WorldWideScience

Sample records for inland water bodies

  1. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  2. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  3. Altimetry for inland water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Villadsen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    With the globally decreasing amount of in-situ stations, satellite altimetry based water levels are an important supplement to obtain continuous time series of the worlds inland water. In this study we demonstrate two new services, that are related to inland water and altimetry. The first...... is Altimetry for inland water (AltWater), which is a new open service, that provides altimetry based time series for inland water. Currently, the service includes data from cryoSat- 2, but we intend to add other missions in future versions. The second,tsHydro, is a software package, that is implemented...... in the open source environment "R". The package enables the user to easily construct water level time series for lakes and rivers based on along-track altimetry data....

  4. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  5. Numerical modeling of thermal regime in inland water bodies with field measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladskikh, D.; Sergeev, D.; Baydakov, G.; Soustova, I.; Troitskaya, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of the program complex LAKE, which is intended to compute the thermal regimes of inland water bodies, and the results of its validation in accordance with the parameters of lake part of Gorky water reservoir are reviewed in the research. The modification caused changing the procedure of input temperature profile assignment and parameterization of surface stress on air-water boundary in accordance with the consideration of wind influence on mixing process. Also the innovation consists in combined methods of gathering meteorological parameters from files of global meteorological reanalysis and data of hydrometeorological station. Temperature profiles carried out with CTD-probe during expeditions in the period 2014-2017 were used for validation of the model. The comparison between the real data and the numerical results and its assessment based on time and temperature dependences in control points, correspondence of the forms of the profiles and standard deviation for all performed realizations are provided. It is demonstrated that the model reproduces the results of field measurement data for all observed conditions and seasons. The numerical results for the regimes with strong mixing are in the best quantitative and qualitative agreement with the real profiles. The accuracy of the forecast for the ones with strong stratification near the surface is lower but all specificities of the forms are correctly reproduced.

  6. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Sankar Bhunia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave- infrared (SWIR bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI calculated as follows: (Green – SWIR I/(Green + SWIR I. Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001, while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (X2 = 26.3; P <0.001. The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (X2 = 26.0; P <0.001. The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission.

  7. [Differences of inherent optical properties of inland lake water body in typical seasons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Yong; Li, Yun-Mei; Wang, Qiao; Le, Cheng-Fen; Huang, Chang-Chun; Wang, Li-Zhen

    2008-05-01

    Inherent optical property is one of the important properties of water body, which lays the foundation for the establishment of water color analytical models. By using quantity filter technology (QFT) and BB9 backscattering meter, the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended matters (TSM) and the backscattering coefficient of TSM in the water body at Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake were measured in summer and winter. Based on the spectral comparison of the absorption and backscattering coefficients, their differences between the two seasons were demonstrated, and the reasons that caused these differences were also explored in the context of their relations to the changes in water quality. Consequently, water environment condition could be revealed by using the inherent optical property. The relationship between the backscattering coefficient and the TSM concentration was established, which could provide supporting coefficients to the analytical models to be developed.

  8. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  9. 33 CFR 2.26 - Inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inland waters. 2.26 Section 2.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.26 Inland waters. Inland waters means the waters shoreward of the territorial sea...

  10. Sustainable fishing of inland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Kolding

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in fisheries has over the past decades evolved from a single species maximization concept to covering ecosystem and biodiversity considerations. This expansion of the notion, together with increased evidence that the targeted removal of selected components of the fish community may have adverse ecological consequences, poses a serious dilemma to the conventional fisheries management approach of protecting juveniles and targeting adults. Recently, the idea of balanced harvest, i.e., harvesting all components in the ecosystem in proportion to their productivity, has been promoted as a unifying solution in accordance with the ecosystem approach to fisheries, but this will require a fundamental change to management. In this paper, we review the objectives, theoretical background, and practicalities of securing high yielding fisheries in inland waters, with empirical examples from tropical freshwater fisheries which satisfy the extended objectives of minimal impact on community and ecosystem structure. We propose a framework of ecological indicators to assess these objectives.  Normal 0 false false false EN-GB ZH-CN HE

  11. Datasets related to in-land water for limnology and remote sensing applications: distance-to-land, distance-to-water, water-body identifier and lake-centre co-ordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, Laura; Embury, Owen; Merchant, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Datasets containing information to locate and identify water bodies have been generated from data locating static-water-bodies with resolution of about 300 m (1/360 ∘ ) recently released by the Land Cover Climate Change Initiative (LC CCI) of the European Space Agency. The LC CCI water-bodies dataset has been obtained from multi-temporal metrics based on time series of the backscattered intensity recorded by ASAR on Envisat between 2005 and 2010. The new derived datasets provide coherently: distance to land, distance to water, water-body identifiers and lake-centre locations. The water-body identifier dataset locates the water bodies assigning the identifiers of the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD), and lake centres are defined for in-land waters for which GLWD IDs were determined. The new datasets therefore link recent lake/reservoir/wetlands extent to the GLWD, together with a set of coordinates which locates unambiguously the water bodies in the database. Information on distance-to-land for each water cell and the distance-to-water for each land cell has many potential applications in remote sensing, where the applicability of geophysical retrieval algorithms may be affected by the presence of water or land within a satellite field of view (image pixel). During the generation and validation of the datasets some limitations of the GLWD database and of the LC CCI water-bodies mask have been found. Some examples of the inaccuracies/limitations are presented and discussed. Temporal change in water-body extent is common. Future versions of the LC CCI dataset are planned to represent temporal variation, and this will permit these derived datasets to be updated.

  12. LakeSST: Lake Skin Surface Temperature in French inland water bodies for 1999-2016 from Landsat archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Jordi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Rebière, Delphine; Peroux, Tiphaine; Tormos, Thierry; Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal coverage of the Landsat satellite imagery make it an ideal resource for the monitoring of water temperature over large territories at a moderate spatial and temporal scale at a low cost. We used Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 archive images to create the Lake Skin Surface Temperature (LakeSST) data set, which contains skin water surface temperature data for 442 French water bodies (natural lakes, reservoirs, ponds, gravel pit lakes and quarry lakes) for the period 1999-2016. We assessed the quality of the satellite temperature measurements by comparing them to in situ measurements and taking into account the cool skin and warm layer effects. To estimate these effects and to investigate the theoretical differences between the freshwater and seawater cases, we adapted the COARE 3.0 algorithm to the freshwater environment. We also estimated the warm layer effect using in situ data. At the reservoir of Bimont, the estimated cool skin effect was about -0.3 and -0.6 °C most of time, while the warm layer effect at 0.55 m was negligible on average, but could occasionally attain several degrees, and a cool layer was often observed in the night. The overall RMSE of the satellite-derived temperature measurements was about 1.2 °C, similar to other applications of satellite images to estimate freshwater surface temperatures. The LakeSST data can be used for studies on the temporal evolution of lake water temperature and for geographical studies of temperature patterns. The LakeSST data are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745.

  13. Microplastics in Inland African Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Farhan; Mayoma, Bahati Sosthenes; Biginagwa, Fares John

    2017-01-01

    As the birthplace of our species, the African continent holds a unique place in human history. Upon entering a new epoch, the Anthropocene defined by human-driven influences on earth systems, and with the recognition that plastic pollution is one of the hallmarks of this new age, remarkably little...... is known about the presence, sources, and fate of plastics (and microplastics (MPs)) within African waters. Research in marine regions, most notably around the coast of South Africa, describes the occurrence of MPs in seabirds and fish species. More recently environmental sampling studies in the same area...... have quantified plastics in both the water column and sediments. However, despite Africa containing some of the largest and deepest of the world’s freshwater lakes, including Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika as part of the African Great Lakes system, and notable freshwater rivers, such as the River Congo...

  14. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  15. Inland excess water mapping using hyperspectral imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csendes Bálint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging combined with the potentials of airborne scanning is a powerful tool to monitor environmental processes. The aim of this research was to use high resolution remotely sensed data to map the spatial extent of inland excess water patches in a Hungarian study area that is known for its oil and gas production facilities. Periodic floodings show high spatial and temporal variability, nevertheless, former studies have proven that the affected soil surfaces can be accurately identified. Besides separability measurements, we performed spectral angle classification, which gave a result of 85% overall accuracy and we also compared the generated land cover map with LIDAR elevation data.

  16. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    Key words: Heavy metals, freshwater, concentrations, quality, variation, distribution. ... prevalence of heavy metals in inland water of lower River. Niger drain are scarce ..... Niger waters at Ajaokuta were found to be low and within guideline.

  17. Anticipated water quality changes in response to climate change and potential consequences for inland fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Todd, Andrew S.; Murphy, Margaret H.; Lomnicky, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Healthy freshwater ecosystems are a critical component of the world's economy, with a critical role in maintaining public health, inland biological diversity, and overall quality of life. Globally, our climate is changing, with air temperature and precipitation regimes deviating significantly from historical patterns. Changes anticipated with climate change in the future are likely to have a profound effect on inland aquatic ecosystems through diverse pathways, including changes in water quality. In this brief article, we present an initial discussion of several of the water quality responses that can be anticipated to occur within inland water bodies with climate change and how those changes are likely to impact fishes.

  18. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  19. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Philip; Berry, Philippa; Balmbra, Robert

    2014-01-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 mission. The fact that the Earth’s land surface is, in general, a relatively poor reflector of Ku band energy, with the exceptions...... of inland water, salar and ice surfaces has enabled Earth-orbiting satellite radar altimeters to be used for land surface applications including mapping and measurement of river and lake systems. Research with EnviSat Burst Echoes has shown that substantial high frequency information content is present...... of Cryosat-2 altimeter in SAR mode (I8 KHz) offers the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over much of the Earth’s land surface, enhancing the inland water height retrieval capability. Constraining this application is the limited availability of SAR Full Bit Rate (FBR) data from Cryosat-2 over...

  20. Physical Hydronomics: Application of the exergy analysis to the assessment of environmental costs of water bodies. The case of the inland basins of Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Antonio; Uche, Javier; Valero, Alicia; Martinez, Amaya

    2009-01-01

    The water cycle is governed by the thermodynamic laws. Therefore Thermodynamics and more specifically Exergoecology, that is the application of the exergy analysis in the evaluation of natural fluxes and resources on Earth, could help to build a solid cost structure based strictly on Physics and far away from price policies or subjectivities. Any type of degradation of water bodies along their rivers, lakes, etc., could then be quantified. Moreover, the physical information of the resource can be unified into universal units (energy units), and the monetary conversion of exergy costs is automatic through conventional energy prices. This paper presents a new discipline named 'Physical Hydronomics', as a guide to assess environmental costs included in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD).

  1. Radioecological models for inland water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Popov, A.; Zheleznyak, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    Following a nuclear accident, radioactivity may either be directly discharged into rivers, lakes and reservoirs or - after the re-mobilisation of dry and wet deposited material by rain events - may result in the contamination of surface water bodies. These so-called aquatic exposure pathways are still missing in the decision support system IMIS/PARK. Therefore, a study was launched to analyse aquatic and radioecological models with respect to their applicability for assessing the radiation exposure of the population. The computer codes should fulfil the following requirements: 1. to quantify the impact of radionuclides in water systems from direct deposition and via runoff, both dependent on time and space, 2. to forecast the activity concentration in water systems (rivers and lakes) and sediment, both dependent on time and space, and 3. to assess the time dependent activity concentration in fish. To that purpose, a literature survey was conducted to collect a list of all relevant computer models potentially suitable for these tasks. In addition, a detailed overview of the key physical process was provided, which should be considered in the models. Based on the three main processes, 9 codes were selected for the runoff from large watersheds, 19 codes for the river transport and 14 for lakes. (orig.) [de

  2. 33 CFR 163.05 - Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters. 163.05 Section 163.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... inland waters. (a) The tows of seagoing barges when navigating the inland waters of the United States...

  3. 33 CFR 89.27 - Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies. 89.27 Section 89.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND NAVIGATION RULES: IMPLEMENTING RULES Waters Upon Which Certain...

  4. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  5. The coordinated development of China' s inland water transport%The coordinated development of China' s inland water transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Aimin; Tian Feng; Haasis H.D; Mao Lang; Cai Jia

    2012-01-01

    The coordinated development is the core of sustainable development and the hot issue of international research. Inland water transport (IWT) is an important part of the water resources exploiting system and comprehensive transport system under socio-economic context of river basin, and also the country' s sustainable development priorities to achieve resource-conserving and environment-friendly strategy. Based on the coordinated development content, the paper combined Germany' s successful development experience, explored the elements and problem of the coordinated development of IWT system of China' s national economic strategy and basin economy, water resourse system, comprehensive transport system, and system itself, and their countermeasures and suggestions, in order to facilitate rapid and coordinated development of China' s inland water transport.

  6. Inland Water Temperature: An Ideal Indicator for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.; Healey, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA is a significant contributor to the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), which is a central component of the 2012-2022 U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan. The NCA has identified the need for indicators that provide a clear, concise way of communicating to NCA audiences about not only the status and trends of physical drivers of the climate system, but also the ecological and socioeconomic impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses to those drivers. We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America for potential use as an indicator for the NCA. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 100 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes

  7. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The relevance of inland waters to global biogeochemical cycles is increasingly recognized, and of particular importance is their contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The latter remain largely unreported in African inland waters. Here we report dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O from 12 rivers in Sub-Saharan Africa acquired during >30 field expeditions and additional seasonally resolved sampling at >30 sites between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from reported gas transfer velocity values, and upscaled using available spatial datasets, with an estimated uncertainty of about ±19%. CO2 equivalent emissions ( 0.4±0.1 PgC yr-1) match 2/3 of the overall net carbon sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo, the putative total emission ( 0.9±0.1 PgC yr-1) is about half of the global oceanic or land carbon sinks. In-situ respiration supported <14% of riverine CO2 emissions, which must therefore largely be driven by mineralization in wetlands or uplands. Riverine CO2 and CH4 emissions were directly correlated to wetland coverage and aboveground vegetation biomass, implying that future changes in wetland and upland vegetation cover will strongly impact GHG emissions from African inland waters.

  8. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  9. Inland Waters and the North American Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, D. E.; Striegl, R. G.; Stackpoole, S. M.; del Giorgio, P.; Prairie, Y.; Pilcher, D.; Raymond, P. A.; Alcocer, J.; Paz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Inland aquatic ecosystems process, store, and release carbon to the atmosphere and coastal margins. The form of this carbon is a function of terrestrial and aquatic primary and secondary production, the weathering of materials in soils and subsurface environments, the hydrologic controls on the movement of carbon from land to inland waters, and the connectivity between streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater. The 2007 1st State of the Carbon Cycle reported fluxes for the continental United States (CONUS) only. Streams and rivers exported 30-40 Tg C yr-1 to coastal environments, and 17-25 Tg C yr-1 were buried in lake and reservoir sediments. Remarkably, the 2007 report did not quantify gas emissions, which represent over half of the total carbon fluxes through inland water in the US. Current research has shown that 71-149 Tg C yr-1 exits freshwater systems either through atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide or as inorganic and organic carbon fluxes to the coast from the CONUS. These estimates did not include the Laurentian Great Lakes. Variation in the magnitude of these fluxes across regions of the CONUS has been linked to differences in precipitation and terrestrial net ecosystem production. Similar comprehensive assessments have not been done for Canada or Mexico. Here we provide, as part of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle report, estimates for the river coastal export and vertical emissions of carbon from inland waters of North America, and report major data gaps, and weaknesses in methodologies. These findings stress that strong international partnerships are needed to improve assessment, monitoring, and modeling of human impacts on the magnitude and timing of aquatic fluxes in the future.

  10. Movement of Water Across Passages Connecting Philippine Inland Sea Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Anthony B Meñez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Advection of Pacific water to the inland seas is through a number of straits bordering the archipelago. Movement of water was demonstrated by temperature-salinity diagrams plotted for a number of stations situated along the various passages. As water from the Pacific flowed through the straits its characteristic T-S profile was modified as it mixed with waters of different properties. This was best seen along the San Bernardino-Verde Island transect where strong surface flow during the NE monsoon resulted in separation of profiles at the surface indicating dilution as water moved away from the source. For deeper water, the erosion of the subsurface salinity minimum and maximum representing the core of the intermediate waters showed transport. These waters were restricted by shallow sill along the eastern coast of the country and limited to a depth of 441m by the sill across the Mindoro Strait.

  11. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuertz, J.; Haastrup, P.; Stjernholm, M.

    The report summarizes the outcome of the EDEN -IW project. The project demonstrates access to heterogenous databases of inland water quality data using a system of software agents. The system include use of semantic web technologies to provide the use with a rich multilingual web interface...... to select, access, aggregate and visualize inland water data....

  12. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, M.; Sortkjær, O.; Preux, D.

    Project of the Information Societies Technology (IST) Programme. The report describe the funtional requirements for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system.......Project of the Information Societies Technology (IST) Programme. The report describe the funtional requirements for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system....

  13. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, M.; Wuertz, J.; Prunayre, F-X.

    The report describe the developed software prototype for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system......The report describe the developed software prototype for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system...

  14. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, M.; Sortkjær, O.; Papageorgiou, A.

    The final report describe development of the EDEN-IW prototype for user access to heterogenous databases of inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system......The final report describe development of the EDEN-IW prototype for user access to heterogenous databases of inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system...

  15. 33 CFR 89.25 - Waters upon which Inland Rules 9(a)(ii), 14(d), and 15(b) apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters upon which Inland Rules 9(a)(ii), 14(d), and 15(b) apply. 89.25 Section 89.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND NAVIGATION RULES: IMPLEMENTING RULES Waters...

  16. Abundant Pre-Industrial Carbon Emitted by Arctic Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Billett, M. F.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Garnett, M.; Meisel, O.; Dolman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mobilization of carbon (C) derived from soil/sediment organic matter into inland freshwaters constitutes a substantial, but poorly-constrained, component of the global C cycle. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has proven a valuable tool in tracing the sources and fate of mobilized C, but aquatic 14C studies in permafrost regions rarely detect 'old' C (assimilated from the atmosphere into plants and soil prior to AD1950). This is partly due to a focus on dissolved organic C (DOC) in many Arctic inland water 14C studies to date, now known to be an insensitive method for detecting old C. Crucially, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) derived from old permafrost C by aquatic systems contributes to a positive climate feedback loop: the 'Permafrost Climate Feedback' (PCF). Here, we measure directly the 14C content and quantify fluxes of aquatic CO2 and CH4, alongside DOC and particulate-OC, in freshwater systems of the Canadian and Siberian Arctic tundra - the first such concurrent 14C measurements from freshwater systems. Aquatic C increased in age significantly over the snow-free season as the active layer deepened (Figure 1). However, 'modern' C (assimilated since AD1950) still dominated aquatic CO2 and CH4 emissions, except where deep ancient (6,000 to 50,000 yBP) C was exposed. Age distribution modeling of these bulk 14C samples indicated that 'pre-industrial' C (assimilated prior to AD1750) comprised 15-30% of aquatic GHGs (Figure 1). Further, we estimate that 15-20% of total CO2 and CH4 emissions were derived from old C previously locked up in permafrost soils and thus contributed to the PCF. These results demonstrate the previously unknown presence of aged C within Arctic headwater GHG emissions that could be equivalent to 7.5-28.2 Tg C yr-1 across the pan-Arctic.

  17. Evaluating environmental policy integration and policy coherence across service sectors: The case of South Africa’s inland water biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available the inclusion of the systematic conservation of inland water ecosystems in the strategic planning processes of several sectors impacting on South Africa’s inland water biodiversity. The authors use environmental policy integration (EPI) research approach...

  18. Radioecology of the ocean and the inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1974-01-01

    Three very different ecosystems can be studied in aquatic radioecology: the open sea, the shelf regions of the coast, and the inland waters (to be subdivided into stagnant and running waters). The total amount of radioactive pollutants in the oceans in the year 1970 was estimated to be 2-6 x 10 8 Ci of fission and activation products and 10 9 Ci of tritium. The greater part is located in the surface layer which has a thickness of 800 m. The radiation protection problem of deep-sea dumping of radioactive waste is discussed by the example of the ENEA's experimental dumping between 1967 and 1971. The shelf regions of the coast are an intensively populated ecological system which is characterized by a wide variety in all links of the food chains and by the raising of fry. In 1972, about 35 Ci Sr-90 and Cs-137 have been discharged into the Deutsche Bucht by the rivers Ems, Weser, and Elbe. The manifold utilization of this region poses some special problems of radiation protection which are discussed in detail by the example of a few measured values. With increasing frequency, nuclear power stations are constructed near the big rivers. The extremely complicated interaction processes between the biotic and abiotic components in the tidal regions bring about some special problems which are illustrated by a few examples. The concept of 'acceptable activity admission' is discussed, and methods for its determination are described. (orig./AK) [de

  19. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  20. Fisheries management in inland and coastal waters in Denmark from 1987 to 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gorm; Geertz-Hansen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Fishing is a major recreational activity in Denmark, involving both inland and coastal waters. Anglers, aged 18-67, and amateur fishermen, aged 12-67, must hold a valid fishing pen- nit. Fees are used for stocking, river restoration and fisheries research. All proposals for stocking inland waters...... for several generations. Stocking is also subject to genetic guidelines. This paper reviews the status of fisheries in Danish inland waters, their regulation, socio-economic aspects, stocking, aquaculture and the main problems and trends....

  1. Endangered fish species of Kenya's inland waters with emphasis on Labeo spp

    OpenAIRE

    Kibaara, D.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of water masses, natural or otherwise, in supporting fisheries, and the importance of fish as human food, cannot be overemphasized. The inland waters of Kenya act as habitats for fish, harbouring many different fish species. It has been observed with interest that certain fish species have decreased in numbers over the years within the inland waters. The decline has been at a rate which, if left unchecked, will eventually cause total di...

  2. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  3. Advances in understanding phosphorus cycling in inland waters - Their significance for South African limnology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinch, AJ

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available The definitions of the different phosphorus compound fractions present in inland waters are reviewed and the limitations of the definitions discussed. The development of models of phosphorus cycling is summarized. Attempts to establish...

  4. Dredging of the inland waters and sustainable management of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ... Inland waterways transportation is a key component of the intermodal transportation network and is essential to Nigeria's economy, environment and quality of life. IWT has a significant part to play in the states of Niger, Kogi, Anambra, Delta, Bayelsa, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Benue, ...

  5. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin

    2017-10-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking the variation of the relationships between DOC and CDOM. The regression model slopes for DOC vs. aCDOM (275) ranged from extremely low 0.33 (highly saline lakes) to 1.03 (urban waters) and 3.01 (river waters). The low values were observed in saline lake waters and waters from semi-arid or arid regions, where strong photobleaching is expected due to less cloud cover, longer water residence time, and daylight hours. In contrast, high values were found in waters developed in wetlands or forest in Northeast China, where more organic matter was transported from catchment to waters. The study also demonstrated that closer relationships between CDOM and DOC were revealed when aCDOM (275) were sorted by the ratio of aCDOM(250)/aCDOM (365), which is a measure for the CDOM absorption with respect to its composition, and the determination of coefficient of the regression models ranged from 0.79 to 0.98 for different groups of waters. Our results indicate the relationships between CDOM and DOC are variable for different inland waters; thus, models for DOC estimation through linking with CDOM absorption need to be tailored according to water types.

  6. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking the variation of the relationships between DOC and CDOM. The regression model slopes for DOC vs. aCDOM (275 ranged from extremely low 0.33 (highly saline lakes to 1.03 (urban waters and 3.01 (river waters. The low values were observed in saline lake waters and waters from semi-arid or arid regions, where strong photobleaching is expected due to less cloud cover, longer water residence time, and daylight hours. In contrast, high values were found in waters developed in wetlands or forest in Northeast China, where more organic matter was transported from catchment to waters. The study also demonstrated that closer relationships between CDOM and DOC were revealed when aCDOM (275 were sorted by the ratio of aCDOM(250∕aCDOM (365, which is a measure for the CDOM absorption with respect to its composition, and the determination of coefficient of the regression models ranged from 0.79 to 0.98 for different groups of waters. Our results indicate the relationships between CDOM and DOC are variable for different inland waters; thus, models for DOC estimation through linking with CDOM absorption need to be tailored according to water types.

  7. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Thyroid Disease Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about one ...

  8. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  9. Microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems: A review of findings, methods, characteristics, effects, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shi, Huahong; Peng, Jinping; Wang, Yinghui; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi; Lam, Paul K S

    2018-07-15

    The pollution of marine environments and inland waters by plastic debris has raised increasing concerns worldwide in recent years. China is the world's largest developing country and the largest plastic producer. In this review, we gather available information on microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems. The results show that microplastics are ubiquitous in the investigated inland water systems, and high microplastic abundances were observed in developed areas. Although similar sampling and analytical methods were used for microplastic research in inland water and marine systems, methods of investigation should be standardized in the future. The characteristics of the detected microplastics suggest secondary sources as their major sources. The biological and ecological effects of microplastics have been demonstrated, but their risks are difficult to determine at this stage due to the discrepancy between the field-collected microplastics and microplastics used in ecotoxicological studies. Although many laws and regulations have already been established to manage and control plastic waste in China, the implementation of these laws and regulations has been ineffective and sometimes difficult. Several research priorities are identified, and we suggest that the Chinese government should be more proactive in tackling plastic pollution problems to protect the environment and fulfill international responsibilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zoogeography of the fishes from Indochinese Inland waters with an annotated check-list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    1989-01-01

    According to an unpublished bibliography of Indochinese freshwater fishes that I completed, 930 native fish species are known to occur in the inland waters of the Indochinese Peninsula, certainly making it one of the areas with the most diverse ichthyofauna. The study of this rich fish fauna is

  11. Solar Water Heating as a Potential Source for Inland Norway Energy Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Assefa Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess solar potential and investigate the possibility of using solar water heating for residential application in Inland Norway. Solar potential based on observation and satellite-derived data for four typical populous locations has been assessed and used to estimate energy yield using two types of solar collectors for a technoeconomic performance comparison. Based on the results, solar energy use for water heating is competitive and viable even in low solar potential areas. In this study it was shown that a typical tubular collector in Inland Norway could supply 62% of annual water heating energy demand for a single residential household, while glazed flat plates of the same size were able to supply 48%. For a given energy demand in Inland Norway, tubular collectors are preferred to flat plate collectors for performance and cost reasons. This was shown by break-even capital cost for a series of collector specifications. Deployment of solar water heating in all detached dwellings in Inland could have the potential to save 182 GWh of electrical energy, equivalent to a reduction of 15,690 tonnes of oil energy and 48.6 ktCO2 emissions, and contributes greatly to Norway 67.5% renewable share target by 2020.

  12. Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews freshwater use in inland and coastal pond aquaculture, and focuses on options to increase productivity while reducing water use. Total freshwater use depends on system-associated and feed-associated water losses. System-associated water losses depend on total area, evaporation,

  13. Virus-Bacterium Interactions in Water and Sediment of West African Inland Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvy, Marc; Dumont, Claire; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2006-01-01

    The ecology of virioplankton in tropical aquatic ecosystems is poorly documented, and in particular, there are no references concerning African continental waters in the literature. In this study, we examined virus-bacterium interactions in the pelagic and benthic zones of seven contrasting shallow inland waters in Senegal, including one hypersaline lake. SYBR Gold-stained samples revealed that in the surface layers of the sites, the numbers of viruses were in the same range as the numbers of viruses reported previously for productive temperate systems. Despite high bacterial production rates, the percentages of visibly infected cells (as determined by transmission electron microscopy) were similar to the lowest percentages (range, 0.3 to 1.1%; mean, 0.5%) found previously at pelagic freshwater or marine sites, presumably because of the local environmental and climatic conditions. Since the percentages of lysogenic bacteria were consistently less than 8% for pelagic and benthic samples, lysogeny did not appear to be a dominant strategy for virus propagation at these sites. In the benthic samples, viruses were highly concentrated, but paradoxically, no bacteria were visibly infected. This suggests that sediment provides good conditions for virus preservation but ironically is an unfavorable environment for proliferation. In addition, given the comparable size distributions of viruses in the water and sediment samples, our results support the paradigm that aquatic viruses are ubiquitous and may have moved between the two compartments of the shallow systems examined. Overall, this study provides additional information about the relevance of viruses in tropical areas and indicates that the intensity of virus-bacterium interactions in benthic habitats may lower than the intensity in the adjacent bodies of water. PMID:16885276

  14. An Improved Unmixing-Based Fusion Method: Potential Application to Remote Monitoring of Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although remote sensing technology has been widely used to monitor inland water bodies; the lack of suitable data with high spatial and spectral resolution has severely obstructed its practical development. The objective of this study is to improve the unmixing-based fusion (UBF method to produce fused images that maintain both spectral and spatial information from the original images. Images from Environmental Satellite 1 (HJ1 and Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were used in this study to validate the method. An improved UBF (IUBF algorithm is established by selecting a proper HJ1-CCD image band for each MERIS band and thereafter applying an unsupervised classification method in each sliding window. Viewing in the visual sense—the radiance and the spectrum—the results show that the improved method effectively yields images with the spatial resolution of the HJ1-CCD image and the spectrum resolution of the MERIS image. When validated using two datasets; the ERGAS index (Relative Dimensionless Global Error indicates that IUBF is more robust than UBF. Finally, the fused data were applied to evaluate the chlorophyll a concentrations (Cchla in Taihu Lake. The result shows that the Cchla map obtained by IUBF fusion captures more detailed information than that of MERIS.

  15. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  16. An Adaptive Model to Monitor Chlorophyll-a in Inland Waters in Southern Quebec Using Downscaled MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas El-Alem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of an adaptive model (AM in estimating chlorophyll‑a concentration (Chl‑a in optically complex inland waters. Chl‑a modeling using remote sensing data is usually based on a single model that generally follows an exponential function. The estimates produced by such models are relatively accurate at high Chl‑a concentrations, but accuracy drops at low concentrations. Our objective was to develop an approach combining spectral response classification and three semi-empirical algorithms. The AM discriminates between three blooming classes (waters poorly, moderately, and highly loaded in Chl‑a, with discrimination thresholds set using the classification and regression tree (CART technique. The calibration of three specific estimators for each class was achieved using a multivariate stepwise regression. Compared to published models (Floating Algae Index, Kahru model, and APProach by ELimination using the same data set, the AM provided better Chl‑a concentration estimates (R2 of 0.96, relative RMSE of 23%, relative Bias of −2%, and a relative NASH criterion of 0.9. Moreover, the AM achieved an overall success rate of 67% in the estimation of blooming classes (corresponding to low, moderate, and high Chl‑a concentration classes. This was done using an independent data set collected from 22 inland water bodies for the period 2007–2010 and for which the only information available was the blooming class.

  17. CryoSat-2 SAR and SARin Inland Water Heights from the CRUCIAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.; Moore, P.; Birkinshaw, S.

    2017-12-01

    CRUCIAL was an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from CryoSat-2 with a forward-look component to the Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling of CryoSat-2 in its SAR and SARin modes offers the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. A methodology was developed to process the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a waveform product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking. Inland water heights from CryoSat-2 are derived by using a set of empirical retrackers formulated for inland water applications. Results of the processing strategy include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong for 2011-2015. FBR SAR results are compared against stage data from the nearest gauge. Heights from Tonlé Sap are also compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers was designed based on the rms of heights across Tonlé Sap. Comparisons include results from the empirical retrackers and from waveforms and heights obtained via ESA's Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD/SARvatore) using the SAMOSA2 retracker. Results of FBR SARin processing for the Amazon and Brahmaputra are presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae, extraction of slope of the ground surface and validation against ground data where appropriate.

  18. Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532 nm laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in icecaps, sea ice and vegetation, the polar-orbital satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three year life span, including inland water bodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype or the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the datasets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 km above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 km in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision of approximately 5-7 cm per 100m segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR0, were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when solar background rate was low. Near shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to maximum of 10 m under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1.6 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). The overall results suggest

  19. Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 μmol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity

  20. Variation pattern of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oceans and inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Jiang, Quanliang; Yao, Ling; Yang, Hao; Lin, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhu, A.-Xing; Zhang, Yimin

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between, and variations in, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) based on previously acquired ocean and inland water data. The latitudinal dependency of POC / PON is significant between 20 and 90° N but weak in low-latitude areas and in the Southern Hemisphere. The mean values of POC / PON in the Southern Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere were 7.40 ± 3.83 and 7.80 ± 3.92, respectively. High values of POC / PON appeared between 80-90 (12.2 ± 7.5) and 70-80° N (9.4 ± 6.4), while relatively low POC / PON was found from 20 (6.6 ± 2.8) to 40° N (6.7 ± 2.7). The latitudinal variation of POC / PON in the Northern Hemisphere is much stronger than in the Southern Hemisphere due to the influence of more terrestrial organic matter. Higher POC and PON could be expected in coastal waters. POC / PON growth ranged from 6.89 ± 2.38 to 7.59 ± 4.22 in the Northern Hemisphere, with an increasing rate of 0.0024 km from the coastal to open ocean. Variations of POC / PON in lake water also showed a similar latitude-variation tendency of POC / PON with ocean water but were significantly regulated by the lakes' morphology, trophic state and climate. Small lakes and high-latitude lakes prefer relatively high POC / PON, and large lakes and low-latitude lakes tend to prefer low POC / PON. The coupling relationship between POC and PON in oceans is much stronger than in inland waters. Variations in POC, PON and POC / PON in inland waters should receive more attention due to the implications of these values for the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and the indeterminacy of the relationship between POC and PON.

  1. A systematic examination of the relationship between CDOM and DOC for various inland waters across China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Zhidan; Ma, Jianhang; Shao, Tiantian; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in aquatic ecosystems. Strong relationship has been proven between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which set the basis for remote estimation of DOC with remote sensing data. An algorithm has been developed to retrieve DOC via CDOM absorption at 275 and 295 nm with coastal waters. However, the relationship between DOC and aCDOM(275) and aCDOM(295) for different types of inland waters are still not clear. Further, i...

  2. Estimation of water pollution by domestic in-land nuclear power plant under severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Fang Sheng; Fang Dong

    2013-01-01

    In-land nuclear power plant sites of China are usually located in densely populated area and are close to large surface water. This paper proposed scenarios and corresponding calculation models for water contamination caused by radioactive plume release after a severe accident. The models were applied to an imaginary lake (reservoir)-adjacent site in the south of China. The results showed that, the short-time concentration of radioactivity in the lake due to dry and wet deposition and runoff was higher than the generic action levels for foodstuffs in GB 18871-2002, and the public dose resulted was unacceptable. (authors)

  3. Limnological aspects and trace element analysis of some selected Kenyan natural inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.O.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports the study of trace elements, Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn, and some limnological factors in surface water and sediments in some selected natural inland waters in Kenya. The observed levels are compared with those that are reported in literature to cause interference in biological processes in aquatic environments and human beings. There are little previous data and none that are coherent. These allow for a preliminary assessment of the significance of each element and limnological parameters in the long term stability of the environments in which they occur. XRFA and AAs have been used in the trace elements analysis and the former proved superior in the sediment (solid) samples analysis due to better accuracy and precision of less than 10%. Trace metals concentration (ppb) in the surface inland waters (rivers and lakes ) ranged as follows: Ag (1-75), Cd (2-8), Co (6-23.2), Cr (25-50), Cu (5-57.6), Mn (50-3276±450), Ni (13-34.1), Pb (7-93.6), Sn (300-500) and Zn (25-124.8). Lake sediments had the following concentration (ppm) ranges: Ag (o.098-20.58), Cd (0.188-1.345), Co (0.166-1.632), Cr (1.462-57.310), Cu (1.949-44.350), Mn (667.670-4713), Ni (11.694-56.710), Pb (10.920-192), Sn 17.210-234) and Zn (76.210-229.60). Results show that, a part from the Rift Valley saline lakes, Kenya inland water meet the WHO (1971) drinking water standards related to aquatic living environments. Concentration of some trace metals: Ag, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn change upon raw water treatments. Preconcentration techniques have been attempted in which preconcentration by evaporation followed by lyophilization of the liquid (water) samples was found more suitable. Bioavailable (total exchangeable) metal concentrations compared very well with the concentrations in the fish muscles. Comparison with the analysis made by earlier investigators indicated a remarkable constancy over time in the chemistry of Lake Victoria and its affluent rivers. Kenyan natural

  4. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF SPACEBORNE NEAR-NADIR INTERFEROMETRIC SAR PERFORMANCE OVER INLAND WATERS WITH REAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevation measurements of the continental water surface have been poorly collected with in situ measurements or occasionally with conventional altimeters with low accuracy. Techniques using InSAR at near-nadir angles to measure the inland water elevation with large swath and with high accuracy have been proposed, for instance, the WSOA on Jason 2 and the KaRIn on SWOT. However, the WSOA was abandoned unfortunately and the SWOT is planned to be launched in 2021. In this paper, we show real acquisitions of the first spaceborne InSAR of such kind, the Interferometric Imaging Radar Altimeter (InIRA, which has been working on Tiangong II spacecraft since 2016. We used the 90-m SRTM DEM as a reference to estimate the phase offset, and then an empirical calibration model was used to correct the baseline errors.

  6. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  7. An Assessment of Spaceborne Near-Nadir Interferometric SAR Performance Over Inland Waters with Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Li, S. Y.; Liu, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    Elevation measurements of the continental water surface have been poorly collected with in situ measurements or occasionally with conventional altimeters with low accuracy. Techniques using InSAR at near-nadir angles to measure the inland water elevation with large swath and with high accuracy have been proposed, for instance, the WSOA on Jason 2 and the KaRIn on SWOT. However, the WSOA was abandoned unfortunately and the SWOT is planned to be launched in 2021. In this paper, we show real acquisitions of the first spaceborne InSAR of such kind, the Interferometric Imaging Radar Altimeter (InIRA), which has been working on Tiangong II spacecraft since 2016. We used the 90-m SRTM DEM as a reference to estimate the phase offset, and then an empirical calibration model was used to correct the baseline errors.

  8. Evaluation of the Ecosystem Services of Inland Waters in the Slovak Republic - To Date Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnovský Radoslav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES (goods and services represent the outputs of natural systems from which people can have benefits. Evaluation of the benefits resulting from ES of inland waters or the benefits, which are lost when the necessary measures are not implemented, is one of the methods of evaluating the external costs of environmental damage - environmental and resource costs. Evaluation of ES is based on the CICES classification v. 4.3, which defines provision, regulation/ maintenance and cultural services. In the assessment of ES also enters groundwater, although in comparison with surface waters in lesser extent. At present, the evaluation is performed at the level of sub-basins of the Slovak Republic. In this paper, evaluation of selected ES is presented. Use of evaluation in practice is also discussed.

  9. Improved inland water levels from SAR altimetry using novel empirical and physical retrackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Deng, Xiaoli; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    with in situdata in Lake Vänern and Lake Okeechobee are in the order of 2–5 cm for well-behaved waveforms. Combining the physical and empirical retrackers did not offer significantly improved mean track standarddeviations or RMSEs. Based on these studies, it is suggested that future SAR derived water levels......Satellite altimetry has proven a valuable resource of information on river and lake levels where in situ data are sparse or non-existent. In this study several new methods for obtaining stable inland water levels from CryoSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimetry are presented and evaluated....... In addition, the possible benefits from combining physical and empirical retrackers are investigated.The retracking methods evaluated in this paper include the physical SAR Altimetry MOde Studies andApplications (SAMOSA3) model, a traditional subwaveform threshold retracker, the proposed Multiple...

  10. Assessing the value of the ATL13 inland water level product for the Global Flood Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Pappenberger, F.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the activities and first results of an our ICESat-2 Early Adopter (EA) project for inland water observations. Our team will assess the value of the ICESat-2 water level product using two flood model use cases, one over the California Bay Delta and one over the Niger Inland Delta. Application of the ALT13 product into routine operations will be ensured via an ALT13 database integrated into the pillar "Global Flood Service and Toolbox" (GFST) of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). GFP is a cooperation framework between scientific organizations and flood disaster managers worldwide to develop flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. GFP is hosted as an Expert Working Group by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The objective of this EA project is to make the ICESat-2 water level data available to the international GFP community. The EA team believes that the ALT13 product, after successful demonstration of its value in model calibration/validation and monitoring of large floodplain inundation dynamics, should be made easily accessible to the GFP. The GFST will host data outputs and tools from different flood models and for different applications and regions. All these models can benefit from ALT13 if made available to GFP through GFST. Here, we will introduce both test cases and their model setups and report on first preliminary "capabilities" test runs with the Niger model and ICESat-1 as well as radar altimeter data. Based on our results, we will also reflect on expected capabilities and potential of the ICESat-2 mission for river observations.

  11. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  12. Meeting report: knowledge and gaps in developing microbial criteria for inland recreational waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described.

  13. Modal-split effects of climate change: The effects of low water levels on the competitive position of inland waterway transport in the River Rhine area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkeren, O.E.; Jourquin, B.; Rietveld, P.

    2011-01-01

    Future climate change is expected to affect inland waterway transport in most main natural waterways in Europe. For the river Rhine it is expected that, in summer, more and longer periods with low water levels will occur. In periods of low water levels inland waterway vessels have to reduce their

  14. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Remote Estimation of Chlorophyll-a in Inland Waters by a NIR-Red-Based Algorithm: Validation in Asian Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing is a highly useful tool for monitoring chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a in water bodies. Remote sensing algorithms based on near-infrared-red (NIR-red wavelengths have demonstrated great potential for retrieving Chl-a in inland waters. This study tested the performance of a recently developed NIR-red based algorithm, SAMO-LUT (Semi-Analytical Model Optimizing and Look-Up Tables, using an extensive dataset collected from five Asian lakes. Results demonstrated that Chl-a retrieved by the SAMO-LUT algorithm was strongly correlated with measured Chl-a (R2 = 0.94, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMS were 8.9 mg∙m−3 and 72.6%, respectively. However, the SAMO-LUT algorithm yielded large errors for sites where Chl-a was less than 10 mg∙m−3 (RMSE = 1.8 mg∙m−3 and NRMS = 217.9%. This was because differences in water-leaving radiances at the NIR-red wavelengths (i.e., 665 nm, 705 nm and 754 nm used in the SAMO-LUT were too small due to low concentrations of water constituents. Using a blue-green algorithm (OC4E instead of the SAMO-LUT for the waters with low constituent concentrations would have reduced the RMSE and NRMS to 1.0 mg∙m−3 and 16.0%, respectively. This indicates (1 the NIR-red algorithm does not work well when water constituent concentrations are relatively low; (2 different algorithms should be used in light of water constituent concentration; and thus (3 it is necessary to develop a classification method for selecting the appropriate algorithm.

  16. Optimizing the bio-optical algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations in inland waters in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several bio-optical algorithms were developed to estimate the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and phycocyanin (PC) concentrations in inland waters. This study aimed at identifying the influence of the algorithm parameters and wavelength bands on output variables and searching optimal parameter values. The opt...

  17. Estimating the Optical Properties of Inorganic Matter-Dominated Oligo-to-Mesotrophic Inland Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies over the years have focused on bio-optical modeling of inland waters to monitor water quality. However, those studies have been conducted mainly in eutrophic and hyper-eutrophic environments dominated by phytoplankton. With the launch of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI/Sentinel-3A in 2016, a range of bands became available including the 709 nm band recommended for scaling up these bio-optical models for productive inland waters. It was found that one category of existing bio-optical models, the quasi-analytical algorithms (QAAs, when applied to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM and detritus-dominated waters, produce large errors. Even after shifting the reference wavelength to 709 nm, the recently re-parameterized QAA versions could not accurately retrieve the inherent optical properties (IOPs in waterbodies dominated by inorganic matter. In this study, three existing versions of QAA were implemented and proved inefficient for the study site. Therefore, several changes were incorporated into the QAA, starting with the re-parameterization of the empirical steps related to the total absorption coefficient retrieval. The re-parameterized QAA, QAAOMW showed a significant improvement in the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE. MAPE decreased from 58.05% for existing open ocean QAA (QAALv5 to 16.35% for QAAOMW. Considerable improvement was also observed in the estimation of the absorption coefficient of CDOM and detritus from a MAPE of 91.05% for QAALv5 to 18.87% for QAAOMW. The retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton ( a ϕ using the native form of QAA proved to be inaccurate for the oligo-to-mesotrophic waterbody due to the low a ϕ returning negative predictions. Therefore, a novel approach based on the normalized a ϕ was adopted to maintain the spectral shape and retrieve positive values, resulting in an improvement of 119% in QAAOMW. Further tuning and scale-up of QAAOMW to OLCI bands will aid in

  18. Fire increases carbon fluxes from inland waters of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P. J.; Bristol, E. M.; Dabrowski, J. S.; Jimmie, J. A.; Melton, S.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Peter, D. L.; Sae-lim, N.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change across high-latitude regions is expected to alter the hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic environments, significantly impacting ecosystem C cycling and landscape scale C budgets. Fire represents one manifestation of arctic climate change with the number, extent and intensity of fires projected to increase over upcoming decades. The Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD), Alaska, experienced unprecedented tundra fires in 2015 when more than 250 km2 underwent burn. In this study, we examined the effects of the 2015 YKD fire upon aquatic and terrestrial C fluxes, and investigated potential mechanisms causing changes to C-cycling. Field work was conducted during summer months (July-Sept) over two years, complimented with aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations. Burning of the terrestrial organic layer caused dramatic changes to soil moisture, the proportion of organic versus mineral soils near the land surface, and average active layer depth. Fire caused increased C fluxes (particularly CH4) from re-wet soils relative to unburnt soils, suggesting an interaction exists between fire history and soil moisture. Higher C fluxes from saturated ponds and fens across the landscape provided additional support for this theory. Pore-water chemistry in burnt catchments contained higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, specifically nitrogen, potentially driven by changing soil sorption processes and/ or infiltration rates. Organic matter delivery to inland waters within burns contained DOC of lower apparent molecular weight and aromaticity relative to unburnt waters (inferred from optical measures), and waters typically had higher temperatures, pH and dissolved mineral content. Lake and low-lying pond CO2 and CH4 emissions were consistently higher in burn catchment regions, with three to four-fold higher C emission rates. Our study indicates that fire may promote aquatic and terrestrial pathways for C loss and that these enhanced emissions may persist for years

  19. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  20. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  1. Imaging Spectrometry of Inland and Coastal Waters: State of the Art, Achievements and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, C.; Brando, V. E.; Gege, P.; Pinnel, N.; Hochberg, E.; Knaeps, E.; Reusen, I.; Doerffer, R.; Bresciani, M.; Braga, F.; Foerster, S.; Champollion, N.; Dekker, A.

    2018-06-01

    Imaging spectrometry of non-oceanic aquatic ecosystems has been in development since the late 1980s when the first airborne hyperspectral sensors were deployed over lakes. Most water quality management applications were, however, developed using multispectral mid-spatial resolution satellites or coarse spatial resolution ocean colour satellites till now. This situation is about to change with a suite of upcoming imaging spectrometers being deployed from experimental satellites or from the International Space Station. We review the science of developing applications for inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems that often are a mixture of optically shallow and optically deep waters, with gradients of clear to turbid and oligotrophic to hypertrophic productive waters and with varying bottom visibility with and without macrophytes, macro-algae, benthic micro-algae or corals. As the spaceborne, airborne and in situ optical sensors become increasingly available and appropriate for aquatic ecosystem detection, monitoring and assessment, the science-based applications will need to be further developed to an operational level. The Earth Observation-derived information products will range from more accurate estimates of turbidity and transparency measures, chlorophyll, suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter concentration, to more sophisticated products such as particle size distributions, phytoplankton functional types or distinguishing sources of suspended and coloured dissolved matter, estimating water depth and mapping types of heterogeneous substrates. We provide an overview of past science, current state of the art and future directions so that early career scientists as well as aquatic ecosystem managers and associated industry groups may be prepared for the imminent deluge of imaging spectrometry data.

  2. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  3. Assessing Variation in Water Balance Components in Mountainous Inland River Basin Experiencing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%. The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins.

  4. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B; Baulch, Helen M; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C; Rusak, James A; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R Iestyn

    2017-03-06

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (T w -T a ) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (Q H ). If Q H is directed upward, corresponding to positive T w -T a , it can enhance CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative T w -T a across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward Q H ), with T w -T a becoming increasingly negative with increasing T a . Further examination of T w -T a using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that T w -T a is linearly related to T a . Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative T w -T a with increasing annual mean T a since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative T w -T a , thereby reducing CO 2 and CH 4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  5. Hydroelectric power development and the ice regime of inland waters: A northern community perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.

    1989-03-01

    Inland waters play a vital role in the life of the many small northern communities which depend in large measure on the provisions of the natural environment for their sustenance. These communities are therefore particularly vulnerable to changes in the ice regime of these waters, especially changes that are irregular. However, the north is also the site of much of Canada's hydroelectric power development and potential, developments that have a major influence on the ice regime of effected waters. As a contribution to the background information required for the necessary discussions and negotiations associated with such developments, the various aspects of the natural ice regime, the possible effects of hydroelectric development and operation on this regime, and its consequences, are briefly reviewed. The emphasis has been placed on changes that will likely be of most significance to northern communities in the bedrock-controlled country of the western Canadian Shield. The major direct, and in some circumstances life-threatening, impact of changes to the ice regime is on trafficability of the iceways that play such a vital role in the life of the communities. Hence particular emphasis has been placed on this aspect and on the formation of the slush and thin ice conditions that are the bane of over-ice travel and that are subject to unexpected changes by hydroelectric development and operation. To place these changes and their effects in some perspective, the nature of a hydroelectric development is also briefly described and an effort made to indicate the large costs incurred if these developments are restrained in their operation to avoid or mitigate some of the effects on the ice regime. 31 refs., 57 figs., 1 tab

  6. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  7. Water-quality characteristics of Michigan's inland lakes, 2001-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Taricska, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly monitored for selected water-quality constituents and properties of inland lakes during 2001–10 as part of Michigan's Lake Water-Quality Assessment program. During 2001–10, 866 lake basins from 729 inland lakes greater than 25 acres were monitored for baseline water-quality conditions and trophic status. This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics and trophic conditions of the monitored lakes throughout the State; the data include vertical-profile measurements, nutrient measurements at three discrete depths, Secchi-disk transparency (SDT) measurements, and chlorophyll a measurements for the spring and summer, with major ions and other chemical indicators measured during the spring at mid-depth and color during the summer from near-surface samples. In about 75 percent of inland lake deep basins (index stations), trophic characteristics were associated with oligotrophic or mesotrophic conditions; 5 percent or less were categorized as hypereutrophic, and 80 percent of hypereutrophic lakes had a maximum depth of 30 feet or less. Comparison of spring and summer measurements shows that water clarity based on SDT measurements were clearer in the spring than in the summer for 63 percent of lakes. For near-surface measurements made in spring, 97 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited; for summer measurements, 96 percent of lakes can be considered phosphorus limited and less than half a percent nitrogen limited. Spatial patterns of major ions, alkalinity, and hardness measured in the spring at mid-depth all showed lower values in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and a southward increase toward the southern areas of the Lower Peninsula, though the location of increase varied by constituent. A spatial analysis of the data based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Level III Ecoregions separated potassium

  8. Estimation of underwater visibility in coastal and inland waters using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2017-04-01

    An optical method is developed to estimate water transparency (or underwater visibility) in terms of Secchi depth (Z sd ), which follows the remote sensing and contrast transmittance theory. The major factors governing the variation in Z sd , namely, turbidity and length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d ), c = beam attenuation coefficient; K d  = diffuse attenuation coefficient at 531 nm), are obtained based on band rationing techniques. It was found that the band ratio of remote sensing reflectance (expressed as (R rs (443) + R rs (490))/(R rs (555) + R rs (670)) contains essential information about the water column optical properties and thereby positively correlates to turbidity. The beam attenuation coefficient (c) at 531 nm is obtained by a linear relationship with turbidity. To derive the vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (K d ) at 531 nm, K d (490) is estimated as a function of reflectance ratio (R rs (670)/R rs (490)), which provides the bio-optical link between chlorophyll concentration and K d (531). The present algorithm was applied to MODIS-Aqua images, and the results were evaluated by matchup comparisons between the remotely estimated Z sd and in situ Z sd in coastal waters off Point Calimere and its adjoining regions on the southeast coast of India. The results showed the pattern of increasing Z sd from shallow turbid waters to deep clear waters. The statistical evaluation of the results showed that the percent mean relative error between the MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd values was within ±25%. A close agreement achieved in spatial contours of MODIS-Aqua-derived Z sd and in situ Z sd for the month of January 2014 and August 2013 promises the model capability to yield accurate estimates of Z sd in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters. The spatial contours have been included to provide the best data visualization of the measured, modeled (in situ), and satellite-derived Z sd products. The modeled and satellite

  9. An algorithm for detecting trophic status (chlorophyll-a), cyanobacterial-dominance, surface scums and floating vegetation in inland and coastal waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm is presented for detecting trophic status (chlorophyll-a), cyanobacterial blooms (cyano-blooms), surface scum and floating vegetation in coastal and inland waters using top-ofatmosphere data from the Medium Resolution Imaging...

  10. Design and application of a surface vessel for autonomous inland water monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hitz Gregory; Pomerleau Francois; Garneau Marie-Eve; Pradalier Cedric; Posch Thomas; Pernthaler Jakob; Siegwart Roland

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel autonomous surface vessel (ASV) that was designed and manufactured specifically for the monitoring of water resources resources that are not only constantly drained but also face the growing threat of mass proliferation (bloom) of noxious cyanobacteria. On one hand the distribution of these blooms in a given water body requires a surveillance of biological data at high spatial resolution on both vertical and horizontal axes whereas on the other hand the understan...

  11. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvil, L.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, P.; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking

  12. Inland waters and their role in the carbon cycle of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Butman, David E.; Clow, David W.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Genet, Hélène; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of Alaska (AK) inland waters carbon (C) fluxes is likely to change in the future due to amplified climate warming impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemical processes in high latitude regions. Although current estimates of major aquatic C fluxes represent an essential baseline against which future change can be compared, a comprehensive assessment for AK has not yet been completed. To address this gap, we combined available data sets and applied consistent methodologies to estimate river lateral C export to the coast, river and lake carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions, and C burial in lakes for the six major hydrologic regions in the state. Estimated total aquatic C flux for AK was 41 Tg C/yr. Major components of this total flux, in Tg C/yr, were 18 for river lateral export, 17 for river CO2 emissions, and 8 for lake CO2 emissions. Lake C burial offset these fluxes by 2 Tg C/yr. River and lake CH4 emissions were 0.03 and 0.10 Tg C/yr, respectively. The Southeast and South central regions had the highest temperature, precipitation, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP), and C yields (fluxes normalized to land area) were 77 and 42 g C·m−2·yr−1, respectively. Lake CO2 emissions represented over half of the total aquatic flux from the Southwest (37 g C·m−2·yr−1). The North Slope, Northwest, and Yukon regions had lesser yields (11, 15, and 17 g C·m2·yr−1), but these estimates may be the most vulnerable to future climate change, because of the heightened sensitivity of arctic and boreal ecosystems to intensified warming. Total aquatic C yield for AK was 27 g C·m−2·yr−1, which represented 16% of the estimated terrestrial NPP. Freshwater ecosystems represent a significant conduit for C loss, and a more comprehensive view of land-water-atmosphere interactions is necessary to predict future climate change impacts on the Alaskan ecosystem C balance.

  13. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  14. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  15. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  16. A systematic examination of the relationships between CDOM and DOC in inland waters in China

    OpenAIRE

    K. Song; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; Z. Wen; C. Fang; C. Fang; Y. Shang

    2017-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a vital role in the biogeochemical cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The relationship between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been investigated, and this significant relationship lays the foundation for the estimation of DOC using remotely sensed imagery data. The current study examined samples from freshwater lakes, saline lakes, rivers and streams, urban water bodies, and ice-covered lakes in China for tracking t...

  17. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  18. Inland and Near-Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High-Altitude Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Stoll, Jeremy D.; Cook, William B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Stengel, Eric; Brunt, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission is a six beam, low energy, high repetition rate, 532-nanometer laser transmitter with photon counting detectors. Although designed primarily for detecting height changes in ice caps, sea ice, and vegetation, the polar-orbiting satellite will observe global surface water during its designed three-year life span, including inland waterbodies, coasts, and open oceans. In preparation for the mission, an ICESat-2 prototype, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was built and flown on high-altitude aircraft experiments over a range of inland and near-shore targets. The purpose was to test the ATLAS concept and to provide a database for developing an algorithm that detects along track surface water height and light penetration under a range of atmospheric and water conditions. The current analysis examines the data sets of three MABEL transects observed from 20 kilometers above ground of coastal and inland waters conducted in 2012 and 2013. Transects ranged from about 2 to 12 kilometers in length and included the middle Chesapeake Bay, the near-shore Atlantic coast at Virginia Beach, and Lake Mead. Results indicate MABEL's high capability for retrieving surface water height statistics with a mean height precision ofapproximately 5-7 centimeters per 100-meter segment length. Profiles of attenuated subsurface backscatter, characterized using a Signal to Background Ratio written in Log10 base, or LSBR (sub 0), were observed over a range of 1.3 to 9.3 meters, depending on water clarity and atmospheric background. Results indicate that observable penetration depth, although primarily dependent on water properties, was greatest when the solar background rate was low. Near-shore bottom reflectance was detected only at the Lake Mead site down to a maximum of 10 meters under a clear night sky and low turbidity of approximately 1

  19. Effects of land use changes on water and nitrogen flows at the scale of West African inland valleys: an explorative model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Stomph, T.J.; Fresco, L.O.

    1997-01-01

    Land use and cover, as influenced by agricultural practices, and the changes in these with increasing pressure on land, are among the factors determining water flows in inland valleys. Changing water flows affect nitrogen flows both at the plot level and at levels higher than plots. We present a

  20. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  1. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Management Practices on Agricultural Carbon and Water Budgets in the Inland Pacific Northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jinshu; Waldo, Sarah; Pressley, Shelley N.; Russell, Eric S.; O'Keeffe, Patrick T.; Pan, William L.; Huggins, David R.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Brooks, Erin S.; Lamb, Brian K.

    2017-12-01

    Cropland is an important land cover influencing global carbon and water cycles. Variability of agricultural carbon and water fluxes depends on crop species, management practices, soil characteristics, and climatic conditions. In the context of climate change, it is critical to quantify the long-term effects of these environmental drivers and farming activities on carbon and water dynamics. Twenty site-years of carbon and water fluxes covering a large precipitation gradient and a variety of crop species and management practices were measured in the inland Pacific Northwest using the eddy covariance method. The rain-fed fields were net carbon sinks, while the irrigated site was close to carbon neutral during the winter wheat crop years. Sites growing spring crops were either carbon sinks, sources, or neutral, varying with crops, rainfall zones, and tillage practices. Fluxes were more sensitive to variability in precipitation than temperature: annual carbon and water fluxes increased with the increasing precipitation while only respiration increased with temperature in the high-rainfall area. Compared to a nearby rain-fed site, irrigation improved winter wheat production but resulted in large losses of carbon and water to the atmosphere. Compared to conventional tillage, no-till had significantly lower respiration but resulted in slightly lower yields and water use efficiency over 4 years. Under future climate change, it is expected that more carbon fixation by crops and evapotranspiration would occur in a warmer and wetter environment.

  2. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  3. Variability of particulate organic carbon in inland waters observed from MODIS Aqua imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongtao; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Yuchao; Feng, Lian; Arthur Loiselle, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Surface concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) in shallow inland lakes were estimated using MODIS Aqua data. A power regression model of the direct empirical relationship between POC and the atmospherically Rayleigh-corrected MODIS product (R rc,645 -R rc,1240 )/(R rc,859 -R rc,1240 ) was developed (R 2  = 0.72, RMSE = 35.86 μgL −1 , p < 0.0001, N = 47) and validated (RMSE = 44.46 μgL −1 , N = 16) with field data from 56 lakes in the Middle and Lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. This algorithm was applied to an 11 year series of MODIS data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of POC in a wide range of lakes with different trophic and optical properties. The results indicate that there is a general increase in minimum POC concentrations in lakes from middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The temporal dynamics of springtime POC in smaller lakes were found to be influenced by local meteorological conditions, in particular precipitation and wind speed, while larger lakes were found to be more sensitive to air temperature. (letter)

  4. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  5. Variability in cold front activities modulating cool-season evaporation from a southern inland water in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heping; Blanken, Peter D; Weidinger, Tamas; Nordbo, Annika; Vesala, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding seasonal variations in the evaporation of inland waters (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) is important for water resource management as well as the prediction of the hydrological cycles in response to climate change. We analyzed eddy covariance-based evaporation measurements from the Ross Barnett Reservoir (32 deg. 26'N, 90 0 02'W; which is always ice-free) in central Mississippi during the cool months (i.e., September-March) of 2007 and 2008, and found that the variability in cold front activities (i.e., passages of cold fronts and cold/dry air masses behind cold fronts) played an important role in modulating the exchange of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes. Our analysis showed that 2007's warmer cool season had smaller mean H and λE than 2008's cooler cool season. This implies that the warmer cool season did not accelerate evaporation and heat exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. Instead, more frequent cold fronts and longer periods of cold/dry air masses behind the cold fronts in 2008 resulted in overall larger H and λE as compared with 2007, this primarily taking the form of sporadic short-term rapid 'pulses' of H and λE losses from the water's surface. These results suggest that future climate-induced changes in frequency of cold fronts and the meteorological properties of the air masses behind cold fronts (e.g., wind speeds, temperature, and humidity), rather than other factors of climate change, would produce significant variations in the water surface's energy fluxes and subsequent evaporation rates.

  6. Remote Sensing for Inland Water Quality Monitoring: A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    remote sensing has experienced an increasing role in water quality studies, largely due to technological advances, including instrument/sensor and algorithm/image processing improvements. The primary strength of remote sensing over traditional techniques includes the ability to provide a synoptic view of water quality for more effective monitoring of spatial and temporal variation. In addition, remote sensing offers capabilities for viewing water quality in multiple waterbodies over a large region at one time, a more

  7. Measured and numerically partitioned phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients in inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, M.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Zhu, G.; Gong, Z.; Li, Y.M.; Qin, B.

    2009-01-01

    Total particulate, tripton and phytoplankton absorption coefficients were measured for eutrophic (Lake Taihu), meso-eutrophic (Lake Tianmuhu) and mesotrophic waters (the Three Gorges Reservoir) in China using the quantitative filter technique. Meanwhile, tripton and phytoplankton absorption

  8. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, M.; Prunayre, F-X.; Wuertz, J.

    The report document the concepts found in water quality databases at NERI and IOW. The diffent understanding of concepts with same names is analysed and a model for structuring the knowledge is proposed.......The report document the concepts found in water quality databases at NERI and IOW. The diffent understanding of concepts with same names is analysed and a model for structuring the knowledge is proposed....

  9. Spatiotemporal characterization of dissolved carbon for inland waters in semi-humid/semiarid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K. S.; Zang, S. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Du, J.; Li, L.; Zhang, N. N.; Wang, X. D.; Shao, T. T.; Guan, Y.; Liu, L.

    2013-05-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon (DIC) in 26 waters across the semi-humid/semi-arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with data collected during 2008-2011. Fresh (n = 14) and brackish (n = 12) waters were grouped according to electrical conductivity (threshold = 1000 μS cm-1). Significant differences in the mean DOC/DIC concentrations were observed between fresh (5.63 mg L-1, 37.39 mg L-1) and brackish waters (15.33 mg L-1, 142.93 mg L-1). Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations were mainly controlled by climatic-hydrologic conditions. The observation indicated that the outflow conditions in the semi-endorheic region had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity vs. DOC (R2 = 0.66), and vs. DIC (R2 = 0.94). Independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding (DOC: R2 = 0.79), (DIC: R2 = 0.91), highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC/DIC via salinity measurements for waters dispersed in the plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254), absorption ratio a250 : a365 (E250:365) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM composition and quality. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in fresh waters than brackish waters.

  10. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  11. Supporting inland waterway transport on German waterways by operational forecasting services - water-levels, discharges, river ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica; Hemri, Stephan; Rademacher, Silke

    2017-04-01

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) is an important commercial sector significantly vulnerable to hydrological impacts. River ice and floods limit the availability of the waterway network and may cause considerable damages to waterway infrastructure. Low flows significantly affect IWT's operation efficiency usually several months a year due to the close correlation of (low) water levels / water depths and (high) transport costs. Therefore "navigation-related" hydrological forecasts focussing on the specific requirements of water-bound transport (relevant forecast locations, target parameters, skill characteristics etc.) play a major role in order to mitigate IWT's vulnerability to hydro-meteorological impacts. In light of continuing transport growth within the European Union, hydrological forecasts for the waterways are essential to stimulate the use of the free capacity IWT still offers more consequently. An overview of the current operational and pre-operational forecasting systems for the German waterways predicting water levels, discharges and river ice thickness on various time-scales will be presented. While short-term (deterministic) forecasts have a long tradition in navigation-related forecasting, (probabilistic) forecasting services offering extended lead-times are not yet well-established and are still subject to current research and development activities (e.g. within the EU-projects EUPORIAS and IMPREX). The focus is on improving technical aspects as well as on exploring adequate ways of disseminating and communicating probabilistic forecast information. For the German stretch of the River Rhine, one of the most frequented inland waterways worldwide, the existing deterministic forecast scheme has been extended by ensemble forecasts combined with statistical post-processing modules applying EMOS (Ensemble Model Output Statistics) and ECC (Ensemble Copula Coupling) in order to generate water level predictions up to 10 days and to estimate its predictive

  12. Biomonitoring of Inland and Inshore Waters with Use of Dreissena Polymorpha Mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszak Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity, changes within tissues (cytotoxicity and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.

  13. Spatiotemporal characterization of dissolved carbon for inland waters in semi-humid/semi-arid region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Song

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and inorganic carbon (DIC in 26 waters across the semi-humid/semi-arid Songnen Plain, China, were examined with data collected during 2008–2011. Fresh (n = 14 and brackish (n = 12 waters were grouped according to electrical conductivity (threshold = 1000 μS cm−1 Significant differences in the average DOC and DIC concentrations were observed between the fresh (5.63 mg L−1, 37.39 mg L−1 and the brackish waters (15.33 mg L−1, 142.93 mg L−1. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC concentrations were mainly controlled by climatic–hydrologic conditions. The investigation indicated that the outflow conditions in the semi-arid region had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity vs. DOC (R2 = 0.66, and salinity vs. DIC (R2 = 0.94. An independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding (DOC: R2 = 0.79, DIC: R2 = 0.91, highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC and DIC via salinity measurements for waters dispersed in the plain. Indices based on the CDOM absorption spectra (e.g., the DOC-specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254, absorption ratio a250 : a365 (E250 : E365 and the spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275−295/S350−400 were applied to characterize CDOM composition and quality. Our results indicate that high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in the fresh waters than the brackish waters.

  14. Spatiotemporal characterization of dissolved carbon for inland waters in semi-humid/semi-arid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K. S.; Zang, S. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Li, L.; Du, J.; Zhang, N. N.; Wang, X. D.; Shao, T. T.; Guan, Y.; Liu, L.

    2013-10-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 26 waters across the semi-humid/semi-arid Songnen Plain, China, were examined with data collected during 2008-2011. Fresh (n = 14) and brackish (n = 12) waters were grouped according to electrical conductivity (threshold = 1000 μS cm-1) Significant differences in the average DOC and DIC concentrations were observed between the fresh (5.63 mg L-1, 37.39 mg L-1) and the brackish waters (15.33 mg L-1, 142.93 mg L-1). Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations were mainly controlled by climatic-hydrologic conditions. The investigation indicated that the outflow conditions in the semi-arid region had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity vs. DOC (R2 = 0.66), and salinity vs. DIC (R2 = 0.94). An independent data set collected in May 2012 also confirmed this finding (DOC: R2 = 0.79, DIC: R2 = 0.91), highlighting the potential of quantifying DOC and DIC via salinity measurements for waters dispersed in the plain. Indices based on the CDOM absorption spectra (e.g., the DOC-specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254), absorption ratio a250 : a365 (E250 : E365) and the spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400) were applied to characterize CDOM composition and quality. Our results indicate that high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in the fresh waters than the brackish waters.

  15. MEASURING THE PARTICULATE BACKSCATTERING OF INLAND WATERS: A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campbell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9 or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532 and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ. In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532 by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40

  16. Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interaction between groundwater and river water, overland flow, river flow and artificial cycle processes of water utilization. A simulation of 21 years from 1982 to 2002 was carried out after obtaining various input data and model parameters. The model was validated for both the simulation of monthly discharge process and that of daily discharge process. Water budgets and spatial and temporal variations of hydrological cycle components as well as energy cycle components in the upper and middle reach Heihe basin (36 728 km2 were studied by using the distributed hydrological model. In addition, the model was further used to predict the water budgets under the future land surface change scenarios in the basin. The modeling results show: (1 in the upper reach watershed, the annual average evapotranspiration and runoff account for 63% and 37% of the annual precipitation, respectively, the snow melting runoff accounts for 19% of the total runoff and 41% of the direct runoff, and the groundwater storage has no obvious change; (2 in the middle reach basin, the annual average evapotranspiration is 52 mm more than the local annual precipitation, and the groundwater storage is of an obvious declining trend because of irrigation water consumption; (3 for the scenario of conservation forest construction in the upper reach basin, although the evapotranspiration from interception may increase, the soil evaporation may reduce at the same time, therefore the total evapotranspiration may not

  17. Inland water ecosystems in South Africa – a review of research needs.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available expressed by Dr A F Bartsch (US Environmental Protection Agency) who visited South Africa in March 1977 as a consultant to the Water Research Commission. It has been drawn up with both limnologists and decision makers in mind, in order to facilitate...

  18. COUPLING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING WITH FIELD SPECTROMETRY TO MONITOR INLAND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visible to near-infrared, airborne hyperspectral data were successfully used to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus from the Great Miami River, Ohio. During the summer of 1999, spectral data were collected with a hand-held fiel...

  19. Remote sensing of euphotic depth in shallow tropical inland waters of Lake Naivasha using MERIS data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, NP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available radiometric and limnological data collection was undertaken at Lake Naivasha. Atmospheric correction was done on the MERIS images using MERIS Neural Network algorithms, Case 2 Waters (C2R) and Eutrophic Lakes processors and the bright pixel atmospheric...

  20. A NEW MODULA TYPO-DIMENSIONAL, CONSTRUCTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT OF VIVA DON EXPERT® FLOATABLE FISH CAGES FOR INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE IN INLAND WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    D. ONEA; V. CRISTEA

    2009-01-01

    This scientific work presents succinct information about the trials which takes place between 2005-2009 in Constanta (fish farm Canalul Rompetrol). This trials includes the fish farming in cages and leads to finishing off and elaboration of a new modular typo-dimensional, constructive and functional concept of viva don Expert® floatable fish cages for intensive aquaculture in inland waters from Romania like an efficient solution for the qualitative and quantitative increase of local fish prod...

  1. Determination of phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a) in the optically complex inland water - The Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoxi; Lavender, Samantha; Muller, Jan-Peter; Walton, David; Karlson, Bengt; Kronsell, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A novel approach, termed Summed Positive Peaks (SPP), is proposed for determining phytoplankton abundances (Chlorophyll-a or Chl-a) and surface phytoplankton bloom extent in the optically complex Baltic Sea. The SPP approach is established on the basis of a baseline subtraction method using Rayleigh corrected top-of-atmosphere data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) measurements. It calculates the reflectance differences between phytoplankton related signals observed in the MERIS red and near infrared (NIR) bands, such as sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SICF) and the backscattering at 709nm, and considers the summation of the positive line heights for estimating Chl-a concentrations. The SPP algorithm is calibrated against near coincident in situ data collected from three types of phytoplankton dominant waters encountered in the Baltic Sea during 2010 (N=379). The validation results show that the algorithm is capable of retrieving Chl-a concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3mgm -3 , with an RMSE of 0.24mgm -3 (R 2 =0.69, N=264). Additionally, the comparison results with several Chl-a algorithms demonstrates the robustness of the SPP approach and its sensitivity to low to medium biomass waters. Based on the red and NIR reflectance features, a flagging method is also proposed to distinguish intensive surface phytoplankton blooms from the background water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon Speciation and Anthropogenic Influences in Haitian Rivers and Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, M.; Paine, J.; McGillis, W. R.; Hsueh, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, geography, and land use patterns all contribute to the social, economic, and environmental challenges in Haiti. Water quality remains a predominant issue, and the health of freshwater systems has been linked to the cycling and transformation of carbon. A speciation dominated by carbonates and bicarbonates is conducive to higher alkalinity waters, which is part of an environmental signature in which cholera and other bacteria thrive. Numerous human activities such as deforestation, biomass burning, and agricultural practices have radically changed the abundances of carbon on land and rivers in Haiti. In Haitian small mountainous rivers, carbon speciation is also influenced by the weathering of limestone and other carbonate rocks. Additionally, rain events and natural disturbances such as earthquakes have shown to drastically increase the amount of carbon in rivers and coastal waters. Since 2010, a network of both satellite and autonomous hydrometeorological stations has been deployed to monitor the climate in southwestern Haiti. Additionally, various hydrological parameters from river, reservoir, and coastal sites have been measured during field visits. Research will be continued into the wet season, providing temporal analysis needed for quantifying the abundances and transformations of carbon. Together, data from weather stations and field sites can be contextualized with local land use patterns and other human activities to offer unique insights on the carbon system. Findings may offer new perspectives on the relationships between hydrologic cycles, human health, and environmental sustainability in Haiti.

  3. Combining SAMOSA-3 and empirical retrackers for inland water height determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Deng, Xiaoli; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    water surfaces and has therefore been chosen as the primary retracker whenever applicable. To find the waveforms for which the SAMOSA-3 retracker is appropriate, a classification is performed using first the k-means for clustering sample waveforms into classes and then the Naïve Bayes classifiers...... supported by training classes from the k-means for determining classes of all waveforms. The waveforms that are found suitable for the SAMOSA-3 retracker are isolated; these are the ocean-like and the highly specular waveforms. If the SAMOSA-3 retracker is found unsuitable or if the obtained result from...

  4. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (pCDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (pCDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  7. Coastal and Inland Water Applications of High Resolution Optical Satellite Data from Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhellemont, Q.

    2016-02-01

    Since the launch of Landsat-8 (L8) in 2013, a joint NASA/USGS programme, new applications of high resolution imagery for coastal and inland waters have become apparent. The optical imaging instrument on L8, the Operational Land Imager (OLI), is much improved compared to its predecessors on L5 and L7, especially with regards to SNR and digitization, and is therefore well suited for retrieving water reflectances and derived parameters such as turbidity and suspended sediment concentration. In June 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched a similar instrument, the MultiSpectral Imager (MSI), on board of Sentinel-2A (S2A). Imagery from both L8 and S2A are free of charge and publicly available (S2A starting at the end of 2015). Atmospheric correction schemes and processing software is under development in the EC-FP7 HIGHROC project. The spatial resolution of these instruments (10-60 m) is a great improvement over typical moderate resolution ocean colour sensors such as MODIS and MERIS (0.25 - 1 km). At higher resolution, many more lakes, rivers, ports and estuaries are spatially resolved, and can thus now be studied using satellite data, unlocking potential for mandatory monitoring e.g. under European Directives such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive. We present new applications of these high resolution data, such as monitoring of offshore constructions, wind farms, sediment transport, dredging and dumping, shipping and fishing activities. The spatial variability at sub moderate resolution (0.25 - 1 km) scales can be assessed, as well as the impact of sub grid scale variability (including ships and platforms used for validation) on the moderate pixel retrieval. While the daily revisit time of the moderate resolution sensors is vastly superior to those of the high resolution satellites, at the equator respectively 16 and 10 days for L8 and S2A, the low revisit times can be partially mitigated by combining data

  8. A NEW MODULA TYPO-DIMENSIONAL, CONSTRUCTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT OF VIVA DON EXPERT® FLOATABLE FISH CAGES FOR INTENSIVE AQUACULTURE IN INLAND WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. ONEA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This scientific work presents succinct information about the trials which takes place between 2005-2009 in Constanta (fish farm Canalul Rompetrol. This trials includes the fish farming in cages and leads to finishing off and elaboration of a new modular typo-dimensional, constructive and functional concept of viva don Expert® floatable fish cages for intensive aquaculture in inland waters from Romania like an efficient solution for the qualitative and quantitative increase of local fish production’s (by water volume optimizations, plants, fish farms and technologies optimizations.

  9. Nitrification in inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bollmann, A.; B. Ward, B.; J. Arp, D.; G. Klotz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of modern molecular biological approaches has radically advanced our understanding of nitrification processes. With chapters contributed by leading experts in the field, Nitrification fully reviews all the latest research findings on microbes involved in conventional

  10. A lake classification concept for a more accurate global estimate of the dissolved inorganic carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Fabian; Farrell, Kaitlin J.; McCullough, Ian M.; Scordo, Facundo; Denfeld, Blaize A.; Dugan, Hilary A.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hanson, Paul C.; McClure, Ryan P.; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Ryder, Elizabeth; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2018-04-01

    The magnitude of lateral dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters strongly influences the estimate of the global terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. At present, no reliable number of this export is available, and the few studies estimating the lateral DIC export assume that all lakes on Earth function similarly. However, lakes can function along a continuum from passive carbon transporters (passive open channels) to highly active carbon transformers with efficient in-lake CO2 production and loss. We developed and applied a conceptual model to demonstrate how the assumed function of lakes in carbon cycling can affect calculations of the global lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. Using global data on in-lake CO2 production by mineralization as well as CO2 loss by emission, primary production, and carbonate precipitation in lakes, we estimated that the global lateral DIC export can lie within the range of {0.70}_{-0.31}^{+0.27} to {1.52}_{-0.90}^{+1.09} Pg C yr-1 depending on the assumed function of lakes. Thus, the considered lake function has a large effect on the calculated lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. We conclude that more robust estimates of CO2 sinks and sources will require the classification of lakes into their predominant function. This functional lake classification concept becomes particularly important for the estimation of future CO2 sinks and sources, since in-lake carbon transformation is predicted to be altered with climate change.

  11. Empirical model for chlorophyll-a determination in inland waters from the forthcoming Sentinel-2 and 3. Validation from HICO images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delegido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a concentration is one of the main indicators of inland waters quality. Using CHRIS/PROBA images and in situ data obtained in four lakes in Colombia and Spain, we obtained empirical models for the estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration, which can be directly applied to future images of MSI Sentinel-2 and OLCI Sentinel-3 sensors. The models, based on spectral band indices, were validated with data from the hyperspectral sensor HICO, onboard of the International Space Station.

  12. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  13. Creating prototypes for cooling urban water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesoao, Joao; Klok, E.J.; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kluck, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When addressing urban heat problems, climate- conscious urban design has been assuming that urban water bodies such as canals, ditches or ponds cool down their surroundings. Recent research shows that this is not necessarily the case and that urban water bodies may actually have a warming e

  14. A Contemporary Assessment of Lateral Fluxes of Organic Carbon in Inland Waters of the USA and Delivery to Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters, as it is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); and 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. This approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We make use of a GIS based framework to describe sources of organic matter and characteristics of the landscape that affect its fate and transport, from spatial databases providing characterizations of climate, land cover, primary productivity, topography, soils, geology, and water routing. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of organic carbon loads that were observed at 1,125 monitoring stations across the nation. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers and reservoirs, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the

  15. Inland Waterway Environmental Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshnyak, Valery; Sokolov, Sergey; Nyrkov, Anatoliy; Budnik, Vlad

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of development of the main components of the environmental safety when operating vessels on inland waterways, which include strategy selection ensuring the environmental safety of vessels, the selection and justification of a complex of environmental technical means, activities to ensure operation of vessels taking into account the environmental technical means. Measures to ensure environmental safety are developed on the basis of the principles aimed at ensuring environmental safety of vessels. They include the development of strategies for the use of environmental protection equipment, which are determined by the conditions for wastewater treatment of purified sewage and oily bilge water as well as technical characteristics of the vessels, the introduction of the process of the out-of-the-vessel processing of ship pollution as a technology for their movement. This must take into account the operating conditions of vessels on different sections of waterways. An algorithm of actions aimed at ensuring ecological safety of operated vessels is proposed.

  16. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  17. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05–25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%–89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire

  18. Inland Waterway Mile Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Contains 11,201 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Records include eight fields; id, latitude, longitude,...

  19. Inland-coastal water interaction: Remote sensing application for shallow-water quality and algal blooms modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa; Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Blakey, Tara

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Landsat 8 and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) sensors were used to model the spatiotemporal changes of four water quality parameters: Landsat 8 (turbidity, chlorophyll-a (chl-a), total phosphate, and total nitrogen) and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWIFS) (algal blooms). The study was conducted in Florda bay, south Florida and model outputs were compared with in-situ observed data. The Landsat 8 based study found that, the predictive models to estimate chl-a and turbidity concentrations, developed through the use of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), gave high coefficients of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.86(0.66) for chl-a and R2 = 0.84(0.63) for turbidity). Total phosphate and TN were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression models as a function of Landsat TM and OLI,127 and ground data and showed a high coefficient of determination in dry season (wet season) (R2 = 0.74(0.69) for total phosphate and R2 = 0.82(0.82) for TN). Similarly, the ability of SeaWIFS for chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class was evaluated. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods. It was found that benthic class based chl-a modeling algorithm was better than the existing regionally-tuned approach. Evaluation of the residuals indicated the potential for further improvement to chl-a estimation through finer characterization of benthic environments. Key words: Landsat, SeaWIFS, water quality, Florida bay, Chl-a, turbidity

  20. Minor contribution of small thaw ponds to the pools of carbon and methane in the inland waters of the permafrost-affected part of the Western Siberian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Y. M.; Bogdanov, A. N.; Muratov, I. N.; Polishchuk, V. Y.; Lim, A.; Manasypov, R. M.; Shirokova, L. S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    Despite the potential importance of small (permafrost-affected WSL territory based on a combination of medium-resolution Landsat-8 images and high-resolution Kanopus-V scenes on 78 test sites across the WSL in a wide range of lake sizes (from 20 to 2 × 108 m2). The results were in fair agreement with other published data for world lakes including those in circum-polar regions. Based on available measurements of CH4, CO2, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in thermokarst lakes and thaw ponds of the permafrost-affected part of the WSL, we found an inverse relationship between lake size and concentration, with concentrations of GHGs and DOC being highest in small thaw ponds. However, since these small ponds represent only a tiny fraction of the landscape (i.e. ~1.5% of the total lake area), their contribution to the total pool of GHG and DOC in inland lentic water of the permafrost-affected part of the WSL is less than 2%. As such, despite high concentrations of DOC and GHG in small ponds, their role in overall C storage can be negated. Ongoing lake drainage due to climate warming and permafrost thaw in the WSL may lead to a decrease in GHG emission potential from inland waters and DOC release from lakes to rivers.

  1. Where the waters meet: sharing ideas and experiences between inland and marine realms to promote sustainable fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas; Cowx, Ian G.; Essington, Timothy E.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Watson, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world’s fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish “reference points” and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.

  2. Development of an advanced eco-hydrologic and biogeochemical coupling model aimed at clarifying the missing role of inland water in the global biogeochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu

    2017-04-01

    Recent research showed that inland water including rivers, lakes, and groundwater may play some role in carbon cycling, although its contribution has remained uncertain due to limited amount of reliable data available. In this study, the author developed an advanced model coupling eco-hydrology and biogeochemical cycle (National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE)-BGC). This new model incorporates complex coupling of hydrologic-carbon cycle in terrestrial-aquatic linkages and interplay between inorganic and organic carbon during the whole process of carbon cycling. The model could simulate both horizontal transports (export from land to inland water 2.01 ± 1.98 Pg C/yr and transported to ocean 1.13 ± 0.50 Pg C/yr) and vertical fluxes (degassing 0.79 ± 0.38 Pg C/yr, and sediment storage 0.20 ± 0.09 Pg C/yr) in major rivers in good agreement with previous researches, which was an improved estimate of carbon flux from previous studies. The model results also showed global net land flux simulated by NICE-BGC (-1.05 ± 0.62 Pg C/yr) decreased carbon sink a little in comparison with revised Lund-Potsdam-Jena Wetland Hydrology and Methane (-1.79 ± 0.64 Pg C/yr) and previous materials (-2.8 to -1.4 Pg C/yr). This is attributable to CO2 evasion and lateral carbon transport explicitly included in the model, and the result suggests that most previous researches have generally overestimated the accumulation of terrestrial carbon and underestimated the potential for lateral transport. The results further implied difference between inverse techniques and budget estimates suggested can be explained to some extent by a net source from inland water. NICE-BGC would play an important role in reevaluation of greenhouse gas budget of the biosphere, quantification of hot spots, and bridging the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches to global carbon budget.

  3. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  4. Climate change in Brazil: perspective on the biogeochemistry of inland waters Mudanças climáticas no Brasil: perspectiva sobre a biogeoquímica de águas interiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Roland

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although only a small amount of the Earth's water exists as continental surface water bodies, this compartment plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles connecting the land to the atmosphere. The territory of Brazil encompasses a dense river net and enormous number of shallow lakes. Human actions have been heavily influenced by the inland waters across the country. Both biodiversity and processes in the water are strongly driven by seasonal fluvial forces and/or precipitation. These macro drivers are sensitive to climate changes. In addition to their crucial importance to humans, inland waters are extremely rich ecosystems, harboring high biodiversity, promoting landscape equilibrium (connecting ecosystems, maintaining animal and plant flows in the landscape, and transferring mass, nutrients and inocula, and controlling regional climates through hydrological-cycle feedback. In this contribution, we describe the aquatic ecological responses to climate change in a conceptual perspective, and we then analyze the possible climate-change scenarios in different regions in Brazil. We also indentify some potential biogeochemical signals in running waters, natural lakes and man-made impoundments. The possible future changes in climate and aquatic ecosystems in Brazil are highly uncertain. Inland waters are pressured by local environmental changes because of land uses, landscape fragmentation, damming and diversion of water bodies, urbanization, wastewater load, and level of pollutants can alter biogeochemical patterns in inland waters over a shorter term than can climate changes. In fact, many intense environmental changes may enhance the effects of changes in climate. Therefore, the maintenance of key elements within the landscape and avoiding extreme perturbation in the systems are urgent to maintain the sustainability of Brazilian inland waters, in order to prevent more catastrophic future events.Embora apenas uma pequena quantidade de

  5. Shift of the circumstances in effluent pollutant loads and water pollution in the Seto Inland Sea; Setonaikai ni okeru odaku fukaryo to suishitsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hiroshima (Japan); Komai, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Environmental Science, Kobe (Japan); Koyama, T. [Wakayama Prefectural Research Center of Environment and Public Health, Wakayama (Japan); Nagafuchi, O. [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environment Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Hino, Y. [Kagawa Prefecture Environmental Research Center, Kagawa (Japan); Murakami, K. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The relationship between the shift of the amount of effluent pollutant loads and the quality of water in and after the 1970s is studied for the verification of the effect of wastewater control and pollution measures for the Seto Inland Sea. The pollution loads are analyzed using the population, sewerage system diffusion rate, industrial production amount, number of farm animals, etc., gathered from existing data, and the quality of water is analyzed using the surface layer data collected at 124 sites. Although population as the source of pollutant loads has enlarged, the enlargement does not bring about a significant change in the loads, this partly due to the diffusion of sewerage systems. The rates of reduction in the 1979-1994 period of COD (chemical oxygen demand), T-N (total nitrogen), and T-P (total phosphorus) are 25.2%, 5.3%, and 30.3%, respectively. COD has returned to the previous level, but transparency has turned poorer. T-N and T-P worsened in the 1985-1989 period, and have not yet returned to the levels of 1980-1984. Pollution is in progress in Osaka Bay, Hiroshima Bay, and some others. In some sea areas, transparency is improving, with COD and Chl.a on the increase. From the nutrient salt and Chl.a scatter diagrams, the potential of algal growth relative to the concentration of nutrient salts may be estimated. Organic pollution is affected by algal growth. The organic matters produced in the inland sea are approximately 20 times as much as the organic matters produced on land. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  8. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  9. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  10. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  11. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  12. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  13. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  14. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  15. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p DOC (R2 = 0.79, p DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  16. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  17. The Brine Shrimp Artemia Survives in Diluted Water of Lake Bunyampaka, an Inland Saline Lake in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sserwadda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ugandan aquaculture is in the process of development; however, it requires access to an affordable live food source, such as brine shrimp Artemia. This study fits within a broader feasibility study of domestic Artemia production in salt lakes. Since Uganda is a landlocked country, the only opportunity for live water food sources lies in the salt lakes in the west of the country. This study used saline water from one of these lakes, Lake Bunyampaka (salinity 72 mg L−1. Two Artemia strains, i.e., the Great Salt Lake strain, which is the dominant strain on the market, and the Vinh Chau strain, which is by far the most inoculated strain in the world, were assayed for their survival, growth, and reproduction in diluted Lake Bunyampaka water, using natural seawater as control. The organisms were fed live freshly cultured microalgae Tetraselmis suecica ad libitum. Our study revealed that the Vinh Chau strain performed especially well in Lake Bunyampaka water diluted to 50 g L−1. The data presented in this study generate the first useful information for the future inoculation of Artemia in Lake Bunyampaka in Uganda, and hence domestic Artemia production in the country; however, further larger-scale laboratory work, followed by field trials, is still needed.

  18. Safety And Reduce In Pollution Issues For Inland Waterway Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Huong Dong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Transport inland water transport is one of the five modes of transport in our country play a very important role. Inland waterway transport not only plays a major role in transporting large volumes of goods and passengers but also creates millions of jobs contributing to ensuring social security and national defense and security. However there are still many inadequacies in waterway transportation such as unequal waterway traffic The phenomenon of exploitation of river resources as planned or Process technology is not as planned exploitation of sand gravel etc. are common in most rivers and canals in the country. The signaling system is not synchronized between the signal of the inland waterway management unit and the signal of the owner The handling of domestic goods transportation and inland port management is inadequate The force of the means of development is fast uneven but concentrated in some urban areas and industrial parks. Therefore the Ministry of Transport has proposed a scheme to facilitate the development of a synchronized inland waterway infrastructure linking with other modes of transport To improve the capacity of the crew and the inland waterway transport crews. To create favorable conditions for inland waterway transportation business with reasonable transportation costs Improve the quality of water transport services Ensure safety and environmental friendliness Make a distinct advantage over other modes of transport. Specifically will develop promulgate mechanisms The policy is to facilitate the development of inland waterway infrastructure Build and promulgate mechanism The policy of supporting the development of the fleet has a reasonable structure with a fleet of about 30 self-propelled ships accounting for about 70 of the total number of inland waterway vessels To prioritize the development of the container fleet Inland waterway transportation and training retraining of human resources for

  19. ALES+: Adapting a homogenous ocean retracker for satellite altimetry to sea ice leads, coastal and inland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passaro, Marcello; Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Andersen, Ole B.

    2018-01-01

    ice retracker used for fitting specular echoes. Compared to an existing open ocean altimetry dataset, the presented strategy increases the number of sea level retrievals in the sea ice-covered area and the correlation with a local tide gauge. Further tests against in-situ data show that also......Water level from sea ice-covered oceans is particularly challenging to retrieve with satellite radar altimeters due to the different shapes assumed by the returned signal compared with the standard open ocean waveforms. Valid measurements are scarce in large areas of the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans...... the fitting of the signal depending on the sea state and on the slope of its trailing edge. The algorithm modifies the existing Adaptive Leading Edge Subwaveform retracker originally designed for coastal waters, and is applied to Envisat and ERS-2 missions. The validation in a test area of the Arctic Ocean...

  20. Water Quality, Cyanobacteria, and Environmental Factors and Their Relations to Microcystin Concentrations for Use in Predictive Models at Ohio Lake Erie and Inland Lake Recreational Sites, 2013-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Ecker, Christopher D.; Brady, Amie M. G.; Pam Struffolino,; Loftin, Keith A.

    2015-11-06

    Harmful cyanobacterial “algal” blooms (cyanoHABs) and associated toxins, such as microcystin, are a major water-quality issue for Lake Erie and inland lakes in Ohio. Predicting when and where a bloom may occur is important to protect the public that uses and consumes a water resource; however, predictions are complicated and likely site specific because of the many factors affecting toxin production. Monitoring for a variety of environmental and water-quality factors, for concentrations of cyanobacteria by molecular methods, and for algal pigments such as chlorophyll and phycocyanin by using optical sensors may provide data that can be used to predict the occurrence of cyanoHABs.

  1. Ancient dissolved methane in inland waters at low concentrations revealed by a new collection method for radiocarbon (^{14}C) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Joshua F.; Billett, Michael F.; Murray, Callum; Garnett, Mark H.

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas and is released to the atmosphere from freshwater systems in numerous biomes globally. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of methane can provide unique information about its age, source and rate of cycling in natural environments. Methane is often released from aquatic sediments in bubbles (ebullition), but dissolved methane is also present in lakes and streams at lower concentrations, and may not be of the same age or source. Obtaining sufficient non-ebullitive aquatic methane for 14C analysis remains a major technical challenge. Previous studies have shown that freshwater methane, in both dissolved and ebullitive form, can be significantly older than other forms of aquatic carbon (C), and it is therefore important to characterise this part of the terrestrial C balance. We present a novel method to capture sufficient amounts of dissolved methane from freshwater environments for 14C analysis by circulating water across a hydrophobic, gas-permeable membrane and collecting the methane in a large collapsible vessel. The results of laboratory and field tests show that reliable dissolved δ13CH4 and 14CH4 samples can be readily collected over short time periods (˜4 to 24 hours), at relatively low cost and from a variety of surface water types. The initial results further support previous findings that dissolved methane can be significantly older than other forms of aquatic C, especially in organic-rich catchments, and is currently unaccounted for in many terrestrial C balances and models. This method is suitable for use in remote locations, and could potentially be used to detect the leakage of unique 14CH4 signatures from point sources into waterways, e.g. coal seam gas and landfill gas.

  2. The use of biomarkers as integrative tools for transitional water bodies monitoring in the Water Framework Directive context - A holistic approach in Minho river transitional waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, R; Raimundo, J; Santos, M M; Caetano, M; Micaelo, C; Vale, C; Guimarães, L; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2016-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides an important legislative opportunity to promote and implement an integrated approach for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwaters. The transitional waters constitute a central piece as they are usually under high environmental pressure and by their inherent characteristics present monitoring challenges. Integrating water quality monitoring with biological monitoring can increase the cost-effectiveness of monitoring efforts. One way of doing this is with biomarkers, which effectively integrate physical-chemical status and biological quality elements, dealing holistically with adverse consequences on the health of water bodies. The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) already incorporates the biomarker approach. Given the recent activities of OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize existing monitoring guidelines between MSFD and WFD the use of similar methodologies should be fostered. To illustrate the potential of the biomarker approach, juveniles of flounder (Platichthys flesus) were used to evaluate the quality of the Minho river-estuary water bodies. The use of juveniles instead of adults eliminates several confounding factors such changes on the biological responses associated with reproduction. Here, a panel of well-established biomarkers, EROD, AChE, SOD, CAT, GST, LPO, ENA and FACs (1-Hydroxyrene) were selected and measured along with a gradient of different physical conditions, and integrated with trace elements characterization on both biota and sediments. In general, a clear profile along the water bodies was found, with low seasonal and spatial variation, consistent with a low impacted area. Overall, the results support the use of both the battery of biomarkers and the use of juvenile flounders in the monitoring of the water quality status within the WFD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial-temporal variability of soil water content in a cropland-shelterbelt-desert site in an arid inland river basin of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qin; Gao, Guangyao; Hu, Wei; Fu, Bojie

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial-temporal variability of soil water content (SWC) is critical for understanding a range of hydrological processes. In this study, the spatial variance and temporal stability of SWC were investigated in a cropland-shelterbelt-desert site at the oasis-desert ecotone in the middle of the Heihe River Basin, China. The SWC was measured on 65 occasions to a depth of 2.8 m at 45 locations during two growing seasons from 2012 to 2013. The standard deviation of the SWC versus the mean SWC exhibited a convex upward relationship in the shelterbelt with the greatest spatial variation at the SWC of around 22.0%, whereas a linearly increasing relationship was observed for the cropland, desert, and land use pattern. The standard deviation of the relative difference was positively linearly correlated with the SWC (p < 0.05) for the land use pattern, whereas such a relationship was not found in the three land use types. The spatial pattern of the SWC was more time stable for the land use pattern, followed by desert, shelterbelt, and cropland. The spatial pattern of SWC changed dramatically among different soil layers. The locations representing the mean SWC varied with the depth, and no location could represent the whole soil profile due to different soil texture, root distribution and irrigation management. The representative locations of each soil layer could be used to estimate the mean SWC well. The statistics of temporal stability of the SWC could be presented equally well with a low frequency of observation (30-day interval) as with a high frequency (5-day interval). Sampling frequency had little effect on the selection of the representative locations of the field mean SWC. This study provides useful information for designing the optimal strategy for sampling SWC at the oasis-desert ecotone in the arid inland river basin.

  4. Considerations on an inland rectenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kiyohiko; Ogawa, Yasutaka

    1988-01-01

    An earth terminal 'rectenna' is one of the essential elements of a solar power satellite system. This paper considers, some aspects of an inland rectenna. First, we show that an inland rectenna has advantages over an offshore one. Then we describe the inland rectenna and an associated artificial city. Moreover, the hogline rectenna and modified hogline rectenna with circular microstrip antennae are discussed, and several expressions are obtained which will be useful for designing the hogline type rectenna.

  5. Identification and classification of inland wetlands in Tamaulipas through remote sensing and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilver Enrique Salinas Castillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and classify artificial and natural inland wetlands in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, important for migratory aquatic birds. Historically, efforts nave been focused on natural coastal wetlands or specific water bodies located in highlands; however, these surveys have not reflected the dramatic changes in landscape due to farming development in northem Mexico in the Iatest decades. Agricultural fieids and dams associated to them provide food, water and shelterto many migratory birds and other species, a fact not well documented. Factors that may influence the use of wetlands were analyzed, including surface area, associated vegetation and proximity to agricultural fieids. The inventory of inland wetlands was based on the analysis of seven 2000 Landsat ETM satellite imagery and field data gathered from 261 sites surveyed in 2001. Baseline maps were created and GIS analyses were undertaken to classify these water bodies. More than 23 000 inland wetlands were identified, and the information derived from this study will be assist in the development of programs to manage and protect wetlands of importance for migratory aquatic birds in Tamaulipas.

  6. Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    considered cases, wave amplitude characteristics calculated with constant wind input were overestimated, and spectral maxima showed the downshifting comparing with the measured data. WRF wind input improved the coincidence, but extra tuning of WAVEWATCH III model is required. To conclude, we discuss the applicability of WRF wind input: it increases the accuracy of the simulations and makes possible the application of this technique for getting the forecasts of wind over all the water bodies and surface wind waves on it. Also the conclusion of necessity of the new parameterization of flux for wind wave modelling in inland reservoirs and lakes is made. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 13-05-97068, RFBR grant 14-05-31343, President Grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5, RSF 14-17-00667. References [1] Shuyi S. Chen, Wei Zhao, Mark A. Donelan, and Hendrik L. Tolman, 2013: Directional Wind-Wave Coupling in Fully Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models: Results from CBLAST-Hurricane.// J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 3198-3215. [2] Yu. Troitskaya, A. Kuznetsova, D. Zenkovich, V. Papko, A. Kandaurov, G. Baidakov, M. Vdovin, D. Sergeev. "Modelling od wind waves on the lake-like basin of Gorky Reservoir with WAVEWATCH III"//Geophysical Research Abstract, 2014. V.16. EGU2014-5053-3. [3] Yu.I. Troiotskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A. Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, and V.I. Kazakov. Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions// Journal of Geophysical Research, 2012, 117, C00J21.

  7. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  8. Machine-learning methods in the classification of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysiak Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian species have been considered as useful ecological indicators. They are used as indicators of environmental contamination, ecosystem health and habitat quality., Amphibian species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment and therefore, may form the basis for the classification of water bodies. Water bodies in which there are a large number of amphibian species are especially valuable even if they are located in urban areas. The automation of the classification process allows for a faster evaluation of the presence of amphibian species in the water bodies. Three machine-learning methods (artificial neural networks, decision trees and the k-nearest neighbours algorithm have been used to classify water bodies in Chorzów – one of 19 cities in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration. In this case, classification is a supervised data mining method consisting of several stages such as building the model, the testing phase and the prediction. Seven natural and anthropogenic features of water bodies (e.g. the type of water body, aquatic plants, the purpose of the water body (destination, position of the water body in relation to any possible buildings, condition of the water body, the degree of littering, the shore type and fishing activities have been taken into account in the classification. The data set used in this study involved information about 71 different water bodies and 9 amphibian species living in them. The results showed that the best average classification accuracy was obtained with the multilayer perceptron neural network.

  9. 20 years of monitoring of fishes and other organisms of the ocean and inland bodies of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The monitoring of the fishes should be done in a way enabling to determine both the real and the possible radiation exposition of the population. Therefore, the investigations are mainly centered on the ecological parameters, radiation exposition of the population due to radioactive fall-out and radio-ecological findings. The state programmes of Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony were established bearing this in mind (figures). (DG) [de

  10. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  11. Are extreme hydro-meteorological events a prerequisite for extreme water quality impacts? Exploring climate impacts on inland and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, A. M.; Balaji, V.; Del Giudice, D.; Sinha, E.; Zhou, Y.; Ho, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Questions surrounding water sustainability, climate change, and extreme events are often framed around water quantity - whether too much or too little. The massive impacts of extreme water quality impairments are equally compelling, however. Recent years have provided a host of compelling examples, with unprecedented harmful algal blooms developing along the West coast, in Utah Lake, in Lake Erie, and off the Florida coast, and huge hypoxic dead zones continuing to form in regions such as Lake Erie, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico. Linkages between climate change, extreme events, and water quality impacts are not well understood, however. Several factors explain this lack of understanding, including the relative complexity of underlying processes, the spatial and temporal scale mismatch between hydrologists and climatologists, and observational uncertainty leading to ambiguities in the historical record. Here, we draw on a number of recent studies that aim to quantitatively link meteorological variability and water quality impacts to test the hypothesis that extreme water quality impairments are the result of extreme hydro-meteorological events. We find that extreme hydro-meteorological events are neither always a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the occurrence of extreme water quality impacts. Rather, extreme water quality impairments often occur in situations where multiple contributing factors compound, which complicates both attribution of historical events and the ability to predict the future incidence of such events. Given the critical societal importance of water quality projections, a concerted program of uncertainty reduction encompassing observational and modeling components will be needed to examine situations where extreme weather plays an important, but not solitary, role in the chain of cause and effect.

  12. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  13. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  14. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  15. Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — These Inland Electronic Navigational Charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  16. Daily Water Requirements when Wearing Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... This report presents the results of model simulations predicting the individual daily water requirements under a broad range of energy expenditures and weather conditions when wearing battle dress...

  17. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    importance of the safety of recreational waters, a cross-sectional study at Addis ... of chlorine-resistant germs, and pool staff and swimmers ... and have different water system except that of site 2. ... available in excreta of warm blooded animal.

  18. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  19. On the sustainability of inland fisheries: Finding a future for the forgotten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Allison, Edward H.; Beard, Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Arthington, Angela; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G.; Fuentevilla, Carlos; Léonard, Nancy J.; Lorenzen, Kai; Lynch, Abigail; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Youn, So-Jung; Tayor, William W.; Welcomme, Robin

    2016-01-01

    At present, inland fisheries are not often a national or regional governance priority and as a result, inland capture fisheries are undervalued and largely overlooked. As such they are threatened in both developing and developed countries. Indeed, due to lack of reliable data, inland fisheries have never been part of any high profile global fisheries assessment and are notably absent from the Sustainable Development Goals. The general public and policy makers are largely ignorant of the plight of freshwater ecosystems and the fish they support, as well as the ecosystem services generated by inland fisheries. This ignorance is particularly salient given that the current emphasis on the food-water-energy nexus often fails to include the important role that inland fish and fisheries play in food security and supporting livelihoods in low-income food deficit countries. Developing countries in Africa and Asia produce about 11 million tonnes of inland fish annually, 90 % of the global total. The role of inland fisheries goes beyond just kilocalories; fish provide important micronutrients and essentially fatty acids. In some regions, inland recreational fisheries are important, generating much wealth and supporting livelihoods. The following three key recommendations are necessary for action if inland fisheries are to become a part of the food-water-energy discussion: invest in improved valuation and assessment methods, build better methods to effectively govern inland fisheries (requires capacity building and incentives), and develop approaches to managing waters across sectors and scales. Moreover, if inland fisheries are recognized as important to food security, livelihoods, and human well-being, they can be more easily incorporated in regional, national, and global policies and agreements on water issues. Through these approaches, inland fisheries can be better evaluated and be more fully recognized in broader water resource and aquatic ecosystem planning and decision

  20. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  1. Distortion of calculated whole-body hematocrit during lower-body immersion in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, D R; Santoro, T; Bondi, K R

    1986-11-01

    We found a difference between the venous hematocrits of immersed and nonimmersed arms during immersion of the lower body in cold water but not during a comparable exposure to warm water. Fourteen healthy men were exposed to three different experimental conditions: arm immersion, body immersion, and control. The men always sat upright while both upper extremities hung vertically at their sides. During arm immersion, one forearm was completely immersed for 30 min in either cold water (28 degrees C, n = 7) or warm water (38 degrees C, n = 7). This cold-warm water protocol was repeated on separate days for exposure to the remaining conditions of body immersion (immersion of 1 forearm and all tissues below the xiphoid process) and control (no immersion). Blood samples were simultaneously drawn from cannulated veins in both antecubital fossae. Hematocrit difference (Hct diff) was measured by subtracting the nonimmersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct dry) from the immersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct wet). Hct diff was approximately zero when the men were exposed to the control condition and body immersion in warm water. In the remaining conditions, Hct wet dropped below Hct dry (P less than 0.01, 3-way analysis of variance). The decrements of Hct diff showed there were differences between venous hematocrits in immersed and nonimmersed regions of the body, indicating that changes of the whole-body hematocrit cannot be calculated from a large-vessel hematocrit soon after immersing the lower body in cold water.

  2. Use of total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) to determine total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.; Wong, W.; Sheng, H.P.; Klein, P.; Klish, W.

    1986-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) has been introduced as a safe and rapid method to estimate body composition in infants and adults. Recently, a second generation instrument that operates in a scanning mode has been developed. A study was undertaken to calibrate this new instrument and to assess the feasibility of its use in estimating total body water. Six healthy adults, 3 males and 3 females, ranging in age from 25 to 57 years, and in weight from 43.3 to 104.7 kg were analyzed. Simultaneously, determinations of total body water were made by standard dilutional techniques using H 2 18 O. A baseline plasma sample was obtained and 60 mg 18 O/kg was given orally as H 2 18 O. Five hr later, a postdose plasma sample was obtained. The 18 O/ 16 O ratio in the plasma samples was determined as CO 2 by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and used to calculate the H 2 18 O volume of distribution. The total body water values ranged from 26.35 to 58.02 and represented 51 to 58% of body weight. There was good linear correlation between the total body water measurement and its phase average (TOBEC number) with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998. The standard error of the estimate was 0.98. In addition to estimating fat and fat-free mass, the TOBEC method also estimates total body water with excellent correlation to physical dilutions methods

  3. Can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, B.G.; Williams, J.B.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. We investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. However, in vivo, this method yielded a 4.6% overestimate of the amount of water (3.1% of live body mass) in chukar partridges, apparently largely because of loss of tritium from body water to sites of dissociable hydrogens on body solids. An additional source of overestimation (approximately 2% of body mass) was loss of tritium to the solids in blood samples during distillation of blood to obtain pure water for tritium analysis. Measuring tritium activity in plasma samples avoided this problem but required measurement of, and correction for, the dry matter content in plasma. Desiccation to constant mass by lyophilization or oven-drying also overestimated the amount of water actually in the bodies of chukar partridges by 1.4% of body mass, because these values included water adsorbed onto the outside of feathers. When desiccating defeathered carcasses, oven-drying at 70 degrees C yielded TBW values identical to those obtained from lyophilization, but TBW was overestimated (0.5% of body mass) by drying at 100 degrees C due to loss of organic substances as well as water

  4. Water-body preferences of dominant calanoid copepod species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of five dominant calanoid copepods was related to different water masses in the Angola-Benguela Front system. Five water bodies were identified by principal component analysis, on the basis of abiotic parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite.

  5. Whole body cooling by immersion in water at moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F; Booth, J

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the potential use of whole body cooling by water immersion for lowering body temperatures prior to endurance exercise. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen consumption (VO2), and ventilation (VE) were measured in 7 male and 3 female subjects who were immersed in a water bath for up to 60 min. Initial water temperature was 28.8+/-1.5 degrees C and decreased to 23.8+/-1.1 degrees C by the end of immersion. Pre-immersion Tre of 37.34+/-0.36 degrees C was not altered by 60 min water immersion but decreased to 36.64+/-0.34 degrees C at 3 min post immersion (p immersion. Reductions in Tre and Tsk resulted in reduced body heat content (Hc) of approximately 545 kJ (p immersion. VO2 and VE increased from pre-immersion values of 0.34+/-0.08 L x min(-1) and 6.2+/-1.4 L x min(-1) to 0.54+/-0.09 L x min(-) and 11.5+/-5.4 L x min(-1) at the end of immersion, respectively. Heart rate remained unchanged throughout immersion. These results indicate that whole body immersion in moderately cold water temperatures is an effective cooling maneuver for lowering body temperatures and body Hc in the absence of severe physiological responses generally associated with sudden cold stress.

  6. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  7. The target programme for water pollution control up to year 2005. The impact to alternative pollution load levels on inland waterways; Vesiensuojelun tavoitteet vuoteen 2005. Vaihtoehtoisten kuormitustasojen vaikutukset sisaevesissae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marttunen, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The publication presents waterway-specific pollution loading surveys connected with the target programme for water pollution control up to 2005 and the results of a survey concerning inland waters. The work evaluates and compares the magnitude and significance of future pollution loads from various sources on the state of the waterway and assesses the impact on the condition of the waterway of two alternative pollution loading levels. The survey was conducted on 24 lakes or parts thereof and 10 rivers. Sixteen of these are subject to loading from the pulls and paper industry. The waterways selected for examination were especially ones for which relatively recent loading analyses were available and to which water quality models have been applied. The general classification of fitness for use was used as a benchmark for changes occurring in the water quality of the waterways. The findings show that particularly the large waterway systems can be moved into a higher fitness for use class by reducing substantially the nutrient loading. Significant improvement in the condition of eutrophic lakes and coastal rivers with their internal loads is difficult. (orig.) 26 refs.

  8. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  9. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture. 104 refs

  10. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  11. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  12. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  13. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  14. Water use, root activity and deep drainage within a perennial legume-grass pasture: A case study in southern inland Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nahuel A. Pachas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water use and depth of water extraction of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana pasture, irrigated with desalinated coal seam water (a by-product of the coal seam gas industry, were monitored to provide background information on root activity, spatial and temporal water use and deep drainage over a 757-day period from August 2011 to August 2013. Methodology comprised measurement of soil water from surface to 4 m depth using 8 EnviroSCAN probes connected to dataloggers positioned within leucaena twin rows and within the Rhodes grass inter-row. Just over 581,000 individual moisture measurements were collated and are reported here. Water extraction (and by inference root activity of leucaena and Rhodes grass showed marked seasonal fluctuation with deepest and highest water extraction occurring during the first growing season; water extraction was greatly diminished during the following drier and cooler seasons due to the negative influences of lower soil moisture contents, lower temperatures and increased defoliation on pasture growth. The highest values of deep drainage below 4 m depth occurred when high rainfall events corresponded with high soil water storage in the entire profile (0–4 m depth. Given that water usage by both leucaena and Rhodes grass was greatest in the upper layers of soil (<1.5 m, future research should focus on how the level of competitive interaction might be managed by choice of row spacing and frequency of irrigation. Further studies are needed, including: (a physical sampling to determine the depth of active roots; (b how defoliation affects rooting behaviours and water use of leucaena; and (c modelling of the water and salt balances of leucaena and grass inter-row systems using data from this study, with various levels of irrigation, to investigate the risks of deep drainage over an extended climate sequence.Keywords: Active rooting depth, agroforestry, Chloris gayana, Leucaena leucocephala

  15. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-11-02

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal.

  16. Water-body use by Asian elephants in Southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorini, J; Nishantha, H G; Janaka, H K; Isler, K; Prithiviraj, F

    2010-01-01

    We assessed water-body use by elephants through monitoring elephant signs around them. Elephant footprints and dung piles were recorded at 25 water bodies fortnightly for one year. Elephants preferred perennial water bodies and avoided those with temporary human dwellings. Human activities did not significantly affect elephant use of water bodies, suggesting low incidence of activities and behavioral adaptation to them by elephants. Elephant signs at perennial water bodies increased in the dr...

  17. Body composition and water metabolism in tropical ruminants using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Kalanidhi, A.P.; Gosh, T.K.; Singh, U.B.; Saxena, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 1. Studies were conducted on Muzaffarnagri, Muzaffarnagri x Dorset and Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk breeds of sheep to determine the water turnover rates and body composition. The native Muzaffarnagri and crossbred animals did not differ significantly in body composition. The water turnover rates were not significantly different between breeds within the same season, but a significant difference was observed between the two seasons (winter and summer). Experiment 2. Nine animals, three each of crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk), were used to determine the body composition by the indirect method in the two seasons. There was a reduction in the TOH space and total body water during the summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared with the winter season. Experiment 3. Four adult Barbari goats were used to study body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total body water, fat and protein. Experiment 4. Twelve animals, three each of buffalo, crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) and Barbari goats, were used to determine the water requirements during the two seasons (winter and summer) by the tritiated water (TOH) dilution technique. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the water requirement and water turnover between seasons and between species within a season. The lowest water turnover and water requirement were found in goats, followed by sheep, crossbred cattle and buffalo when expressed as ml/kgsup(0.82).d. The metabolic water production was 10% of the total water input in the case of buffalo and crossbred cattle, but it was more in sheep and goats in both seasons

  18. Neonatal body water turnover: a putative index of perinatal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLennan, A.H.; Millington, G.; Grieve, A.; McIntosh, J.E.; Seamark, R.F.; Cox, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The water metabolism of 46 newborn babies was determined during a 10 day period by means of an isotope dilution technique, and correlations were sought with the clinical assessment of the babies by multiple obstetric and pediatric clinical criteria. The babies, 48 to 72 hours of age, were given a single oral dose (2 ml/kg) of deuterated water (D 2 O), a nonradioactive tracer, and the urinary excretion rate was followed by means of infrared spectrophotometry. After a period of equilibration of the D 2 O with body water (20 hours), the rate of D2O clearance was found to be a single exponential decay process, thus allowing the fraction of total body water lost each hour (the rate constant) to be calculated for each baby. The median values of the rate constants X 10(4)(h-1) for 14 growth-retarded babies ws 104 (98% confidence limits, 97.8 to 122) compared with 76.3 (67.0 to 80.2) for 16 normal mature babies and 82.1 (73.4 to 90.6) for 16 normal premature babies. These data indicate that, compared with normal mature or normal premature babies, growth-retarded infants have a significantly (P less than 0.05) faster turnover of water during the first 10 days of postnatal life. Since there was little overlap in results between the normally grown and the retarded infants, the measurement of water turnover may provide a useful index of perinatal morbidity

  19. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  20. Multi-laboratory survey of qPCR enterococci analysis method performance in U.S. coastal and inland surface waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become a frequently used technique for quantifying enterococci in recreational surface waters, but there are...

  1. Parasitic amoebae found in water bodies of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsyuk, Marina

    2017-12-01

    Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability of wet troposphere delays over inland reservoirs as simulated by a high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is widely used for measuring global sea level variations and, increasingly, water height variations of inland water bodies. Existing satellite radar altimeters measure water surfaces directly below the spacecraft (approximately at nadir). Over the ocean, most of these satellites use radiometry to measure the delay of radar signals caused by water vapor in the atmosphere (also known as the wet troposphere delay (WTD)). However, radiometry can only be used to estimate this delay over the largest inland water bodies, such as the Great Lakes, due to spatial resolution issues. As a result, atmospheric models are typically used to simulate and correct for the WTD at the time of observations. The resolutions of these models are quite coarse, at best about 5000 km2 at 30˚N. The upcoming NASA- and CNES-led Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, on the other hand, will use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to measure a 120-km-wide swath of the Earth's surface. SWOT is expected to make useful measurements of water surface elevation and extent (and storage change) for inland water bodies at spatial scales as small as 250 m, which is much smaller than current altimetry targets and several orders of magnitude smaller than the models used for wet troposphere corrections. Here, we calculate WTD from very high-resolution (4/3-km to 4-km) simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model, and use the results to evaluate spatial variations in WTD. We focus on six U.S. reservoirs: Lake Elwell (MT), Lake Pend Oreille (ID), Upper Klamath Lake (OR), Elephant Butte (NM), Ray Hubbard (TX), and Sam Rayburn (TX). The reservoirs vary in climate, shape, use, and size. Because evaporation from open water impacts local water vapor content, we compare time series of WTD over land and water in the vicinity of each reservoir. To account for resolution effects, we examine the difference in WRF

  3. Introduction to inland nuclear power abroad and issues to be solved in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Chen Haiying; Lin Quanyi; Xiong Wenbin; Yue Huiguo

    2013-01-01

    All operating nuclear power units in China located at coast, but half of operating nuclear power units in the world located at inland. The principle of inland site and coastal site is consistent both in France and USA. The long practice in these two great nuclear power countries proves that, the inland nuclear power is credible on the aspect of security and acceptable on the aspect of environment. Based on the existing research results, the experiences of choosing power sites, the related rules of law on nuclear safe and environment protection in China, the following issues should be given more research, including the relationship between inland power site and distribution of population, the eco-environmental effect caused by radioactive effluents, the problems on earthquake and beyond design basis flood, the nuclear power water consumption conflict with water resources carrying capacity, the nuclide transfer effected by hydrogeology condition, the popularization of nuclear culture and the emergency response on water resources. (authors)

  4. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  5. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  6. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  7. How does the WFD address cumulative stress (including mixture toxicity) of pollutants to achieve good chemiscal and ecological status of water bodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is now more than ten years ago that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was adopted by the European Parliament. The main objectives of the WFD are (i) to achieve good ecological and chemical status for inland surface waters, transitional waters and coastal waters in EU Member States, (ii) to

  8. 75 FR 11870 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  9. 78 FR 44934 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  10. 75 FR 57264 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  11. 76 FR 11216 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  12. 78 FR 72070 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  13. 77 FR 69447 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting... is made of the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Inland Waterways Users Board (Board). Date...

  14. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  15. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    OpenAIRE

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack...

  16. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  17. Digital waterway construction based on inland electronic navigation chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Pan, Junfeng; Zhu, Weiwei

    2015-12-01

    With advantages of large capacity, long distance, low energy consumption, low cost, less land occupation and light pollution, inland waterway transportation becomes one of the most important constituents of the comprehensive transportation system and comprehensive water resources utilization in China. As one of "three elements" of navigation, waterway is the important basis for the development of water transportation and plays a key supporting role in shipping economic. The paper discuss how to realize the informatization and digitization of waterway management based on constructing an integrated system of standard inland electronic navigation chart production, waterway maintenance, navigation mark remote sensing and control, ship dynamic management, and water level remote sensing and report, which can also be the foundation of the intelligent waterway construction. Digital waterway construction is an information project and also has a practical meaning for waterway. It can not only meet the growing high assurance and security requirements for waterway, but also play a significant advantage in improving transport efficiency, reducing costs, promoting energy conservation and so on. This study lays a solid foundation on realizing intelligent waterway and building a smooth, efficient, safe, green modern inland waterway system, and must be considered as an unavoidable problem for the coordinated development between "low carbon" transportation and social economic.

  18. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  19. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  20. Comparison of total body water determinations in lactating women by anthropometry, water displacement, and deuterium isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Butte, N.; Lee, L.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.

    1986-01-01

    To expand the limited data on the total body water in lactating women, the authors have determined total body water contents, in eight subjects from anthropometric measurements, water displacement, and isotope dilution of deuterium oxide. On the day of the study, their skinfold thicknesses were measured over the biceps and triceps muscles and at the suprailiac and subscapular areas. Their body densities were measured by water displacement. Deuterium oxide was administered orally at 100 mg/kg of body weight. One predose milk sample was collected from each subject. The milk samples were defatted by centrifugation and the milk water was reduced to hydrogen gas for hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The results indicated that total body water in lactating women estimated from anthropometric measurements was 49.7 +/- 3.3% of body weight, by water displacement was 54.9 +/- 7.2%, and by isotope dilution was 50.8 +/- 3.7%

  1. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  2. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  3. Fish community structure in freshwater karstic water bodies of the Sian Ka'an Reserve in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, L.; Vazquez-Dominguez, E.; Garcia-Bedoya, D.; Loftus, W.F.; Trexler, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between limnetic characteristics and fish community structure (based on species richness, abundance and individual size) in contrasting but interconnected inland aquatic habitats of freshwater karstic wetlands in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In the western hemisphere, freshwater karstic wetlands are found in south-eastern Mexico, northern Belize, western Cuba, Andros Island, Bahamas and the Everglades of southern Florida. Only in the Everglades have fish communities been well described. Karstic wetlands are typically oligotrophic because calcium carbonate binds phosphorus, making it relatively unavailable for plants. Fourteen permanent and seasonally flooded water bodies were sampled in both wet and dry seasons in Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Water systems were divided by morphology in four groups: cenotes with vegetation (CWV), cenotes without vegetation (CNV), wetlands (WTL), and temporal cenotes (TPC). Discriminant analysis based on physical characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, depth and oxygen confirmed that these habitats differed in characteristics known to influence fish communities. A sample-based rarefaction test showed that species richness was significantly different between water systems groups, showing that WTL and CWV had higher richness values than CNV and TPC. The most abundant fish families, Poeciliidae, Cichlidae and Characidae, differed significantly in average size among habitats and seasons. Seasonal and inter-annual variation, reflecting temporal variation in rainfall, strongly influenced the environmental differences between shallow and deep habitats, which could be linked to fish size and life cycles. Five new records of species were found for the reserve, and one new record for Quintana Roo state. ?? 2006 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.

  4. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagojevic, N; Allen, B J; Baur, L; Gaskin, K

    1988-12-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value.

  5. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagojevic, N.; Allen, B.J.; Baur, L.; Gaskin, K.

    1988-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  6. Fish, seafood and food from inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, A.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of fish for radioactive nuclides yields data on the radiation exposure of the population as a consequence of fish consumption, and information on radioecological parameters (uptake by ingestion). Radioecological investigations have been made in the environment of nuclear installations and in marine regions where dumping of radioactive solid wastes was known to have been done. The paper reports on whole-fish monitoring for contamination with Sr-90 and Cs-137, and on examinations of pikes in the Kolksee of Northern Germany, for Cs-137 contamination. (DG) [de

  7. Guidelines for sampling fish in inland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backiel, Tadeusz; Welcomme, R. L

    1980-01-01

    The book is addressed mainly to Fishery Biologists but it is hoped that Fishing Gear Technologists also can acquire some basic knowledge of sampling problems and procedures which, in turn, can result...

  8. Inland empire logistics GIS mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Inland Empire has experienced exponential growth in the area of warehousing and distribution facilities within the last decade and it seems that it will continue way into the future. Where are these facilities located? How large are the facilitie...

  9. 77 FR 26522 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...: June 6, 2012. Location: The OMNI William Penn Hotel, 530 William Penn Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 at... budget, an update of the Inland Marine Transportation System (IMTS) Capital Projects Business Model...

  10. Turnover of body water in relation to the hydric diet studied with tritiated water in Locusta migratoria migratorioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Proux, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The elimination of triated water injected in a locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides is described by an exponential function of the cumulative water diet and fits a one-compartment model. This result shows that body water occupies a single pool the mass of which is kept constant by an equilibrium between the water diet and the water elimination rate [fr

  11. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic12 Oligotrophic6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25fish kills, millions of dollars in losses to seafood-related industries, human memory loss, paralysis, and even death (Van den Hoeck et al., 1995; Silbergeld et al., 2000). Bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria can produce potent hepato-(liver) toxins termed microcystins that have been implicated in poisonings of domestic livestock, pets, wildlife, and susceptible humans ( Codd, 1995; Dunn, 1996). In addition, an accumulation of dead phytoplankton in bottom waters of eutrophic systems can lead to high decomposition rates by bacteria. Dissolved oxygen consumption by decomposers, combined with a barrier to gas exchange (thermocline or ice cover), can reduce (hypoxia) or eliminate (anoxia) dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. (A thermocline is the junction between an upper layer of warm, less dense water (the epilimnion) and a deeper layer of cold water (the hypolimnion). When this stratification is in place, the typically oxygen-rich waters of the epilimnion do not mix with the waters of the hypolimnion.) Oxygen

  12. Drivers and synergies in the management of inland fisheries: Searching for sustainable solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail; Beard, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater is a shared resource.  Water challenges (i.e., too much, too little, too dirty) are recognized to have global implications.  Many sectors rely upon water and, in some cases, the limited availability of water leads to tough decisions.  Though inland fish and fisheries play important roles in providing food security, human well-being, and ecosystem productivity, this sector is often underappreciated in water resource planning because valuation is difficult and governance is complex, unclear, or non-existent.  Additionally, inland fisheries are an economically small sector and, in most cases, the value of inland fisheries will never be the main driver of decision making.

  13. The contribution of lakes to global inland fisheries harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Rogers, Mark W.; Bennion, David; Woelmer, Whitney; Sayers, Michael J.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Raymer, Zachary B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide numerous services for communities worldwide, including irrigation, hydropower, and municipal water; however, the services provided by inland fisheries – nourishment, employment, and recreational opportunities – are often comparatively undervalued. We provide an independent estimate of global lake harvest to improve biological and socioeconomic assessments of inland fisheries. On the basis of satellite-derived estimates of chlorophyll concentration from 80,012 globally distributed lakes, lake-specific fishing effort based on human population, and output from a Bayesian hierarchical model, we estimated that the global lake fishery harvest in the year 2011 was 8.4 million tons (mt). Our calculations excluded harvests from highly productive rivers, wetlands, and very small lakes; therefore, the true cumulative global fishery harvest from all freshwater sources likely exceeded 11 mt as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). This putative underestimate by the FAO could diminish the perceived importance of inland fisheries and perpetuate decisions that adversely affect these fisheries and millions of people.

  14. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  15. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  17. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Wang; Zhonggen Wang; Jingjie Yu; Yichi Zhang; Suzhen Dang

    2018-01-01

    Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrolo...

  18. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations

  19. The social, economic, and environmental importance of inland fish and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Cooke, Steven J.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bower, Shannon D.; Bunnell, David B.; Cowx, Ian G.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Nohner, Joel K.; Phouthavong, Kaviphone; Riley, Betsy; Rogers, Mark W.; Taylor, William W.; Woelmer, Whitney; Youn, So-Jung; Beard, T. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Though reported capture fisheries are dominated by marine production, inland fish and fisheries make substantial contributions to meeting the challenges faced by individuals, society, and the environment in a changing global landscape. Inland capture fisheries and aquaculture contribute over 40% to the world’s reported finfish production from less than 0.01% of the total volume of water on earth. These fisheries provide food for billions and livelihoods for millions of people worldwide. Herein, using supporting evidence from the literature, we review 10 reasons why inland fish and fisheries are important to the individual (food security, economic security, empowerment), to society (cultural services, recreational services, human health and well-being, knowledge transfer and capacity building), and to the environment (ecosystem function and biodiversity, as aquatic “canaries”, the “green food” movement). However, the current limitations to valuing the services provided by inland fish and fisheries make comparison with other water resource users extremely difficult. This list can serve to demonstrate the importance of inland fish and fisheries, a necessary first step to better incorporating them into agriculture, land-use, and water resource planning, where they are currently often underappreciated or ignored.

  20. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  1. Harmful effects of wastewater disposal into water bodies: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improper disposal of waste water and the problems of addressing ... Abattoir wastes, industrial wastes from breweries, agricultural runoffs, and waste water from ... Ni and Pb make such water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation, aquatic life and ...

  2. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  3. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa’s standing water bodies: A view from space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a...

  4. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  5. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  6. An assessment method of long-term radiation impacts to environment and public individual from tritium discharged by inland NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan Zhihong; Huang Yanjun; Tao Yunliang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an assessment method of environmental impacts from long-term releases of tritium of inland nuclear power plant is proposed; the tritium concentrations in different environmental materials, including the two main chemical form HTO and OBT. and the radiation dose to public individuals including drinking water, food, inhalation. skin adsorption, are estimated based on the method and environmental parameters from typical inland NPP. The two discharge pathways, gaseous and liquid, are considered with particular concerns to drinking and irrigation ascribed to liquid discharge. This study would contribute to the assessment techniques of environmental impacts and safety of inland NPP. (authors)

  7. The characteristics of hydrogeochemical zonation of groundwater in inland plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-yu, HOU; Li-ting, XING; Yi, YANG; Wen-jing, ZHANG; Guang-yao, CHI

    2018-05-01

    To find out the hydrochemical zoning of groundwaterin the inland plain, taking Jiyang plain as an example, based on mathematical statistics, ion ratio coefficient and isotopic analysis method, the characteristics of water chemical composition and its zoning at different depths of 500m were studied. The result shows: ①The groundwater flow system in the study area can be divided into local flow system, intermediate flow system and regional flow system. ②The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater is complex. The hydrochemical types of middle confined water are mainly ClṡSO4—MgṡNa and SO4ṡCl—NaṡMg. The deep confined water is mainly HCO3. ③The TDS of shallow groundwater increases gradually along the direction of groundwater flow. ④The shallow saltwater and freshwater are alternately distributed in horizontal direction, and saltwater is distributed sporadically in the interfluve area with sporadic punctate or banded, and hydrochemical types are mainly ClṡSO4—NaṡMgṡCa. Conclusion: Groundwater in the study area is affected by complicated hydrogeochemical action, mainly in the form of filtration, cation exchange and evaporation. The inland plain area is characterized by hydrogeochemical zonation in horizontal and vertical.

  8. Chironomidae (Diptera, Chironomidae) as biological indicators of water bodies ecological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents data confirming that Chironomidae are good to be used as an indicative criterion when classifying lakes. It was found that their quantity and presence of certain species could serve as an index in assessment of water body ecological condition. Results of cytotaxonomic analysis helped to reveal the nature of Chironomini species diversity in STS water bodies. (author)

  9. CARACTERISTICS OF THE LOWER DANUBE WATER BODIES BETWEEN PORTILE DE FIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŢUCHIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive is the achievement of the “good status” of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. According to the legal requirements, at the 22nd of December 2009, Romania has elaborated the first National Management Plan – synthesis of the River Basin Management Plans. This process assumes the types identification and water bodies delineation on the basis of some abiotic and biotic parameters, such: water category, abiotic and biotic typology, physical features, water status, pressures and their impacts, as well as protected areas. Therefore, for the lower Danube sector between Bazias and Isaccea 4 water bodies have been delineated: 2 reservoirs (Portile de Fier/Iron Gates and Ostrov and 2 river sectors (Ostrov – Chiciu, Chiciu – Isaccea. The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts has shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations. The Water Framework Directive defines the surface water status through: the ecological status - 5 classes (based on biological, hydro-morphological and physic-chemical elements and chemical status – 2 classes (based on priority substances. In present, the 4 water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being designated as heavily modified water bodies.

  10. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy......% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance...... and scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...

  11. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  12. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  13. 77 FR 22769 - Amendment to the Inland Waterways Users Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Amendment to the Inland Waterways Users Board AGENCY... charter for the Inland Waterways Users Board (hereafter referred to as ``the Board''). The Board is... shall invite primary commercial users and shippers of the inland and intracoastal waterways to serve on...

  14. METHODS OF ESTIMATION TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF WATER BODIES IN URBANIZED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider the problem of the impact of man-caused load on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in them and the level of contamination of sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular directly depend on the contamination level of sediments. It is shown that the rate and volume of sediments accumulation, as well as contamination level of sediment layers, vary throughout the lifecycle of water body, which allows using sediments as the main indicator of the ecological state of water body reflecting the level of technogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa's standing water bodies: A view from space

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Mark W.; Bernard, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a significant threat to the quality of South African surface water bodies. The status and trends of chlorophyll a (chl-a, a proxy for eutrophication), cyanobacterial blooms and cyanobacterial surface scum were determined for South Africa’s 50 largest ...

  16. Origins of Phosphorus and Nitrogen in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; 柳, 哲雄; 田中, 剛

    2013-01-01

    Origins of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, using the unit response function method. About 58 % of TP and TN in the Seto Inland Sea were found to have originated from the open ocean, 9 % of TP and 14 % of TN originate from rivers, 33 % of TP and 29 % of TN originate from bottom sediments. We consequently suggest that it would be very difficult to prevent the occurrence of red tides and oxygen deficient water masses in the Seto Inla...

  17. Bioimpedance measurement of body water correlates with measured volume balance in injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Rodriguez, E; Hart, M B; Kurto, H Z; Albrink, M H

    1993-06-01

    Bioimpedance technology is being used increasingly to determine drug volume of distribution, body water status, and nutrition repletion. Its accuracy in patients experiencing large volume flux is not established. To address this, we undertook this prospective study in 54 consecutive seriously injured adults who had emergency celiotomy soon after arrival in the emergency department. Bioimpedance measurements were obtained in the emergency department before the patient was transported to the operating room, on completion of celiotomy, and 24 hours and 48 hours after celiotomy. Bioimpedance measurements of body water were compared with measured fluid balance. If insensible losses are subtracted from measured fluid balance, the percentage of body weight, which is body water determined by bioimpedance, closely follows fluid flux. This study supports the use of bioimpedance measurements in determining total body water even during periods of surgery, blood loss, and vigorous resuscitation.

  18. Maize yield response to residual soil moisture In inland valley of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two sets of experiments were conducted in three replicates each on both upper and lower fringes of Minna inland valley, Niger State, Nigeria. While the upper fringe was subjected to surface irrigation the residual moisture in the lower fringe provided the maize crop with all water requirements from planting to maturity.

  19. A Case of Lionfish Envenomation Presenting to an Inland Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F. Schult

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lionfish envenomation can cause erythema, edema, necrosis, and severe pain at the exposed site. Treatment often includes supportive wound care, pain management, and hot water immersion. We report a case of lionfish exposure presenting to an inland emergency department treated successfully with these measures.

  20. A Case of Lionfish Envenomation Presenting to an Inland Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Rachel F; Acquisto, Nicole M; Stair, Crystal K; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Lionfish envenomation can cause erythema, edema, necrosis, and severe pain at the exposed site. Treatment often includes supportive wound care, pain management, and hot water immersion. We report a case of lionfish exposure presenting to an inland emergency department treated successfully with these measures.

  1. A Case of Lionfish Envenomation Presenting to an Inland Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Schult, Rachel F.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Stair, Crystal K.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Lionfish envenomation can cause erythema, edema, necrosis, and severe pain at the exposed site. Treatment often includes supportive wound care, pain management, and hot water immersion. We report a case of lionfish exposure presenting to an inland emergency department treated successfully with these measures.

  2. Heavy metals concentrations in water bodies around aquamarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from three streams in the mining area of Eggon Hill were analysed. The Physicochemical values obtained were compared with WHO permissible standards in drinking water. Except for Cu and Zn with levels within permissible limits, other heavy metals determined were found to have levels above the WHO ...

  3. Labelled Substrate Assays of Anticholinesterase Activity in Hungarian Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, L.

    1981-01-01

    At Budapest the River Danube divides into two branches. The left branch called Soroksár-Danube is regulated by locks. The water level fluctuation on this quasi lake is only 50-60 cm. Along the 57 km long branch there are big industries, intensive agricultural areas and holiday resorts. The water is used among others for irrigation, for fishponds and for water sport. The pesticides applied on the neighbouring arable land and the insecticides used for mosquito controlling may pollute the water. Little is known about the fate of insecticides in water and about their impact on the aquatic biota. In June 1978 a monitoring programme of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide residues was launched on a section of River Danube near to Budapest. Important purpose of the investigations was to test the labelled substrate enzyme inhibition assay as monitoring method for pesticide residues

  4. Labelled Substrate Assays of Anticholinesterase Activity in Hungarian Water Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, L. [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-05-15

    At Budapest the River Danube divides into two branches. The left branch called Soroksár-Danube is regulated by locks. The water level fluctuation on this quasi lake is only 50-60 cm. Along the 57 km long branch there are big industries, intensive agricultural areas and holiday resorts. The water is used among others for irrigation, for fishponds and for water sport. The pesticides applied on the neighbouring arable land and the insecticides used for mosquito controlling may pollute the water. Little is known about the fate of insecticides in water and about their impact on the aquatic biota. In June 1978 a monitoring programme of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide residues was launched on a section of River Danube near to Budapest. Important purpose of the investigations was to test the labelled substrate enzyme inhibition assay as monitoring method for pesticide residues.

  5. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack of it, is another challenge to the conservation of freshwater habitats, while urban areas can play a perhaps unexpectedly important positive role. Freshwater habitats frequently enjoy benefits accruing from a sense of ownership or stewardship by local inhabitants, which has led to the development of conservation movements which commonly started life centred on the aquatic inland habitat itself but of which many have now matured into wider catchment-based conservation programmes. A demonstrable need for evidence-based conservation management in turn requires scientific assessments to be increasingly robust and standardised, while at the same time remaining open to the adoption of technological advances and welcoming the rapidly developing citizen science movement. There is evidence of real progress in this context and conservation scientists are now communicating their findings to environmental managers in a way and on a scale that was rarely seen a couple of decades ago. It is only in this way that scientific knowledge can be efficiently transferred to conservation planning, prioritisation and ultimately management in an increasingly scaled-up, joined-up and resource-limited world. The principle of ‘prevention is better than cure’ is particularly appropriate to most biological conservation issues in aquatic inland habitats and is inextricably linked to educating and/or nudging appropriate human behaviours. When prevention fails, some form of emergency

  6. Optimum operation of restoration techniques for eutrophic water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, N. M.; Kleeberg, H.-B.

    1994-05-01

    Operating rules have been applied in water resources management for a long time in order to control and supply a required quantity (volume) of water. The operating rules have to guarantee the optimum management of the reservoir(s). The quality of the stored water has been satisfactory for the desired utilization up to the sixties. Due to the deterioration of reservoir water quality through human impacts, however, increased attention had to be paid since. Eutrophication of stagnant waters is still an unsolved problem. Through means of various restoration techniques, i.e., dilution/flushing or hypolimnetic withdrawal, the quality of the stored water can be improved. Continuous operation or appropriate time or depth variant operating rules are required to achieve this goal. The paper presents such rules for long-term operation. They have been established for the first time and can he represented in two or three-dimensional graphs depending on the number of included components (e.g., actual water storage and quality). The ‘quality operating rules’ take into account the dynamics of the processes in aquatic ecosystems. Simplifications with regard to application and acceptance (e.g., clarity) are developed and tested. The general validity and efficiency of the operating rules have been proved in a case study (a multi-purpose reservoir) and a fictitious lake.

  7. Isotope hydrogeochemical characteristics of water bodies in Munigou, Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongye; Yin Guan; Yang Junyi; Fan Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Munigou is a part of Huanglong -Jiuzhaigou national scenic in northern Sichuan province. By using isotope geochemistry technique of natural water to analyze the data of δ D, δ 18 O, tritium contents, deuterium excess parameters (d-excess) and element chemical analyses, we discusses the recharge, runoff, discharge and hydraulic relationship between the precipitation, terrain surface water, groundwater and main spring in the Munigou area. Pearl spring and Jadeite spring are major spring resources in this spot. Pearl spring is a hot spring that recharged by the precipitation that sourced from an elevation of more than 3700 m. The part of precipitation infiltrate underground and return the earth's surface after it exchanged quantity of heat with deep hot fluid. So the Pearl spring can be exploited as hot spring; The Jadeite spring is typical acidic karst water cold spring. The velocity of flow of the water in the Jadeite spring's aquifer is slower than the Pearl spring's and the water has long detained time. The spring water has a good quality and important economical value for natural mineral water; Most of runoff in Munigou recharged by precipitation and shallow groundwater. This recharge have seasonal variation and important for scenic spot. These discussed problems in article have far-reaching meaning on evaluation the exploited potential of the Pearl spring and Jadeite spring and is important to protecting and developing the precious natural resource in Munigou area. And provides reference for the similar researches too. (authors)

  8. Hydrological functioning of West-African inland valleys explored with a critical zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.; Peugeot, C.; Galle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In west Africa, recurrent floods are still a major issue, and hydropower has been recognized as an important development pathway. Furthermore, inland valleys carry an important agronomic potential, which could meet the necessary increase of the crop production associated with the strong demographic rates of the region. This can lead to land cover and subsequent hydrologic changes. However, the hydrological role of the inland valleys in the humid, hard rock-dominated Sudanian area is not yet well understood, specifically for streamflow (Q) generation processes. We address both the questions of the hydrological functioning of inland valleys in the Sudanian area of West-Africa and the impact of land cover changes on these systems through deterministic sensitivity experiments using a physically-based critical zone model (ParFlow-CLM) applied on a synthetic catchment which comprises an inland valley. The conceptual lithological/pedological model for the catchment includes the main features of such a hydrological elementary unit derived from the literature and from a previously published model based on data from a highly instrumented elementary catchment. Model forcings and parameters are based on data from the AMMA-CATCH observation service and multiple field experiments. We found yearly water budgets were much more sensitive to vegetation distribution than lithology features of the inland valley (presence of the low permeability layer commonly found below the inland valley and the hydrodynamic properties of upstream and lateral areas). Yearly evapotranspiration budget between a fully tree-covered and an herbaceous-covered catchment increases between 6 and 21% of the precipitation of the year (depending on the tested cases) which reduces considerably the yearly streamflow budgets ( 30%). On the other hand, the lithology distribution has clear impacts on the spatial distribution of water storage dynamics.

  9. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  10. CHIP regulates aquaporin-2 quality control and body water homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qi; Moeller, Hanne B.; Stevens, Donté A.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins...... by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro. shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 andphosphorylatedAQP2.CHIP knockdown increased...... the plasma membrane abundance of AQP2 in these cells. Compared with wild-type controls, CHIP knockout mice or novel CRISPR/Cas9 mice without CHIPE3 ligase activity had greater AQP2 abundance and altered renal water handling, with decreased water intake and urine volume, alongside higher urine osmolality. We...

  11. Anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machowski Robert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland as exemplified by the town of Knurów. The assessment was based on topographic maps from the years 1827-1828, 1928-1936, 1960 and 1993, and on a 2011 orthophotomap. The cartographic materials used were processed as required for analysis purposes. Maps were calibrated in the Quantum GIS program on the basis of map corner coordinates and using the common points method. In Knurów, four main types of water bodies were distinguished with respect to their origins: reservoirs impounded by dams, flooded mineral workings, industrial water bodies and water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows. Historically, the first water bodies to appear were reservoirs impounded by dams, which dominated until the 1930s. They later fell into disuse and were completely dismantled. Water bodies in mineral workings formed in the early 20th century and were associated with the excavation of raw materials for producing bricks. The period of their greatest significance were the 1960s, when they constituted slightly more than 46% of water bodies in total and accounted for nearly 40% of overall surface area. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, industrial reservoirs began to appear. Within the town of Knurów, those were sedimentation tanks that held mine water, washery effluent, backfill and cooling water, fire-fighting water pools and tanks, tanks at sewage treatment plants, industrial water tanks and others. Presently, these account for 41.4% (29 of the total number of water bodies and have a total surface area of 32.0 ha (25,2%. Within the study area, water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows only began to form in the second half of the 20th century. In 2011, such water bodies numbered 38 (54.3% and occupied an area of 90.4 ha (71.2%.

  12. Effect of ramadan fasting on body water status markers after a rugby sevens match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; El-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. TWELVE RECREATIONAL RUGBY SEVENS PLAYERS PLAYED THREE MATCHES: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status markers. Total body water was measured with an impedancemeter only before matches. At rest, an increase in hematocrit (+4.4%, P=0.03), hemoglobin (+3.4%, P=0.01) and plasma osmolarity (+2.8%, PRamadan. Total body water measured before Ramadan did not differ significantly from that of Ramadan. After the match, values of hematocrit and plasma osmolarity increased significantly at End-R (+1.4%, P=0.02; +3.1%, PRamadan. Although, hemoglobin measured after matches occurring during Ramadan did not differ from those of before Ramadan. In response to matches, the change of percentage of body water status markers did not differ during each period of the investigation. The present results show that Ramadan fasting induces dehydration at basal conditions. Also, rugby sevens match played during Ramadan did not exacerbate the magnitude of responses to matches of blood and body water status markers.

  13. Experimental justification of indicative microbiological values for the safety of water bodies in the recreation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.V. Drozdova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the assessment of the microbiological values of water bodies if they are used for recreational purposes and distinguishes the epidemiologically significant parameters. In order to validate the indicative safety values taking into account the existing conditions of the recreational use of water we conducted the hygienic assessment of water in the water bodies used for recreational purposes under the indicative microbiological values (total microbial count, thermotolerant coliform bacteria, E. coli; enterococcus, spores of sulfite-reducing Clostridia; coliphages; Ps. aeruginosa and the content of pathogenic microorganisms; also the microbiological profile of water was identified. The obtained data will be used to improve the system for monitoring of water bodies in the recreation areas.

  14. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  15. Arsenic occurrence in water bodies in Kharaa river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzaya T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of arsenic (As and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Gold mining activity is one of the anthropogenic sources of environmental contamination regarding As and other heavy metals. In Mongolia, the most productive gold mining sites are placed in the Kharaa river basin. A hundred water samples were collected from river, spring and deep wells in this river basin. Along with total As and its species-As(III and As(V, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, 21 heavy metals with pH, total hardness, electric conductivity, anion and cations, was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the Mongolian National Drinking water quality standard (MNS 0900:2005, As10 µg/l, the present study showed that most of samples were found no contamination. In Kharaa river basin, an average concentration of total As in surface water was 4.04 µg/l with wide range in 0.07−30.30 µg/l whereas it was 2.24 µg/l in groundwater. As analysis in surface water in licensed area of Gatsuurt gold mining showed a mean concentration with 24.90 µg/l presenting higher value than that of value in river basin by 6 orders of magnitude and it was 2 times higher than permissible level as well. In Boroo river nearby Boroo gold mining area, As concentration in water was ranged in 6.05−6.25 µg/l. Ammonia pollution may have present at estuary of Zuunmod river in Mandal sum with above the permissible level described in national water quality standard. Geological formation of the rocks and minerals affected to change of heavy metal concentration, especially As and uranium (U at spring water nearby Gatsuurt-Boroo improved road.

  16. What Happens Where the Water and the Rock Touch in Small Space Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Regensburger, P. V.; Klimczak, C.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dombard, A. J.; Hauck, S. A., II

    2017-12-01

    There are several small space bodies that go around bigger worlds that might have a layer of water under a layer of ice. Lots of study has been done to understand the outside ice layer of these small space bodies, because the ice can tells us important things about the big water layer under it. Some of these small space bodies are very interesting because the right things for life—water, hot rock, and food—might be at the bottom of the water layer, where it touches the top of the next layer down, which is made of rock. But it is very hard to understand what this rock at the bottom of the water is like, because we can't see it. So, we are imagining what this rock is like by thinking about what the rock is like under the water layer on our own world. If hot rock comes out of the rock layer through cracks under the water, the cold of the water makes the hot rock go very cold very fast, and it makes funny rolls as it does so. This might happen on some small space bodies that are hot enough on the inside to make hot rock. We know that on our own world the rock layer under the water is wet to as far down as cracks can go, so it makes sense that this is true for small space bodies, too. We did some thinking about numbers and found out that the cracks can go a few ten hundred steps into the rock layer on small space bodies, but for bigger (well, not quite so small) space bodies, the cracks can go at least tens of ten hundred steps into the rock layer. This means that water goes into the rock layer this much, too. But get this: some small bodies are not really that small—one of them is bigger than the first world from the Sun! And on a few of these big (small) bodies, the layer of water is so heavy that the bottom of that water is pushed together from all sides and turns into a type of hot ice. This means that, for these big (small) worlds, the water can't get into the rock layer through cracks (since there is a layer of hot ice in the way), and so these bodies are

  17. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Rob; Cohen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites have amino acids and hydrated minerals which constrain the peak temperature ranges they have experienced. CMs in particular have a narrow range (273-325K). Bulk fluid motion during hydration constrained to small scales (less than mm). Some asteroids are known to have hydrated minerals on their surfaces. It is presumed these two facts may be related. Problem: hydration only occurs (significantly) with liquid water; melting water only occurs early on in nebula (1-10 Myrs ANC); in nebula asteroid surface temperature very cold (approximately 150K). Can indigenous alteration produce CMs and/or surface hydration?

  18. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  19. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  20. Dry body weight: water and sodium removal targets in PD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular mortality is high in peritoneal dialysis patients. This may be due to the presence of hypertension and fluid overload. Dietary intake of water and sodium are likely to be important, especially in anuric patients. METHODS: A review of the literature on assessment of

  1. Bubbles as a means for the deaeration of water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuhang; Zhou, Gedi; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Occasional dissolved-air supersaturation - such as may occur, for instance, downstream of dams - is harmful to fish because it causes gas bubble disease. A counterintuitive but effective means of reducing dissolved air content is the injection of bubbles in the supersaturated water. The bubbles

  2. Whole body [O-15]water pharmacokinetics measured in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maguire, RP; Spyrou, NM; Leenders, KL

    A simple pharmacokinetic model to explain the time course of [0-15]water in human whole blood after bolus injection is described. The model has been derived from measurements in twelve healthy volunteers who were measured repeatedly, resulting in 67 datasets, made in the context of PET blood flow

  3. Intertidal beach sands as monitors for heavy metal pollution in coastal water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, L.D. de; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    Intertidal beach sands were investigated for their use as indicators of metal transport in a contaminated water body, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and are proposed as an alternative and rapid screening method to determine metal pollution status of coastal areas. The results showed that, at least for Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb, beach sands can be included in the existing environmental monitoring programs for heavy metal pollution in water bodies. (Author) [pt

  4. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  5. Variation of Body Size in Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Associations with Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunshan; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Life history characteristics help us to determine the ability of invasive species to establish and thrive in an exotic environment. However, so far, there have been very few reports concerning geographic variation in the body size of invasive insects and the associations between body size variation and population biology. In this study, we surveyed the geographic variation in body size of an invasive agricultural pest, the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleopte...

  6. Fusion of radar and optical data for mapping and monitoring of water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Siok, Katarzyn

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques owe their great popularity to the possibility to obtain of rapid, accurate and information over large areas with optimal time, spatial and spectral resolutions. The main areas of interest for remote sensing research had always been concerned with environmental studies, especially water bodies monitoring. Many methods that are using visible and near- an infrared band of the electromagnetic spectrum had been already developed to detect surface water reservoirs. Moreover, the usage of an image obtained in visible and infrared spectrum allows quality monitoring of water bodies. Nevertheless, retrieval of water boundaries and mapping surface water reservoirs with optical sensors is still quite demanding. Therefore, the microwave data could be the perfect complement to data obtained with passive optical sensors to detect and monitor aquatic environment especially surface water bodies. This research presents the methodology to detect water bodies with open- source satellite imagery acquired with both optical and microwave sensors. The SAR Sentinel- 1 and multispectral Sentinel- 2 imagery were used to detect and monitor chosen reservoirs in Poland. In the research Level, 1 Sentinel- 2 data and Level 1 SAR images were used. SAR data were mainly used for mapping water bodies. Next, the results of water boundaries extraction with Sentinel-1 data were compared to results obtained after application of modified spectral indices for Sentinel- 2 data. The multispectral optical data can be used in the future for the evaluation of the quality of the reservoirs. Preliminary results obtained in the research had shown, that the fusion of data obtained with optical and microwave sensors allow for the complex detection of water bodies and could be used in the future quality monitoring of water reservoirs.

  7. Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Xing

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore water in inland plain areas, generally having poor water quality, contain complex hydrochemical properties. In order to examine groundwater chemical composition formation characteristics, groundwater in the Jiyang area of Lubei Plain was studied using stratified monitoring of drilling, analysis of water level and water quality, isotope analysis, ion ratio coefficient and isothermal adsorption experiments, hydrochemical characteristics, and analysis of variations in different shallow depths. Results show that: (1 Numerous hydrochemistry types are present in the diving. Along with the direction of groundwater flow, total dissolved solids (TDS of diving in the study area generally increases and the hydrochemical type changes from the HCO3 type to the HCO3·SO4 type, Cl·HCO3 type and the Cl·SO4 type. (2 Shallow brackish water and freshwater in the horizontal direction are alternately distributed, and shallow brackish water is distributed in the area between old channels, showing sporadic spots or bands, whose hydrochemistry type is predominantly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg·Ca. (3 Affected by the sedimentary environment, hydrodynamic conditions and other factors; diving, middle brackish water and deep freshwater are vertically deposited in the study area. The dynamics of middle brackish water quality are stable due to the sedimentary environment and clay deposits. The hydrochemistry types of middle brackish water are mainly Cl·SO4-Mg·Na and SO4·Cl-Na·Mg, while the deep confined water is dominated by HCO3. (4 The optimal adsorption isotherms of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater from clay, with a thickness raging from 6–112 m, conformed to the Henry equation and the Langmuir equation. The retardation of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater differed with differing depths of the clay deposit. The trend of change in retardation strength correlates strongly with the TDS of groundwater. Groundwater in the inland plain area is affected by complicated

  8. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  9. Hierarchical clusters of phytoplankton variables in dammed water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Gonçalves, A. Manuela

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a dataset containing biological variables of the water column of several Portuguese reservoirs is analyzed. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to obtain clusters of phytoplankton variables of the phylum Cyanophyta, with the objective of validating the classification of Portuguese reservoirs previewly presented in [1] which were divided into three clusters: (1) Interior Tagus and Aguieira; (2) Douro; and (3) Other rivers. Now three new clusters of Cyanophyta variables were found. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests are used to compare the now obtained Cyanophyta clusters and the previous Reservoirs clusters, in order to validate the classification of the water quality of reservoirs. The amount of Cyanophyta algae present in the reservoirs from the three clusters is significantly different, which validates the previous classification.

  10. Bacterial diversity and ecological function in lake water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Ren; Dan He; Peng Xing; Yujing Wang; Qinglong Wu

    2013-01-01

    The healthy development of lake ecosystems is a global issue. Bacteria are not only an integral component of food webs, but also play a key role in controlling and regulating water quality in lake ecosystems. Hence, in order to provide some suggestions for maintaining the long-term and healthy development of lake ecosystems, this review discusses and analyses concepts and assessment of bacterial diversity, the distribution of bacteria communities, mechanisms of formation, and the ecological f...

  11. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kummu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  12. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Water Status Markers after a Rugby Sevens Match

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; el-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R.; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. Methods Twelve recreational rugby sevens players played three matches: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status...

  13. Structural investigation of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharide material, extracted from the stipes of the fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus by hot water, was fractionated by sequential weak anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The relevant fractions were subjected to structural analysis, including (D/L)

  14. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  15. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  16. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water Department. Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleem, A S [Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Sweif Branch, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs.

  17. Ocean waves monitor system by inland microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. C.; Bouchette, F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseisms are continuous ground oscillations which have been wildly introduced for decades. It is well known that the microseismicity in the frequency band from 0.05 to about 1 Hz partly results from ocean waves, which has been first explained by Longuet-Higgins [1950]. The generation mechanism for such a microseismicity is based on nonlinear wave-wave interactions which drive pressure pulses within the seafloor. The resulting ground pressure fluctuations yield ground oscillations at a double frequency (DF) with respect to that of current ocean waves. In order to understand the characteristics of DF microseisms associated with different wave sources, we aim to analyze and interpret the spectra of DF microseisms by using the simple spectrum method [Rabinovich, 1997] at various inland seismometer along the Taiwan coast. This is the first monitoring system of ocean waves observed by inland seismometers in Taiwan. The method is applied to identify wave sources by estimating the spectral ratios of wave induced microseisms associated with local winds and typhoons to background spectra. Microseism amplitudes above 0.2 Hz show a good correlation with wind-driven waves near the coast. Comparison of microseism band between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz with buoys in the deep sea shows a strong correlation of seismic amplitude with storm generated waves, implying that such energy portion originates in remote regions. Results indicate that microseisms observed at inland sites can be a potential tool for the tracking of typhoon displacements and the monitoring of extreme ocean waves in real time. Real- time Microseism-Ocean Waves Monitoring Website (http://mwave.droppages.com/) Reference Rabinovich, A. B. (1997) "Spectral analysis of tsunami waves: Separation of source and topography effects," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, p. 12,663-12,676. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. (1950) "A theory of origin of microseisms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A. 243, pp. 1-35.

  18. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  19. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  20. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippo, R.S.; Dunson, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  1. Providing Longitudinal Connection In Case Of Cross Sluicing On Water Bodies In Banat Hydrographic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoancă Diana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On Banat Hydrographic Area level, there are a series of works which put hydrological pressures on bodies of water: accumulations, damming, water diversions, regulations, shore protection, etc. These works were created in order to ensure water demand, defend against floods, regulate discharges, and combat humidity excess. Speaking justly, they have an important socioeconomic role. Among the negative effects of longitudinal connection interruption of water bodies we can mention, the risk of not achieving the positive ecological potential of water bodies in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, the reduction of the aquatic biodiversity, the reduction or even extinction of certain aquatic species and the alteration of the flow process. Because the negative effects of the hydromorphological alterations, especially those due to the interruption of the longitudinal connection, have a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity. At Banat Hydrographic Area level, a series of measures, have been identified for the rehabilitation of the affected water courses: the removal of the hydrotechnical constructions from the water body if they have lost their functional features, building of passages for the migration of the ichthyofauna, reconnecting of the affluents and the disconnected arms as well as other measures intended to bring things back to their natural state. The implementation of these measures is made according to the importance and the extent of their positive impact as opposed to the negative effect that might occur as a consequence of their application. Analyzing the measures aforementioned and taking into consideration the characteristics of the hydromorphological pressures on water bodies in Banat Hydrographic Area, a number of measures regarding control are supplied in this paper.

  2. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya Sagar, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs) under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs) controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  3. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  4. Coastal and Inland Aquatic Data Products for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, Andrei; Babin, Marcel; Bachmann, Charles; Bell, Thomas; Brando, Vittorio; Byrd, Kristin; Dekker , Arnold; Devred, Emmanuel; Forget, Marie-Helene; Goodman, James; hide

    2015-01-01

    The HyspIRI Aquatic Studies Group (HASG) has developed a conceptual list of data products for the HyspIRI mission to support aquatic remote sensing of coastal and inland waters. These data products were based on mission capabilities, characteristics, and expected performance. The topic of coastal and inland water remote sensing is very broad. Thus, this report focuses on aquatic data products to keep the scope of this document manageable. The HyspIRI mission requirements already include the global production of surface reflectance and temperature. Atmospheric correction and surface temperature algorithms, which are critical to aquatic remote sensing, are covered in other mission documents. Hence, these algorithms and their products were not evaluated in this report. In addition, terrestrial products (e.g., land use land cover, dune vegetation, and beach replenishment) were not considered. It is recognized that coastal studies are inherently interdisciplinary across aquatic and terrestrial disciplines. However, products supporting the latter are expected to already be evaluated by other components of the mission. The coastal and inland water data products that were identified by the HASG, covered six major environmental and ecological areas for scientific research and applications: wetlands, shoreline processes, the water surface, the water column, bathymetry and benthic cover types. Accordingly, each candidate product was evaluated for feasibility based on the HyspIRI mission characteristics and whether it was unique and relevant to the HyspIRI science objectives.

  5. Extraction of Urban Water Bodies from High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on urban surface water is important for assessing the role it plays in urban ecosystem services in the context of human survival and climate change. The precise extraction of urban water bodies from images is of great significance for urban planning and socioeconomic development. In this paper, a novel deep-learning architecture is proposed for the extraction of urban water bodies from high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS imagery. First, an adaptive simple linear iterative clustering algorithm is applied for segmentation of the remote-sensing image into high-quality superpixels. Then, a new convolutional neural network (CNN architecture is designed that can extract useful high-level features of water bodies from input data in a complex urban background and mark the superpixel as one of two classes: an including water or no-water pixel. Finally, a high-resolution image of water-extracted superpixels is generated. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy for water extraction from the high-resolution remote-sensing images than traditional approaches, and the average overall accuracy is 99.14%.

  6. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-07-12

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size.

  7. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  8. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  9. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  10. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  11. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  12. Certain requirements to surface water quality and monitoring of water bodies in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Storchak T. V.; Pogonysheva I. A.; Ryabukha A. V.; Arishev A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Water pollution has become a pressing issues in the European Union. EU Water protection legislature plays major role in the development of national policies in many of the EU countries. EU is currently implementing Water Framework Directive. The Directive demonstrates an innovative approach to water resources management based on river basins. According to the Directive, EU countries take a responsibility to prevent further deterioration and make effort to restore and improve the state of wate...

  13. Simulation of traffic capacity of inland waterway network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inland waterborne transportation is viewed as an economic, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to the congested road network. The traffic capacity are the critical indicator of the inland shipping performance. Actually, interacted under the complicated factors, it is challenging to

  14. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  15. Research Trends of Inland Terminals: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rožić

    2016-10-01

    and revised. The review will summarize the literature related to development, classification, technological processes and location of inland terminals. In the end, the paper identifies a new proposition for further research based on the current trends and developments in inland terminals as an important factor of intermodal transport.

  16. When land breezes collide: Converging diurnal winds over small bodies of water

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, ST; Llewellyn Smith, SG

    2014-01-01

    © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society. Over enclosed and semi-enclosed bodies of water, the land-breeze/sea-breeze circulation is expected to be modified by the presence of opposing coastlines. These effects are studied using satellite scatterometer surface wind observations from the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-2 tandem mission from April-October 2003. Winds are studied for six bodies of water: the Red Sea, the Gulf of California, the Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. T...

  17. Radionuclide transport in the "sediments - water - plants" system of the water bodies at the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidarkhanova, A K; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Polevik, V V

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides research data on levels and character of radionuclide contamination distribution in the «sediments- water - plants » system of objects of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). As the research objects there were chosen water bodies of man-made origin which located at the territory of "Experimental Field", "Balapan", "Telkem" and "Sary-Uzen" testing sites. For research the sampling of bottom sediments, water, lakeside and water plants was taken. Collected samples were used to determine concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs. The distribution coefficient (K d ) was calculated as the ratio of the content of radionuclides in the sediments to the content in water, and the concentration ratio (F V ) was calculated as the ratio of radionuclide content in plants to the content in sediments or soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Liquid Water through "First-Principles" Many-Body Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medders, Gregory R; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to probe the structure and dynamics of water. However, deriving an unambiguous molecular-level interpretation of the experimental spectral features remains a challenge due to the complexity of the underlying hydrogen-bonding network. In this contribution, we present an integrated theoretical and computational framework (named many-body molecular dynamics or MB-MD) that, by systematically removing uncertainties associated with existing approaches, enables a rigorous modeling of vibrational spectra of water from quantum dynamical simulations. Specifically, we extend approaches used to model the many-body expansion of interaction energies to develop many-body representations of the dipole moment and polarizability of water. The combination of these "first-principles" representations with centroid molecular dynamics simulations enables the simulation of infrared and Raman spectra of liquid water under ambient conditions that, without relying on any ad hoc parameters, are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Importantly, since the many-body energy, dipole, and polarizability surfaces employed in the simulations are derived independently from accurate fits to correlated electronic structure data, MB-MD allows for a systematic analysis of the calculated spectra in terms of both electronic and dynamical contributions. The present analysis suggests that, while MB-MD correctly reproduces both the shifts and the shapes of the main spectroscopic features, an improved description of quantum dynamical effects possibly combined with a dissociable water potential may be necessary for a quantitative representation of the OH stretch band.

  19. Water Quality Dynamics of Urban Water Bodies during Flooding in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution associated with flooding is one of the major problems in cities in the global South. However, studies of water quality dynamics during flood events are not often reported in literature, probably due to difficult conditions for sampling during flood events. Water quality parameters in open water (canals, rivers, and lakes, flood water on roads and water in sewers have been monitored during the extreme fluvial flood event on 7 October 2013 in the city of Can Tho, Vietnam. This is the pioneering study of urban flood water pollution in real time in Vietnam. The results showed that water quality is very dynamic during flooding, especially at the beginning of the event. In addition, it was observed that the pathogen and contaminant levels in the flood water are almost as high as in sewers. The findings show that population exposed to flood water runs a health risk that is nearly equal to that of being in contact with sewer water. Therefore, the people of Can Tho not only face physical risk due to flooding, but are also exposed to health risks.

  20. Study of Chironomidae Natural Populations of the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimanova, K.G.; Blinov, A.G.; Kiknadze, I.I.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    The open water bodies as a component of the biosphere serve as the accumulators of artificial radionuclides generated during the nuclear explosions; therefore their radioactive contamination needs to be registered. The assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination consequences for the natural populations of organisms living in water bodies is of particular importance. Chironomini (Diptera, Chironomidae) play an important role as they are a significant component of water and air biocenoses and provide the self-cleaning of water bodies and food chains of industrial fish and bird. Chironomini have been chosen to be a model for the UNESCO International Program titled 'Man and Biosphere' and are used as the biologic indicator for ecological studies of anthropogenic influence on water bodies. The study of Chironomini natural mutagenic process and its alteration due to the radioactive contamination of water bodies is of extreme scientific interest and can serve as the indicator of the scale of genetic damage of water organisms. This work presents the data on natural populations of Chironomini of former STS water bodies: Shagan Lake, Balapan Lake, the artificial water body on the Karazhyra Coal Field, the backwater near the Shagan River, Balykty col Lake, etc. The analysis of morphology and caryotype of Camptochironomus sp. S (S - larvae have been sampled from the Semipalatinsk Test Site) showed that this is a new species as compared to studied species (C. tentans, C. pallidivittatus) of Camptochironomus subfamily. The caryotype Camptochironomus sp. S differs sharply from the caryotypes of other Camptochironomus species due to its strong hetero chromatization of centromeric discs. The immediate molecular analysis of genome DNA of Camptochironomus sp. S larvae sampled from Shagan Lake was performed: the total DNA of larvae of this species was obtained, nucleonic sequences of genes of cytochrome B (Cyt B) and cytochrome I (COI) were determined using methods of

  1. Identifying alternate pathways for climate change to impact inland recreational fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Len M.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Fulton, David C.; Mendelsohn, Robert; Smith, Jordan W.; Tunney, Tyler D.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Whitney, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries and human dimensions literature suggests that climate change influences inland recreational fishers in North America through three major pathways. The most widely recognized pathway suggests that climate change impacts habitat and fish populations (e.g., water temperature impacting fish survival) and cascades to impact fishers. Climate change also impacts recreational fishers by influencing environmental conditions that directly affect fishers (e.g., increased temperatures in northern climates resulting in extended open water fishing seasons and increased fishing effort). The final pathway occurs from climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts (e.g., refined energy policies result in higher fuel costs, making distant trips more expensive). To address limitations of past research (e.g., assessing climate change impacts for only one pathway at a time and not accounting for climate variability, extreme weather events, or heterogeneity among fishers), we encourage researchers to refocus their efforts to understand and document climate change impacts to inland fishers.

  2. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  3. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp., Listonella spp., and Clostridium botulinum in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswaran, K; Nakano, H; Okabe, T; Takayama, K; Matsuda, O; Hashimoto, H

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Vibrio species in samples of surface water, bottom water (water 2 m above the sediment), and sediment from the Seto Inland Sea was studied. A simple technique using a membrane filter and short preenrichment in alkaline peptone water was developed to resuscitate the injured cells, followed by plating them onto TCBS agar. In addition, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Clostridium botulinum in sediment samples. Large populations of heterotrophs were found i...

  5. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The connection between inland and coastal aquifers near Kona, Hawai‘i is uncertain. • If connected, increased inland groundwater pumping may threaten coastal ecosystems. • Connection of inland and coastal aquifers was investigated using geochemical data. • Stable isotope results provide strong evidence of a connection between the systems. • Other geochemical data suggest a connection but are not conclusive. - Abstract: Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear

  6. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  7. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  8. Cold-water acclimation does not modify whole-body fluid regulation during subsequent cold-water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J M; Patterson, M J; Hyde, D E; Jenkins, A B; Mittleman, K D; Taylor, N A S

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the impact of cold-water acclimation on whole-body fluid regulation using tracer-dilution methods to differentiate between the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. Seven euhydrated males [age 24.7 (8.7) years, mass 74.4 (6.4) kg, height 176.8 (7.8) cm, sum of eight skinfolds 107.4 (20.4) mm; mean (SD)] participated in a 14-day cold-water acclimation protocol, with 60-min resting cold-water stress tests [CWST; 18.1 (0.1) degrees C] on days 1, 8 and 15, and 90-min resting cold-water immersions [18.4 (0.4) degrees C] on intervening days. Subjects were immersed to the 4th intercostal space. Intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, and plasma protein, electrolyte and hormone concentrations were investigated. During the first CWST, the intracellular fluid (5.5%) and plasma volumes were reduced (6.1%), while the interstitial fluid volume was simultaneously expanded (5.4%). This pattern was replicated on days 8 and 15, but did not differ significantly among test days. Acclimation did not produce significant changes in the pre-immersion distribution of total body water, or changes in plasma osmolality, total protein, electrolyte, atrial natriuretic peptide or aldosterone concentrations. Furthermore, a 14-day cold-water acclimation regimen did not elicit significant changes in body-fluid distribution, urine production, or the concentrations of plasma protein, electrolytes or the fluid-regulatory hormones. While acclimation trends were not evident, we have confirmed that fluid from extravascular cells is displaced into the interstitium during acute cold-water immersion, both before and after cold acclimation.

  9. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  10. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  11. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY A.A. AGUILAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  12. Wind effect on water surface of water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary research of wind-water interactions was focused on coastal areas along the shores of world oceans and seas because a basic understanding of coastal meteorology is an important component in coastal and offshore design and planning. Over time the research showed the most important meteorological consideration relates to the dominant role of winds in wave generation. The rapid growth of building-up of dams in 20th century caused spreading of the water wave mechanics research to the inland water bodies. The attention was paid to the influence of waterwork on its vicinity, wave regime respectively, due to the shoreline deterioration, predominantly caused by wind waves. Consequently the similar principles of water wave mechanics are considered in conditions of water reservoirs. The paper deals with the fundamental factors associated with initial wind-water interactions resulting in the wave origination and growth. The aim of the paper is thepresentation of utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies with respect to actual state of the art. The authors compared foreign and national approach to the solved problems and worked out graphical interpretation and overview of related wind-water interaction factors.

  13. Indexes of the common reed's seed vitality from water-bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavnuk, A.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Gudkov, D.I.; Levchenko, Ya.I.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the common reed's seed vitality (vegetation of 2009) from flood-plain water-bodies with different level of radionuclide contamination was carried out. Decrease in indexes of seed's vitality and abnormalities in seed dynamic sprouting was noticed. Dose-response relationship of germination, germinating force, survival rate of seeds of plants was determined. (authors)

  14. Sensitivity to Disgust and Perceptions of Natural Bodies of Water and Watercraft Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Bixler; Gwynn Powell

    2003-01-01

    A written 7-item self-report scale on sensitivity to disgust and participation in watercraft activities was administered to 450 seasonal park employees. Correlations indicate that nonparticipation in seven different watercraft sports was weakly related with reactions of disgust to contact with natural bodies of water (rpbis...

  15. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, J. T.; Donnelly, A. E.; Karki, A.; Selfe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of −110°C whole body cryotherapy and 8°C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (

  16. Distribution and Ecology of Cyanobacteria in the Rocky Littoral of an English Lake District Water Body, Devoke Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Pentecost

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria were sampled along two vertical and two horizontal transects in the littoral of Devoke Water, English Lake District. Profiles of cyanobacterium diversity and abundance showed that both attained a maximum close to the water line, but declined rapidly 20–40 cm above it. The distribution of individual species with height together with species and site ordinations showed that several taxa occurred in well-defined zones. A narrow “black zone” in the supralittoral was colonised mainly by species of Calothrix, Dichothrix and Gloeocapsa with pigmented sheaths. There was no evidence of lateral variation of species around the lake, but the height of the black zone correlated positively with wind exposure. The flora of Devoke Water is that of a base-poor mountain lake with some elements of a lowland, more alkaline water-body.

  17. Effects of municipal sewage on the sessile and planctonic bacterial flora of bodies of surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorch, H.J.; Ottow, J.C.G.

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of the useability of bacteria as biological indicators of the water state, sections of a flowing body of water (Erms, Schwaebische Alb) with different pollutant levels were investigated between August '82 and July '85. In flowing waves (current biological indicators), the population densities of saprophytes, coliform buds and sporophytes were determined as well as the total number of bacteria number and the morphology of the bacteria. The upgrowth on artificial (glass) and natural (water plants) substrates (integrating biological indicators) was examined with the aid of light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to measure the long-term influence of different nutrient conditions on the microflora. (orig.) [de

  18. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  19. EFFECTS TO MODIFY THE CALORIC CONTENT OF WATER ON BODY WEIGHT, WATER, FOOD AND CALORIES CONSUMPTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA GABRIELA MARTÍNEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Six albino rats were divided in two experimental groups and one control. The experiment began withfifteen days of free access; subsequently experimental groups maintained available three concentrationsof glucose: high, middle and low. First group received high-middle-low-high-middle-low sequence andsecond group received low-middle-high-low-middle-high sequence during six days. Control group notreceived glucose concentrations. Caloric concentration of food never changed. Results suggest thatmodification of caloric concentration in water affects feeding behavior. Nevertheless, water with glucoseconsumption did not change body weight.

  20. Environmental monitoring and assessment of the water bodies of a pre-construction urban wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ma, Sumin

    2014-11-01

    It is planned that the Dayanghan Wetland in China will be transformed into a national park but little is known about its current water quality and pollution status. Thus, we monitored the physical and chemical characteristics of the Dayanghan Wetland, which showed that the water quality was generally good. However, the chemical oxygen demand was more than double the reference value, which may be attributable to previous tillage for vegetable crops and other farmlands. In addition, nickel and chromium caused low-level pollution in the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland. The mean trophic level index and nutrient quality index were 39.1 and 2.69, respectively. Both indices suggest that the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland are in a mesotrophic state and that no eutrophication has occurred. The study would provide a precise report on the status of environmental quality of the water bodies of a typical pre-construction wetland for the administration and decision of the local government and the planning agent.

  1. Contaminant transport modelling in tidal influenced water body for low level liquid waste discharge out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Naidu, Velamala Simhadri

    2018-01-01

    Low level liquid waste is generated from nuclear reactor operation and reprocessing of spent fuel. This waste is discharged into the water body after removing bulk of its radioactivity. Dispersion of contaminant mainly depends on location of outfall and hydrodynamics of water body. For radiological impact assessment, in most of the analytical formulations, source term is taken as continuous release. However, this may not be always true as the water level is influenced by tidal movement and the selected outfall may come under intertidal zone in due course of the tidal cycle. To understand these phenomena, a case study has been carried out to evaluate hydrodynamic characteristics and dilution potential of outfall located in inter-tidal zone using numerical modelling

  2. Microbial processes in the Kanda Bay, a meromictic water body artifically separated from the White Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvichev, A S; Demidenko, N A; Krasnova, E D; Kalmatskaya, O V; Kharcheva, A N; Ivanov, M V

    2017-05-01

    Sings of meromixis are found by means of microbiological and biogeochemical investigations in the southernn part of the Kanda Bay, an artificial water body separated front the White Sea with a railway dam. The concentration of oxygen in the bottom layer attained 1.9 mmol/L, intensity of the process of microbial sulfate reduction, 3.0 μmol of sulfur/(L day). The concentration of dissolved methane, 3.7 μmol/L. Isotopic composition of carbon in methane (δ 13 C (CH 4 ) =-79.2‰) indicates to its microbial genesis. At present, Kanda Bay is a sole in Russia man-made marine water body for which there are data on the rate of microbial processes responsible for formation of bottom water layer containing hydrogen sulfide and methane.

  3. Environmental effects of cooling system alternatives at inland and coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, R.M.; Warrick, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of alternative cooling systems for power plants in California were analyzed. At inland sites evaporative cooling systems must be used, with fresh water or waste water used as makeup. Because fresh water is scarce, most new plants would need to use agricultural or municipal waste waters. For agricultural waste water systems, disposing of the blowdown and dispersion of drift containing total dissolved solids are two significant problems requiring resolution. At coastal sites, once-through cooling systems or recirculating systems could be used. Once--through cooling causes fewer effects on the marine environment than do recirculating systems on the air and marine environment when oceans water makeup is used. In general, for a recirculating system, dispersing high-salinity blowdown in marine waters and the effects of salt water drift on the terrestrial ecology outweigh the effects of once-through warm water on marine life. (U.S.)

  4. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  5. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  6. The inland boundary layer at low latitudes: II Sea-breeze influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1985-11-01

    Two-dimensional mesoscale model results support the claim of evening sea-breeze activity at Daly Waters, 280 km inland from the coast in northern Australia, the site of the Koorin boundary-layer experiment. The sea breeze occurs in conditions of strong onshore and alongshore geostrophic winds, not normally associated with such activity. It manifests itself at Daly Waters and in the model as a cooling in a layer 500 1000 m deep, as an associated surface pressure jump, as strong backing of the wind and, when an offshore low-level wind is present, as a collapse in the inland nocturnal jet. Both observational analysis and model results illustrate the rotational aspects of the deeply penetrating sea breeze; in our analysis this is represented in terms of a surge vector — the vector difference between the post- and pre-frontal low-level winds. There is further evidence to support earlier work that the sea breeze during the afternoon and well into the night — at least for these low-latitude experiments — behaves in many ways as an atmospheric gravity current, and that inland penetrations up to 500 km occur.

  7. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of

  8. The daily radon dose in body organs caused by drinking milk and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoureh Mansour Bahmani; Mohammad Reza Rezaie; Elham Rezvan Nejad; Hassan Reza Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Milk is considered as the richest nutrition, being used by people. When drinking milk or water the radon gas will transfer from air to them rapidly. Since milk is majorly composed of water, probably radon existence in livestock consumable water could be the main cause of its presence in milk. Different portion of milk changed by radon gamma ray and consumption of radon included water or milk has its effects on the human body. For investigation the effect of radon in water or milk on human organs, this study has been done in two phases with MCNPX software. In the first phase, the dose rate of absorbed gamma ray by different portion of milk which is indoctrinated by 1 Bq/m 3 of radon during a day is calculated. Moreover, the effects shown by milk and its components in radon gamma spectrum, which is demonstrator of milk absorption spectrum, are also surveyed. In the second phase as well, according to the human body phantom, the absorbed gamma dose caused by daily consumption of indoctrinated water or milk with 1 Bq/m 3 radon is calculated. The production rate of free radicals in milk and its different components are derived according to escape data of MCNPX code. (author)

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  10. Characterization of Salmonella species from water bodies in Dar-Es-Salaam city, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the  identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  11. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Restoration of body composition indicates successful management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Bioimpedance (BI) index (height(2)/resistance) is used to predict total body water (TBW) but its performance in SAM, especially with oedema, requires further investigation....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference ...Hzs. Pre- and post-deuterium dose saliva samples were analysed using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. TBW was regressed on H(2)/Z. Xc and R were height (H)-indexed, and Xc/H plotted against R/H. RESULTS: Thirty five children (16 non-oedematous and 19 oedematous) with median (interquartile range) age of 42...

  12. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the

  13. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  14. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%)

  15. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  16. 1 characteristics, classification and management of inland valley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    adopting the rice culture, or adopting a system of shallow drain-ditches with mound-tillage to ... Keywords: Inland valley soils, Drainage, Tillage, Soil management and conservation, Crop ..... This indicates that much of rainwater runs off.

  17. Environmental impacts of Sheba tannery (Ethiopia effluents on the surrounding water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraha Gebrekidan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The levels of hexavalent chromium from direct and treated Sheba tannery effluents, downstream river and spring water samples and upstream river water samples were determined spectrophotometrically by the s-diphenylcarbazide method at 540 nm. Temporal and representative samples were collected from the untreated tannery effluent (S1, sedimentation pond (S2, chromium oxidation pond (S3, downstream river (S4, downstream spring (S5 and 5 kms upstream river (S6. The mean levels of hexavalent chromium in S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 were 10.54, 9.15, 7.82, 0.58, 0.54 and 0.015 mg/L, respectively. The levels of hexavalent chromium in the downstream river and spring water samples exceed the World Health Organization (WHO permissible limit of total chromium in drinking waters (0.05 mg/L as opposed to the levels in the upstream waters. The increased concentrations of Cr(VI in the water samples indicate the possible environmental pollution of the downstream water bodies by the Sheba tannery effluents. In view of the toxicity and related environmental hazards, the levels of hexavalent chromium from the Sheba tannery effluents must be reduced to a permissible limit before discharging into the down stream waters being used for domestic purposes by the nearby communities.

  18. When neuroscience gets wet and hardcore: neurocognitive markers obtained during whole body water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Frick, Hosea; Krehan, Sebastian; Micke, Florian; Sauer, Marc; Dalecki, Marc; Dern, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Neutral buoyancy facilities are used to prepare astronauts and cosmonauts for extra vehicular activities e.g. on-board of the International Space Station. While previous studies indicated a decrease in cognitive performance in an under water setting, they have only provided behavioural data. This study aimed to review whether recording of electro cortical activity by the use of electroencephalography (EEG) is possible in an under water setting and if so, to identify the influence of water immersion at a depth of 4 m on neurocognitive markers. Ten male subjects performed a cognitive choice-reaction times (RT) task that progressed through five levels of increasing difficulty on land and when submerged 4 m under water. N200 latency and amplitude in the occipital and frontal areas were measured, and baseline cortical activity was measured during rest in both conditions. Neither RT nor amplitude or latency of the N200 showed any significant changes between the land and the under water conditions. Also theta, alpha and beta frequencies showed no differences between the two conditions. The data provided in this study demonstrate the possibility of recording EEG even under the extreme conditions of full body water immersion. The lack of cognitive impairment in RT and N200 in the under water condition may be explained by the fact that only experienced divers participated in the study. As a proof of principle, this study generates many new experimental possibilities that will improve our understanding of cognitive processes under water.

  19. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  20. Revitalization model of tapioca industry through environmental awareness reinforcement for minimizing water body contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowati, E.; Indriyanti, D. R.; Juhadi

    2018-03-01

    Tapioca industry in Margoyoso District is a household industry which positively contributes to the growth of the region's economy as it is able to absorb 6,61% of productive age populationor absorb 3,300 workers.On the other hand, the industry impacts contamination of river water in the form of pollutants dissolved materials and particulates into water bodies so that the quality of water decreases even does not work anymore in accordance with the allocation for irrigation or run off of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to: strengthen environmental awareness; calculate the success of the reinforcement action and minimize water body contamination. The research was conducted in two villages of tapioca industry center in Margoyoso district - Pati Regency Administration Area. The determination coefficient of R Square is 0.802 which indicates a successful effort of 80.2%. Regression equation Y = 34.097 + 0.608 X. Industrial entrepreneur's concern increased on 8.45 from total indicator or position to 70.72 so that the gradual effort showed success to minimize water contamination of Suwatu River. The business community of tapioca should build installation of wastewater treatment.

  1. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  2. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  3. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  4. Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) from the gills of mullets (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the inland waters of southern Iraq, with an evalutation of previous records of Gyrodactylus spp. on mullets in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Ali, Atheer H; Khamees, Najim R

    2013-11-01

    Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) is recorded and described from the gill lamellae of 11 of 35 greenback mullet, Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) (minimum prevalence 31%), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary in southern Iraq. The gyrodactylid was also found on the gill lamellae of one of eight Speigler's mullet, Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Basrah Canal (minimum prevalence 13%). Fifteen Klunzinger's mullet, Liza klunzingeri (Day), and 13 keeled mullet, Liza carinata (Valenciennes), collected and examined from southern Iraqi waters, were apparently uninfected. The gyrodactylids from the greenback mullet and Speigler's mullet were considered to have affinity to G. mugili Zhukov, 1970, and along with G. mugili may represent members of a species complex occurring on mullets in the Indo-Pacific Region. A single damaged gyrodactylid from the external surfaces of the abu mullet, Liza abu (Heckel), was insufficient for species identification. Previously identified species of Gyrodactylus recorded on L. abu in Iraq by various authors were considered possible misidentifications or accidental infections.

  5. A Novel Approach to Extract Water Body from ASAR Dual-Polarized Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianwei; Song, Xiaoning; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fangcheng; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-01-01

    SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has become a useful and efficient method for monitoring flood extent due to its capability of 24-hour and all weather observation. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to extract water bodies from ASAR dual-polarized images. Firstly, a new SAR image was created from ASAR Dual-Polarized data using a discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) fusion method. Then, a modified Otsu threshold method was used to extract water bodies of Poyang Lake with the new fused image. Next, this image was compared with the one extracted from ETM+ data. The result showed that the fused image was feasible and more accurate. Besides, it could reduce the influences of shadow and noise. Moreover, the approach could be conducted automatically, which is very important under urgent condition for flood monitoring

  6. Satellite monitoring at high spatial resolution of water bodies used for irrigation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Flanquart, S.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Fieuzal, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a changing climate context, with an increase of the need for food, it becomes increasingly important to improve our knowledge for monitoring agricultural surfaces by satellite for a better food management and to reduce the waste of natural resources (water storages and shortages, irrigation management, increase of soil and water salinity, soil erosion, threats on biodiversity). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potentialities of multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellites for monitoring the temporal evolution of water bodies surfaces (mainly used for irrigation purposes). This analysis is based on the use of a series of images acquired between the years 2003 and 2011. The year 2010 is considered as a reference, with 110 acquisitions performed during the MCM'10 campaign (Multispectral Crop Monitoring 2010, http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/us/mcm.html). Those images are provided by 8 satellites (optical, thermal and RADAR) such as ALOS, TERRASAR-X, RADARSAT-2, FORMOSAT-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, LANDSAT-5. The studied area is situated in the South-West of Toulouse in France; in a region governed by a temperate climate. The irrigated cultures represent almost 12% of the cultivated surface in 2009. The method consists in estimating the water bodies surfaces by using a generic approach suitable for all images, whatever the wavelength (optical, infrared, RADAR). The supervised parallelepiped classification allows discriminating four types of surfaces coverage: forests, water expanses, crops and bare soils. All RADAR images are filtered (Gamma) to reduce speckle effects and false detections of water bodies. In the context if the "South-West" project of the CESBIO laboratory, two spatial coverages are analyzed: SPOT 4 (4800km2) and FORMOSAT 2 (576km2). At these scales, 154 and 38 water bodies are identify. They respectively represent 4.85 km2 (0.10% of the image cover) and 2.06 km2 (0.36% of the image cover). Statistical analyses show that 8% of lakes

  7. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  8. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  9. Boundary layer transition observations on a body of revolution with surface heating and cooling in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, V. H.

    1980-04-01

    Boundary layer flow visualization in water with surface heat transfer was carried out on a body of revolution which had the predicted possibility of laminar separation under isothermal conditions. Flow visualization was by in-line holographic technique. Boundary layer stabilization, including elimination of laminar separation, was observed to take place on surface heating. Conversely, boundary layer destabilization was observed on surface cooling. These findings are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Wazzan et al. (1970).

  10. SPH for impact force and ricochet behavior of water-entry bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Pourya; Farghadani, Omid; Nikeghbali, Pooyan

    The numerical modeling of fluid interaction with a bouncing body has many applications in scientific and engineering application. In this paper, the problem of water impact of a body on free-surface is investigated, where the fixed ghost boundary condition is added to the open source code SPHysics2D1 to rectify the oscillations in pressure distributions with the repulsive boundary condition. First, after introducing the methodology of SPH and the option of boundary conditions, the still water problem is simulated using two types of boundary conditions. It is shown that the fixed ghost boundary condition gives a better result for a hydrostatics pressure. Then, the dam-break problem, which is a bench mark test case in SPH, is simulated and compared with available data. In order to show the behavior of the hydrostatics forces on bodies, a fix/floating cylinder is placed on free surface looking carefully at the force and heaving profile. Finally, the impact of a body on free-surface is successfully simulated for different impact angles and velocities.

  11. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  12. Inland wetland change detection using aircraft MSS [multispectral scanner] data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, E.W.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Sharitz, R.R.; Christensen, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nontidal wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest affected by reactor cooling water discharges were mapped using March 31, 1981 and April 29, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the inherent distortion in the aircraft MSS data and the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement multiple techniques in the registration and classification of the MSS imagery of the Pen Branch Delta on each date. In particular, it was necessary to use a piecewise-linear registration process over relatively small regions to perform image-to-image registration. When performing unsupervised classification, an iterative ''cluster busting'' technique was used, which simplified the cluster labeling process. These procedures allowed important wetland vegetation categories to be identified on each date. The multiple-date classification maps were then evaluated using a post-classification comparison technique yielding change classes that were of value in determining the extent of inland wetland change in this region

  13. Determination of the Relative Sediment Concentration in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vargas Cuervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments (RCS in bodies of water such as rivers, marshes and river deltas require specialized equipment, field work and laboratory analyses of samples, all with high economic costs. Remote sensing, in regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum, particularly in the visible range between 0.4 and 0.6 µm, shows radiometric contrasts associated with the relative concentration of sediments in water bodies. This work presents an analysis of the principal spectral, spatial and radiometric properties or characteristics of remote sensors for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments in bodies of water, a methodological process for its cartography at a given time or an established period of time. This cartography is based on digital processing of images rather than direct measurements in the field. Lastly, applications are presented for the delta coast of the southwestern area of the Colombian Caribbean between Barranquilla and Punta Piedra and in the lacustrine area of the Guajaro Reservoir and the Jobo and Capote Wetlands in the upper Canal del Dique, Colombia.

  14. Evaluation of significantly modified water bodies in Vojvodina by using multivariate statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an

  15. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduced Following Conversion of Rice Paddies to Inland Crab-Fish Aquaculture in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shuang; Li, Shuqing; Li, Zhaofu; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-19

    Aquaculture is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while few direct flux measurements are available for their regional and global source strength estimates. A parallel field experiment was performed to measure annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and rice paddy-converted inland crab-fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China. Besides N2O fluxes dependent on water/sediment mineral N and CH4 fluxes related to water chemical oxygen demand, both CH4 and N2O fluxes from aquaculture were related to water/sediment temperature, sediment dissolved organic carbon, and water dissolved oxygen concentration. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland aquaculture averaged 0.37 mg m(-2) h(-1) and 48.1 μg m(-2) h(-1), yielding 32.57 kg ha(-1) and 2.69 kg N2O-N ha(-1), respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 48% and 56%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.66% of total N input in the feed or 1.64 g N2O-N kg(-1) aquaculture production in aquaculture. The conversion of rice paddies to inland aquaculture would benefit for reconciling greenhouse gas mitigation and agricultural income increase as far as global warming potentials and net ecosystem economic profits are of concomitant concern. Some agricultural practices such as better aeration and feeding, and fallow season dredging would help to lower CH4 and N2O emissions from inland aquaculture. More field measurements from inland aquaculture are highly needed to gain an insight into national and global accounting of CH4 and N2O emissions.

  16. On the variability of the Priestley-Taylor coefficient over water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Li, Dan; Tyler, Scott; Tanny, Josef; Cohen, Shabtai; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Parlange, Marc; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-01-01

    Deviations in the Priestley-Taylor (PT) coefficient αPT from its accepted 1.26 value are analyzed over large lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands where stomatal or soil controls are minimal or absent. The data sets feature wide variations in water body sizes and climatic conditions. Neither surface temperature nor sensible heat flux variations alone, which proved successful in characterizing αPT variations over some crops, explain measured deviations in αPT over water. It is shown that the relative transport efficiency of turbulent heat and water vapor is key to explaining variations in αPT over water surfaces, thereby offering a new perspective over the concept of minimal advection or entrainment introduced by PT. Methods that allow the determination of αPT based on low-frequency sampling (i.e., 0.1 Hz) are then developed and tested, which are usable with standard meteorological sensors that filter some but not all turbulent fluctuations. Using approximations to the Gram determinant inequality, the relative transport efficiency is derived as a function of the correlation coefficient between temperature and water vapor concentration fluctuations (RTq). The proposed approach reasonably explains the measured deviations from the conventional αPT = 1.26 value even when RTq is determined from air temperature and water vapor concentration time series that are Gaussian-filtered and subsampled to a cutoff frequency of 0.1 Hz. Because over water bodies, RTq deviations from unity are often associated with advection and/or entrainment, linkages between αPT and RTq offer both a diagnostic approach to assess their significance and a prognostic approach to correct the 1.26 value when using routine meteorological measurements of temperature and humidity.

  17. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE RISK MANAGEMENT IN SERBIAN INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Backalic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes require special attention and global monitoring. Impacts on nature and industry are increasingly evident. Water transport could be the backbone of the future European combined transport system. Unfortunately, risks in water transport are perhaps an under researched area and consequently, this article outlines a rationale, why it is necessary to develop competence about risk in water transport. The development of the cargo transport in river traffic depends directly on technical-exploitative characteristics of the network of inland waterways. Research of navigational abilities of inland waterways always comes before building ships or making a transport schedule. Navigation characteristics of rivers have to be determined as precise as possible, especially from the aspect of determination the possible draught of vessels. River transport due to their operational business and environmental conditions faced with several risks having different degrees of consequences. Current risk assessment methods for water transport just consider some dramatic events. We present a new method for the assessment of risk and vulnerability of water transport where river depth represents a crucial part. The analysis of water level changes on Serbian rivers during the last sixty years was done.

  19. Carbamazepine and diclofenac: removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Geissen, Sven-Uwe; Gal, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    In the aquatic environment, pharmaceuticals have been widely found. Among them, carbamazepine and diclofenac were detected at the highest frequency. To evaluate the worldwide environmental impacts of both drugs, their global consumption volumes are estimated, based on the dose per capita. The metabolites of these pharmaceuticals are also of environmental concerns, especially trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11- dihydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-diol) which probably has a similar concentration in water bodies to that of its parent drug. The removal efficiencies and mechanisms of both drugs in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are discussed with the actual state of knowledge. The occurrences of both drugs are examined in various water bodies including WWTP effluents, surface waters, groundwater and drinking water. Their chemical, physical and pharmacological properties are also addressed in context, which can largely influence their environmental behaviors. The ecotoxicological studies of both drugs imply that they do not easily cause acute toxic effects at their environmental concentrations. However their chronic effects need cautious attention.

  20. Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Rovensky, J; Zimanova, T; Vigas, M

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of core and skin thermoreceptors in the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), a sequence of two experiments using whole-body (head-out) and partial (one forearm) hot water immersions was performed. Experiment 1: Nine healthy men were exposed to head-out and partial water immersions (25 min, 38-39 degrees C). Head-out immersion increased the core temperature (38.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P immersion the core temperature was slightly elevated (36.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1, P immersed one forearm once in 39 degrees C and once in 38 degrees C water. The measurements were performed in 5-min intervals. The GH concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the immersions (min 10; 39 degrees C: 1.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1), P Immersion in 38 degrees C water did not induce core temperature changes. Peripheral thermoreceptors are involved in GH release when the body is exposed to elevated environmental temperature while a substantial elevation of core temperature is a precondition of PRL release.

  1. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Apparatus for use in predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In a relatively quick, convenient and highly accurate technique for the determination of a carbonaceous gas, normally methane, contained in water samples collected at depth from a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict the hydrocarbon-containing potential of the earth formation, carbonaceous gaseous constituents liberated from the water are carried via an air stream to flow into and through an isotope trapping network where collection in microlitre amounts occurs. The isotope capture apparatus comprises a box-like structure formed from a series of panel members, front panel member intersecting the bottom panel member near the centre of the latter and carrying interconnected gas trapping and stripping sections, the structure also comprising a detachable lid connectable by means, for protection of sections. (author)

  3. Effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime of a deep water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, O.B.; Zinov'ev, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of any large hydraulic structure leads to the occurrence of new ecosystems in the upper and lower pools of the hydro development. A study of scenarios of the development of these ecosystems and an investigation of the possibilities of minimizing the negative ecological consequences of waterpower engineering by means of mathematical modeling in many respects determine the quality of developing the scientific and technical project. For high-head hydroelectric stations, an effective tool for controlling the water quality in the upper and lower pools is the withdrawal of water form different horizons of the upper pool reservoir. Temperature stratification of a deep sluggish water body is modeled in a one-dimensional vertical approximation with the use of an improved method of describing fluid outflow. The effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime and temperature of the outflowing water was studied. The results obtained permit estimating the effect of selective withdrawal on the thermal regime of the upper pool of the planned hydro development and temperature of the water being discharged into the lower pool on the possibility, in principle, of the water temperature in the lower pool approaching the natural both in winter and summer

  4. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  5. Annual methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies and inland fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Tao; Chen, Jie; Yu, Kai; Zou, Jianwen; Liu, Shuwei

    2018-02-01

    Inland aquaculture ponds have been documented as important sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while their regional or global source strength remains unclear due to lack of direct flux measurements by covering more typical habitat-specific aquaculture environments. In this study, we compared the CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and nearby inland fish aquaculture wetlands that were converted from rice paddies in southeast China. Both CH4 and N2O fluxes were positively related to water temperature and sediment dissolved organic carbon, but negatively related to water dissolved oxygen concentration. More robust response of N2O fluxes to water mineral N was observed than to sediment mineral N. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland fish aquaculture averaged 0.51 mg m-2 h-1 and 54.78 μg m-2 h-1, amounting to 42.31 kg CH4 ha-1 and 2.99 kg N2O-N ha-1, respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to conventional fish aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 23% and 66%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.46% of total N input in the feed or 1.23 g N2O-N kg-1 aquaculture production. The estimate of sustained-flux global warming potential of annual CH4 and N2O emissions and the net economic profit suggested that such conversion of rice paddies to inland fish aquaculture would help to reconcile the dilemma for simultaneously achieving both low climatic impacts and high economic benefits in China. More solid direct field measurements from inland aquaculture are in urgent need to direct the overall budget of national or global CH4 and N2O fluxes.

  6. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  7. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  8. Skeletal stiffening in an amphibious fish out of water is a response to increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Kültz, Dietmar; Fudge, Douglas; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M; Stoyek, Matthew R; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-10-15

    Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that this change in mechanical properties occurred via increased abundance of proteins responsible for bone mineralization in other fishes as well as in tetrapods. Type X collagen, associated with endochondral bone growth, increased in abundance almost ninefold after terrestrial acclimation. Collagen isoforms known to promote extracellular matrix cross-linking and cause tissue stiffening, such as types IX and XII collagen, also increased in abundance. Finally, more densely packed collagen fibrils in both gill arches and filaments were observed microscopically in terrestrially acclimated fish. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the fish musculoskeletal system can be fine-tuned in response to changes in effective body weight using biochemical pathways similar to those in mammals, suggesting that weight sensing is an ancestral vertebrate trait rather than a tetrapod innovation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Prolonged whole body immersion in cold water: hormonal and metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Deuster, P A; Ryan, C J; Doubt, T J

    1990-03-01

    To characterize metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged whole body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 meters of sea water. One immersion began in the AM (1000 h) and one began in the PM (2200 h) to evaluate diurnal variations. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after completion of each immersion. Cortisol and ACTH levels demonstrated diurnal variation, with larger increases occurring after PM immersions. A greater than three-fold postimmersion increase occurred in norepinephrine (NE). There were significant increases in triiodothyronine (T3) uptake and epinephrine, but no change in T3, thyroxine, thyrotrophic hormone, and dopamine. Postimmersion free fatty acid levels increased 409% from preimmersion levels; glucose levels declined, and lactate increased significantly. Only changes in NE correlated significantly with changes in rectal temperature. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and intermittent exercise, hormonal and metabolic changes occur that are similar in direction and magnitude to short-duration unprotected exposures. Except for cortisol and ACTH, none of the other measured variables exhibited diurnal alterations.

  10. Simultaneous occurrence of nitrates and sulfonamide antibiotics in two ground water bodies of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M. a. Jesús; Garrido, Teresa; Fraile, Josep; Ginebreda, Antoni; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn the present work the occurrence of 19 selected sulfonamides, including one acetylated metabolite, was investigated in ground water samples taken from two ground water bodies in Catalonia (Plana de Vic and La Selva). Both include areas designated as nitrate vulnerable zones, according to Directive 91/676/EEC. A fully automated analytical methodology based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed for this purpose. The high selectivity and sensitivity achieved (limits of detection between 0.005 and 0.8 ng/L) permitted to demonstrate the ubiquity of these antibiotics in both ground water bodies. Results showed a wide range of concentrations, from 0.01 ng/L up to 3460.57 ng/L. Since sulfonamides are related to livestock veterinary practices, they can be used as a specific indicator of manure contamination. However, the presence of sulfonamides appeared not to be directly related to the concentration of nitrates, as it is reflected on the low correlation coefficients found.

  11. Alternatives to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the measurement of deuterium content of body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, L.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake using the isotope dilution techniques is now well established. The methodology involves the administration of a bolus of tracer followed by observation of the kinetics of its passage though the system. For example in the popular 'dose to the mother' method a dose of labeled water is administered to the mother, and over the following days samples of body fluids are taken and the concentration of tracer determined in order to establish the rate of loss of tracer from her body. Likewise samples are taken from the breast fed infant in order to determine the rates of tracer intake and subsequent loss. Deuterium is the tracer of choice for these experiments since it is non-radioactive, and therefore suitable for use in these vulnerable subject groups, and also because of its relative cheapness. Conventionally isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used for the determination of the amount of deuterium in the body fluids. However this methodology is expensive (an instrument might typically cost US$ 150,000), and it requires a considerable amount of dedicated technical expertise for its operation. Consequently such instrumentation is not widely available, and this has limited the number and scope of studies using this technique. Recently there have been reports of possible alternative technologies for the determination of deuterium in body water which appear attractive because of the wider general availability of the equipment required. It is the purpose of this report to assess these reported methods for their suitability for breast milk intake measurements

  12. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  13. Dynamic monitoring of compliant bodies impacting the water surface through local strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciroli, Riccardo; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo; Ubertini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The understanding and the experimental characterization of the evolution of impulsive loading is crucial in several fields in structural, mechanical and ocean engineering, naval architecture and aerospace. In this regards, we developed an experimental methodology to reconstruct the deformed shape of compliant bodies subjected to impulsive loadings, as those encountered in water entry events, starting from a finite number of local strain measurements performed through Fiber Bragg Gratings. The paper discusses the potential applications of the proposed methodology for: i) real-time damage detection and structural health monitoring, ii) fatigue assessment and iii) impulsive load estimation.

  14. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulprakash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  15. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Fan, Chenwu; Gefken, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of rigid body falling through water column with a high speed (such as Mk-84 bomb) needs formulas for drag/lift and torque coefficients, which depend on various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles...

  16. [Retaining and transformation of incoming soil N from highland to adjacent terrestrial water body in riparian buffer zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-cheng; Yu, Hong-li; Yao, Qin; Han, Zhuang-xing; Qiao, Shu-liang

    2007-11-01

    Highland soil nitrogen can enter adjacent water body via erosion and leaching, being one of the important pollutants in terrestrial water bodies. Riparian buffer zone is a transitional zone between highland and its adjacent water body, and a healthy riparian buffer zone can retain and transform the incoming soil N through physical, biological, and biochemical processes. In this paper, the major pathways through which soil nitrogen enters terrestrial water body and the mechanisms the nitrogen was retained and transformed in riparian buffer zone were introduced systematically, and the factors governing the nitrogen retaining and transformation were analyzed from the aspects of hydrological processes, soil characters, vegetation features, and human activities. The problems existing in riparian buffer zone study were discussed, and some suggestions for the further study in China were presented.

  17. Probing the electronic structure of liquid water with many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Zhang, Cui; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2014-03-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic structure of liquid water based on many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), within the G0W0 approximation. The liquid quasiparticle band gap and the position of its valence band maximum and conduction band minimum with respect to vacuum were computed and it is shown that the use of MBPT is crucial to obtain results that are in good agreement with experiment. We found that the level of theory chosen to generate molecular dynamics trajectories may substantially affect the electronic structure of the liquid, in particular, the relative position of its band edges and redox potentials. Our results represent an essential step in establishing a predictive framework for computing the relative position of water redox potentials and the band edges of semiconductors and insulators. Work supported by DOE/BES (Grant No. DE-SC0008938). Work at LLNL was performed under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Longitudinal measurements of total body water and body composition in healthy volunteers by online breath deuterium measurement and other near-subject methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  20. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  1. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  2. Modeling the movement and equilibrium of water in the body of ruminants in relation to estimating body composition by deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution was evaluated for use in estimating body composition of ruminants. Empty body composition of cattle could not be accurately estimated by two- or three-compartment models when solved on the basis of clearance of D 2 O from blood. A 29-compartment blood-flow model was developed from measured blood flow rates and water volumes of tissues of sheep. The rates of equilibration of water in tissues that were simulated by the blood-flow model were much faster than actual rates measured in sheep and cattle. The incorporation of diffusion hindrances for movement of water into tissues enabled the blood flow model to simulate the measured equilibration rates in tissues, but the values of the diffusion coefficients were different for each tissue. The D 2 O-disappearance curve for blood simulated by the blood-flow model with diffusion limitations was comprised for four exponential components. The tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents were placed into five groups based upon the rate of equilibration. Water in the organs of the body equilibrated with water in blood within 3 min. Water in visceral fat, head, and some of the gastrointestinal tract tissues equilibrated within 8 to 16 min. Water in skeletal muscle, fat, and bone and the contents of some segments of the gastrointestinal tract equilibrated within 30 to 36 min. Water in the tissues and contents of the cecum and upper-large intestine equilibrated within 160 to 200 min. Water in ruminal tissue and contents equilibrated within 480 min

  3. Bacteriological quality of creeks and marine water bodies in North Goa: Ecosystem upkeep perspectives for tourism-related activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Sadhasivan, A.; Iyer, S.R.

    and other hygienic purposes). However, it may be used for gardening and flushing water closets. Keeping 100 colifarms per litre as the maximum permissible limit for 'using' natural water bodies, it becomes imperative to refer to Kazi and Nairy (2002... be needless to emphasize that increased amenities of sewage treatment plants, sanitation, and hygiene will not only reduce current levels of sewage discharge but also safeguard natural aquatic bodies, both surficial and underground. Social, economic, and 227...

  4. Greenland inland ice melt-off: Analysis of global gravity data from the GRACE satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Svendsen, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an introductory analysis of gravity data from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) twin satellites. The data consist of gravity data in the form of 10-day maximum values of 1◦ by 1◦ equivalent water height (EWH) in meters starting at 29 July 2002 and ending at 25...... August 2010. Results focussing on Greenland show statistically significant mass loss interpreted as inland ice melt-off to the SE and NW with an acceleration in the melt-off occurring to the NW and a possible deceleration to the SE. Also, there are strong indications of a transition taking place...

  5. Evaluation of the correlations for predicting evaporative loss from water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, T.P.; Aybar, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Water evaporation (evaporation from here on) is a natural phenomenon that is important for system design and system safety in many engineering branches. Indeed, evaporative heat and mass loss are observed and calculated in very diverse situations, such as irrigation plants, water purification plants, cooling ponds, lakes, dams, swimming pools, health spas, management of liquid wastes as in evaporation pools, and spent fuel pools in nuclear power plants. There are a number of correlations obtained from experimental studies that predict the evaporative heat and mass loss from a water body. This study aims to summarize and to compare the existing evaporation correlations to determine the upper and lower bounding correlations for use in various thermal-hydraulic analyses of systems. Currently and widely used, six correlations found in the literature have been selected and tested using the major parameters of evaporation such as water temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature. The comparison test cases show that ASHRAE (1991) and Ryan et al. (1974) equations result in the highest evaporative loss, while the Brady et al. (1969) equation provides the lowest evaporative loss in most conditions. Engineering designers may sometimes need the upper bound value of evaporative loss or sometimes the lower bound value for a conservative calculation. The authors conclude that using a single equation does not provide the conservative calculation for every situation and show which correlation gives the lower or upper bound for different conditions

  6. Emissions of NO, NO2 and PM from inland shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurtenbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM and nitrogen oxides NOx (NOx =  NO2+ NO are key species for urban air quality in Europe and are emitted by mobile sources. According to European recommendations, a significant fraction of road freight should be shifted to waterborne transport in the future. In order to better consider this emission change pattern in future emission inventories, in the present study inland water transport emissions of NOx, CO2 and PM were investigated under real world conditions on the river Rhine, Germany, in 2013. An average NO2 ∕ NOx emission ratio of 0.08 ± 0.02 was obtained, which is indicative of ship diesel engines without exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. For all measured motor ship types and operation conditions, overall weighted average emission indices (EIs, as emitted mass of pollutant per kg burnt fuel of EINOx =  54 ± 4 g kg−1 and a lower limit EIPM1 ≥  2.0 ± 0.3 g kg−1, were obtained. EIs for NOx and PM1 were found to be in the range of 20–161 and  ≥  0.2–8.1 g kg−1 respectively. A comparison with threshold values of national German guidelines shows that the NOx emissions of all investigated motor ship types are above the threshold values, while the obtained lower limit PM1 emissions are just under. To reduce NOx emissions to acceptable values, implementation of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems is recommended.

  7. A model for an inland port in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T.K. Toh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of an inland port particular to the outer regions of Melbourne, Australia. In this study, it has been experienced that the broad use of terminology, in the Melbourne context, has been a stumbling block. In its particular context, this has provided the impetus for the development of a model for an inland port that is unambiguous. It is clear from international examples that such a development acts as a significant potential nucleus for regional economic growth, but the lack of a facilitated discussion is an impediment. This model is offered as a facilitator and a useful tool in the construction of a common understanding.

  8. Method of retrieving an object buried in the bottom of a body of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steveninck, J

    1975-05-14

    In this method of retrieving an object buried in the bottom of a body of water, the object to be retrieved has a number of openings or nozzles, with the aid of at least some of which the object has been buried by fluidization in the bottom of a body of water, for example a fluidization device for burying a pipeline or a fluidization anchor. The method consists of supplying a gas to the buried object, allowing the gas to pass to and through openings or nozzles on the object in such a manner that the gas will be introduced into, and will refluidize the bottom material above the object, and raising the object. Experiments have shown that in this manner fluidization can be reestablished immediately, due to the low density and the low viscosity of the gas, whereafter the object due to the low resistance of the refluidized bottom material is easy to raise to the surface, even after the fluidization has been interrupted for a long period of time. Preferably, the gas used is air, since air is readily available; however, other gases can be used, if desired. (7 claims)

  9. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Phytoplankton diversity and their succession in water bodies of the Lednice park during 2002 season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ramezanpoor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton communities of three water bodies in the Lednice park were studied from 22nd April till 1st October 2002. These water bodies are the Zámecký pond, Růžový pond and the Dyje River, which is water source of both ponds.Phytoplankton samples were taken every two weeks between 8 - 9 am. Collected phytoplankton samples were preserved with 4% formalin solution and Lugol solution (JJK and transported to the laboratory. They were determined and counted using inverted microscope. Water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field using digital portable instruments. Total of 317 phytoplankton species were determined in this study.Heavy algal bloom was observed in the Zámecký pond in mid-summer coinciding with increase in water temperature. Fish diseases and partial mortality occurred during the period of algal bloom and unpleasant smell was dominant feature. A light algal bloom was also observed in the Růžový pond and the Dyje River nearly by the end of summer.The main algae species responsible for blue-green algae bloom were Anabaena flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. ichtyoblabe, M. flos-aquae and M. wesenbergii. Dissolved oxygen values varied between 3.4 - 19.5 mg l-1, pH ranged from 7.6 - 9.7. Secchi depth varied from 0- 65 cm in the Zámecký pond, 15-45 cm in the Růžový pond and 35-65 cm in the Dyje River. Concentration of total phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-a in the Dyje River before drainage into the Zámecký and Růžový pond verified heavy nutrient load (Total-P = 0.3, NO3- = 12 mg.l-1 of the river. Although the Dyje River is main water source for both ponds, presence of relatively different phytoplankton communities in these two ponds suggest that probably different nutrient sources might be responsible for differences in phytoplankton communities and eutrophication patterns in the Zámecký pond as compared to the Růžový pond.

  11. Prolonged whole-body cold water immersion: fluid and ion shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, P A; Smith, D J; Smoak, B L; Montgomery, L C; Singh, A; Doubt, T J

    1989-01-01

    To characterize fluid and ion shifts during prolonged whole-body immersion, 16 divers wearing dry suits completed four whole-body immersions in 5 degrees C water during each of two 5-day air saturation dives at 6.1 msw. One immersion was conducted at 1000 (AM) and one at 2200 (PM) so that diurnal variations could be evaluated. Fifty-four hours separated the immersions, which lasted up to 6 h; 9 days separated each air saturation dive. Blood was collected before and after immersion; urine was collected for 12 h before, during, and after immersion for a total of 24 h. Plasma volume decreased significantly and to the same extent (approximately 17%) during both AM and PM immersions. Urine flow increased by 236.1 +/- 38.7 and 296.3 +/- 52.0%, urinary excretion of Na increased by 290.4 +/- 89.0 and 329.5 +/- 77.0%, K by 245.0 +/- 73.4 and 215.5 +/- 44.6%, Ca by 211.0 +/- 31.4 and 241.1 +/- 50.4%, Mg by 201.4 +/- 45.9 and 165.3 +/- 287%, and Zn by 427.8 +/- 93.7 and 301.9 +/- 75.4% during AM and PM immersions, respectively, compared with preimmersion. Urine flow and K excretion were significantly higher during the AM than PM. In summary, when subjects are immersed in cold water for prolonged periods, combined with a slow rate of body cooling afforded by thermal protection and enforced intermittent exercise, there is diuresis, decreased plasma volume, and increased excretions of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn.

  12. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  13. Bibliography of African inland water invertebrates (to 1980)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davies, BR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography is a direct outcome of the SIL-UNEP Workshop on African Limnology held at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, between 16-23 December, 1979. Part 1 of the framework document for the A4 section of the Workshop - "Invertebrates...

  14. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  15. Inland Waters - Mississippi River Centerline - Headwaters to Gulf Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Mississippi River centerline data derived from USACE navigation sailing line (recommended track) data and on-screen digitized in areas of no data. Data set extends...

  16. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, the small water bodies have been disregarded in the environmental management and protection policies. For example, the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC proposes the threshold surface area of water bodies for typology and reporting as 50 ha. The inventories on state level or scientific studies took into account smaller water bodies (e.g. third higher than officially registered inventories. Also, in Estonia, the water bodies with a surface area below 1 ha are almost 50 times more abundant than those above 1 ha and 92% of all standing water bodies are smaller than 0.2 ha. Using the OpenStreetMap database we will discuss the differences between global inventories and EU-level analysis. We will show the alternative regional estimates of water bodies with the surface size threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local to global' approach in which the local databases may significantly strengthen the precision of the regional (EU) level analysis. Overall, we will disss that all standing water bodies - including small and man-made ponds - play an important role in ecosystem services and require careful management to avoid hydrological and environmental deterioration. References: Verpoorter et al. (2014) Geophysical Research Letters, 41. Bartout & Touchart,(2013) Annales de Géographie, 691. Downing et al., (2006) Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5). Kuusisto & Raatikainen, (1988) Terra, 102. Meybeck, (1995) in Lerman et al., Physics and chemistry of lakes. Rjanžin, (2005) Priroda, 4.

  17. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  18. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  19. Spatial-temporal particularities of the ecological status of surface water bodies and pollution sources from Siret river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DĂSCĂLIȚA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of surface water bodies from Siret River Basin is monitored systematically and spatial in accordance with the requirements of European Directives in the water area. Analysis temporary and spatial of qualitative and quantitative status of surface waters (rivers, lakes is achieved according to the specificities of each body of water resulting from physical and geographical conditions, climatic and hydromorphological regimes of river basin and from human activities.In order to know of those features, there are needed specific monitoring systems of water bodies. The parametersunderlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers and lakes are monitored systematically and temporary: daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, according to these characteristics. In this context, the daily variations in environmental condition, expresses the current status of surface waters. Monthly changes are correlated with climate change and characterize the seasonal variations. On annual basis are identified the mean, minimum and maximum for each parameter and the trends (increase, decrease, regularity, periodicity, changes, etc.. Based on this information, extensive to multiannual level, itcan achieve medium and long term forecasts and it might be issued the concepts and strategies for maintaining a balance and sustainable development of water resources.In this paper we have presented some issues related to the synthesis of spatial-temporal ecological status of water bodies managed by Administration of Siret Water Basin(ABAS. Results of studies on the ecological status of water bodies have been presented for the year 2009. Also, in this paper it was presented an evolution of the quantities ofpollutants from wastewater discharged in surface receptors and their purification by water users from of activity of ABAS area in 1999-2009 periods.

  20. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  1. Review of available data for a South African Inventory of Inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of available data for a South African Inventory of Inland Aquatic ... for the third National Biodiversity Assessment of 2018, a review was undertaken to ... the extent of inland wetlands mapped by remote sensing at a country-wide scale.

  2. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  3. Body cooling in human males by cold-water immersion after vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A; Goode, R C; Livingstone, S D; Duffin, J

    1984-03-01

    Five male subjects were immersed to neck level in a whole-body water calorimeter (water temperature 19 degrees C) on two occasions. One immersion was preceded by 30 min of exercise on a treadmill at 80% of the subjects' maximum heart rate, while the other was preceded by no exercise (control). Ventilation, oxygen consumption, hand-grip strength, and heat loss (measured by calorimetry) results showed no significant differences between resting and exercise trials. Minute ventilation and oxygen consumption increased during the immersion but the magnitude of the increase varied among subjects. There was a significant decrease is isometric hand-grip strength after 30 min of immersion. Rectal temperatures fell faster (0.031 degree C +/- 0.004 degree C/min) for exercised subjects than for controls (0.019 degree C +/- 0.005 degree C/min) between 10 and 45 min of immersion (P less than 0.01). It appears that vigorous preimmersion exercise may shorten survival time in cold water due to an increase in cooling rate.

  4. Isotope hydrology and baseflow geochemistry in natural and human-altered watersheds in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Sanchez-Murillo; Erin S. Brooks; William J. Elliot; Jan Boll

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a stable isotope hydrology and geochemical analysis in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA. Isotope ratios were used to estimate mean transit times (MTTs) in natural and human-altered watersheds using the FLOWPC program. Isotope ratios in precipitation resulted in a regional meteoric water line of ä2H = 7.42·ä18O + 0.88 (n = 316; r2 = 0.97...

  5. Classification of inland Bolboschoenus-dominated vegetation in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Hrivnák, R.; Chytrý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2009), s. 205-215 ISSN 0340-269X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA ČR GA521/04/0997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * saline vegetation * freshwater inland communities Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2009

  6. Planning for prescribed burning in the inland northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin; John D. Dell

    1978-01-01

    Fire has historically played a role in forests and ranges of the inland Northwest. This guide has been prepared to help managers understand the role of fire and the potential uses of fire and to plan for fire use in managing these lands. Sections deal with these topics, and steps in planning a prescribed burn are outlined. A sample burning situation illustrates the...

  7. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification system is described that was developed for inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa, including wetlands. The six-tiered classification system is based on a top-down, hierarchical classification of aquatic ecosystems, following the functionally-oriented hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to classification but ...

  8. Characterization And Classification Of The Inland Valley Soils Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six profiles located in the inland valley soils of central Cross River State were studied. The surface horizon colour of the first four were either dark Grey or dark brown. The last two profiles were grey. All subsurface horizons were either greyish or brownish and highly mottled. The structure of all the profiles were either blocky ...

  9. Investigations of Fusarium diseases within Inland Pacific Northwest forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium spp. cause important diseases that limit production of seedlings in forest nurseries worldwide. Several aspects of these diseases have been investigated for many years within Inland Pacific Northwest nurseries to better understand disease etiology, pathogen inoculum sources, and epidemiology. Investigations have also involved improving...

  10. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  11. The history of South African inland fisheries policy with governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The governance of South Africa's inland fishery resources in the democratic era has lacked a guiding policy, supporting legislation and government capacity based on the social, economic and environmental objectives defined in constitutional legislation. This is ironic, as during the colonial and apartheid eras South Africa ...

  12. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however sand mining often result in serious environmental problems such as land degradation, loss of agricultural lands and biodiversity, as well increased poverty among people. This study assessed the environmental impacts of inland sand mining in six ...

  13. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... 6Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private .... classification systems for wetlands and other inland aquatic ... of vegetation, soil, inundation and landform features that are ... nised as the fundamental drivers that determine the existence ...... Earth Obs. Remote Sens.

  14. Forstering cooperation in inland waterway networks : a gaming and simulation approach (chapter 23)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.W.; Meijeren, van J.; Harmsen, J.M.A.; Verbraeck, A.; Negenborn, R.R.; Ocampa-Martinez, C.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waterway transport is an important economic activity in the Netherlands and in Europe. Especially in the hinterland transport of containers, inland shipping is expected to form the backbone of a multimodal transport system. To support and strengthen the inland waterway industry in the

  15. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  16. Reduced precipitation over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon shown from TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Rodrigo Cauduro Dias; Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Collischonn, Walter; Allasia, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-02-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data show lower rainfall over large water bodies in the Brazilian Amazon. Mean annual rainfall (P), number of wet days (rainfall > 2 mm) (W) and annual rainfall accumulated over 3-hour time intervals (P3hr) were computed from TRMM 3B42 data for 1998-2009. Reduced rainfall was marked over the Rio Solimões/Amazon, along most Amazon tributaries and over the Balbina reservoir. In a smaller test area, a heuristic argument showed that P and W were reduced by 5% and 6.5% respectively. Allowing for TRMM 3B42 spatial resolution, the reduction may be locally greater. Analyses of diurnal rainfall patterns showed that rainfall is lowest over large rivers during the afternoon, when most rainfall is convective, but at night and early morning the opposite occurs, with increased rainfall over rivers, although this pattern is less marked. Rainfall patterns reported from studies of smaller Amazonian regions therefore exist more widely.

  17. Effects of 17β-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17β-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17β-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  19. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  20. Free Energy Landscapes of Alanine Oligopeptides in Rigid-Body and Hybrid Water Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Divya; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2015-08-27

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of different rigid-body (mTIP3P, TIP4P, SPC/E) and hybrid (H1.56, H3.00) water models on the conformational free energy landscape of the alanine oligopeptides (acAnme and acA5nme), in conjunction with the CHARMM22 force field. The free energy landscape is mapped out as a function of the Ramachandran angles. In addition, various secondary structure metrics, solvation shell properties, and the number of peptide-solvent hydrogen bonds are monitored. Alanine dipeptide is found to have similar free energy landscapes in different solvent models, an insensitivity which may be due to the absence of possibilities for forming i-(i + 4) or i-(i + 3) intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The pentapeptide, acA5nme, where there are three intrapeptide backbone hydrogen bonds, shows a conformational free energy landscape with a much greater degree of sensitivity to the choice of solvent model, though the three rigid-body water models differ only quantitatively. The pentapeptide prefers nonhelical, non-native PPII and β-sheet populations as the solvent is changed from SPC/E to the less tetrahedral liquid (H1.56) to an LJ-like liquid (H3.00). The pentapeptide conformational order metrics indicate a preference for open, solvent-exposed, non-native structures in hybrid solvent models at all temperatures of study. The possible correlations between the properties of solvent models and secondary structure preferences of alanine oligopeptides are discussed, and the competition between intrapeptide, peptide-solvent, and solvent-solvent hydrogen bonding is shown to be crucial in the relative free energies of different conformers.

  1. Phosphorus and nitrogen in the eutrophication of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, S.; Frisk, T.; Kaermeniemi, T.; Niemi, J.; Pitkaenen, H.; Silvo, K.; Vuoristo, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a summary of the contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the eutrophication process of inland and coastal waters. Special attention was paid to the mechanisms of these nutrients in regulating biological processes and to the methods available in estimating their effects in the eutrophication of water bodies. The report includes five chapters which are entitled: Introduction, which is a general background to the subject with special attention to the requirements of the Finnish Water Act. Phosphorus and nitrogen as factors regulating biological processes. The topics included are: definition of eutrophication, forms of phosphorus and nitrogen and their sources to inland and coastal waters, effects of these nutrients as growth factors of phytoplankton and macrophytes and consequences of eutrophication. Estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen. The topics discussed from the point of view of the tasks of the National Board of Waters and the Environment are: estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen in the planning and supervision of industry, fish farming, peat production, municipalities, agriculture and forestry. A brief state-of-the art of the research carried out in the National Board of Waters and the Environment is given. Methods of estimating the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen loading in waters. The topics are: relationships between phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in waters, material balances, water quality models, classification of waters and different groups of organisms as indicators of water quality. Conclusions for the estimation of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen in receiving waters

  2. Analysis of the natural factors of biological productivity of water bodies in the different landscapes of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekanova Elena Valentinovna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental factors of biological productivity were studied in seven lakes with low water exchange and a few inflows in different landscapes of Karelia (Russia. Lakes are not exposed to human impact. An indicator of the biological productivity is the phytoplankton photosynthesis rate calculated on the concentration of phosphorus in water. The water bodies vary from oligotrophic to mesotrophic according to their trophic level. Cluster and component analysis of chemicals was carried out, hydrological, morphometric and landscape characteristics of the lakes were also determined. It was shown that in the absence of anthropogenic influence the availability of phosphorus and trophic level of the studied lakes in the humid zone are determined by the water exchange, effluent per unit of water column, color of water and landscape features. The most productive water bodies are located on the fluvioglacial and moraine plains dominated by podsolic soils, which have a good flashing regime and soluble humus substances. These lakes are distinguished by a larger inflow of phosphorus forming a part of humus substances originated from the water-collecting area per unit of water column. Oligotrophic lakes are located in moraine and selga landscapes dominated by podbours and brown soils with a lot of humus slightly transformed. These lakes are characterized by less water exchange and drainage factor, and, accordingly, low values of phosphorus input and water color.

  3. Adenoviral infection in a collection of juvenile inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, R J T; Buckle, K N; Hulse, L

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) from a breeding collection in south-east Queensland were presented at age 6-10 weeks with neurological signs, poor growth and occasional deaths. Histopathological examination revealed that six of eight lizards had multifocal non-suppurative hepatitis associated with 5-10 μm diameter, smudgy, basophilic, hyaline intranuclear inclusion bodies that marginated the nuclear chromatin. These histological lesions were considered consistent with adenoviral hepatitis. Infection with adenovirus was confirmed positive in one of the eight dragons by PCR for adenoviral DNA. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pooled tissues of the juvenile inland bearded dragons and tested using a nested-PCR protocol with primers specific for identification of adenovirus. Sequencing of the one PCR-positive dragon showed 95% nucleotide sequence alignment with agamid atadenovirus 1. Further investigation involved testing the breeding population, including the parents of the affected juveniles. Blood and cloacal samples were collected from the adult population, DNA was extracted and tested by PCR for adenovirus. There was a high percentage of positive results from the samples collected from the breeding population. This is the first reported group outbreak of adenoviral disease in bearded dragons in Australia. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  5. USING LANDSAT IMAGES IN MAPPING AND MONITORING WATER BODIES IN MĂGURA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEREUȚĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is part of a wider range of interdisciplinary studies undertaken in Măgura catchment, a right-side tributary of Bahlui River. The Măgura River flows from the massif Great Hill-Hârlău. Before the year 2000 there were 11 lakes, and today are only 4. The purpose of this project is to determine the accuracy of the simple techniques in digital image processing for mapping and monitoring lakes and wetlands. Landsat 7 ETM + and Landsat 8 OLI TIRS data sets are used. The paper highlights the bands’ thematic classification accuracy using minimum technical and digital (software resources. The water bodies’ delineated boundaries of each digital classification procedure were compared with the limits obtained by digitizing the topographical plans (1973 and aerial images (2008. The comparisons show that the Landsat data can be used to map accurately the water bodies. It is a simple method of determining the silting degree, especially for lakes with an area of at least 1 ha. Măgura basin has a high archaeological potential (prehistory up to the modern period, part of the national and international cultural heritage. Creating a GIS database, in order to analyze the human-environment relationship, began by studying the hydrological variables. This factor has an important role in the society’s development, both prehistoric and current.

  6. Objective classification of ecological status in marine water bodies using ecotoxicological information and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria

    2014-12-01

    Some relevant shortcomings have been identified in the current approach for the classification of ecological status in marine water bodies, leading to delays in the fulfillment of the Water Framework Directive objectives. Natural variability makes difficult to settle fixed reference values and boundary values for the Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR) for the biological quality elements. Biological responses to environmental degradation are frequently of nonmonotonic nature, hampering the EQR approach. Community structure traits respond only once ecological damage has already been done and do not provide early warning signals. An alternative methodology for the classification of ecological status integrating chemical measurements, ecotoxicological bioassays and community structure traits (species richness and diversity), and using multivariate analyses (multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis), is proposed. This approach does not depend on the arbitrary definition of fixed reference values and EQR boundary values, and it is suitable to integrate nonlinear, sensitive signals of ecological degradation. As a disadvantage, this approach demands the inclusion of sampling sites representing the full range of ecological status in each monitoring campaign. National or international agencies in charge of coastal pollution monitoring have comprehensive data sets available to overcome this limitation.

  7. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: ‘La Salada de Chiprana’ (NE Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonkers, Henk M.; Ludwig, Rebecca; De Wit, Rutger

    2003-01-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, ‘La Salada de Chiprana’, northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium...

  8. Effects of immersion water temperature on whole-body fluid distribution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J M; Patterson, M J; Hyde, D E; Jenkins, A B; Mittleman, K D; Taylor, N A S

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we quantified acute changes in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments during upright neutral- and cold-water immersion. We hypothesized that, during short-term cold immersion, fluid shifts would be wholly restricted to the extracellular space. Seven males were immersed 30 days apart: control (33.3 degrees SD 0.6 degrees C); and cold (18.1 degrees SD 0.3 degrees C). Posture was controlled for 4 h prior to a 60-min seated immersion. Significant reductions in terminal oesophageal (36.9 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees -36.3 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C) and mean skin temperatures (30.3 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees -23.0 degrees +/- 0.3 degrees C) were observed during the cold, but not the control immersion. Both immersions elicited a reduction in intracellular fluid [20.17 +/- 6.02 mL kg(-1) (control) vs. 22.72 +/- 9.90 mL kg(-1)], while total body water (TBW) remained stable. However, significant plasma volume (PV) divergence was apparent between the trials at 60 min [12.5 +/- 1.0% (control) vs. 6.1 +/- 3.1%; P cold immersion, consistent with its role in PV regulation. We observed that, regardless of the direction of the PV change, both upright immersions elicited reductions in intracellular fluid. These observations have two implications. First, one cannot assume that PV changes reflect those of the entire extracellular compartment. Second, since immersion also increases interstitial fluid pressure, fluid leaving the interstitium must have been rapidly replaced by intracellular water.

  9. Studies on environment safety and application of advanced reactor for inland nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Jie, L.

    2014-01-01

    To study environment safety assessment of inland nuclear power plants (NPPs), the impact of environment safety under the normal operation was researched and the environment risk of serious accidents was analyzed. Moreover, the requirements and relevant provisions of site selection between international nuclear power plant and China's are comparatively studied. The conclusion was that the environment safety assessment of inland and coastal nuclear power plant have no essential difference; the advanced reactor can meet with high criteria of environment safety of inland nuclear power plants. In this way, China is safe and feasible to develop inland nuclear power plant. China's inland nuclear power plants will be as big market for advanced reactor. (author)

  10. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  11. Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the Delaware Inland Bays: the role of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudlark, Joseph R.; Jennings, Jennifer A.; Roadman, Megan J.; Savidge, Karen B.; Ullman, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A previous assessment of nitrogen loading to the Delaware Inland Bays indicates that atmospheric deposition provides 15-25% of the total, annual N input to these estuaries. A large and increasing fraction of the atmospheric wet flux is NH 4 + , which for most aquatic organisms represents the most readily assimilated form of this nutrient. Particularly noteworthy is a 60% increase in the precipitation NH 4 + concentration at Lewes, DE over the past 20 years, which parallels the increase in poultry production on the Delmarva Peninsula over this period (currently standing at nearly 585 million birds annually). To further examine the relationship between local NH 3 emissions and deposition, biweekly-integrated gaseous NH 3 concentrations were determined using Ogawa passive samplers deployed at 13 sampling sites throughout the Inland Bays watershed over a one-year period. Annual mean concentrations at the 13 sites ranged from 3 m -3 to >6 μg NH 3 m -3 , with a mean of 1.6 ± 1.0 μg NH 3 m -3 . At most sites, highest NH 3 concentrations were evident during spring and summer, when fertilizer application and poultry house ventilation rates are greatest, and seasonally elevated temperatures induce increased rates of microbial activity and volatilization from soils and animal wastes. The observed north-to-south concentration gradient across the watershed is consistent with the spatial distribution of poultry houses, as revealed by a GIS analysis of aerial photographs. Based on the average measured NH 3 concentration and published NH 3 deposition rates to water surfaces (5-8 mm s -1 ), the direct atmospheric deposition of gaseous NH 3 to the Inland Bays is 3.0-4.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 . This input, not accounted for in previous assessments of atmospheric loading to the Inland Bays, would effectively double the estimated direct dry deposition rate, and is on par with the NO 3 - and NH 4 + wet fluxes. A second component of this study examined spatial differences in NO 3 - and NH 4

  12. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  13. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  14. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  15. Comparison of permutationally invariant polynomials, neural networks, and Gaussian approximation potentials in representing water interactions through many-body expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T.; Székely, Eszter; Imbalzano, Giulio; Behler, Jörg; Csányi, Gábor; Ceriotti, Michele; Götz, Andreas W.; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    The accurate representation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces is a necessary requirement for realistic computer simulations of molecular systems. The continued increase in computer power accompanied by advances in correlated electronic structure methods nowadays enables routine calculations of accurate interaction energies for small systems, which can then be used as references for the development of analytical potential energy functions (PEFs) rigorously derived from many-body (MB) expansions. Building on the accuracy of the MB-pol many-body PEF, we investigate here the performance of permutationally invariant polynomials (PIPs), neural networks, and Gaussian approximation potentials (GAPs) in representing water two-body and three-body interaction energies, denoting the resulting potentials PIP-MB-pol, Behler-Parrinello neural network-MB-pol, and GAP-MB-pol, respectively. Our analysis shows that all three analytical representations exhibit similar levels of accuracy in reproducing both two-body and three-body reference data as well as interaction energies of small water clusters obtained from calculations carried out at the coupled cluster level of theory, the current gold standard for chemical accuracy. These results demonstrate the synergy between interatomic potentials formulated in terms of a many-body expansion, such as MB-pol, that are physically sound and transferable, and machine-learning techniques that provide a flexible framework to approximate the short-range interaction energy terms.

  16. Canine body composition quantification using 3 tesla fat-water MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Coate, Katie C; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that a whole-body fat-water MRI (FWMRI) protocol acquired at 3 Tesla combined with semi-automated image analysis techniques enables precise volume and mass quantification of adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots that agree with static scale mass and scale mass changes in the context of a longitudinal study of large-breed dogs placed on an obesogenic high-fat, high-fructose diet. Six healthy adult male dogs were scanned twice, at weeks 0 (baseline) and 4, of the dietary regiment. FWMRI-derived volumes of adipose tissue (total, visceral, and subcutaneous), lean tissue, and cortical bone were quantified using a semi-automated approach. Volumes were converted to masses using published tissue densities. FWMRI-derived total mass corresponds with scale mass with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.931 (95% confidence interval = [0.813, 0.975]), and slope and intercept values of 1.12 and -2.23 kg, respectively. Visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue masses increased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, while neither cortical bone nor lean tissue masses changed significantly. This is evidenced by a mean percent change of 70.2% for visceral, 67.0% for subcutaneous, and 67.1% for total adipose tissue. FWMRI can precisely quantify and map body composition with respect to adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots. The described approach provides a valuable tool to examine the role of distinct tissue depots in an established animal model of human metabolic disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A new three-band algorithm for estimating chlorophyll concentrations in turbid inland lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Hongtao; Ma Ronghua; Zhao Chenlu; Zhou Lin; Shang Linlin; Zhang Yuanzhi; Loiselle, Steven Arthur; Xu Jingping

    2010-01-01

    A new three-band model was developed to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations in turbid inland waters. This model makes a number of important improvements with respect to the three-band model commonly used, including lower restrictions on wavelength optimization and the use of coefficients which represent specific inherent optical properties. Results showed that the new model provides a significantly higher determination coefficient and lower root mean squared error (RMSE) with respect to the original model for upwelling data from Taihu Lake, China. The new model was tested using simulated data for the MERIS and GOCI satellite systems, showing high correlations with the former and poorer correlations with the latter, principally due to the lack of a 709 nm centered waveband. The new model provides numerous advantages, making it a suitable alternative for chlorophyll-a estimations in turbid and eutrophic waters.

  18. Study on the ecosystem construction of using ecopath model in inland waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ning; Shou, Youping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software is used to simulate the constructed water ecosystem of inland waterway. According to the characteristics of feeding relationship, the ecopath model of water ecosystem is divided into seven functional groups: phytoplankton, hydrophyte, zooplankton, herbivorous, omnivorous, polychaetes and detritus. By analyzing the important ecological parameters of the ecosystem, such as biomass, biomass / biomass, consumption / biomass, trophic level and ecological nutrient conversion efficiency, the software integrates the energy flow process of the ecosystem, the ratio of the total net primary production and the sum of all respiratory flows is 1.314, it’s indicating that the ecosystem is equilibrium. The research method of this paper can be widely used to evaluate the stability of the ecosystem of the domestic river.

  19. Automated Recognition of Vegetation and Water Bodies on the Territory of Megacities in Satellite Images of Visible and IR Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Dmitry k.; Hnatushenko, Volodymyr V.; Vasyliev, Volodymyr V.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetation and water bodies are a fundamental element of urban ecosystems, and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. A methodology of automated recognition of vegetation and water bodies on the territory of megacities in satellite images of sub-meter spatial resolution of the visible and IR bands is proposed. By processing multispectral images from the satellite SuperView-1A, vector layers of recognized plant and water objects were obtained. Analysis of the results of image processing showed a sufficiently high accuracy of the delineation of the boundaries of recognized objects and a good separation of classes. The developed methodology provides a significant increase of the efficiency and reliability of updating maps of large cities while reducing financial costs. Due to the high degree of automation, the proposed methodology can be implemented in the form of a geo-information web service functioning in the interests of a wide range of public services and commercial institutions.

  20. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  1. Plutonium characteristics in sediments of Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiyong Liu; National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba; Jian Zheng; Masatoshi Yamada; Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori; Shaoming Pan; Hodaka Kawahata

    2011-01-01

    Sediment core samples were collected from Hiroshima Bay in the Seto Inland Sea, western Northwest Pacific Ocean, and their 239+240 Pu activities and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were determined by sector field ICP-MS. The activities of 239+240 Pu ranged from 0.556 ± 0.025 to 0.745 ± 0.023 mBq/g. The atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were almost constant within the whole depth; the average value was 0.227 ± 0.014. This atom ratio was significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18, proving the presence of close-in fallout Pu that originated from the Pacific Proving Ground (PPG). The water masses exchanges between the Kuroshio Current and the Seto Inland Sea brought the PPG source Pu to this area, then Pu was extensively scavenged into sediment particles supplied by the rivers around the bay. The relative contributions of the global fallout Pu and the PPG close-in fallout Pu were evaluated by the two end-member mixing model. The contribution of the PPG close-in fallout was 38-41% of the total Pu in sediment. The remaining 59-62% was attributed to direct global fallout and the land-origin Pu transported by the rivers around the Hiroshima Bay. (author)

  2. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Walker, Jacqueline L; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2013-08-01

    Body composition assessment is an essential component of nutritional evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to validate bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy and determine best electrode placement in unilateral impairment. 55 young children with cerebral palsy across all functional ability levels were included. Height/length was measured or estimated from knee height. Total body water was estimated using a Bodystat 1500MDD and three equations, and measured using the gold standard, deuterium dilution technique. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman analysis. For children with bilateral impairment, the Fjeld equation estimated total body water with the least bias (limits of agreement): 0.0 L (-1.4 L to 1.5 L); the Pencharz equation produced the greatest: 2.7 L (0.6 L-4.8 L). For children with unilateral impairment, differences between measured and estimated total body water were lowest on the unimpaired side using the Fjeld equation 0.1 L (-1.5 L to 1.6 L)) and greatest for the Pencharz equation. The ability of bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water depends on the equation chosen. The Fjeld equation was the most accurate for the group, however, individual results varied by up to 18%. A population specific equation was developed and may enhance the accuracy of estimates. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12611000616976. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  4. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  5. Sources of variation in estimates of lean body mass by creatinine kinetics and by methods based on body water or body mass index in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Murata, Glen H; Piraino, Beth; Raj, Dominic S C; VanderJagt, Dorothy J; Bernardini, Judith; Servilla, Karen S; Sun, Yijuan; Glew, Robert H; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2010-03-01

    We identified factors that account for differences between lean body mass computed from creatinine kinetics (LBM(cr)) and from either body water (LBM(V)) or body mass index (LBM(BMI)) in patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). We compared the LBM(cr) and LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) in hypothetical subjects and actual CPD patients. We studied 439 CPD patients in Albuquerque, Pittsburgh, and Toronto, with 925 clearance studies. Creatinine production was estimated using formulas derived in CPD patients. Body water (V) was estimated from anthropometric formulas. We calculated LBM(BMI) from a formula that estimates body composition based on body mass index. In hypothetical subjects, LBM values were calculated by varying the determinants of body composition (gender, diabetic status, age, weight, and height) one at a time, while the other determinants were kept constant. In actual CPD patients, multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with differences in the estimates of LBM (LBM(cr)LBM(V), or LBM(cr)LBM(BMI)). We sought predictors of the differences LBM(V) - LBM(cr) and LBM(BMI) - LBM(cr). Both LBM(V) (regardless of formula used to estimate V) and LBM(BMI) exceeded LBM(cr) in hypothetical subjects with average body compositions. The sources of differences between LBM estimates in this group involved differences in the coefficients assigned to gender, age, height, weight, presence or absence of diabetes, and serum creatinine concentration. In CPD patients, mean LBM(V) or LBM(BMI) exceeded mean LBM(cr) by 6.2 to 6.9 kg. For example, the LBM(V) obtained from one anthropometric formula was 50.4+/-10.4 kg and the LBM(cr) was 44.1+/-13.6 kg (P LBM(cr)>LBM(V). The differences in determinants of body composition between groups with high versus low LBM(cr) were similar in hypothetical and actual CPD patients. Multivariate analysis in actual CPD patients identified serum creatinine, height, age, gender, weight, and body mass

  6. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  7. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  8. The tracer function of isotope composition and deuterium excess parameter of water bodies on prospecting for geothermal water: taking the prospecting for geothermal water in Sanjianshui, Sichuan for example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Yin Guan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the isotope composition features of water bodies in Sanjiashui area, this paper use the theory of deuterium excess parameter (d) to discuss and cause of formulation, recharge source, removed patch, detained time and dynamics feature on ground water. These discussed problems have far-reaching meaning on evaluating the size of geothermal water, exploited potential of thermal spring and find new thermal spring in neighboring area. We analyze the relation of d and tritium content (T) on different water bodies in Sanjianshui area and draw some conclusions. Firstly, all water bodies in Sanjianshui origin from precipitation. Secondly, precipitation of northwest mountain area that have long removed patch and long detained time is the recharge resource of groundwater in basin. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility of existence of geothermal water in several positions of Sanjianshui area. (authors)

  9. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  10. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE AVIFAUNA IN MARIA LIZAMBA AND ASSOCIATED BODIES OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Fuentes-Moreno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Veracruz, Mexico has many water bodies which are used by both men and birds. This study surveyed the avifauna of the lagoons Maria Lizamba, la Piedra, and small sections of the rivers Camaron and Estanzuela in Tierra Blanca, Veracruz. During February 2010 visual surveys of these aquatic habitats were conducted by walking and motorboat, including vegetated areas and surrounding villages. Species were identified by comparing to field guides both visually using binoculars and identification of songs and calls. Forty nine species were documented and comprised 25 families. The most diverse families were the Ardeidae with 7 and Icteridae 6 species respectively. Sixteen families were represented by only a single species. We found 14 species of migratory birds and we found three species (Cathartes burrovianus, Psarocolius montezuma and Campylorhynchus rufinucha rufinucha considered to be at risk status according to the Mexican list of endangered and threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. The avifauna was similar to that of the Alvarado Lagoon System, with between 17 % and 22 % of the species recently recorded there. The areas surrounding Maria Lizamba are used by numerous species of birds, however many species were aquatic and wintering migratory birds.

  11. Body composition and hydration status changes in male and female open-water swimmers during an ultra-endurance event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Tim; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Body mass changes during ultra-endurance performances have been described for running, cycling and for swimming in a heated pool. The present field study of 20 male and 11 female open-water swimmers investigated the changes in body composition and hydration status during an ultra-endurance event. Body mass, both estimated fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and urine specific gravity were determined. Energy intake, energy expenditure and fluid intake were estimated. Males experienced significant reductions in body mass (-0.5 %) and skeletal muscle mass (-1.1 %) (P 0.05). Changes in percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass were heterogeneous and did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05) between gender groups. Fluid intake relative to plasma volume was higher in females than in males during the ultra-endurance event. Compared to males, females' average increase in haematocrit was 3.3 percentage points (pp) higher, urine specific gravity decrease 0.1 pp smaller, and plasma [Na+] 1.3 pp higher. The observed patterns of fluid intake, changes in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, and plasma [Na+] suggest that, particularly in females, a combination of fluid shift from blood vessels to interstitial tissue, facilitated by skeletal muscle damage, as well as exercise-associated hyponatremia had occurred. To summarise, changes in body composition and hydration status are different in male compared to female open-water ultra-endurance swimmers.

  12. Assessing Many-Body Effects of Water Self-Ions. I: OH-(H2O) n Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Colin K; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-04-10

    The importance of many-body effects in the hydration of the hydroxide ion (OH - ) is investigated through a systematic analysis of the many-body expansion of the interaction energy carried out at the CCSD(T) level of theory, extrapolated to the complete basis set limit, for the low-lying isomers of OH - (H 2 O) n clusters, with n = 1-5. This is accomplished by partitioning individual fragments extracted from the whole clusters into "groups" that are classified by both the number of OH - and water molecules and the hydrogen bonding connectivity within each fragment. With the aid of the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA) method, this structure-based partitioning is found to largely correlate with the character of different many-body interactions, such as cooperative and anticooperative hydrogen bonding, within each fragment. This analysis emphasizes the importance of a many-body representation of inductive electrostatics and charge transfer in modeling OH - hydration. Furthermore, the rapid convergence of the many-body expansion of the interaction energy also suggests a rigorous path for the development of analytical potential energy functions capable of describing individual OH - -water many-body terms, with chemical accuracy. Finally, a comparison between the reference CCSD(T) many-body interaction terms with the corresponding values obtained with various exchange-correlation functionals demonstrates that range-separated, dispersion-corrected, hybrid functionals exhibit the highest accuracy, while GGA functionals, with or without dispersion corrections, are inadequate to describe OH - -water interactions.

  13. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC......), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. RESULTS: SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0...

  14. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  15. Cold Water Mediates Greater Reductions in Limb Blood Flow than Whole Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Chris; Low, David A; Jones, Helen; Green, Daniel J; Costello, Joseph T; Gregson, Warren

    2017-06-01

    Cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) are widely used recovery methods in an attempt to limit exercise-induced muscle damage, soreness, and functional deficits after strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ecologically valid CWI and WBC protocols on postexercise lower limb thermoregulatory, femoral artery, and cutaneous blood flow responses. Ten males completed a continuous cycle exercise protocol at 70% maximal oxygen uptake until a rectal temperature of 38°C was attained. Participants were then exposed to lower-body CWI (8°C) for 10 min, or WBC (-110°C) for 2 min, in a randomized crossover design. Rectal and thigh skin, deep, and superficial muscle temperatures, thigh, and calf skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry), superficial femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound), and arterial blood pressure were measured before, and for 40 min post, cooling interventions. Greater reductions in thigh skin (CWI, -5.9°C ± 1.8°C; WBC, 0.2°C ± 0.5°C; P < 0.001) and superficial (CWI, -4.4°C ± 1.3°C; WBC, -1.8°C ± 1.1°C; P < 0.001) and deep (CWI, -2.9°C ± 0.8°C; WBC, -1.3°C ± 0.6°C; P < 0.001) muscle temperatures occurred immediately after CWI. Decreases in femoral artery conductance were greater after CWI (CWI, -84% ± 11%; WBC, -59% ± 21%, P < 0.02) and thigh (CWI, -80% ± 5%; WBC, -59% ± 14%, P < 0.001), and calf (CWI, -73% ± 13%; WBC, -45% ± 17%, P < 0.001) cutaneous vasoconstriction was greater after CWI. Reductions in rectal temperature were similar between conditions after cooling (CWI, -0.6°C ± 0.4°C; WBC, -0.6°C ± 0.3°C; P = 0.98). Greater reductions in blood flow and tissue temperature were observed after CWI in comparison with WBC. These novel findings have practical and clinical implications for the use of cooling in the recovery from exercise and injury.

  16. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water

  17. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  18. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  19. The temporal dynamics of zooplankton communities of different types of water bodies within Ichniansky National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the influence of anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems has increased. This has led to a restructuring of aquatic ecosystems and affected the structural and functional organization of groups of aquatic organisms, causing qualitative and quantitative changes. Particular attention is drawn to the different types of water bodies of protected areas like IchnyanskyNational Park, which is located in Ichnyansky district of Chernihiv region. This park is a newly created one, so the reduction in intensity of anthropogenic pressure can be traced within its waters. Zooplankton plays an important role in the functioning of trophic networks because it transfers energy from producers and primary consumers to young fish and planktonophagous fish. Therefore, three main groups of zooplankton were chosen as the object of study: rotifers (class Eurotatoria, cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera, different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda, and also ostracods (Class Ostracoda. The zooplankton used as research material was collected in the daytime in spring (April, summer (late July – early August and autumn (late September – early October in the years 2015–2016 from ten experimental stations. During this period 81 species of zooplankton were recorded within heterogeneous reservoirs of IchnianskyNational Park. Monogonont rotifers (subclass Monogononta included 35 species (43% of all species and bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea, cladocerns, comprised 28 species (35%, and copepods included 18 species (22%. The faunal range of zooplankton over different years and seasons was characterized by the predominance of the rotator complex in spring, rotator-cladocerans and cladocerans in summer, and of the cladocerans complex in autumn. This was due to the formation during spring and summer of favourable conditions in the waters for filter feeders, which consist generally of rotifers and cladocerans. In autumn the water

  20. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  1. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  2. Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowar, M.S.; Eldarawany, A.A.; Habeeb, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B 1 +G 1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 μg B 1 plus 22 μg G 1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

  3. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirauda, Domenica; Ostoich, Marco

    2018-02-23

    The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC-WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  4. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC—WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  5. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan - A stable isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Todd W.; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-01-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ 15 N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes.

  6. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan--a stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-10-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ(15)N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ(15)N and δ(13)C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EVALUATION OF MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS IN WASTEWATERS AND SURFACE WATER BODIES OF THE EASTERN PO RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing shortage of water combined with the sharp increase in population and the development of large cities due to rapid urbanization are different aspects of an important problem, and the competition among the various consumers of water increases concerns about the protection of the environment and health. Agriculture represents the greatest burden on the availability of water and most international projects dealing with water reuse are aimed at this sector. The reuse of water for irrigation cannot overlook certain risks for human health and the environment which depend on the quality of the recycled water, its use, soil characteristics and climatic conditions.  Urban wastewaters, if separated from those of industrial origin, contain concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds that present only limited problems for human health in the case of reuse for irrigation. On this basis, the present study examines various characteristics of wastewaters coming from different urban wastewater treatment plants and surface water bodies situated in the eastern Po basin and in particular the Provinces of Bologna and Ferrara. The application of multivariate statistical methods can allow us to interpret the large and complex matrices of analytical data obtained during monitoring campaigns. In particular, cluster analysis, which discriminates data on the basis of the degree of similarity among different classes of quality, was able to characterize the quality of the wastewaters of the various plants. Moreover, it was possible to distinguish different types of water in the surface water bodies of the sub-basins in the Provinces of Ferrara and Bologna.

  8. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  9. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  10. European Unique Hull Identification Number for Inland Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Ružić

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To enable efficient management of inland navigation processes,specialized information systems should be developedthrough the application of modern information and communicationtechnology (ICT. For this purpose, individual Europeanwaterway and port authorities have developed their ownlocal information systems and databases. Due to the non-conformityof these databases, their integration at the Europeanlevel is confronted with selious problems (COMPRIS, 2003.One of the major problems is the lack of a common Europeanunique identification number for inland barges. For this reason,in some locally managed databases several different identificationnumbers are attributed to one and the same inlandbarge or certain identification numbers are not available. Thesame problem occurs in the communication between waterwayautholities and between waterway and port authorities. Therefore,a unique identification number for all floating objects onthe European waterways should be introduced. At the momentthere are only two official numbers for vessels. The first, the!MO number, introduced in 1978, is only used by maritimevessels. The second, the OFS number (Official Ship Number,is used only for vessels that have a Rhine patent (issued by theCCNR. The OFS number cannot satisfy all the requirementsof RIS Directive 2005/44/EC and the amendment to Directive82/714/EEC on technical requirements for inland navigationvessels in the enlarged European Union. The fact is that only20% of the ranges of codes are reserved for the non-Rhinecountries. A special Electronic Reporting International group(ER! was appointed to formulate a new system for uniqueidentification of inland vessels and also define a databasemodel for vessel characteristics. The initial suggestion of ERIwas to add one character in front of the OFS number in orderto increase its coding capacity. The intention was to make asfew as possible differences/modifications to the system currentlyused under the regime of

  11. History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides

  12. Monitoring of total body water to examine the progress of acclimatization of runners at varying altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Semerád

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our pilot study was to find out if total body water (TBW changes could objectively modify the course of adaptation during training for elite runners at different altitudes. The aim of this pilot study is to summarize the indication of the progress of acclimatization at high altitudes (1000–2700 meters above sea level during alpine conditioning. In three training camps at various altitudes the TBW of elite runners (F = 3, M = 1; n = 4; age 23 } 0.9 was monitored, in order to check the progress of acclimatization. We used BIA measurement methods (Bodystat 1500 at different high altitude running camps at the Czech Republic, Morocco and Ethiopia. Changes in TBW were used to check the progress of acclimatization. We discovered that the retention peaks of TBW corresponded with critical days (p ≤ 0.04; Cohen’s d. The highest measured increases of TBW at an altitude of 1000 m were for runner 1, 1.7 litres and for runner 2, 2.1 litres with retention peaks for both occurring on the 5th day. At an altitude of 1770 m runner 1 reached an increase of TBW of 6.3 litres, with a retention peak on the 11th day, and runner 3 had an increase of 5.1 litres with a peak on the 8th day. In the acclimatization phase we found two critical periods, from the 4th–6th day, and after the 10th–12th day. For runner 4 in altitude 2700m who completed the camp at a higher altitude, the situation is more complicated because there were fluctuations of the content of TBW in the range of 1.25 litres, with the highest depression on the 5th and then again an unsettled rise and reaching a maximum on the 12th, when she nearly returned to the initial value. Detected retention peaks reflected different levels of altitude (5th–12th days.We can conclude that the measuring of changes in TBW during camps at higher altitudes may be one of the biomarkers during acclimatization to altitude.

  13. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  14. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  15. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  16. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  17. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-01-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and...

  18. Long-term ionizing radiation impact on seed progeny of common reed in water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, N.L.; Yavnyuk, A.A.; Gudkov, D.Yi.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the investigation of common reed's (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud.) biological characteristics under conditions of long-term ionizing radiation impact are represented. Indices of seeds' vitality and disorders are analyzed. Low vitality indices, significant ontogenesis disorders, and high percent of abnormalities of germs are determined in water bodies, where littoral plants receive the absorbed dose in a low-dose range of 1-12 cGy year -1 .

  19. Map of the approximate inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2017-07-11

    The inland extent of saltwater at the base of the Biscayne aquifer in the Model Land Area of Miami-Dade County, Florida, was mapped in 2011. Since that time, the saltwater interface has continued to move inland. The interface is near several active well fields; therefore, an updated approximation of the inland extent of saltwater and an improved understanding of the rate of movement of the saltwater interface are necessary. A geographic information system was used to create a map using the data collected by the organizations that monitor water salinity in this area. An average rate of saltwater interface movement of 140 meters per year was estimated by dividing the distance between two monitoring wells (TPGW-7L and Sec34-MW-02-FS) by the travel time. The travel time was determined by estimating the dates of arrival of the saltwater interface at the wells and computing the difference. This estimate assumes that the interface is traveling east to west between the two monitoring wells. Although monitoring is spatially limited in this area and some of the wells are not ideally designed for salinity monitoring, the monitoring network in this area is improving in spatial distribution and most of the new wells are well designed for salinity monitoring. The approximation of the inland extent of the saltwater interface and the estimated rate of movement of the interface are dependent on existing data. Improved estimates could be obtained by installing uniformly designed monitoring wells in systematic transects extending landward of the advancing saltwater interface.

  20. Wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, K.; Wu, G. X.; Thomas, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets is investigated. The ice sheet is treated as an elastic thin plate and water is treated as an ideal and incompressible fluid. The linearized velocity potential theory is adopted in the frequency domain and problems are solved by the method of matched eigenfunctions expansion. The fluid domain is divided into sub-regions and in each sub-region the velocity potential is expanded into a series of eigenfunctions satisfying the governing equation and the boundary conditions on horizontal planes including the free surface and ice sheets. Matching is conducted at the interfaces of two neighbouring regions to ensure the continuity of the pressure and velocity, and the unknown coefficients in the expressions are obtained as a result. The behaviour of the added mass and damping coefficients of the floating body with the effect of the ice sheets and the excitation force are analysed. They are found to vary oscillatorily with the wave number, which is different from that for a floating body in the open sea. The motion of the body confined between ice sheets is investigated, in particular its resonant behaviour with extremely large motion found to be possible under certain conditions. Standing waves within the polynya are also observed.