also given. Matrices with these minimal polynomials admit simple and tractable representations for their exponentials. One of these is the Euler-Rodrigues formula. The key technique is the relation between real 4 x 4 matrices and the quaternions.
Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review.
Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia
2009-02-01
Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.
Protein-based biofilm matrices in Staphylococci
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pietro eSpeziale
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most important etiological agents of biofilm associated-infections on indwelling medical devices. Biofilm infections may also develop independently of indwelling devices, e.g. in native valve endocarditis, bone tissue and open wounds. After attachment to tissue or indwelling medical devices that have been conditioned with host plasma proteins, staphylococcal biofilms grow and produce a specific environment which provides the conditions for cell-cell interaction and formation of multicellular communities. Bacteria living in biofilms express a variety of macromolecules, including exopolysaccharides, proteins, extracellular eDNA and other polymers. The S. aureus surface protein C and G (SasC and SasG, clumping factor B (ClfB, serine aspartate repeat protein (SdrC, the biofilm-associated protein (Bap and the fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding proteins (FnBPA and FnBPB are individually implicated in biofilm matrix formation. In S. epidermidis, a protein named accumulation-associated protein (Aap contributes to both the primary attachment phase and the establishment of intercellular connections by forming fibrils on the cell surface. In S. epidermidis proteinaceous biofilm formation can also be mediated by the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp and S. epidermidis surface protein C (SesC. Additionally, multifunctional proteins such as extracellular adherence protein (Eap and extracellular matrix protein binding protein (Emp of S. aureus and the iron-regulated surface determinant protein C (IsdC of S. lugdunensis can promote biofilm formation in iron-depleted conditions. This multitude of proteins intervene at different stages of biofilm formation with certain proteins contributing to biofilm accumulation and others mediating primary attachment to surfaces. This review examines the contribution of proteins to biofilm formation in staphylococci. The potential to develop vaccines to prevent
Matric variate Pearson type II-Riesz distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José A. Díaz-García
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The Pearson type II distribution is well known and is used in the general framework of real normed division algebras and Riesz distribution theory. Also, the so called Pearson type II-Riesz distribution, based on the Kotz–Riesz distribution, is presented in a unified way valid in the context of real, complex, quaternion and octonion random matrices. Specifically, the central nonsingular matric variate generalised Pearson type II-Riesz distribution and beta-Riesz type I distributions are derived in the addressed multiple numerical field settings.
A Class of Transformation Matrices and Its Applications
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Wenhui Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies a class of transformation matrices and its applications. Firstly, we introduce a class of transformation matrices between two different vector operators and give some important properties of it. Secondly, we consider its two applications. The first one is to improve Qian Jiling's formula. And the second one is to deal with the observability of discrete-time stochastic linear systems with Markovian jump and multiplicative noises. A new necessary and sufficient condition for the weak observability will be given in the second application.
Quantum hidden Markov models based on transition operation matrices
Cholewa, Michał; Gawron, Piotr; Głomb, Przemysław; Kurzyk, Dariusz
2017-04-01
In this work, we extend the idea of quantum Markov chains (Gudder in J Math Phys 49(7):072105 [3]) in order to propose quantum hidden Markov models (QHMMs). For that, we use the notions of transition operation matrices and vector states, which are an extension of classical stochastic matrices and probability distributions. Our main result is the Mealy QHMM formulation and proofs of algorithms needed for application of this model: Forward for general case and Vitterbi for a restricted class of QHMMs. We show the relations of the proposed model to other quantum HMM propositions and present an example of application.
Recommendations on the use and design of risk matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2015-01-01
Risk matrices are widely used in risk management. They are a regular feature in various risk management standards and guidelines and are also used as formal corporate risk acceptance criteria. It is only recently, however, that scientific publications have appeared that discuss the weaknesses...... of the risk matrix. The objective of this paper is to explore these weaknesses, and provide recommendations for the use and design of risk matrices. The paper reviews the few relevant publications and adds some observations of its own in order to emphasize existing recommendations and add some suggestions...
UNCONDITIONAL CAUCHY SERIES AND UNIFORM CONVERGENCE ON MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. AIZPURU; A. GUTIERREZ-DAVILA
2004-01-01
The authors obtain new characterizations of unconditional Cauchy series in terms of separation properties of subfamilies of p(N), and a generalization of the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem is also obtained. New results on the uniform convergence on matrices and a new version of the Hahn-Schur summation theorem are proved. For matrices whose rows define unconditional Cauchy series, a better sufficient condition for the basic Matrix Theorem of Antosik and Swartz, new necessary conditions and a new proof of that theorem are given.
Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras
Mora, Walter
2004-01-01
Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...
Singularity of Sparse Circulant Matrices is NP-complete
Toli, Ilia
2009-01-01
It is shown by Karp reduction that deciding the singularity of $(2^n - 1) \\times (2^n - 1)$ sparse circulant matrices (SC problem) is NP-complete. We can write them only implicitly, by indicating values of the $2 + n(n + 1)/2$ eventually nonzero entries of the first row and can make all matrix operations with them. The positions are $0, 1, 2^{i} + 2^{j}$. The complexity parameter is $n$. Mulmuley's work on the rank of matrices \\cite{Mulmuley87} makes SC stand alone in a list of 3,000 and growing NP-complete problems.
Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras
Mora, Walter
2004-01-01
Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...
Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Alignment on Nanostructured Collagen Matrices
Ulbrich, Stefan; Friedrichs, Jens; Valtink, Monika; Murovski, Simo; Franz, Clemens M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Richard H. W. Funk; Engelmann, Katrin
2014-01-01
We investigated attachment and migration of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (primary, SV40-transfected and ARPE-19) on nanoscopically defined, two-dimensional matrices composed of parallel-aligned collagen type I fibrils. These matrices were used non-cross-linked (native) or after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking to study cell attachment and migration by time-lapse video microscopy. Expression of collagen type I and IV, MMP-2 and of the collagen-binding integrin subunit α2 were examined b...
[Ecotoxicological bioassays on aquatic sediments: experimental problems of exposure matrices].
Miniero, Roberto; Dellatte, Elena; Lupi, Carlo; Di Domenico, Alessandro
2005-01-01
In this review a discussion on some factors influencing the exposure matrices which, in turn, influences the reliability of ecotoxicological bioassays on aquatic sediments, has been carried out. These factors include the variability induced on sediments by the sampling, storage, handling, and preparative operations. The exposure matrices-sediments in toto, interstitial water and elutriate, can be deeply modified by these actions, which alter the chemicals bioavailability and, therefore, the bioassay meaning. In order to obtain reproducible and scientifically valid data, to be used in the ecological risk assessment, all these factors need to be considered and kept under control.
Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver
2013-01-01
An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....
Random Matrices for Information Processing – A Democratic Vision
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak
The thesis studies three important applications of random matrices to information processing. Our main contribution is that we consider probabilistic systems involving more general random matrix ensembles than the classical ensembles with iid entries, i.e. models that account for statistical...... dependence between the entries. Specifically, the involved matrices are invariant or fulfill a certain asymptotic freeness condition as their dimensions grow to infinity. Informally speaking, all latent variables contribute to the system model in a democratic fashion – there are no preferred latent variables...
Precise Asymptotics for Random Matrices and Random Growth Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong Gen SU
2008-01-01
The author considers the largest eigenvalues of random matrices from Gaussian unitary ensemble and Laguerre unitary ensemble, and the rightmost charge in certain random growth models.We obtain some precise asymptotics results, which are in a sense similar to the precise asymptotics for sums of independent random variables in the context of the law of large numbers and complete convergence. Our proofs depend heavily upon the upper and lower tail estimates for random matrices and random growth models. The Tracy-Widom distribution plays a central role as well.
Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.
THE ALGORITHM AND PROGRAM OF M-MATRICES SEARCH AND STUDY
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Y. N. Balonin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The algorithm and software for search and study of orthogonal bases matrices – minimax matrices (M-matrix are considered. The algorithm scheme is shown, comments on calculation blocks are given, and interface of the MMatrix software system developed with participation of the authors is explained. The results of the universal algorithm work are presented as Hadamard matrices, Belevitch matrices (C-matrices, conference matrices and matrices of even and odd orders complementary and closely related to those ones by their properties, in particular, the matrix of the 22-th order for which there is no C-matrix. Examples of portraits for alternative matrices of the 255-th and the 257-th orders are given corresponding to the sequences of Mersenne and Fermat numbers. A new way to get Hadamard matrices is explained, different from the previously known procedures based on iterative processes and calculations of Lagrange symbols, with theoretical and practical meaning.
29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.
2010-07-01
...) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic... such exposures. The following three sections quoted from “Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their.... Arsenic; chronic human intoxication. J. Occup. Med. 2:137. Elkins, H. B. 1959. The Chemistry of...
Modelling inorganic material in activated sludge systems
African Journals Online (AJOL)
driniev
2004-04-02
Apr 2, 2004 ... organic models above, predictive models for the reactor inorganic ... included TSS as a non-conservative compound (Gujer and Lawson,. 1995) .... The OHO and PAO fractions of the VSS (favOHO, favPAO) are defined by, and ...
Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie
2016-12-01
A method using derivatization and supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography was developed for the analysis of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate and inorganic arsenic simultaneously in solid matrices. Thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was used as a novel derivatizing reagent. A systematic discussion was made to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate of the supercritical CO2 , extraction time, concentration of the modifier, and microemulsion on extraction efficiency. The application for real environmental samples was also studied. Results showed that thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was an effective derivatizing reagent that could be applied for arsenic speciation. Using methanol as modifier of the supercritical CO2 can raise the extraction efficiency, which can be further enhanced by adding a microemulsion that contains Triton X-405. The optimum extraction conditions were: 25 MPa, 90°C, static extraction for 10 min, dynamic extraction for 25 min with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min of supercritical CO2 modified by 5% v/v methanol and microemulsion. The detection limits of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate, and inorganic arsenic in solid matrices were 0.12, 0.26, and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. The optimized method was sensitive, convenient, and reliable for the extraction and analysis of different arsenic species in solid samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiongfei Zou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel neural-network-based approach for extracting some eigenpairs of real normal matrices of order n. Based on the proposed algorithm, the eigenvalues that have the largest and smallest modulus, real parts, or absolute values of imaginary parts can be extracted, respectively, as well as the corresponding eigenvectors. Although the ordinary differential equation on which our proposed algorithm is built is only n-dimensional, it can succeed to extract n-dimensional complex eigenvectors that are indeed 2n-dimensional real vectors. Moreover, we show that extracting eigen-pairs of general real matrices can be reduced to those of real normal matrices by employing the norm-reducing skill. Numerical experiments verified the computational capability of the proposed algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Naffakh
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.
Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.
Frey, John E.
1990-01-01
Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.
Frey, John E.
1990-01-01
Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)
Preparation, Properties and Application of Polymeric Organic－Inorganic Nanocomposites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任杰; 刘艳; 唐小真
2003-01-01
Six preparation methods for polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites and their respective mechanisms and features are reviewed. The extraordinary properties of polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites are discussed,and their potential applications are evaluated.
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of ... the effect of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and inorganic sources of ... Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given plant and ...
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...
Martínez Buitrago, Diana Isabel
2010-01-01
En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la dimensión del álgebra generada por dos matrices conmutantes mediante dos métodos diferentes; en el primero se usan herramientas del álgebra lineal y en el segundo se usan razonamientos de la geometría algebraica. Además, se realiza un estudio de la irreducibilidad de la variedad de m-uplas de matrices conmutantes de tamaño n x n para valores de m y n particulares. / Abstract. In this work, it was made a study of the dimension of the algebra generat...
The inorganic components of cementum- and enamel-related dentin in the rat incisor.
Steinfort, J; Deblauwe, B M; Beertsen, W
1990-06-01
Recently, we have shown that, in rodent incisors, the crown- and root-analogue dentin (enamel- and cementum-related dentin) show differences in mineralization rates (Beertsen and Niehof, 1986) and composition of the organic matrices (Steinfort et al., 1989). It was the aim of the present study to determine whether these differences were accompanied by differences in the inorganic components. Rat incisors were analyzed by means of hardness measurements, microradiography, and the determination of Ca, Mg, and PO4 content. The outer circumpulpal dentin layer of the enamel-related dentin (ERD) was considerably harder and denser than the comparable layer of the cementum-related dentin (CRD). Concomitantly, a higher Ca and PO4 content was found for the ERD than for the CRD, while the reverse occurred with respect to Mg. From the apical end of the incisor toward the incisal edge, the Ca/PO4 ratio tended to decrease for both ERD and CRD, while the Mg/PO4 ratio increased. All differences appeared to be statistically significant. It is concluded that differences in the non-collagenous organic matrix were accompanied by differences in the inorganic components. More specifically, a relatively high content of highly phosphorylated phosphoproteins (ERD) was associated with a higher Ca and a lower Mg content.
Association and host selectivity in multi-host pathogens.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José M Malpica
Full Text Available The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens.
Analytical stiffness matrices with Green-Lagrange strain measure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli
2005-01-01
Separating the dependence on material and stress/strain state from the dependence on initial geometry, we obtain analytical secant and tangent stiffness matrices. For the case of a linear displacement triangle with uniform thickness and uniform constitutive behaviour closed-form results are listed...
Matrices Totally Positive Relative to a General Tree
Costas-Santos, R S
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove that for a general tree $T$, if $A$ is T-TP, all the submatrices of $A$ associated with the deletion of pendant vertices are $P$-matrices, and $\\det A>0$, then the smallest eigenvalue has an eigenvector signed according to $T$.
State dependent matrices and balanced energy functions for nonlinear systems
Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Gray, W. Steven
2000-01-01
The nonlinear extension of the balancing procedure requires the case of state dependent quadratic forms for the energy functions, i.e., the nonlinear extensions of the linear Gramians are state dependent matrices. These extensions have some interesting ambiguities that do not occur in the linear cas
Reduction of asymmetry by rank-one matrices
Ten Berge, J.M.F.
1997-01-01
Gower has shown how to partition the sum of squares of an asymmetric matrix into independent parts associated with the symmetric and the skew-symmetric parts of the matrix; and has pointed out that asymmetry can be removed by subtracting certain unit-rank matrices, which improve the symmetry in equa
On the extraction of weights from pairwise comparison matrices
Dijkstra, Theo K.
2013-01-01
We study properties of weight extraction methods for pairwise comparison matrices that minimize suitable measures of inconsistency, 'average error gravity' measures, including one that leads to the geometric row means. The measures share essential global properties with the AHP inconsistency measure
Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young S. Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.
More about unphysical zeroes in quark mass matrices
Emmanuel-Costa, David; González Felipe, Ricardo
2017-01-01
We look for all weak bases that lead to texture zeroes in the quark mass matrices and contain a minimal number of parameters in the framework of the standard model. Since there are ten physical observables, namely, six nonvanishing quark masses, three mixing angles and one CP phase, the maximum number of texture zeroes in both quark sectors is altogether nine. The nine zero entries can only be distributed between the up- and down-quark sectors in matrix pairs with six and three texture zeroes or five and four texture zeroes. In the weak basis where a quark mass matrix is nonsingular and has six zeroes in one sector, we find that there are 54 matrices with three zeroes in the other sector, obtainable through right-handed weak basis transformations. It is also found that all pairs composed of a nonsingular matrix with five zeroes and a nonsingular and nondecoupled matrix with four zeroes simply correspond to a weak basis choice. Without any further assumptions, none of these pairs of up- and down-quark mass matrices has physical content. It is shown that all non-weak-basis pairs of quark mass matrices that contain nine zeroes are not compatible with current experimental data. The particular case of the so-called nearest-neighbour-interaction pattern is also discussed.
Technologies for detecting botulinum neurotoxins in biological and environmental matrices
Biomonitoring of food and environmental matrices is critical for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases caused by toxins. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has noted that toxins from bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants present an ongo...
Advances in detection of antipsychotics in biological matrices.
Patteet, Lisbeth; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; Crunelle, Cleo L; Sabbe, Bernard; Neels, Hugo
2015-02-20
Measuring antipsychotic concentrations in human matrices is important for both therapeutic drug monitoring and forensic toxicology. This review provides a critical overview of the analytical methods for detection and quantification of antipsychotics published in the last four years. Focus lies on advances in sample preparation, analytical techniques and alternative matrices. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used most often for quantification of antipsychotics. This sensitive technique makes it possible to determine low concentrations not only in serum, plasma or whole blood, but also in alternative matrices like oral fluid, dried blood spots, hair, nails and other body tissues. Current literature on analytical techniques for alternative matrices is still limited and often requires a more thorough validation including a comparison between conventional and alternative results to determine their actual value. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) makes it possible to quantify a high amount of compounds within a shorter run time. This technique is widely used for multi-analyte methods. Only recently, high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained importance when a combination of screening of (un)known metabolites, and quantification is required.
Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.
Variation in Raven's Progressive Matrices Scores across Time and Place
Brouwers, Symen A.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Van Hemert, Dianne A.
2009-01-01
The paper describes a cross-cultural and historical meta-analysis of Raven's Progressive Matrices. Data were analyzed of 798 samples from 45 countries (N = 244,316), which were published between 1944 and 2003. Country-level indicators of educational permeation (which involves a broad set of interrelated educational input and output factors that…
Automorphisms of semigroups of invertible matrices with nonnegative integer elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semenov, Pavel P [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-09-30
Let G{sub n}(Z) be the subsemigroup of GL{sub n}(Z) consisting of the matrices with nonnegative integer coefficients. In the paper, the automorphisms of this semigroup are described for n{>=}2. Bibliography: 5 titles.
Elements of the Theory of Generalized Inverses for Matrices.
Cline, Randall E.
This document is designed to provide a concise introduction to the theory of generalized inverses of matrices that is accessible to undergraduate mathematics majors. The approach used is to: (1) develop the material in terms of full-rank factorizations and to relegate all discussions using eigenvalues and eigenvectors to exercises, and (2) include…
Algorithm Engineering for Optimal Alignment of Protein Structure Distance Matrices
Wohlers, I.; Andonov, R.; Klau, G.W.
2011-01-01
Protein structural alignment is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we present first successes on provably optimal pairwise alignment of protein inter-residue distance matrices, using the popular DALI scoring function. We introduce the structural alignment problem formally,
Average Density of States for Hermitian Wigner Matrices
Maltsev, Anna
2010-01-01
We consider ensembles of $N \\times N$ Hermitian Wigner matrices, whose entries are (up to the symmetry constraints) independent and identically distributed random variables. Assuming sufficient regularity for the probability density function of the entries, we show that the expectation of the density of states on {\\it arbitrarily} small intervals converges to the semicircle law, as $N$ tends to infinity.
Equilibrium states of the pressure function for products of matrices
Feng, De-Jun
2010-01-01
Let $\\{M_i\\}_{i=1}^\\ell$ be a non-trivial family of $d\\times d$ complex matrices, in the sense that for any $n\\in \\N$, there exists $i_1... i_n\\in \\{1,..., \\ell\\}^n$ such that $M_{i_1}... M_{i_n}\
A fast algorithm for LR-2 factorization of Toeplitz matrices
Glentis, George-Othon
1995-01-01
In this paper a new order recursive algorithm for the efficient −1 factorization of Toeplitz matrices is described. The proposed algorithm can be seen as a fast modified Gram-Schmidt method which recursively computes the orthonormal columns i, i = 1,2, …,p, of , as well as the elements of R−1, of
Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices
Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.
2016-10-01
The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.
Wigner law for matrices with dependent entries - a perturbative approach
Krajewski, T; Vu, D L
2016-01-01
We show that Wigner semi-circle law holds for Hermitian matrices with dependent entries, provided the deviation of the cumulants from the normalised Gaussian case obeys a simple power law bound in the size of the matrix. To establish this result, we use replicas interpreted as a zero-dimensional quantum field theoretical model whose effective potential obey a renormalisation group equation.
A simple procedure for the comparison of covariance matrices.
Garcia, Carlos
2012-11-21
Comparing the covariation patterns of populations or species is a basic step in the evolutionary analysis of quantitative traits. Here I propose a new, simple method to make this comparison in two population samples that is based on comparing the variance explained in each sample by the eigenvectors of its own covariance matrix with that explained by the covariance matrix eigenvectors of the other sample. The rationale of this procedure is that the matrix eigenvectors of two similar samples would explain similar amounts of variance in the two samples. I use computer simulation and morphological covariance matrices from the two morphs in a marine snail hybrid zone to show how the proposed procedure can be used to measure the contribution of the matrices orientation and shape to the overall differentiation. I show how this procedure can detect even modest differences between matrices calculated with moderately sized samples, and how it can be used as the basis for more detailed analyses of the nature of these differences. The new procedure constitutes a useful resource for the comparison of covariance matrices. It could fill the gap between procedures resulting in a single, overall measure of differentiation, and analytical methods based on multiple model comparison not providing such a measure.
Cleaning large correlation matrices: Tools from Random Matrix Theory
Bun, Joël; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc
2017-01-01
This review covers recent results concerning the estimation of large covariance matrices using tools from Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We introduce several RMT methods and analytical techniques, such as the Replica formalism and Free Probability, with an emphasis on the Marčenko-Pastur equation that provides information on the resolvent of multiplicatively corrupted noisy matrices. Special care is devoted to the statistics of the eigenvectors of the empirical correlation matrix, which turn out to be crucial for many applications. We show in particular how these results can be used to build consistent "Rotationally Invariant" estimators (RIE) for large correlation matrices when there is no prior on the structure of the underlying process. The last part of this review is dedicated to some real-world applications within financial markets as a case in point. We establish empirically the efficacy of the RIE framework, which is found to be superior in this case to all previously proposed methods. The case of additively (rather than multiplicatively) corrupted noisy matrices is also dealt with in a special Appendix. Several open problems and interesting technical developments are discussed throughout the paper.
Normative data for Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices scale in Yemen.
Khaleefa, Omar; Lynn, Richard
2008-08-01
Results are reported for a standardization sample of 986 6- to 1-yr.-olds for the Coloured Progressive Matrices in Yemen. Younger children performed better than older children relative to British norms, and there was no significant sex difference in means or variability. In relation to a British IQ of 100 (SD=15), the sample obtained an average IQ of approximately 81.
Raven's Matrices Performance in Down Syndrome: Evidence of Unusual Errors
Gunn, Deborah M.; Jarrold, Christopher
2004-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the types of errors produced by three participant groups (individuals with Down syndrome, with moderate learning disability, and typically developing children) whilst completing the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices task. An analysis of error categories revealed that individuals with Down syndrome…
A Kenya Standardization of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.
Costenbader, Virginia; Ngari, Stephen Mbugua
2001-01-01
Establishes a Kenyan standardization of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), a nonverbal instrument widely used to assess academic aptitude in young children. Data was gathered from a sample of 1,370 children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Using the current data, the RCPM appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for use in…
A simple procedure for the comparison of covariance matrices
2012-01-01
Background Comparing the covariation patterns of populations or species is a basic step in the evolutionary analysis of quantitative traits. Here I propose a new, simple method to make this comparison in two population samples that is based on comparing the variance explained in each sample by the eigenvectors of its own covariance matrix with that explained by the covariance matrix eigenvectors of the other sample. The rationale of this procedure is that the matrix eigenvectors of two similar samples would explain similar amounts of variance in the two samples. I use computer simulation and morphological covariance matrices from the two morphs in a marine snail hybrid zone to show how the proposed procedure can be used to measure the contribution of the matrices orientation and shape to the overall differentiation. Results I show how this procedure can detect even modest differences between matrices calculated with moderately sized samples, and how it can be used as the basis for more detailed analyses of the nature of these differences. Conclusions The new procedure constitutes a useful resource for the comparison of covariance matrices. It could fill the gap between procedures resulting in a single, overall measure of differentiation, and analytical methods based on multiple model comparison not providing such a measure. PMID:23171139
Higgs-boson masses and mixing matrices in the NMSSM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drechsel, P.; Gröber, R.; Heinemeyer, S.
2017-01-01
We analyze the Higgs-boson masses and mixing matrices in the NMSSM based on an on-shell (OS) renormalization of the gauge-boson and Higgs-boson masses and the parameters of the top/scalar top sector. We compare the implementation of the OS calculations in the codes NMSSMCALC and NMSSM-FeynHiggs up...