WorldWideScience

Sample records for injection analysis schemes

  1. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  2. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  3. A simple scheme for injection and extraction in compact rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H. S.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in building compact synchrotrons for various applications, for example, inverse Compton scattering X-ray sources. However, the beam injection and extraction in compact rings require careful design for the lack of space. In this paper, we propose a simple combined injection-extraction scheme exploiting the fringe field of existing dipole magnets instead of additional septum magnets. This scheme is illustrated by using the 4.8 m ring proposed for Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source as an example. Particle tracking is applied to demonstrate the validity of this scheme

  4. Experience with the new reverse injection scheme in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritepe, S.; Goderre, G.; Annala, G.; Hanna, B.; Braun, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the new injection scenario the antiproton beam is injected onto a helical Tevatron orbit to avoid the detrimental effects of the beam-beam interaction at 150 GeV. The new scenario required changes in the tuning procedures. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning, therefore the antiproton injection line has to be tuned with protons by reverse injecting them from the Tevatron into the Main Ring. Previously, the reverse injection was performed in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. The orbit closure was performed in the Main Ring. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved, separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS (Tevatron Beam Synchronized Clock) event $D8 as MRBS (Main Ring Beam Synchronized Clock) $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the Main Ring

  5. Effects of Injection Scheme on Rotating Detonation Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Fabian; Duvall, James; Gamba, Mirko

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate the operation and performance characteristics of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) operated with different fuel injection schemes and operating conditions. In particular, we investigate the detonation and operation characteristics produced with an axial flow injector configuration and semi-impinging injector configurations. These are compared to the characteristics produced with a canonical radial injection system (AFRL injector). Each type produces a different flowfield and mixture distribution, leading to a different detonation initiation, injector dynamic response, and combustor pressure rise. By using a combination of diagnostics, we quantify the pressure loses and gains in the system, the ability to maintain detonation over a range of operating points, and the coupling between the detonation and the air/fuel feed lines. We particularly focus on how this coupling affects both the stability and the performance of the detonation wave. This work is supported by the DOE/UTSR program under project DE-FE0025315.

  6. Improvement of Modeling Scheme of the Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device for Realistic LBLOCA Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Cheong, Aeju; Woo, Sweng Woong

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation of the performance of the SIT with FD should be based on thermal-hydraulic analysis of LBLOCA and an adequate and physical model simulating the SIT/FD should be used in the LBLOCA calculation. To develop such a physical model on SIT/FD, simulation of the major phenomena including flow distribution of by standpipe and FD should be justified by full scale experiment and/or plant preoperational testing. Author's previous study indicated that an approximation of SIT/FD phenomena could be obtained by a typical system transient code, MARS-KS, and using 'accumulator' component model, however, that additional improvement on modeling scheme of the FD and standpipe flow paths was needed for a reasonable prediction. One problem was a depressurizing behavior after switchover to low flow injection phase. Also a potential to release of nitrogen gas from the SIT to the downstream pipe and then reactor core through flow paths of FD and standpipe has been concerned. The intrusion of noncondensible gas may have an effect on LBLOCA thermal response. Therefore, a more reliable model on SIT/FD has been requested to get a more accurate prediction and a confidence of the evaluation of LBLOCA. The present paper is to discuss an improvement of modeling scheme from the previous study. Compared to the existing modeling, effect of the present modeling scheme on LBLOCA cladding thermal response is discussed. The present study discussed the modeling scheme of SIT with FD for a realistic simulation of LBLOCA of APR1400. Currently, the SIT blowdown test can be best simulated by the modeling scheme using 'pipe' component with dynamic area reduction. The LBLOCA analysis adopting the modeling scheme showed the PCT increase of 23K when compared to the case of 'accumulator' component model, which was due to the flow rate decrease at transition phase low flow injection and intrusion of nitrogen gas to the core. Accordingly, the effect of SIT/FD modeling

  7. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Jaroszynski, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001); Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002)]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser

  8. Analysis of central and upwind compact schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, T.K.; Ganeriwal, G.; De, S.

    2003-01-01

    Central and upwind compact schemes for spatial discretization have been analyzed with respect to accuracy in spectral space, numerical stability and dispersion relation preservation. A von Neumann matrix spectral analysis is developed here to analyze spatial discretization schemes for any explicit and implicit schemes to investigate the full domain simultaneously. This allows one to evaluate various boundary closures and their effects on the domain interior. The same method can be used for stability analysis performed for the semi-discrete initial boundary value problems (IBVP). This analysis tells one about the stability for every resolved length scale. Some well-known compact schemes that were found to be G-K-S and time stable are shown here to be unstable for selective length scales by this analysis. This is attributed to boundary closure and we suggest special boundary treatment to remove this shortcoming. To demonstrate the asymptotic stability of the resultant schemes, numerical solution of the wave equation is compared with analytical solution. Furthermore, some of these schemes are used to solve two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and a computational acoustic problem to check their ability to solve problems for long time. It is found that those schemes, that were found unstable for the wave equation, are unsuitable for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, the proposed compact schemes with improved boundary closure and an explicit higher-order upwind scheme produced correct results. The numerical solution for the acoustic problem is compared with the exact solution and the quality of the match shows that the used compact scheme has the requisite DRP property

  9. Trends and perspectives of flow injection/sequential injection on-line sample-pretreatment schemes coupled to ETAAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    Flow injection (FI) analysis, the first generation of this technique, became in the 1990s supplemented by its second generation, sequential injection (SI), and most recently by the third generation (i.e.,Lab-on-Valve). The dominant role played by FI in automatic, on-line, sample pretreatments in ...

  10. Exploiting flow Injection and sequential injection schemes for trace metal determinations by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    Determination of low or trace-level amounts of metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) often requires the use of suitable preconcentration and/or separation procedures in order to attain the necessary sensitivity and selectivity. Such schemes are advantageously executed...... by superior performance and versatility. In fact, two approaches are conceivable: The analyte-loaded ion-exchange beads might either be transported directly into the graphite tube where they are pyrolized and the measurand is atomized and quantified; or the loaded beads can be eluted and the eluate forwarded...

  11. New injection scheme using a pulsed quadrupole magnet in electron storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Harada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a new injection scheme using a single pulsed quadrupole magnet (PQM with no pulsed local bump at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK. The scheme employs the basic property of a quadrupole magnet, that the field at the center is zero, and nonzero elsewhere. The amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the injected beam is effectively reduced by the PQM; then, the injected beam is captured into the ring without largely affecting the already stored beam. In order to investigate the performance of the scheme with a real beam, we built the PQM providing a higher field gradient over 3  T/m and a shorter pulse width of 2.4  μs, which is twice the revolution period of the PF-AR. After the field measurements confirmed the PQM specifications, we installed it into the ring. Then, we conducted the experiment using a real beam and consequently succeeded in storing the beam current of more than 60 mA at the PF-AR. This is the first successful beam injection using a single PQM in electron storage rings.

  12. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  13. Development of a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfakih Khaled

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual-bolus protocol enables accurate quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF by first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. However, despite the advantages and increasing demand for the dual-bolus method for accurate quantification of MBF, thus far, it has not been widely used in the field of quantitative perfusion CMR. The main reasons for this are that the setup for the dual-bolus method is complex and requires a state-of-the-art injector and there is also a lack of post processing software. As a solution to one of these problems, we have devised a universal dual-bolus injection scheme for use in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to show the setup and feasibility of the universal dual-bolus injection scheme. Methods The universal dual-bolus injection scheme was tested using multiple combinations of different contrast agents, contrast agent dose, power injectors, perfusion sequences, and CMR scanners. This included 3 different contrast agents (Gd-DO3A-butrol, Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, 4 different doses (0.025 mmol/kg, 0.05 mmol/kg, 0.075 mmol/kg and 0.1 mmol/kg, 2 different types of injectors (with and without "pause" function, 5 different sequences (turbo field echo (TFE, balanced TFE, k-space and time (k-t accelerated TFE, k-t accelerated balanced TFE, turbo fast low-angle shot and 3 different CMR scanners from 2 different manufacturers. The relation between the time width of dilute contrast agent bolus curve and cardiac output was obtained to determine the optimal predefined pause duration between dilute and neat contrast agent injection. Results 161 dual-bolus perfusion scans were performed. Three non-injector-related technical errors were observed (1.9%. No injector-related errors were observed. The dual-bolus scheme worked well in all the combinations of parameters if the optimal predefined pause was used. Linear regression analysis showed that the optimal duration for the predefined

  14. Extremely short relativistic-electron-bunch generation in the laser wakefield via novel bunch injection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Khachatryan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new electron-bunch injection scheme for the laser wakefield accelerator has been proposed [JETP Lett. 74, 371 (2001JTPLA20021-364010.1134/1.1427124; Phys. Rev. E 65, 046504 (2002PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.046504]. In this scheme, a low energy electron bunch, sent in a plasma channel just before a high-intensity laser pulse, is trapped in the laser wakefield, considerably compressed and accelerated to an ultrarelativistic energy. In this paper we show the possibility of the generation of an extremely short (on the order of 1   μm long or a few femtoseconds in duration relativistic-electron-bunch by this mechanism. The initial electron bunch, which can be generated, for example, by a laser-driven photocathode rf gun, should have an energy of a few hundred keVs to a few MeVs, a duration in the picosecond range or less and a relatively low concentration. The trapping conditions and parameters of an accelerated bunch are investigated. The laser pulse dynamics as well as a possible experimental setup for the demonstration of the injection scheme are also considered.

  15. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  16. Analysis of Paper reduction schemes to develop selection criteria for ofdm signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of different PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) reduction schemes of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signals. The schemes that have been considered include Clipping and Filtering, Coding, ACE (Active Contstellation Extension), SLM (Selected Mapping), PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence), TI (Tone Injection) and TR (Tone Reservation). A comparative analysis has been carried out qualitatively. It has been demonstrated how these schemes can be combined with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technologies. Finally, criteria for selection of PAPR reduction schemes of OFDM systems are discussed. (author)

  17. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ABSTRACT. Various Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes have been used to combat errors that befall in- formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes include simple ARQ, mixed mode ARQ and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). In this study we introduce extended ARQ schemes and derive.

  18. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-07-01

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  19. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  20. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  1. Scheme for analysis of oily waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I.; Rushworth, R.; Melvold, R.; Russell, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for gross and detailed chemical characterization of oily waters. Total, suspended, and dissolved organic content and hydrocarbon levels of the sample are determined. Volatile and water-soluble fractions are characterized in greater detail. Lower aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are separated from the water by nitrogen sparging and are collected in an activated carbon absorption column. They are then extracted into carbon disulfide and analyzed gas chromatographically. The water-soluble fraction is extracted into chloroform or adsorbed on Amberlite XAD type of resin. Class characterization of this fraction is performed using the HPLC procedure. GC-MS-C is used for detailed analysis. The methodology was used for studying the effectiveness of bilge and ballast water treatments.

  2. Modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Ba, H; Khin, M M; Aung, K; Thida, [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-06-01

    Determination of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 60]Co by using modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. Two component RFIA was also realized using [sup 60]Co and [sup 137]Cs radionuclides. (author) 2 refs.; 5 figs.

  3. Revision of Booster to Storage Ring Transport Line Design and Injection Scheme for Top-Up Operation at NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Min-Huey; Chen, Jenny; Chen June Rong; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Luo, Gwo-Huei

    2005-01-01

    In order to help the operation of constant current, the optics of booster to storage ring transport line (BTS) design is reinvestigated. The initial twiss parameters are derived by measurement. The optics of the transport line is readjusted according to the measured initial beam parameters. The design of pulse width of the injection kicker is also changed from 1.2μsecond to 2.0μsecond. The injection scheme is reviewed and the effects of the kicker error on both injected beam and stored beam are investigated and shown in this report.

  4. Verification of an objective analysis scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cats, G.J.; Haan, B.J. de; Hafkenscheid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    An intermittent data assimilation scheme has been used to produce wind and precipitation fields during the 10 days after the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 25 April 1986. The wind fields are analyses, the precipitation fields have been generated by the forecast model part of the scheme. The precipitation fields are of fair quality. The quality of the wind fields has been monitored by the ensuing trajectories. These were found to describe the arrival times of radioactive air in good agreement with most observational data, taken all over Europe. The wind analyses are therefore considered to be reliable. 25 refs.; 13 figs

  5. Flow Injection Analysis in Industrial Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical chemical continuous-flow (CF) method which in contrast to traditional CF-procedures does not rely on complete physical mixing (homogenisation) of the sample and the reagent(s) or on attaining chemical equilibria of the chemical reactions involved. Ex...

  6. Retro-review of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jaromir; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    It is indeed unusual for authors to review their own monograph – J. Ruzicka, E.H. Hansen, Flow Injection Analysis, 2nd Edition, Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 1988. – and even more so if the book was published 20 years ago. Yet such an exercise might yield a perspective on the progress of an...

  7. Theory analysis and simple calculation of travelling wave burnup scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yu Hong; Gang Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Travelling wave burnup scheme is a new burnup scheme that breeds fuel locally just before it burns. Based on the preliminary theory analysis, the physical imagine was found. Through the calculation of a R-z cylinder travelling wave reactor core with ERANOS code system, the basic physical characteristics of this new burnup scheme were concluded. The results show that travelling wave reactor is feasible in physics, and there are some good features in the reactor physics. (authors)

  8. Optimized variational analysis scheme of single Doppler radar wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshi K.; Allen, Steve; Mizuno, Koki; Whitehead, Victor; Wilk, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A computer scheme for extracting singularities has been developed and applied to single Doppler radar wind data. The scheme is planned for use in real-time wind and singularity analysis and forecasting. The method, known as Doppler Operational Variational Extraction of Singularities is outlined, focusing on the principle of local symmetry. Results are presented from the application of the scheme to a storm-generated gust front in Oklahoma on May 28, 1987.

  9. SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta RADULESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and operations of the dimensions andtolerances tree scheme will make for a machined piece is both indoor and outdoor.

  10. Analysis of Intercarrier Interference Cancellation Scheme in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Salh Almisbah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is an emerging multi-carrier modulation scheme, which has been adopted for several wireless standards such as IEEE 802.11a and HiperLAN2. In OFDM systems, the performance is very sensitive to subcarrier frequency errors (offset. This paper shows the analysis and derivations of intercarrier interference (ICI complex gain that used in self-cancellation scheme and its dependence on subcarrier frequency offset. Simulation shows that better improvement in performance is achieved for systems that use this cancellation scheme. Moreover, analysis and simulation show that theoretical carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR for OFDM with cancellation scheme is greater than conventional one by more than 14dB.

  11. Studies on the construction of a new 80 MeV injector and a new injection scheme for the synchrotron of the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raecke, K.

    2001-09-01

    At the ELSA Accelerator Facility exists the opportunity to install a 80 MeV linear accelerator as an injector for the 2,5 GeV Booster Synchrotron. Because of its length the new structure cannot replace one of the linacs used today so possibilities to built up the accelerator and the transfer channels are worked out. Calculations comparing the injection efficiency of the present layout and the possible new layout show a recognizable improvement. The injection efficiency can be further improved using a single turn injection scheme. A septum magnet and a fast kicker for this injection scheme is designed. (orig.)

  12. Content Analysis Coding Schemes for Online Asynchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzer-Ward, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers commonly utilize coding-based analysis of classroom asynchronous discussion contributions as part of studies of online learning and instruction. However, this analysis is inconsistent from study to study with over 50 coding schemes and procedures applied in the last eight years. The aim of this article is to provide a basis…

  13. The heavy ion injection scheme for RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades-Brown, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven has a multi-component injection system. The Collider requires very heavy ions such as 79 197 Au to be injected fully stripped of atomic electrons, at a kinetic energy of approximately 10 GeV/nucleon. However, the heavy ions are produced initially at a negative ion source and accelerated first in a 15 MV Tandem. These partially stripped ions have a kinetic energy of approximately 1 MeV/nucleon on leaving the Tandem. In order to achieve the injection requirements for RHIC, the partially stripped ions are accelerated in the Booster (currently under construction) and pass through a stripping foil on their way to the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are further accelerated before injection into RHIC. Recent theoretical calculations have shown quite convincingly that very heavy ions with 2 electrons in the filled K-shell may be accelerated with negligible loss in the AGS. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Warpage analysis in injection moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, M. H. N.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was concentrated on the effects of process parameters in plastic injection moulding process towards warpage problem by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software for the simulation. In this study, plastic dispenser of dental floss has been analysed with thermoplastic material of Polypropylene (PP) used as the moulded material and details properties of 80 Tonne Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine also has been used in this study. The variable parameters of the process are packing pressure, packing time, melt temperature and cooling time. Minimization of warpage obtained from the optimization and analysis data from the Design Expert software. Integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Center Composite Design (CCD) with polynomial models that has been obtained from Design of Experiment (DOE) is the method used in this study. The results show that packing pressure is the main factor that will contribute to the formation of warpage in x-axis and y-axis. While in z-axis, the main factor is melt temperature and packing time is the less significant among the four parameters in x, y and z-axes. From optimal processing parameter, the value of warpage in x, y and z-axis have been optimised by 21.60%, 26.45% and 24.53%, respectively.

  15. Emission trading scheme: market analysis and forecasting scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an economic analysis of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and its institutional framework; we introduce an economic model able to simulate some possible market price's scenarios. The aim of this article is to offer a better market fundamentals' comprehension and to help economic agents building their expectations about market's development [it

  16. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  17. Numerical analysis of boosting scheme for scalable NMR quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SaiToh, Akira; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    Among initialization schemes for ensemble quantum computation beginning at thermal equilibrium, the scheme proposed by Schulman and Vazirani [in Proceedings of the 31st ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC'99) (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 322-329] is known for the simple quantum circuit to redistribute the biases (polarizations) of qubits and small time complexity. However, our numerical simulation shows that the number of qubits initialized by the scheme is rather smaller than expected from the von Neumann entropy because of an increase in the sum of the binary entropies of individual qubits, which indicates a growth in the total classical correlation. This result--namely, that there is such a significant growth in the total binary entropy--disagrees with that of their analysis

  18. Sequential injection lab-on-valve: the third generation of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    Termed the third generation of flow injection analysis, sequential injection (SI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) has specific advantages and allows novel, unique applications - not least as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques. This review presents snd discusses progress to date of the ...

  19. Safety Injection Tank Performance Analysis Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Nietiadi Yohanes Setiawan [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This may affect the core cooling capability and threaten the fuel integrity during LOCA situations. However, information on the nitrogen flow rate during discharge is very limited due to the associated experimental measurement difficulties, and these phenomena are hardly reflected in current 1D system codes. In the current study, a CFD analysis is presented which hopefully should allow obtaining a more realistic prediction of the SIT performance which can then be reflected on 1D system codes to simulate various accident scenarios. Current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study aims to find a better CFD prediction and more accurate modeling to predict the system performance during accident scenarios. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed using commercial CFD. A fine resolution grid was used to capture the vortex of the fluidic device. The calculation so far has shown good consistency with the experiment. Calculation should complete by the conference date and will be thoroughly analyzed to be discussed. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be validated to give more reliable results. The data from CFD and experiments will provide a more accurate K-factor of the fluidic device which can later be applied in system code inputs.

  20. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A CNG DIRECT INJECTION SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashid A. Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out on a dedicated compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI engine with a compression ratio (CR of 14 and a central injection system. Several injection timing parameters from early injection timing (300 BTDC to partial direct injection (180 BTDC to full direct injection (120 BTDC were investigated. The 300 BTDC injection timing experiment was carried out to simulate the performance of a port injection engine and the result is used as a benchmark for engine performance. The full DI resulted in a 20% higher performance than the early injection timing for low engine speeds up to 2750 rpm. 180 BTDC injection timing shows the highest performance over an extensive range of engine speed because it has a similar volumetric efficiency to full DI. However, the earlier injection timing allowed for a better air–fuel mixing and gives superior performance for engine speeds above 4500 rpm. The engine performance could be explained by analysis of the heat release rate that shows that at low and intermediate engine speeds of 2000 and 3000, the full DI and partial DI resulted in the fastest heat release rate whereas at a high engine speed of 5000 rpm, the simulated port injection operation resulted in the fastest heat release rate.

  1. RELAP5 analysis of PACTEL injection tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, G.R.; Lillington, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    A characteristic feature of advanced reactor designs is their reliance on passive safety systems. It is important to assess both the operation of such systems and the ability of systems codes, such as RELAP5, to model them. In Finland VTT Energy, together with Lappeenranta University of Technology, is using the PACTEL facility for the investigation of passive core cooling systems. In particular, a core make-up tank (CMT) has been installed in the rig to operate in a similar manner to those in many Advanced PWR designs. Three small break tests, GDE-24, GDE-34 and GDE-43 in the PACTEL facility were chosen for modelling with RELAP5. The objective of GDE-24 was to investigate CMT behaviour and in particular the effects of condensation in the CMT. The second test, GDE-34, was similar except that it had a smaller CMT and at the start of the test the water in the CMT and connecting pipework was at an elevated temperature. Test GDE-43 focused on conditions when the driving force for flow through the passive system injection system (PSIS) slowly disappears. Analysis of all tests reported here was carried out with RELAP5/MOD 3.2.1.2. The paper summarises the conclusions of all the tests. A critical part of the study revolved around modelling of the CMT. A model was developed to allow its detailed behaviour to be investigated more easily. This enabled recommendations for improving the condensation modelling in RELAP5 to be made. Apart from the wall condensation modelling issue, the implication of the work is that RELAP5/MOD 3.2.1.2 (a comparatively recent version of the code) is broadly adequate for these applications. (author)

  2. Radiometric flow injection analysis with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    Radiometric Flow Injection Analysis of a radioactive ([sup 131]I) sample is described. For analysis an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis and numerical modeling of supercritical injection

    OpenAIRE

    Banuti, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although liquid propellant rocket engines are operational and have been studied for decades, cryogenic injection at supercritical pressures is still considered essentially not understood. This thesis intends to approach this problem in three steps: by developing a numerical model for real gas thermodynamics, by extending the present thermodynamic view of supercritical injection, and finally by applying these methods to the analysis of injection. A new numerical real gas thermodynamics mode...

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of Water Injection Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Myeong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Ha, Jeong Min; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Kim, Won Cheol; Choi, Byeong Keun [Gyeongsang Nat' l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Water injection pump outputs oil with high pressure during this process, seawater is injected into the well to recover the well pressure and maintain high productivity. A water injection pump has high productivity, and herefore, it serves as a key piece of equipment in marine plants. In this light, water injection pumps are being studied widely in industry. In this study, the rotor dynamics is analyzed to determine the natural frequency according to the bearing stiffness and operation speed change. This study aims to establish the pump reliability through critical speed, stability, and unbalance response analysis.

  5. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  6. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Value of Danshen Injection and Huangqi Injection in Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtai Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the clinical value of Danshen injection and Huangqi injection for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Methods. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, PubMed, and EMBASE database were searched to collect the literatures about the randomized controlled trials involving the treatment of liver cirrhosis with Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection, and the data analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 1086 patients (trials group: 554 cases, control group: 532 cases were included in this study. Compared with those in control group, the meta-analysis showed-that the total effectiveness rate and the level of serum albumin increased, while serum total bilirubin, alanine transmninase, type III procollagen, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and type-IV collagen decreased in trials group. The Jadad score ranged from 1 to 2 and the funnel plot analysis suggests that publication bias may occur. Conclusions. Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection may promote the curative efficacy of liver cirrhosis, which is a promising novel treatment approach. The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials.

  8. A Machine Learning Based Intrusion Impact Analysis Scheme for Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clouds represent a major paradigm shift, inspiring the contemporary approach to computing. They present fascinating opportunities to address dynamic user requirements with the provision of on demand expandable computing infrastructures. However, Clouds introduce novel security challenges which need to be addressed to facilitate widespread adoption. This paper is focused on one such challenge - intrusion impact analysis. In particular, we highlight the significance of intrusion impact analysis for the overall security of Clouds. Additionally, we present a machine learning based scheme to address this challenge in accordance with the specific requirements of Clouds for intrusion impact analysis. We also present rigorous evaluation performed to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method to address this challenge for Clouds. The evaluation results demonstrate high degree of effectiveness to correctly determine the impact of an intrusion along with significant reduction with respect to the intrusion response time.

  9. Analysis of core calculation schemes for advanced water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Anne

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the analysis of the core control of sub-moderated water reactors with plutonium fuel and varying spectrum. Firstly, a calculation scheme is defined, based on transport theory for the three existing assembly configurations. It is based on the efficiency analysis of the control cluster and of the flow sheet shape in the assembly. Secondly, studies of the assembly with control cluster and within a theory of diffusion with homogenization or detailed assembly representation are performed by taking the environment into account in order to assess errors. Thirdly, due to the presence of a very efficient absorbent in control clusters, a deeper physical analysis requires the study of the flow gradient existing at the interface between assemblies. A parameter is defined to assess this gradient, and theoretically calculated by using finite elements. Developed software is validated [fr

  10. Analysis on inflowing of the injecting Water in faulted formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Youjun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As to low permeability reservoir, faults and fractures have a significant impact on effect of water injection and may lead up to the lower efficiency of oil displacement, which will bring about low efficiency of injecting water, and the intended purpose of improving recovery factor by water injection will not be reached. In order to reveal the mechanism for channeling of injecting water, research work is conducted as follows: First of all, based on seepage mechanics, fluid mechanics, rock mass mechanics, and multifield coupling theory, the mathematical model considering fluid–solid coupling of water-flooding development for low permeability reservoir is established, the numerical solution of the coupling model is obtained, and by creating an interface program between the seepage simulation procedure and stress computation program, we set up a feasible method to simulate the process of development of reservoir considering deformation of reservoir stratum; second, some cores are selected to test the stress sensitivity of rock in reservoir, and the relation of permeability and stress is proposed to connect the field parameters of the coupling model; finally, taking the S11 block of Daqing Oilfield, for instance, the seepage field and deformation of reservoir stratum is analyzed, and then the mechanism for leakage of injecting water in this block is given out, and the advice for adjustment of injection–production scheme in the future development stage is provided.

  11. CFD analysis of poison injection in AHWR calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, A.K.; Kamble, M.T.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work intends to give details of design and performance validation of SDS-2. The performance is evaluated on the basis of dispersion of poison in calandria in a given period of time. Location of injection tube and injection holes, size of jet hole and number of holes are some of the design parameters which greatly affect dispersion of poison in calandria. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) study for axial and radial injection of poison was carried out using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. CFD benchmarking was done using experiments performed by Johari (Johari et al. 1997) to identify suitable turbulence model for this problem. An experimental facility simulating poison injection in moderator in presence of calandria tubes was used to further validate the CFD model is shown in the paper. CFD analysis was carried out for axial as well as radial injection for AHWR geometry. CFD analysis using OpenFOAM has been carried out to study high pressure poison injection for single jet of Shut Down System - 2 (SDS- 2) of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) for various design options. CFD model used in analysis have been validated with experimental data available in literature as well as experiments performed for AHWR specific geometry. Various turbulence models are tested and their adequacy for such flow problems has been established. The CFD model is then used to simulate poison injection for two design options for AHWR and their performance is compared. (author)

  12. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  13. Scheme-scale ambiguity in analysis of QCD observable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirjalili, A.; Kniehl, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    The scheme-scale ambiguity that has plagued perturbative analysis in QCD remains on obstacle to making precise tests of the theory. Many attempts have been done to resolve the scale ambiguity. In this regard the BLM, EC, PMS and CORGI approaches are more distinct. We try to employ these methods to fix the scale ambiguity at NLO, NNLO and even in more higher order approximations. By optimizing the renormalization scale, there will be a possibility to predicate higher order terms. We present general results for predicted terms at any order, using different optimization methods. Some observable as specific examples will be used to indicate the validity of scale fixing to predicate the higher order terms. (authors)

  14. Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen

    2010-01-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. For signing quantum messages, some arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes have been proposed. It was claimed that these AQS schemes could guarantee unconditional security. However, we show that they can be repudiated by the receiver Bob. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an AQS scheme using a public board. The AQS scheme not only avoids being disavowed by the receiver but also preserves all merits in the existing schemes. Furthermore, we discover that entanglement is not necessary while all these existing AQS schemes depend on entanglement. Therefore, we present another AQS scheme without utilizing entangled states in the signing phase and the verifying phase. This scheme has three advantages: it does not utilize entangled states and it preserves all merits in the existing schemes; the signature can avoid being disavowed by the receiver; and it provides a higher efficiency in transmission and reduces the complexity of implementation.

  15. Analysis and improvement for the performance of Baptista's cryptographic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jun; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.W.; Zhou Tsing; Deng Yigui

    2006-01-01

    Based on Baptista's chaotic cryptosystem, we propose a secure and robust chaotic cryptographic scheme after investigating the problems found in this cryptosystem as well as its variants. In this proposed scheme, a subkey array generated from the key and the plaintext is adopted to enhance the security. Some methods are introduced to increase the efficiency. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for practical use

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  17. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok

    2015-01-01

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations

  18. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  19. Analysis and design of a nuclear boiler control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The steam raising plant of a British designed nuclear power station for which the installed control scheme has given rise to performance and stability problems is considered. The lecture is based on studies carried out for the plant which illustrate the way in which multivariable frequency response methods can be used to analyse and identify the source of control problems and further enable alternative control schemes, having improved performance, to be designed. (author)

  20. ANALYSIS OF HARMONIC INJECTION TO THE MODULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. This paper explores the analysis of third and ninth harmonic injection to the modulation of a multi- level diode clamped converter (DCC) at a varying modulation index. The spectral distributions of the various multi-level waveforms obtained under normal modulation index of 0.8 and over modulation ...

  1. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    and preconcentration procedures. In recent years, FIA has been supplemented by Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Following a brief historic introduction and an account of the impact of FIA in academia, the lecture will describe these two new generations of FIA, accompanied...

  2. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  3. On-line sample-pre-treatment schemes for trace-level determinations of metals by coupling flow injection or sequential injection with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR), solvent extraction-back extraction and hydride/vapor generation. It also addresses a novel, robust approach, whereby the protocol of SI-LOV-bead injection (BI) on-line separation and pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of metals by a renewable microcolumn...

  4. Flow injection analysis in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosias, Maria F.G.G.

    1995-10-01

    The main features of flow injection analysis (FIA) as contribution to the inductively coupled plasma (Icp) spectrometry are described. A systematic review of researches using the combined FIA-Icp and the benefits of this association are presented. Flow systems were proposed to perform on-line Icp solution management for multielemental determination by atomic emission spectrometry (Icp-AES) or mass spectrometry. The inclusion of on-line ion exchangers in flow systems for matrix separation and/or analyte preconcentration are presented. Together with those applications the new advent of instruments with facilities for multielement detection on flow injection signals are described. (author). 75 refs., 19 figs

  5. Separate direct injection of diesel and ethanol: A numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Nicolae V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the theoretical possibility of using a pilot diesel injection for the auto-ignition of a main ethanol injection in a compression ignition engine. To this effect a predictive simulation model has been built based on experimental results for a diesel cycle (pilot and main injection at 1500 and 2500 min–1, respectively. For every engine speed, in addition to the diesel reference cycle, two more simulations were done: one with the same amount of fuel injected into the cylinder and one with the same amount of energy, which required an increase in the quantity of ethanol proportional to the ratio of its lower heating value and that of diesel. The simulations showed that in all cases the pilot diesel led to the auto-ignition of ethanol. The analysis of the in-cylinder traces at 1500 min–1 showed that combustion efficiency is improved, the peak temperature value decrease with approximately 240 K and, as a result, the NO emissions are 3.5-4 times lower. The CO and CO2 values depend on the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. At 2500 min–1 there are similar trends but with the following observations: the ignition delay increases, while the pressure and temperature are lower.

  6. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, A.H.; Pandit, S.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING SCHEMES AND THE OPTIMIZING SETTLEMENT CHOIS OF PILES WORK SCHEMES IN CLAY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. It were considered and analyzed the existing schemes of piles work in clay soils. 1. Leningrad scientific school, where the formation of pile bearing capacity use as the basis of the thixotropic clay soils hardening and radial soil pressing around the pile shaft during the piles driving with pile-driving equipment for the exploitation period. 2. Odessa scientific school, in which the uplift soil formation from the edge pile use as the basis of the pile bearing capacity during the piles driving, the formation of the pressed zones (platform in the piles edge plane, the gap formation around the pile shaft during its diving by ground pushed moving with the pile edge. 3. Preconditions of the pile bearing capacity formation of the pile by the thixotropic soil hardening in time and the radial soil pressing around the pile shaft can not give an answer to the following questions: 1 Why during the pile driving is formed the gap around the trunk of dived piles, when by condition there is a radial soil hardening around the trunk? 2 Why in the interpiled space is formed the lune (deflection, not the soil mass swelling (due to the radial hardening? 3 By what is formed the calculated soil resistance under the lower end (edge of the pile? which is about 10 times higher than the calculated soil resistance in the edge plane, according to the Building Code V.2.1-10. 2009? The justified answers on all these and other technical and technological matters give perquisites of the Odessa scientific school with additions and authors developments

  8. Analysis of the F. Calogero Type Projection-Algebraic Scheme for Differential Operator Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustyk, Miroslaw; Bogolubov, Nikolai N. Jr.; Blackmore, Denis; Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K.

    2010-12-01

    The existence, convergence, realizability and stability of solutions of differential operator equations obtained via a novel projection-algebraic scheme are analyzed in detail. This analysis is based upon classical discrete approximation techniques coupled with a recent generalization of the Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem. An example is included to illustrate the efficacy of the projection scheme and analysis strategy. (author)

  9. Review and Analysis of Cryptographic Schemes Implementing Threshold Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, ellipt ic curves and bilinear pairings were investigated. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, e.g. used in a mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency. The significance of the work is determined by the reduction of the level of counterfeit electronic documents, signed by certain group of users.

  10. Analysis of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined Student's Industrial Work Experience Scheme carried out in NIFFR visa-a-vise the challenge of skilled manpower development for fishery extension. Secondary data collected from NIFFR library and report of 2007 SIWES period was analysed descriptively. Out of 617 students from 36 schools that visited ...

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of Children's Splitting Operations and Fraction Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching experiments with pairs of children have generated several hypotheses about students' construction of fractions. For example, Steffe (2004) hypothesized that robust conceptions of improper fractions depends on the development of a splitting operation. Results from teaching experiments that rely on scheme theory and Steffe's hierarchy of…

  12. Functional Analysis of Pension Scheme Reforms in Nigeria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was argued that the public sector organization at both the federal, state, and ... the knowledge of what the pensioner‟s economic life will look like after work. ... the use of a uniform pension scheme for both the public and the private sectors, ...

  13. Analysis of synchronous digital-modulation schemes for satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, G. S.; Gupta, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    The multipath communication channel for space communications is modeled as a multiplicative channel. This paper discusses the effects of multiplicative channel processes on the symbol error rate for quadrature modulation (QM) digital modulation schemes. An expression for the upper bound on the probability of error is derived and numerically evaluated. The results are compared with those obtained for additive channels.

  14. Treatment of H0 and H- beams spilled at the stripper foil at full energy charge-exchange injection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Isao

    1991-01-01

    The charge-exchange injection into a synchrotron to generate high-intensity pulsed proton beams for a spallation neutron source is reviewed while focusing on the treatment of H 0 and H - beams spilled at the stripper foil. After charge-exchange injection is briefly outlined, scattering by foil atoms and causes to spill H 0 and H - beams are described. These spilled beams can amount to several μA and should be carefully treated. It is then shown that a direct H - injection system needs to be considerably long and requires a very long straight section. Because of its simplicity, two-step H 0 injection has very wide applicability to various types of rings. However, it has a problem of emittance growth due to angular divergence in the stripper magnet and an ionoptical mismatch at the stripper foil. These problems are discussed, including a new proposal for a measure to remedy this problem. The laser photoionization injection is also briefly mentioned. (author)

  15. Institutional analysis of incentive schemes for ecosystem service provision - a comparative study across four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Górriz, Elena; Boon, Tove Enggrob

    2014-01-01

    Incentive schemes and payments for ecosystem services attract increasing attention as a means for aligning the interests of landowners and society by remunerating forest owners for the goods and services their forests produce. As incentive schemes expand around the world, questions related...... and Italy. The analysed schemes are predominantly aimed at enhancing biodiversity and improving recreation. One of the schemes is also related to preserving a variety of forest ecosystem services from forest fires. The incentive schemes are studied following a framework for the institutional analysis of PES...... developed by Prokofieva and Gorriz (Prokofieva, I. and Gorriz, E. 2013: Institutional analysis of incentives for the provision of forest goods and services: an assessment of incentive schemes in Catalonia (North-East Spain), Forest Policy and Economics, 37, 104-114.). We focus on actor and institutional...

  16. A novel fault location scheme for power distribution system based on injection method and transient line voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuehua; Li, Xiaomin; Cheng, Jiangzhou; Nie, Deyu; Wang, Zhuoyuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel fault location method by injecting travelling wave current. The new methodology is based on Time Difference Of Arrival(TDOA)measurement which is available measurements the injection point and the end node of main radial. In other words, TDOA is the maximum correlation time when the signal reflected wave crest of the injected and fault appear simultaneously. Then distance calculation is equal to the wave velocity multiplied by TDOA. Furthermore, in case of some transformers connected to the end of the feeder, it’s necessary to combine with the transient voltage comparison of amplitude. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of this method, several simulations have been undertaken by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software packages. The proposed fault location is useful to short the positioning time in the premise of ensuring the accuracy, besides the error is 5.1% and 13.7%.

  17. Evaluation of remote maintenance schemes by plasma equilibrium analysis in Tokamak DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The remote maintenance schemes in DEMO reactor were evaluated by the plasma equilibrium analysis. • Horizontal sector transport maintenance scheme requires the largest total PF coil current. • The difference of total PF coil current for MHD equilibrium in between the large segmented divertor maintenance and the segmentalized divertor maintenance was about 10%. - Abstract: The remote maintenance schemes in a DEMO reactor are categorized by insertion direction, blanket segmentation, and divertor maintenance scheme, and are quantitatively evaluated by analysing the plasma equilibrium. The positions of the poloidal field (PF) coil are limited by the size of the toroidal field (TF) coil and the maintenance port layout of each remote maintenance scheme. Because the PF coils are located near the larger TF coil and far from the plasma surface, the horizontal sector transport maintenance scheme requires the largest part of total PF coil current, 25% larger than that required for separated sector transport using vertical maintenance ports with segmented divertor maintenance (SDM). In the unsegmented divertor maintenance (UDM) scheme, the total magnetic stored energy in the PF coils at plasma equilibrium is about 30% larger than that stored in the SDM scheme, but the time required for removal and installation of all the divertor cassettes in the UDM scheme is roughly a third of that required in the SDM scheme because the number of divertor cassettes in the UDM scheme is a third of that in the SDM scheme. From the viewpoint of simple maintenance operations, the merit of the UDM scheme has more merit than the SDM scheme

  18. Pricing schemes for new drugs: a welfare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-02-01

    Drug price regulation is acquiring increasing significance in the investment choices of the pharmaceutical sector. The overall objective is to determine an optimal trade-off between the incentives for innovation, consumer protection, and value for money. However, price regulation is itself a source of distortion. In this study, we examine the welfare properties of listing through a bargaining process and value-based pricing schemes. The latter are superior instruments to uncertain listing processes for maximising total welfare, but the distribution of the benefits between consumers and the industry depends on rate of rebate chosen by the regulator. However, through an appropriate choice, it is always possible to define a value-based pricing scheme with risk sharing, which both consumers and the industry prefer to an uncertain bargaining process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GAME ANALYSIS OF KYOTO AND POST-KYOTO SCHEMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruo Imai [Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-09-30

    Kyoto protocol, put in force in Feb. 2005, is criticized from both sides, those demanding a stricter target for GHG (green house gas) emission reduction on the one side, and those claiming for more flexible and comprehensive controls of the emission on the other side, for its modest target and narrow coverage. Even though its value could be that of a mere precedent and experimentation, Kyoto protocol includes very special experimentation to assist the world wide cooperation for a mitigation of climate change, i.e. the introduction of three mechanisms, emissions trading, joint implementation, and clean development mechanism (CDM). Together, they are called Kyoto mechanisms. Evaluation of mechanisms is one important role of microeconomics and the game theory is a major tool for it. We shall scrutinize these mechanisms from such viewpoint. A special attention is placed on CDM, as it is the novel mechanism introduced by Kyoto protocol, and gives a unique link between Annex I nations (mostly developed countries) and non-Annex I nations (mostly developing countries). Next, we examine some of the currently proposed schemes after 2013, the post Kyoto schemes. One of the chief issues is the possibility of making a comprehensive agreement including both the USA and large developing countries with rapidly increasing emission levels of GHG like China and India. Adding to these, not only the proposed schemes themselves, but the process of negotiation itself inspired several researches in cooperative game theory and in particular, coalition formation theory. We shall touch upon this issue separately, and examine how successfully they predicted the outcome leading to Kyoto, retrospectively. Finally, we end our discussion with a brief consideration over the underlining normative argument concerning these schemes.

  20. Analysis of reaction schemes using maximum rates of constituent steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Dumesic, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the steady-state kinetics of a chemical reaction can be analyzed analytically in terms of proposed reaction schemes composed of series of steps with stoichiometric numbers equal to unity by calculating the maximum rates of the constituent steps, rmax,i, assuming that all of the remaining steps are quasi-equilibrated. Analytical expressions can be derived in terms of rmax,i to calculate degrees of rate control for each step to determine the extent to which each step controls the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction. The values of rmax,i can be used to predict the rate of the overall stoichiometric reaction, making it possible to estimate the observed reaction kinetics. This approach can be used for catalytic reactions to identify transition states and adsorbed species that are important in controlling catalyst performance, such that detailed calculations using electronic structure calculations (e.g., density functional theory) can be carried out for these species, whereas more approximate methods (e.g., scaling relations) are used for the remaining species. This approach to assess the feasibility of proposed reaction schemes is exact for reaction schemes where the stoichiometric coefficients of the constituent steps are equal to unity and the most abundant adsorbed species are in quasi-equilibrium with the gas phase and can be used in an approximate manner to probe the performance of more general reaction schemes, followed by more detailed analyses using full microkinetic models to determine the surface coverages by adsorbed species and the degrees of rate control of the elementary steps. PMID:27162366

  1. Analysis of expansion phase experiments with improved approximation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foit, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    A steady-state flow of a single-phase and incompressible fluid across a singularity is studied. Based on these theoretical considerations new approximation methods for the pressure gradient term in the SIMMER-II momentum equations are proposed which give a satisfactory pressure change in flows across singularities. The expansion phase experiments with a dipplate performed by SRI-International are evaluated to examine the quality of the proposed approximation schemes. (orig.) [de

  2. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  3. Comparison of different incremental analysis update schemes in a realistic assimilation system with Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y.; Barth, A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.; Candille, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, three incremental analysis update schemes (IAU 0, IAU 50 and IAU 100) are compared in the same assimilation experiments with a realistic eddy permitting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The difference between the three IAU schemes lies on the position of the increment update window. The relevance of each IAU scheme is evaluated through analyses on both thermohaline and dynamical variables. The validation of the assimilation results is performed according to both deterministic and probabilistic metrics against different sources of observations. For deterministic validation, the ensemble mean and the ensemble spread are compared to the observations. For probabilistic validation, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) is used to evaluate the ensemble forecast system according to reliability and resolution. The reliability is further decomposed into bias and dispersion by the reduced centred random variable (RCRV) score. The obtained results show that 1) the IAU 50 scheme has the same performance as the IAU 100 scheme 2) the IAU 50/100 schemes outperform the IAU 0 scheme in error covariance propagation for thermohaline variables in relatively stable region, while the IAU 0 scheme outperforms the IAU 50/100 schemes in dynamical variables estimation in dynamically active region 3) in case with sufficient number of observations and good error specification, the impact of IAU schemes is negligible. The differences between the IAU 0 scheme and the IAU 50/100 schemes are mainly due to different model integration time and different instability (density inversion, large vertical velocity, etc.) induced by the increment update. The longer model integration time with the IAU 50/100 schemes, especially the free model integration, on one hand, allows for better re-establishment of the equilibrium model state, on the other hand, smooths the strong gradients in dynamically active region.

  4. Asymptotic analysis of discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xia; Yuan, Guang-wei; Shen, Zhi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by providing well-behaved fully discrete schemes in practice, this paper extends the asymptotic analysis on time integration methods for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion in [2] to space discretizations. Therein studies were carried out on a two-temperature model with Larsen's flux-limited diffusion operator, both the implicitly balanced (IB) and linearly implicit (LI) methods were shown asymptotic-preserving. In this paper, we focus on asymptotic analysis for space discrete schemes in dimensions one and two. First, in construction of the schemes, in contrast to traditional first-order approximations, asymmetric second-order accurate spatial approximations are devised for flux-limiters on boundary, and discrete schemes with second-order accuracy on global spatial domain are acquired consequently. Then by employing formal asymptotic analysis, the first-order asymptotic-preserving property for these schemes and furthermore for the fully discrete schemes is shown. Finally, with the help of manufactured solutions, numerical tests are performed, which demonstrate quantitatively the fully discrete schemes with IB time evolution indeed have the accuracy and asymptotic convergence as theory predicts, hence are well qualified for both non-equilibrium and equilibrium radiation diffusion. - Highlights: • Provide AP fully discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion. • Propose second order accurate schemes by asymmetric approach for boundary flux-limiter. • Show first order AP property of spatially and fully discrete schemes with IB evolution. • Devise subtle artificial solutions; verify accuracy and AP property quantitatively. • Ideas can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems and higher order implicit schemes.

  5. Dispersion analysis for difference schemes: tables of generalized Airy functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, R.C.Y.; Hedstrom, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This papers contains graphs and tables of the function /sup Ai/p,q(/sup alpha,x/) =∫/sup infinity/: infinity (2π) -1 exp]y/sup p//p-αy/sup q//q+ixy]dy and its indefinite integral for p=3,5,7, for q=2,4,6, and for several values of α with α> or =0. It is shown how these tables should influence the choice of an artifical viscosity for a difference scheme for a linear hyperbolic equation

  6. Compensation schemes, liquidity provision, and asset prices: An experimental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baghestanian, Sascha; Gortner, Paul; Massenot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    In an experimental setting in which investors can entrust their money to traders, we investigate how compensation schemes affect liquidity provision and asset prices. Investors face a trade-off between risk and return. At the benefit of a potentially higher return, they can entrust their money to a trader. However this investment is risky, as the trader might not be trustworthy. Alternatively, they can opt for a safe but low return. We study how subjects solve this trade-off when traders are ...

  7. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  8. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COOPERATION SCHEMES IN EAVESDROPPER ASSISTED RELAY CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Kumar Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of the wireless communication has been urging the monotonically increasing demand of security and privacy. In wireless systems, the notion of perfect secrecy of information with respect to illegitimate nodes can be ensured via physical layer security (PLS techniques. Unfortunately, they can be made less effective if source- eavesdropper wiretap channel is better than the main source-receiver channel. The various node cooperation schemes can be employed to combat this limitation where a relay node assists the communication to improve the performance significantly. In this paper, a four node wireless communication system consisting of a source, a destination, a relay and an eavesdropper as wire-tapper has been considered. The performance of the traditional cooperation schemes in terms of secrecy rate has been investigated with a different scenario where relay node helps the eavesdropper to deteriorate the secrecy rate. In addition, since legitimate receiver can overhear the transmission of relay, it favours the achievable secrecy rate. We formulate an analytical expression of conditional secrecy outage probability for the investigated system. From the obtained simulation results, it has been observed that secrecy rate is monotonically increases with path loss index. Furthermore, the proper selection of the system parameters leads to enhance the secrecy performance of the system even if relay pertains to degrade the performance. Amplify-and-forward, cooperation, decode-and-Forward, secrecy rate, relay.

  9. Forcing scheme analysis for the axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann method under incompressible limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Chen, Jie; Yin, Linmao; Chew, Jia Wei

    2017-04-01

    Because the standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is proposed for Cartesian Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, additional source terms are necessary in the axisymmetric LB method for representing the axisymmetric effects. Therefore, the accuracy and applicability of the axisymmetric LB models depend on the forcing schemes adopted for discretization of the source terms. In this study, three forcing schemes, namely, the trapezium rule based scheme, the direct forcing scheme, and the semi-implicit centered scheme, are analyzed theoretically by investigating their derived macroscopic equations in the diffusive scale. Particularly, the finite difference interpretation of the standard LB method is extended to the LB equations with source terms, and then the accuracy of different forcing schemes is evaluated for the axisymmetric LB method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the discrete lattice effects arising from the direct forcing scheme are part of the truncation error terms and thus would not affect the overall accuracy of the standard LB method with general force term (i.e., only the source terms in the momentum equation are considered), but lead to incorrect macroscopic equations for the axisymmetric LB models. On the other hand, the trapezium rule based scheme and the semi-implicit centered scheme both have the advantage of avoiding the discrete lattice effects and recovering the correct macroscopic equations. Numerical tests applied for validating the theoretical analysis show that both the numerical stability and the accuracy of the axisymmetric LB simulations are affected by the direct forcing scheme, which indicate that forcing schemes free of the discrete lattice effects are necessary for the axisymmetric LB method.

  10. Analysis of BSRT Profiles in the LHC at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Redaelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The beam synchrotron radiation telescope (BSRT) at the LHC allows to take profiles of the transverse beam distribution, which can provide useful additional insight in the evolution of the transverse beam distribution. A python class has been developed [1], which allows to read in the BSRT profiles, usually stored in binary format, run different analysis tools and generate plots of the statistical parameters and profiles as well as videos of the the profiles. The detailed analysis will be described in this note. The analysis is based on the data obtained at injection energy (450 GeV) during MD1217 [2] and MD1415 [3] which will be also used as illustrative example. A similar approach is also taken with a MATLAB based analysis described in [4].

  11. Multidose Botulinum Toxin A for Intralaryngeal Injection: A Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R; Young, VyVy N; Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A

    2018-01-04

    Botulinum toxin A (BtxA) injection is the mainstay treatment for laryngeal dystonias. BtxA product labeling states that reconstituted toxin should be used within 4 hours on a single patient despite several studies that have demonstrated multidose BtxA to be safe and effective. Many insurance carriers mandate the use of an outside pharmacy which necessitates a single-use approach. This study compares the cost savings of multidose BtxA for laryngeal dystonia compared to single-use. This is a retrospective review and projected cost savings analysis. Records and billing information were reviewed for patients receiving BtxA for intralaryngeal injection at a single laryngology division in 2015. Inclusion criteria included CPT 64617 or J0585; exclusion criteria included CPT 64616. The price of BtxA 100 unit vial for calculation was $670. A total of 142 patients were seen for intralaryngeal BtxA injection resulting in 337 visits over 1 year. The average BtxA dose per visit was 2.86 units with an average of 3.06 procedure visits per year. The calculated cost of BtxA treatment using a single vial approach was found to be $2,050 per patient per year. If billed instead for $7/unit with 5 units wastage charge per visit, the yearly per patient charge is $168. Single vial-use of BtxA injection thus represents a 1,118% price increase versus multidose use. When estimated for yearly prevalence of spasmodic dysphonia, multidose BtxA use would save almost $100 million annually. Multidose botulinum toxin A application utilizing per unit billing is significantly less expensive than per single-use vial billing and would save the health-care system significant amount of money without any sacrifice in safety or effectiveness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of cerium by flow injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaorong; Meng Jian; Liu Wenhua

    1990-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cerium (λ ex/em:251/365 nm) in hydrochloric acid solution by flow injection analysis is presented. It has well developed the normal spectrofluorimetric method for determination of cerium and has made: 1, the determination procedure shortened; 2, the determination speed increased to about 180 samples per hour; 3, the determination range widened to 0.05-100.0 ppm CeO 2 , abouot two times as wide as the normal spectrofluorimetric method; and 4, the relative standard deviation lessened (about 0.47% for 0.1 ppm CeO 2 , n = 13)

  14. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  15. QIM blind video watermarking scheme based on Wavelet transform and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen I. Yassin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a blind scheme for digital video watermarking is proposed. The security of the scheme is established by using one secret key in the retrieval of the watermark. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is applied on each video frame decomposing it into a number of sub-bands. Maximum entropy blocks are selected and transformed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Quantization Index Modulation (QIM is used to quantize the maximum coefficient of the PCA blocks of each sub-band. Then, the watermark is embedded into the selected suitable quantizer values. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility. The computed average PSNR exceeds 45 dB. Finally, the scheme is applied on two medical videos. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment in both cases of regular videos and medical videos.

  16. Dynamic remedial action scheme using online transient stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Arun

    Economic pressure and environmental factors have forced the modern power systems to operate closer to their stability limits. However, maintaining transient stability is a fundamental requirement for the operation of interconnected power systems. In North America, power systems are planned and operated to withstand the loss of any single or multiple elements without violating North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) system performance criteria. For a contingency resulting in the loss of multiple elements (Category C), emergency transient stability controls may be necessary to stabilize the power system. Emergency control is designed to sense abnormal conditions and subsequently take pre-determined remedial actions to prevent instability. Commonly known as either Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) or as Special/System Protection Schemes (SPS), these emergency control approaches have been extensively adopted by utilities. RAS are designed to address specific problems, e.g. to increase power transfer, to provide reactive support, to address generator instability, to limit thermal overloads, etc. Possible remedial actions include generator tripping, load shedding, capacitor and reactor switching, static VAR control, etc. Among various RAS types, generation shedding is the most effective and widely used emergency control means for maintaining system stability. In this dissertation, an optimal power flow (OPF)-based generation-shedding RAS is proposed. This scheme uses online transient stability calculation and generator cost function to determine appropriate remedial actions. For transient stability calculation, SIngle Machine Equivalent (SIME) technique is used, which reduces the multimachine power system model to a One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) equivalent and identifies critical machines. Unlike conventional RAS, which are designed using offline simulations, online stability calculations make the proposed RAS dynamic and adapting to any power system

  17. Relevant climate response tests for stratospheric aerosol injection: A combined ethical and scientific analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferna, Georges Alexandre; Russotto, Rick D.; Tan, Amanda; Gardiner, Stephen M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on stratospheric sulfate injection as a geoengineering scheme, and provide a combined scientific and ethical analysis of climate response tests, which are a subset of outdoor tests that would seek to impose detectable and attributable changes to climate variables on global or regional scales. We assess the current state of scientific understanding on the plausibility and scalability of climate response tests. Then, we delineate a minimal baseline against which to consider whether certain climate response tests would be relevant for a deployment scenario. Our analysis shows that some climate response tests, such as those attempting to detect changes in regional climate impacts, may not be deployable in time periods relevant to realistic geoengineering scenarios. This might pose significant challenges for justifying stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection deployment overall. We then survey some of the major ethical challenges that proposed climate response tests face. We consider what levels of confidence would be required to ethically justify approving a proposed test; whether the consequences of tests are subject to similar questions of justice, compensation, and informed consent as full-scale deployment; and whether questions of intent and hubris are morally relevant for climate response tests. We suggest further research into laboratory-based work and modeling may help to narrow the scientific uncertainties related to climate response tests, and help inform future ethical debate. However, even if such work is pursued, the ethical issues raised by proposed climate response tests are significant and manifold.

  18. Sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve schemes for on-line solid phase extraction and preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Miro, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This communication presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of the exploitation of sequential injection (SI)-bead injection (BI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) schemes for automatic on-line sample pre-treatments interfaced with ETAAS and ICPMS detection as conducted in the authors' group. The discussions are focused on the applications of SI-BI-LOV protocols for on-line microcolumn based solid phase extraction of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals, employing the so-called renewable surface separation and preconcentration manipulatory scheme. Two types of sorbents have been employed as packing material, that is, the hydrophilic SP Sephadex C-25 cation exchange and iminodiacetate based Muromac A-1 chelating resins, and the hydrophobic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) copolymer alkylated with octadecyl groups (C 18 -PS/DVB). Using ETAAS as detection device, the easy-to-handle hydrophilic renewable reactors hold the features of improved R.S.D.s and LODs as compared to those operated in the conventional, permanent mode, in addition to the elimination of flow resistance. The hydrophobic columns fall into two categories, that is, the renewable one packed with C 18 -PS/DVB beads entails analogous R.S.D.s and LODs with respect to the conventional approach, while those with PTFE beads result in slightly inferior R.S.D.s and LODs by similar comparison, yet offering a wider dynamic range than when using an external permanent column. Moreover, the hydrophilic materials result in much higher enrichment of the analyte than the hydrophobic ones, although PTFE is the packing material that exhibits the best retention efficiency

  19. Friction analysis of kinetic schemes : the friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free

  20. Flow injection analysis: Emerging tool for laboratory automation in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Ruzicka, J.; Grate, J.W.; Janata, J.

    1996-01-01

    Automation of routine and serial assays is a common practice of modern analytical laboratory, while it is virtually nonexistent in the field of radiochemistry. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a general solution handling methodology that has been extensively used for automation of routine assays in many areas of analytical chemistry. Reproducible automated solution handling and on-line separation capabilities are among several distinctive features that make FI a very promising, yet under utilized tool for automation in analytical radiochemistry. The potential of the technique is demonstrated through the development of an automated 90 Sr analyzer and its application in the analysis of tank waste samples from the Hanford site. Sequential injection (SI), the latest generation of FIA, is used to rapidly separate 90 Sr from interfering radionuclides and deliver separated Sr zone to a flow-through liquid scintillation detector. The separation is performed on a mini column containing Sr-specific sorbent extraction material, which selectively retains Sr under acidic conditions. The 90 Sr is eluted with water, mixed with scintillation cocktail, and sent through the flow cell of a flow through counter, where 90 Sr radioactivity is detected as a transient signal. Both peak area and peak height can be used for quantification of sample radioactivity. Alternatively, stopped flow detection can be performed to improve detection precision for low activity samples. The authors current research activities are focused on expansion of radiochemical applications of FIA methodology, with an ultimate goal of creating a set of automated methods that will cover the basic needs of radiochemical analysis at the Hanford site. The results of preliminary experiments indicate that FIA is a highly suitable technique for the automation of chemically more challenging separations, such as separation of actinide elements

  1. Multi-Hierarchical Gray Correlation Analysis Applied in the Selection of Green Building Design Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Chuanghong

    2018-02-01

    As a sustainable form of ecological structure, green building is widespread concerned and advocated in society increasingly nowadays. In the survey and design phase of preliminary project construction, carrying out the evaluation and selection of green building design scheme, which is in accordance with the scientific and reasonable evaluation index system, can improve the ecological benefits of green building projects largely and effectively. Based on the new Green Building Evaluation Standard which came into effect on January 1, 2015, the evaluation index system of green building design scheme is constructed taking into account the evaluation contents related to the green building design scheme. We organized experts who are experienced in construction scheme optimization to mark and determine the weight of each evaluation index through the AHP method. The correlation degree was calculated between each evaluation scheme and ideal scheme by using multilevel gray relational analysis model and then the optimal scheme was determined. The feasibility and practicability of the evaluation method are verified by introducing examples.

  2. Outcome analysis of two different injection solutions for epidural injection in radicular lumbar backache syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Mukhtar, M.; Bhatti, S.N; Afridi, E.A.K.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Backache is a significant source of disability and suffering in our society. The treatment modalities need continued enhancement in order to achieve the desired goals of lowering morbidity and financial losses while improving the response of the patient. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at the department of Orthopaedics and Spine Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from July 2013 to June 2015. Two interventional groups were designated; Group 1 was comprised of 54 patients who were injected with epidural bupivacaine plus methylprednisolone while Group 2 included 55 patients who were injected with bupivacaine only. Outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: Fifty-five female and 54 male patients with mean age 49.37 years+-10.46 SD, Mean symptoms duration was 15.01 months+-9.32 SD. Common presenting symptoms were backache (77.1 percent), lower limbs pain (66.1 percent), dermatomal paresthesias (54.1 percent) and neurogenic claudication in 57.8 percent patients. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) after injection was 3.18+-1.29 while mean ODI after injection was 23.615. There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores (2-sided p=0.003, OR =4.03, 95 percent CI: 1.535-10.60) following the injection. Conclusion: An epidural spinal injection is a viable option for achieving relief of pain and improves functioning in individuals with radicular backache. However, further research is advised in order to clarify the role of ESI for long-term relief. (author)

  3. Development of the KOSHA Proficiency Testing Scheme on Asbestos Analysis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoon Kwon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary presents the regulatory backgrounds and development of the national proficiency testing (PT scheme on asbestos analysis in the Republic of Korea. Since 2009, under the amended Occupational Safety and Health Act, the survey of asbestos in buildings and clearance test of asbestos removal works have been mandated to be carried out by the laboratories designated by the Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL in the Republic of Korea. To assess the performance of asbestos laboratories, a PT scheme on asbestos analysis was launched by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA on behalf of the MOEL in 2007. Participating laboratories are evaluated once a year for fiber counting and bulk asbestos analysis by phase contrast microscopy and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Currently, the number of laboratory enrollments is > 200, and the percentage of passed laboratories is > 90. The current status and several significant changes in operation, sample preparations, and statistics of assigning the reference values of the KOSHA PT scheme on asbestos analysis are presented. Critical retrospect based on the experiences of operating the KOSHA PT scheme suggests considerations for developing a new national PT scheme for asbestos analysis.

  4. Revised Chapman-Enskog analysis for a class of forcing schemes in the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhou, P; Yan, H J

    2016-10-01

    In the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, the forcing scheme, which is used to incorporate an external or internal force into the LB equation, plays an important role. It determines whether the force of the system is correctly implemented in an LB model and affects the numerical accuracy. In this paper we aim to clarify a critical issue about the Chapman-Enskog analysis for a class of forcing schemes in the LB method in which the velocity in the equilibrium density distribution function is given by u=∑_{α}e_{α}f_{α}/ρ, while the actual fluid velocity is defined as u[over ̂]=u+δ_{t}F/(2ρ). It is shown that the usual Chapman-Enskog analysis for this class of forcing schemes should be revised so as to derive the actual macroscopic equations recovered from these forcing schemes. Three forcing schemes belonging to the above class are analyzed, among which Wagner's forcing scheme [A. J. Wagner, Phys. Rev. E 74, 056703 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevE.74.056703] is shown to be capable of reproducing the correct macroscopic equations. The theoretical analyses are examined and demonstrated with two numerical tests, including the simulation of Womersley flow and the modeling of flat and circular interfaces by the pseudopotential multiphase LB model.

  5. Analysis of sensitivity to different parameterization schemes for a subtropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitián-Hernández, L.; Fernández-González, S.; González-Alemán, J. J.; Valero, F.; Martín, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A sensitivity analysis to diverse WRF model physical parameterization schemes is carried out during the lifecycle of a Subtropical cyclone (STC). STCs are low-pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics, with hybrid thermal structures. In October 2014, a STC made landfall in the Canary Islands, causing widespread damage from strong winds and precipitation there. The system began to develop on October 18 and its effects lasted until October 21. Accurate simulation of this type of cyclone continues to be a major challenge because of its rapid intensification and unique characteristics. In the present study, several numerical simulations were performed using the WRF model to do a sensitivity analysis of its various parameterization schemes for the development and intensification of the STC. The combination of parameterization schemes that best simulated this type of phenomenon was thereby determined. In particular, the parameterization combinations that included the Tiedtke cumulus schemes had the most positive effects on model results. Moreover, concerning STC track validation, optimal results were attained when the STC was fully formed and all convective processes stabilized. Furthermore, to obtain the parameterization schemes that optimally categorize STC structure, a verification using Cyclone Phase Space is assessed. Consequently, the combination of parameterizations including the Tiedtke cumulus schemes were again the best in categorizing the cyclone's subtropical structure. For strength validation, related atmospheric variables such as wind speed and precipitable water were analyzed. Finally, the effects of using a deterministic or probabilistic approach in simulating intense convective phenomena were evaluated.

  6. Development of devices for self-injection: using tribological analysis to optimize injection force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Lange, Leos Urbanek, Stefan BurrenYpsomed Delivery Systems, Ypsomed AG, Burgdorf, Switzerland Abstract: This article describes the use of analytical models and physical measurements to characterize and optimize the tribological behavior of pen injectors for self-administration of biopharmaceuticals. One of the main performance attributes of this kind of device is its efficiency in transmitting the external force applied by the user on to the cartridge inside the pen in order to effectuate an injection. This injection force characteristic is heavily influenced by the frictional properties of the polymeric materials employed in the mechanism. Standard friction tests are available for characterizing candidate materials, but they use geometries and conditions far removed from the actual situation inside a pen injector and thus do not always generate relevant data. A new test procedure, allowing the direct measurement of the coefficient of friction between two key parts of a pen injector mechanism using real parts under simulated use conditions, is presented. In addition to the absolute level of friction, the test method provides information on expected evolution of friction over lifetime as well as on expected consistency between individual devices. Paired with an analytical model of the pen mechanism, the frictional data allow the expected overall injection system force efficiency to be estimated. The test method and analytical model are applied to a range of polymer combinations with different kinds of lubrication. It is found that material combinations used without lubrication generally have unsatisfactory performance, that the use of silicone-based internal lubricating additives improves performance, and that the best results can be achieved with external silicone-based lubricants. Polytetrafluoroethylene-based internal lubrication and external lubrication are also evaluated but found to provide only limited benefits unless used in

  7. Analysis scheme of density modulation experiments for particle confinements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Kawanata, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Toi, K.; Gao, X.; Jie, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Density modulation experiments are one of the powerful experimental schemas to study particle confinements. The diffusion coefficients (D) and convection velocity (V), which is impossible to evaluated from particle balance in equilibrium state, can be separately obtained. And the estimated value of D and V are determined independent of absolute value of particle source rate, which is difficult to be obtained experimentally. However sensitivities and interpretation of D and V from modulation experiments should be taken care. In this paper, numerical techniques to solve particle balance equation of modulation components are described. Examples of analysis are shown from the data of LHD. And interpretations of results of modulation experiments are studied. (author)

  8. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  9. Equilibrium transuranic management scheme for diverse fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Jason; Lee, John C.

    2008-01-01

    A key issue cited in the U.S. Department of Energy's report to Congress (2003) on the research path for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is an accurate estimation of life cycle costs for the construction, operation, decontamination and decommissioning of all fuel cycle facilities. In this report we discuss the methodology and validation of a fuel cycle model based on equilibrium operation. We apply our model to a diverse set of advanced reactors and fuel types in order to determine the most effective transmuting system while simultaneously minimizing fuel cycle costs. Our analysis shows that a nearly instant equilibrium modeling of fuel cycle scenarios can accurately approximate the detailed complex dynamic models developed by national laboratories. Our analysis also shows that the cost of transmuting Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from a UO 2 fueled Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is minimized by utilizing the thorium cycle in sodium cooled fast reactors and is near the cost for long term repository storage of SNF at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  10. Security analysis and improvement of a privacy authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Xu, Lili

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, patients can gain many kinds of medical service on line via Telecare Medical Information Systems(TMIS) due to the fast development of computer technology. So security of communication through network between the users and the server is very significant. Authentication plays an important part to protect information from being attacked by malicious attackers. Recently, Jiang et al. proposed a privacy enhanced scheme for TMIS using smart cards and claimed their scheme was better than Chen et al.'s. However, we have showed that Jiang et al.'s scheme has the weakness of ID uselessness and is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and user impersonation attack if an attacker compromises the legal user's smart card. Also, it can't resist DoS attack in two cases: after a successful impersonation attack and wrong password input in Password change phase. Then we propose an improved mutual authentication scheme used for a telecare medical information system. Remote monitoring, checking patients' past medical history record and medical consultant can be applied in the system where information transmits via Internet. Finally, our analysis indicates that the suggested scheme overcomes the disadvantages of Jiang et al.'s scheme and is practical for TMIS.

  11. Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jinbin

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software

  12. Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jinbin, E-mail: jbzheng518@163.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China)

    2014-10-06

    In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.

  13. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  14. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  15. Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection- Induced Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-21

    The production of geothermal energy from dry and low permeability reservoirs is achieved by water circulation in natural and/or man-made fractures, and is referred to as enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Often, the permeable zones have to be created by stimulation, a process which involves fracture initiation and/or activation of discontinuities such as faults and joints due to pore pressure and the in-situ stress perturbations. The stimulation of a rock mass is often accompanied by multiple microseismic events. Micro-seismic events associated with rock failure in shear, and shear slip on new or pre-existing fracture planes and possibly their propagations. The microseismic signals contain information about the sources of energy that can be used for understanding the hydraulic fracturing process and the created reservoir properties. Detection and interpretation of microseismic events is useful for estimating the stimulated zone, created reservoir permeability and fracture growth, and geometry of the geological structures and the in-situ stress state. The process commonly is referred to as seismicity-based reservoir characterization (SBRC). Although, progress has been made by scientific & geothermal communities for quantitative and qualitative analysis of reservoir stimulation using SBRC several key questions remain unresolved in the analysis of micro-seismicity namely, variation of seismic activity with injection rate, delayed micro-seismicity, and the relation of stimulated zone to the injected volume and its rate, and the resulting reservoir permeability. In addition, the current approach to SBRC does not consider the full range of relevant poroelastic and thermoelastic phenomena and neglects the uncertainty in rock properties and in-situ stress in the data inversion process. The objective of this research and technology developments was to develop a 3D SBRC model that addresses these shortcomings by taking into account hydro

  16. Analysis for Passive Safety Injection of IPSS in Various LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sangho; Chang, Soonheung

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima accident shows US the possibility of accidents that are beyond a designed imagination. Lots of lessons can be shortly summarized into three issues. First of all, the original cause was the occurrence of a Station Black-Out (SBO). Even if engineers considered the possibility of a loss of offsite power enough to be managed, the failure of EDGs seemed to be unnoticed. The second is poor operation and accident management. They could not understand the overall system and did not check the availability of alternating systems. The third is the large release of radioactive materials outside the containment. Even if SBO occurred and the accident was not managed well, all the means must have prevented the large release out of containment. After that, lots of problems were pointed and numerous actions were carried out in each country. The representative proposals are AAC, additional physical barrier, bunker concept and large big tank. Integrated passive safety system (IPSS) was proposed as one of the solutions for enhancing the safety. IPSS can cope with a SBO and accidents with a SBO. IPSS has five functions which are passive decay heat removal, passive safety injection, passive containment cooling, passive in-vessel retention and filtered venting system. The results showed a high performance of removing decay heat through steam generator cooling by forming natural circulation in the primary circuit. The design concept of passive safety injection system (PSIS) consists of the injection line from integrated passive safety tank (IPST) to reactor vessel. The previous works were only focused on a double ended guillotine break LOCA in SBO. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of PSIS in IPSS for various LOCAs by using MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code. The simulated accidents were LOCAs which were accompanied with a SBO. The conditions of the LOCAs were varied only for the size of break. It shall show the capability of PSIS

  17. Clinical and economic analysis of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom-paz, Einat; Alshalati, Jana; Shehata, Fady; Jimenez, Luis; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang Lin; Almog, Benny

    2011-12-01

    To identify clinical and embryological factors that may predict success in rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (after total fertilization failure has occurred) and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI strategy. Additionally, follow-up of 20 rescue ICSI pregnancies is reported. Retrospective analysis of total fertilization failure cycles. University-based tertiary medical center. In total, 92 patients who had undergone conventional in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with total fertilization failure were included. The patients were divided into two subgroups: those who conceived through rescue ICSI and those who did not. The pregnant members of the rescue ICSI subgroup were found to be significantly younger (32.9 ± 4.2 vs. 36.3 ± 4.5, respectively, p = 0.0035,) and to have better-quality embryos than those who did not conceive (cumulative embryo score: 38.3 ± 20.4 vs. 29.3 ± 14.7, p = 0.025). Cost effectiveness analysis showed 25% reduction in the cost per live birth when rescue ICSI is compared to cycle cancellation approach. The pregnancies follow-up did not show adverse perinatal outcome. Rescue ICSI is an option for salvaging IVF cycles complicated by total fertilization failure. Success in rescue ICSI was found to be associated with younger age and higher quality of embryos. Furthermore, the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI in terms of total fertilization failure was found to be worthwhile.

  18. Energy Stability Analysis of Some Fully Discrete Numerical Schemes for Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i.e., the linear implicit scheme for time discretization with the finite difference method (FDM) on staggered grids for spatial discretization, pressure-correction schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations, and pressure-stabilization schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations. The energy stability estimates are obtained for the above each fully discrete scheme. The upwind scheme is used in the discretization of the convection term which plays an important role in the design of unconditionally stable discrete schemes. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  19. New Trends in Flow Injection Analysis: Exploitation of Sequential and Lab-on-Valve Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    has appeared, that is, the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach, the conceptual basis of which is to incorporate all the necessary unit operational manipulations required, and, when possible, even the detection device into a single small integrated microconduit, or “laboratory”, placed atop a selection valve...... sensitivity and selectivity. Either in order to separate/preconcentrate the analyte material, or because of the presence of potentially interfering matrix constituents. Such pretreatments are advantageously performed in FIA/SIA/LOV manifolds, where all appropriate unit operations can be effected under...

  20. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-07

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time.

  1. Variable-flavor-number scheme in analysis of heavy-quark electro-production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S.

    2009-08-01

    We check the impact of the factorization scheme employed in the calculation of the heavy-quark deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) electro-production on the PDFs determined in the NNLO QCD analysis of the world inclusive neutral-current DIS data combined with the ones on the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon production and the fixed-target Drell-Yan process. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in the general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme: At asymptotically large values of the momentum transfer Q it is given by the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme and at the value of Q equal to the charm-quark mass it is smoothly matched with the 3-flavor scheme using the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The PDFs obtained in this variant of the fit are very similar to the ones obtained in the fit with a 3-flavor scheme employed. Our 5-flavor PDFs derived from the 3-flavor ones using the NNLO matching conditions are used to calculate the rates of W ± /Z and t anti t production at the Tevatron collider and the LHC at NNLO. (orig.)

  2. Performance analysis of switch-based multiuser scheduling schemes with adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the development of multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, two scheduling schemes are proposed for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme focuses on optimizing the average spectral efficiency by selecting the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the relatively high feedback required by the first scheme, a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity is proposed, where the base station (BS) scans the secondary users in a sequential manner until a user whose channel quality is above an acceptable predetermined threshold is found. We develop expressions for the statistics of the signal-to-interference and noise ratio as well as the average spectral efficiency, average feedback load, and the delay at the secondary BS. We then present numerical results for the effect of the number of users and the interference constraint on the optimal switching threshold and the system performance and show that our analysis results are in perfect agreement with the numerical results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  4. System reliability assessment via sensitivity analysis in the Markov chain scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for reliability sensitivity analysis in the Markov chain scheme are presented, together with a new formulation which makes use of Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) methods. As well known, sensitivity methods are fundamental in system risk analysis, since they allow to identify important components, so to assist the analyst in finding weaknesses in design and operation and in suggesting optimal modifications for system upgrade. The relationship between the GPT sensitivity expression and the Birnbaum importance is also given [fr

  5. Study on mixed analysis method for fatigue analysis of oblique safety injection nozzle on main piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xifeng; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei; Wang Xinjun; He Feng

    2014-01-01

    The simplified analysis method and the detailed analysis method were used for the fatigue analysis of the nozzle on the main piping. Because the structure of the oblique safety injection nozzle is complex and some more severe transients are subjected. The results obtained are more penalized and cannot be validate when the simplified analysis method used for the fatigue analysis. It will be little conservative when the detailed analysis method used, but it is more complex and time-consuming and boring labor. To reduce the conservatism and save time, the mixed analysis method which combining the simplified analysis method with the detailed analysis method is used for the fatigue analysis. The heat transfer parameters between the fluid and the structure which used for analysis were obtained by heat transfer property experiment. The results show that the mixed analysis which heat transfer property is considered can reduce the conservatism effectively, and the mixed analysis method is a more effective and practical method used for the fatigue analysis of the oblique safety injection nozzle. (authors)

  6. Analysis of pulsed injection for microgravity receiver tank chilldown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Scott C.; Pietrzyk, Joe R.; Schuster, John R.

    The dominant heat transfer mechanism during the hold phase of a tank chilldown cycle in a low-gravity environment is due to fluid motion persistence following the charge. As compared to the single-charge per vent cycle case, pulsed injection maintains fluid motion and the associated high wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold phase. As a result, the pulsed injection procedure appears to be an attractive method for reducing the time and liquid mass required to chill a tank. However, for the representative conditions considered, no significant benefit can be realized by using pulsed injection as compared to the single-charge case. A numerical model of the charge/hold/vent process was used to evaluate the pulsed injection procedure for tank chilldown in microgravity. Pulsed injection results in higher average wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold, as compared to the single-charge case. However, these high levels were not coincident with the maximum wall-to-fluid temperature differences, as in the single-charge case. For representative conditions investigated, the charge/hold/vent process is very efficient. A slightly shorter chilldown time was realized by increasing the number of pulses.

  7. Vibration analysis of the Golfech 2 safety injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1993-01-01

    The main function of the safety injection system in a PWR plant is to ensure cooling of fuel elements in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The multistage centrifugal pump mounted-on this system induces pressure fluctuations, resulting in dynamic loads on piping. In certain plant units, these loads have caused cracking in the nozzles connected to the safety injection system, whereas in others, no damage has been observed. In order to understand the differences in dynamic behavior observed from one site to another, tests were performed on a real safety injection system, that of Golfech-2. They enabled determination of the modal characteristics of the system and identification of the hydro-acoustic source of the low head safety injection pump. They also enabled assessment of the pressure fluctuation levels in the pump suction and discharge areas as well as the vibratory response of the system when operating under partial and nominal flow conditions. Finally, these test results were used to estimate fatigue damage in the safety injection system. The experimental results will later be used to validate the model of the system undertaken with the piping design code CIRCUS and define the boundary conditions to be taken into account. (author). 6 figs., 2 refs

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of High Injection Pressure Blended Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel have great potential for substitution with petrol fuel for the purpose of achieving clean energy production and emission reduction. Among the methods that can control the combustion properties, controlling of the fuel injection conditions is one of the successful methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high injection pressure of biodiesel blends on spray characteristics using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Injection pressure was observed at 220 MPa, 250 MPa and 280 MPa. The ambient temperature was kept held at 1050 K and ambient pressure 8 MPa in order to simulate the effect of boost pressure or turbo charger during combustion process. Computational Fluid Dynamics were used to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel blends such as spray penetration length, spray angle and mixture formation of fuel-air mixing. The results shows that increases of injection pressure, wider spray angle is produced by biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The injection pressure strongly affects the mixture formation, characteristics of fuel spray, longer spray penetration length thus promotes the fuel and air mixing.

  9. Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  10. Security Analysis and Enhancements of an Effective Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwa An

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das’s authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das’s authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das’s authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  11. Improvement of burnup analysis for pebble bed reactors with an accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Given the limitations of natural uranium resources, innovative nuclear power plant concepts that increase the efficiency of nuclear fuel utilization are needed. The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) shows some potential to achieve high efficiency in natural uranium utilization. To simplify the PBR concept, PBR with an accumulation fuel loading scheme was introduced and the Fuel Handling System (FHS) removed. In this concept, the pebble balls are added little by little into the reactor core until the pebble balls reach the top of the reactor core, and all pebble balls are discharged from the core at the end of the operation period. A code based on the MVP/MVP-BURN method has been developed to perform an analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. The optimum fuel composition was found using the code for high burnup performance. Previous efforts provided several motivations to improve the burnup performance: First, some errors in the input code were corrected. This correction, and an overall simplification of the input code, was implemented for easier analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. Second, the optimum fuel design had been obtained in the infinite geometry. To improve the optimum fuel composition, a parametric survey was obtained by varying the amount of Heavy Metal (HM) uranium per pebble and the degree of uranium enrichment. Moreover, an entire analysis of the parametric survey was obtained in the finite geometry. The results show that improvements in the fuel composition can lead to more accurate analysis with the code. (author)

  12. CFD Analysis of the Safety Injection Tank and Fluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling to predict the performance during accident scenarios more accurately. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed thoroughly using CFD. The preliminary calculation used 60,000 meshes for the initial test calculation. The results fit the experimental results surprisingly despite its coarse grid. Nonetheless, the mesh resolution was increased to capture the vortex in the fluidic device precisely. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be improved to fit the results more accurately.

  13. Comparative analysis of supercritical CO2 power conversion system control schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.; Moisseytsev, A.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of control system performance was carried out for the S-CO 2 re-compressing cycle. In this study two control strategies were developed for managing process variables for a change in load at the electrical generator. Both relied on inventory control to reduce power but differed in other significant respects. In inventory control turbomachine mass flow rates are reduced through density change with the goal of preserving velocity triangle similarity and, hence, cycle efficiency. An inventory and low temperature control scheme was operated to maintain a trajectory that avoids close approach to the critical point by controlling the main compressor inlet temperature. Shaft power tracks a setpoint by controlling density. This control scheme may be preferred in plant configurations that use a flow-split. There the rapid density change with pressure near the critical point can lead to flow rate instability. An inventory and turbine bypass control scheme was operated to more closely approach the critical point. Inventory in addition to turbine bypass was used to control shaft power. The first control scheme yielded greater efficiency at reduced power as a result of two factors. First, bypassing coolant around the turbine increases the mass flow rate through the compressors while shaft speed is maintained constant. As a result the compressor velocity triangles are altered from their peak efficiency values. Second, the bypass flow rate results in non-isothermal mixing downstream where the turbine and bypass flow combine which also penalizes efficiency. (authors)

  14. Multiscale deep drawing analysis of dual-phase steels using grain cluster-based RGC scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjahjanto, D D; Eisenlohr, P; Roters, F

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale modelling and simulation play an important role in sheet metal forming analysis, since the overall material responses at macroscopic engineering scales, e.g. formability and anisotropy, are strongly influenced by microstructural properties, such as grain size and crystal orientations (texture). In the present report, multiscale analysis on deep drawing of dual-phase steels is performed using an efficient grain cluster-based homogenization scheme.The homogenization scheme, called relaxed grain cluster (RGC), is based on a generalization of the grain cluster concept, where a (representative) volume element consists of p  ×  q  ×  r (hexahedral) grains. In this scheme, variation of the strain or deformation of individual grains is taken into account through the, so-called, interface relaxation, which is formulated within an energy minimization framework. An interfacial penalty term is introduced into the energy minimization framework in order to account for the effects of grain boundaries.The grain cluster-based homogenization scheme has been implemented and incorporated into the advanced material simulation platform DAMASK, which purposes to bridge the macroscale boundary value problems associated with deep drawing analysis to the micromechanical constitutive law, e.g. crystal plasticity model. Standard Lankford anisotropy tests are performed to validate the model parameters prior to the deep drawing analysis. Model predictions for the deep drawing simulations are analyzed and compared to the corresponding experimental data. The result shows that the predictions of the model are in a very good agreement with the experimental measurement. (paper)

  15. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2014-08-27

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  16. Error Analysis of Explicit Partitioned Runge–Kutta Schemes for Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem; Ketcheson, David I.; Savostianov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    An error analysis is presented for explicit partitioned Runge–Kutta methods and multirate methods applied to conservation laws. The interfaces, across which different methods or time steps are used, lead to order reduction of the schemes. Along with cell-based decompositions, also flux-based decompositions are studied. In the latter case mass conservation is guaranteed, but it will be seen that the accuracy may deteriorate.

  17. Detailed Analysis of Torque Ripple in High Frequency Signal Injection based Sensor less PMSM Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Setty A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Signal Injection based techniques are robust and well proven to estimate the rotor position from stand still to low speed. However, Injected high frequency signal introduces, high frequency harmonics in the motor phase currents and results in significant Output Torque ripple. There is no detailed analysis exist in the literature, to study the effect of injected signal frequency on Torque ripple. Objective of this work is to study the Torque Ripple resulting from High Frequency signal injection in PMSM motor drives. Detailed MATLAB/Simulink simulations are carried to quantify the Torque ripple at different Signal frequencies.

  18. Adaptive Injection-locking Oscillator Array for RF Spectrum Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A highly parallel radio frequency receiver using an array of injection-locking oscillators for on-chip, rapid estimation of signal amplitudes and frequencies is considered. The oscillators are tuned to different natural frequencies, and variable gain amplifiers are used to provide negative feedback to adapt the locking band-width with the input signal to yield a combined measure of input signal amplitude and frequency detuning. To further this effort, an array of 16 two-stage differential ring oscillators and 16 Gilbert-cell mixers is designed for 40-400 MHz operation. The injection-locking oscillator array is assembled on a custom printed-circuit board. Control and calibration is achieved by on-board microcontroller.

  19. Analysis and design of double-anode magnetron injection gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tie; Niu Xinjian; Liu Yinghui

    2013-01-01

    Based on electro-optical theory and adiabatic compression theory, a double-anode magnetic injection gun for TE 34,19 , 170 GHz gyrotron was analyzed and designed with EGUN software. Concerning with the factors such as positions of anode and magnetic field distance between anodes, we obtained the result that the velocity ratio of electron beam approximated 1.3, and the velocity spread was under 3%. Furthermore, we found that electron beam was sensitive with these factors, such as that the velocity ratio decreased when the distance between anodes increased, while the velocity spread decreased first and then increased. The double-anode magnetic injection gun is employed in the experiments of gyrotron. (authors)

  20. Magnetic error analysis of recycler pbar injection transfer line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Detailed study of Fermilab Recycler Ring anti-proton injection line became feasible with its BPM system upgrade, though the beamline has been in existence and operational since year 2000. Previous attempts were not fruitful due to limitations in the BPM system. Among the objectives are the assessment of beamline optics and the presence of error fields. In particular the field region of the permanent Lambertson magnets at both ends of R22 transfer line will be scrutinized.

  1. Preliminary Study of 1D Thermal-Hydraulic System Analysis Code Using the Higher-Order Numerical Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The existing nuclear system analysis codes such as RELAP5, TRAC, MARS and SPACE use the first-order numerical scheme in both space and time discretization. However, the first-order scheme is highly diffusive and less accurate due to the first order of truncation error. So, the numerical diffusion problem which makes the gradients to be smooth in the regions where the gradients should be steep can occur during the analysis, which often predicts less conservatively than the reality. Therefore, the first-order scheme is not always useful in many applications such as boron solute transport. RELAP7 which is an advanced nuclear reactor system safety analysis code using the second-order numerical scheme in temporal and spatial discretization is being developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory) since 2011. Therefore, for better predictive performance of the safety of nuclear reactor systems, more accurate nuclear reactor system analysis code is needed for Korea too to follow the global trend of nuclear safety analysis. Thus, this study will evaluate the feasibility of applying the higher-order numerical scheme to the next generation nuclear system analysis code to provide the basis for the better nuclear system analysis code development. The accuracy is enhanced in the spatial second-order scheme and the numerical diffusion problem is alleviated while indicates significantly lower maximum Courant limit and the numerical dispersion issue which produces spurious oscillation and non-physical results in the higher-order scheme. If the spatial scheme is the first order scheme then the temporal second-order scheme provides almost the same result with the temporal firstorder scheme. However, when the temporal second order scheme and the spatial second-order scheme are applied together, the numerical dispersion can occur more severely. For the more in-depth study, the verification and validation of the NTS code built in MATLAB will be conducted further and expanded to handle two

  2. Analysis of effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jun; Cao Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization during high pressure severe accident sequence in a typical PWR was analyzed. As the results shown, late water injection could increase RCS pressure when RPV failed without RCS passive depressurization. Especially in the condition of opening one PORV, RCS pressure could reach high pressure limit when RPV failed and the risk of HPME and DCH was dramatically increased. Integrity of containment could be threatened. However, in the condition of RCS passive depressurization induced by pressurizer surge line creep failure, RCS pressure could be decreased to very low level even only one PORV was opened and two trains of emergency core cooling were implemented. The risk of HPME and DCH was eliminated. The more PORVs were opened, the faster accident progression was and the earlier RPV failed. RCS pressure was a little higher when PRV failed if two trains of emergency core cooling was implemented comparing with the condition with only one train of emergency core cooling. However the time of RPV failure was obviously delayed. From the point of delaying RPV failure and preventing containment early failure of view, the optimized late water injection was opening three PORVs and implementing two trains of emergency core cooling. (authors)

  3. Analysis on complications after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Wei Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe and analyze on the incidence rate and causes of complications after anintravitreal injection of bevacizumab. METHODS: Totally, 207 cases(207 eyeswith wet age-related macular degeneration were selected randomly. All cases were treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab(1.5mg/0.06mLand asked for chief complaints at 1 day, 1 week, 4, 12 weeks after operation, and also examined for routine visual acuity(best corrected visual acuity, BCVA, non-contact tonometer, slit lamp microscope and indirect ophthalmoscope etc.RESULTS: Among 207 cases(207 eyes, visual acuity improved efficiency was 90.8% 12 weeks after treatment, foreign body sensation was found in 7 cases(3.4%, eyelid skin pruritus in 1 case(0.5%, conjunctival congestion in 6 cases(2.9%, subconjunctival hemorrhage in 1 case(0.5%, post-operative intraocular pressure elevation in 2 cases(1.0%. CONCLUSION: The intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is effective with fewer complications. We propose to carry out a further randomized multicenter and larger-sample clinical research and further draw up the clinical application criterion of bevacizumab.

  4. Gaining qualitative insight into the subjective experiences of adherers to an exercise referral scheme: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Michael John; O'Donnell, Christopher; Williams, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Nine adults who had completed an exercise referral scheme participated in a semi-structured interview to uncover the key psychological factors associated with adherence to the scheme. Through thematic analysis, an exercise identity emerged to be a major factor associated with adherence to the scheme, which was formed of a number of underpinning constructs including changes in self-esteem, changes in self-efficacy and changes in self-regulatory strategies. Also, an additional theme of transitions in motivation to exercise was identified, showing participants' motivation to alter from extrinsic to intrinsic reasons to exercise during the scheme.

  5. Spatial eigensolution analysis of energy-stable flux reconstruction schemes and influence of the numerical flux on accuracy and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengaldo, Gianmarco; De Grazia, Daniele; Moura, Rodrigo C.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the dispersion and diffusion characteristics of high-order energy-stable flux reconstruction (ESFR) schemes via the spatial eigensolution analysis framework proposed in [1]. The analysis is performed for five ESFR schemes, where the parameter 'c' dictating the properties of the specific scheme recovered is chosen such that it spans the entire class of ESFR methods, also referred to as VCJH schemes, proposed in [2]. In particular, we used five values of 'c', two that correspond to its lower and upper bounds and the others that identify three schemes that are linked to common high-order methods, namely the ESFR recovering two versions of discontinuous Galerkin methods and one recovering the spectral difference scheme. The performance of each scheme is assessed when using different numerical intercell fluxes (e.g. different levels of upwinding), ranging from "under-" to "over-upwinding". In contrast to the more common temporal analysis, the spatial eigensolution analysis framework adopted here allows one to grasp crucial insights into the diffusion and dispersion properties of FR schemes for problems involving non-periodic boundary conditions, typically found in open-flow problems, including turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.

  6. A simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun

    1997-02-01

    A simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of the LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks has been developed using two-step thermal analysis method incorporating effective thermal conductivity model for the homogenized spent fuel assembly. Although a lot of computer codes and analytical models have been developed for application to the fields of thermal analysis of dry storage and/or transportation casks, some difficulties in its analysis arise from the complexity of the geometry including the rod bundles of spent fuel and the heat transfer phenomena in the cavity of cask. Particularly, if the disk-type structures such as fuel baskets and aluminium heat transfer fins are included, the thermal analysis problems in the cavity are very complex. To overcome these difficulties, cylindrical coordinate system is adopted to calculate the temperature profile of a cylindrical cask body using the multiple cylinder model as the step-1 analysis of the present study. In the step-2 analysis, Cartesian coordinate system is adopted to calculate the temperature distributions of the disk-type structures such as fuel basket and aluminium heat transfer fin using three- dimensional conduction analysis model. The effective thermal conductivity for homogenized spent fuel assembly based on Manteufel and Todreas model is incorporated in step-2 analysis to predict the maximum fuel temperature. The presented two-step computational scheme has been performed using an existing HEATING 7.2 code and the effective thermal conductivity for the homogenized spent fuel assembly has been calculated by additional numerical analyses. Sample analyses of five cases are performed for NAC-STC including normal transportation condition to examine the applicability of the presented simplified computational scheme for thermal analysis of the large LWR spent fuel dry storage and transportation casks and heat transfer characteristics in the cavity of the cask with the disk-type structures

  7. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.

  8. Thermal analysis of the LHC injection kicker magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, L.; Abánades, A.; Barnes, M. J.; Vlachodimitropoulos, V.; Weterings, W.

    2017-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider LHC is equipped with two fast pulsed magnet systems (MKIs) that inject particle beams coming from the injector chain. Operation with high intensity beams for many hours can lead to significant beam induced heating of the ferrite yokes of the MKIs. When the ferrite exceeds the Curie temperature of 125°C it loses its magnetic properties, preventing further injection until the ferrite cools down, potentially causing a delay of several hours. Hence important upgrades of the beam-screen were implemented after Run 1 of LHC. However, the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC will be operated with significantly higher intensity beams and hence additional measures are required to limit the ferrite temperature. These magnets operate under ultra-high vacuum conditions: convection is negligible and, as a result of low emissivity of the inside of the vacuum tanks, thermal radiation is limited. A detailed study of the thermal behaviour of these magnets is reported and compared with measurements. In addition several options to improve cooling of the ferrites are presented and analysed.

  9. Ultrasound- versus palpation-guided injection of corticosteroid for plantar fasciitis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghuan Li

    Full Text Available It is controversial whether ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid is superior to palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.Databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane library and EMBASE and reference lists were searched from their establishment to August 30, 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing ultrasound-guided with palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB tool was used to assess the methodological quality. Outcome measurements were visual analogue scale (VAS, tenderness threshold (TT, heel tenderness index (HTI, response rate, plantar fascia thickness (PFT, hypoechogenicity and heel pad thickness (HPT. The statistical analysis was performed with software RevMan 5.2 and Stata 12.0. When I2<50%, the fixed-effects model was adopted. Otherwise the randomized-effects model was adopted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE system was used to assess the quality of evidence.Five RCTs with 149 patients were identified and analyzed. Compared with palpation-guided injection, ultrasound-guided injection was superior with regard to VAS, TT, response rate, PFT and hypoechogenicity. However, there was no statistical significance between the two groups for HPT and HTI.Ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid tends to be more effective than palpation-guided injection. However, it needs to be confirmed by further research.

  10. Ultrasound- versus Palpation-Guided Injection of Corticosteroid for Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen

    2014-01-01

    Background It is controversial whether ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid is superior to palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided and palpation-guided injection of corticosteroid for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods Databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane library and EMBASE) and reference lists were searched from their establishment to August 30, 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided with palpation-guided injection for plantar fasciitis. The Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality. Outcome measurements were visual analogue scale (VAS), tenderness threshold (TT), heel tenderness index (HTI), response rate, plantar fascia thickness (PFT), hypoechogenicity and heel pad thickness (HPT). The statistical analysis was performed with software RevMan 5.2 and Stata 12.0. When I2<50%, the fixed-effects model was adopted. Otherwise the randomized-effects model was adopted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results Five RCTs with 149 patients were identified and analyzed. Compared with palpation-guided injection, ultrasound-guided injection was superior with regard to VAS, TT, response rate, PFT and hypoechogenicity. However, there was no statistical significance between the two groups for HPT and HTI. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided injection of corticosteroid tends to be more effective than palpation-guided injection. However, it needs to be confirmed by further research. PMID:24658102

  11. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2018-04-09

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred under independent identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. To simplify the mathematical analysis, we additionally consider Gamma turbulence conditions, which are a good approximation of Gamma-Gamma distribution. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional detection schemes (i.e., heterodyne detection (HD) and intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) techniques) for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherent/non-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB) and the average bit error rate (BER). Selected results show that we can obtain higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential for increasing the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection-based beam selection scheme without considerable performance loss. Especially for the AM case, the ASE can be increased further compared to the non- AM cases. Our derived results based on the Gamma distribution as an approximation of the Gamma-Gamma distribution can be used as approximated performance measure bounds, especially, they may lead to lower bounds on the approximated considered performance measures.

  12. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Lees, Eoin; Baudry, Paul; Jeandel, Alexandre; Labanca, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  13. Analysis and experimental verification of a control scheme for unified power quality conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng Zhu; Xun Li; Yong Kang; Jian Chen [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Techmnology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Improving power quality for sensitive load by a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) in a distributed generation system is presented in this paper. The power balance of a UPQC, consisting of back-to-back connected series and shunt Active Filters (AF), is analysed. Based on the analysis a novel control scheme is established in a 2-phase Synchronous Rotating d-q Frame (SRF). In this control scheme, the series AF is controlled as a current source and makes the input current sinusoidal, while the shunt AF is controlled as a voltage source and keeps the load voltage in the normal value. With the proposed control strategy, the UPQC is capable of compensating not only harmonic and reactive currents of the load but also grid voltage distortion. There is no harmonic interference between harmonic-producing loads and harmonic-sensitive loads, which are connected on the common bus. The performance of a UPQC with the proposed control scheme under nonlinear load and grid voltage distortion is investigated with simulation as well as experimental works. (Author)

  14. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Rezessy, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.rezessy@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Lees, Eoin, E-mail: eoin@eoinleesenergy.co [Eoin Lees Energy, 4 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, Oxon OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Baudry, Paul, E-mail: paul.baudry@edf.f [EDF R and D, Centre des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Jeandel, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.jeandel@gdfsuez.co [GDF SUEZ, 16, rue Ville L' Eveque, 75008 Paris (France); Labanca, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.labanca@polimi.i [eERG, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini n. 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  15. Analysis of adaptive walks on NK fitness landscapes with different interaction schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Stefan; Krug, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are genotype to fitness mappings commonly used in evolutionary biology and computer science which are closely related to spin glass models. In this paper, we study the NK model for fitness landscapes where the interaction scheme between genes can be explicitly defined. The focus is on how this scheme influences the overall shape of the landscape. Our main tool for the analysis are adaptive walks, an idealized dynamics by which the population moves uphill in fitness and terminates at a local fitness maximum. We use three different types of walks and investigate how their length (the number of steps required to reach a local peak) and height (the fitness at the endpoint of the walk) depend on the dimensionality and structure of the landscape. We find that the distribution of local maxima over the landscape is particularly sensitive to the choice of interaction pattern. Most quantities that we measure are simply correlated to the rank of the scheme, which is equal to the number of nonzero coefficients in the expansion of the fitness landscape in terms of Walsh functions

  16. Reduction of false-positive recalls using a computerized mammographic image feature analysis scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The high false-positive recall rate is one of the major dilemmas that significantly reduce the efficacy of screening mammography, which harms a large fraction of women and increases healthcare cost. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of helping reduce false-positive recalls by developing a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme based on the analysis of global mammographic texture and density features computed from four-view images. Our database includes full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images acquired from 1052 recalled women (669 positive for cancer and 383 benign). Each case has four images: two craniocaudal (CC) and two mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Our CAD scheme first computed global texture features related to the mammographic density distribution on the segmented breast regions of four images. Second, the computed features were given to two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers that were separately trained and tested in a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on CC and MLO view images, respectively. Finally, two ANN classification scores were combined using a new adaptive scoring fusion method that automatically determined the optimal weights to assign to both views. CAD performance was tested using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC = 0.793  ±  0.026 was obtained for this four-view CAD scheme, which was significantly higher at the 5% significance level than the AUCs achieved when using only CC (p = 0.025) or MLO (p = 0.0004) view images, respectively. This study demonstrates that a quantitative assessment of global mammographic image texture and density features could provide useful and/or supplementary information to classify between malignant and benign cases among the recalled cases, which may eventually help reduce the false-positive recall rate in screening mammography.

  17. Principles and Applications of Flow Injection Analysis in Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    In practical applications biosensors are often forced to operate under less than optimal conditions. Because of their construction, and the physical processes and chemical reactions involved in their operation, compromise conditions are frequently required to synchronize all events taking place....... Therefore, and in order to implement functions such as periodic calibration, conditioning and possible regeneration of the biosensor, and, very importantly, to yield the freedom to select the optimum detection means, it is advantageous to use these devices in a flow-through mode, particularly by employing...... the flow injection (FI) approach. The capacity of FI, as offering itself as a complementary facility to augment the performance of biosensors, and in many cases as an attractive alternative, is demonstrated by reference to selected examples, comprising assays based on enzymatic procedures with optical...

  18. Authentication and distinction of Shenmai injection with HPLC fingerprint analysis assisted by pattern recognition techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Lu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the feasibility and advantages of employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC fingerprints combined with pattern recognition techniques for quality control of Shenmai injection were investigated and demonstrated. The Similarity Evaluation System was employed to evaluate the similarities of samples of Shenmai injection, and the HPLC generated chromatographic data were analyzed using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA. Consistent results were obtained to show that the authentic samples and the blended samples were successfully classified by SIMCA, which could be applied to accurate discrimination and quality control of Shenmai injection. Furthermore, samples could also be grouped in accordance with manufacturers. Our results revealed that the developed method has potential perspective for the original discrimination and quality control of Shenmai injection. Keywords: Shenmai injection, High performance liquid chromatography, Fingerprint, Pattern recognition

  19. Task analysis and structure scheme for center manager station in large container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Gao Wenhuan; Wang Jingjin; Kang Kejun; Chen Zhiqiang

    1997-01-01

    LCIS works as follows: the accelerator generates beam pulses which are formed into fan shape; the scanning system drags a lorry with a container passing through the beam in constant speed; the detector array detects the beam penetrating the lorry; the projection data acquisition system reads the projections and completes an inspection image of the lorry. All these works are controlled and synchronized by the center manage station. The author will describe the process of the projection data acquisition in scanning mode and the methods of real-time projection data processing. the task analysis and the structure scheme of center manager station is presented

  20. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype...... for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required...

  1. Read/write schemes analysis for novel complementary resistive switches in passive crossbar memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shimeng; Liang Jiale; Wu Yi; Wong, H-S Philip

    2010-01-01

    Recently a prototype of complementary resistive switches has been proposed to solve the sneak-path problem in passive crossbar memory arrays. To further evaluate the potential of this novel cell structure for practical applications, we present a modeling analysis to capture its switching dynamics and analyze its unique read/write schemes. The model is corroborated by experimental data. We found a trade-off between the read voltage window and write voltage window. The constraint from avoiding disturbance on unselected cells is critical for proper functionality, which in turn limits the writing speed.

  2. A hierarchical clustering scheme approach to assessment of IP-network traffic using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Takehisa; Masugi, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the assessment of IP-network traffic in terms of the time variation of self-similarity. To get a comprehensive view in analyzing the degree of long-range dependence (LRD) of IP-network traffic, we use a hierarchical clustering scheme, which provides a way to classify high-dimensional data with a tree-like structure. Also, in the LRD-based analysis, we employ detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is applicable to the analysis of long-range power-law correlations or LRD in non-stationary time-series signals. Based on sequential measurements of IP-network traffic at two locations, this paper derives corresponding values for the LRD-related parameter α that reflects the degree of LRD of measured data. In performing the hierarchical clustering scheme, we use three parameters: the α value, average throughput, and the proportion of network traffic that exceeds 80% of network bandwidth for each measured data set. We visually confirm that the traffic data can be classified in accordance with the network traffic properties, resulting in that the combined depiction of the LRD and other factors can give us an effective assessment of network conditions at different times.

  3. Studies on the construction of a new 80 MeV injector and a new injection scheme for the synchrotron of the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA; Studien zum Aufbau eines neuen 80 MeV-Injektors und eines neuen Injektionsschemas fuer das Synchroton der Bonner Beschleunigeranlage ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raecke, K.

    2001-09-01

    At the ELSA Accelerator Facility exists the opportunity to install a 80 MeV linear accelerator as an injector for the 2,5 GeV Booster Synchrotron. Because of its length the new structure cannot replace one of the linacs used today so possibilities to built up the accelerator and the transfer channels are worked out. Calculations comparing the injection efficiency of the present layout and the possible new layout show a recognizable improvement. The injection efficiency can be further improved using a single turn injection scheme. A septum magnet and a fast kicker for this injection scheme is designed. (orig.)

  4. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  5. Reverse radiometric flow injection analysis (RFIA) of radioactive waste-waters with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    A new application of reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. RFIA was used for the analysis of radioactive wastewaters. ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the study of analysis of [sup 131]I containing waste-aster. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.

  6. Determination of pH by flow-injection analysis and by fiber-optrode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pia, S.H.; Waltman, D.P.; Hillman, D.C.

    1988-07-01

    Two new procedures for measuring pH were developed. The first measures pH colorimetrically using a proprietary indicator-dye mixture in a flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure. The second measures pH using a fiber-optic chemical sensor (FOCS) specifically developed for pH determinations. The FOCS method measures pH by monitoring the fluorescence of a fluorescein derivative bonded to the distal end of a fiber-optic cable called an optrade. The FIA method currently has a precision and accuracy of about + or - 0.2 pH units and can measure 100 samples/hour. The FOCS method has a precision of + or - 0.05-0.20 pH units and an accuracy of + or - 0.1 to 0.6 pH units. About 10 to 60 samples can be analyzed. The characteristics of the FOCS Method will vary significantly with individual optrodes. The experimental results indicate that either flow-injection analysis or fiber optic chemical sensor analysis could form the basis for an alternative to electrometric measurement of pH in certain circumstances

  7. A study to reduce the numerical diffusion of upwind scheme in two dimensional convection phenomena analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Goung Jin; Kim, Soong Pyung

    1990-01-01

    In solving the convection-diffusion phenomena, it is common to use central difference scheme or upwind scheme. The central difference scheme has second order accuracy, while the upwind scheme is only first order accurate. However, since the variation rising in the convection-diffusion problem is exponential, central difference scheme ceased to be a good method for anything but extremely small values of Δx. At large values of Δx, which is all one can afford in most practical problems, it is the upwind scheme that gives more reasonable results than the central scheme. But in the conventional upwind scheme, since the accuracy is only first order, false diffusion is somewhat large, and when the real diffusion is smaller than the numerical diffusion, solutions may be very errorneous. So in this paper, a method to reduce the numerical diffusion of upwind scheme is studied. Developed scheme uses same number of nodes as conventional upwind scheme, but it considers the direction of flow more sophistically. As a conclusion, the developed scheme shows very good results. It can reduce false diffusion greatly with the cost of small complexity. Also, algorithm of the developed scheme is presented at appendix. (Author)

  8. SMAFS, Steady-state analysis Model for Advanced Fuel cycle Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, Kwang-Seok

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The model was developed as a part of the study, 'Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management', which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down the cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model are represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can modify easily the values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see the corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs. It performs Monte Carlo simulations with changing the values of all unit costs within their respective ranges (from lower to upper bounds). 2 - Methods: In Monte Carlo simulation, it is assumed that all unit costs follow a triangular probability distribution function, i.e., the probability that the unit cost has a value increases linearly from its lower bound to the nominal value and then decreases linearly to its upper bound. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The limit for the Monte Carlo iterations is the one of an Excel worksheet, i.e. 65,536

  9. Security Analysis of a Remote User Authentication Scheme with Smart Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manoj

    2007-01-01

    Yoon et al. proposed a new efficient remote user authentication scheme using smart cards to solve the security problems of W. C. Ku and S. M. Chen scheme. This paper reviews Yoon et al. scheme and then proves that the password change phase of Yoon et al. scheme is still insecure. This paper also proves that the Yoon et al. is still vulnerable to parallel session attack.

  10. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  11. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX—Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  12. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. A multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA scheme for Streptococcus agalactiae genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mereghetti Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus sequence typing (MLST is currently the reference method for genotyping Streptococcus agalactiae strains, the leading cause of infectious disease in newborns and a major cause of disease in immunocompromised children and adults. We describe here a genotyping method based on multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA applied to a population of S. agalactiae strains of various origins characterized by MLST and serotyping. Results We studied a collection of 186 strains isolated from humans and cattle and three reference strains (A909, NEM316 and 2603 V/R. Among 34 VNTRs, 6 polymorphic VNTRs loci were selected for use in genotyping of the bacterial population. The MLVA profile consists of a series of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus. 98 MLVA genotypes were obtained compared to 51 sequences types generated by MLST. The MLVA scheme generated clusters which corresponded well to the main clonal complexes obtained by MLST. However it provided a higher discriminatory power. The diversity index obtained with MLVA was 0.960 compared to 0.881 with MLST for this population of strains. Conclusions The MLVA scheme proposed here is a rapid, cheap and easy genotyping method generating results suitable for exchange and comparison between different laboratories and for the epidemiologic surveillance of S. agalactiae and analyses of outbreaks.

  14. A molecular scheme for Yersinia enterocolitica patho-serotyping derived from genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, Debora; Susen, Rosa; Fruth, Angelika; Tietze, Erhard; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rakin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne, gastro-intestinal pathogen with world-wide distribution. Only 11 serotypes have been isolated from patients, with O:3, O:9, O:8 and O:5,27 being the serotypes most commonly associated with human yersiniosis. Serotype is an important characteristic of Y. enterocolitica strains, allowing differentiation for epidemiology, diagnosis and phylogeny studies. Conventional serotyping, performed by slide agglutination, is a tedious and laborious procedure whose interpretation tends to be subjective, leading to poor reproducibility. Here we present a PCR-based typing scheme for molecular identification and patho-serotyping of Y. enterocolitica. Genome-wide comparison of Y. enterocolitica sequences allowed analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of different serotypes, uncovering their formerly unknown genomic locations, and selection of targets for serotype-specific amplification. Two multiplex PCRs and one additional PCR were designed and tested on various reference strains and isolates from different origins. Our genotypic assay proved to be highly specific for identification of Y. enterocolitica species, discrimination between virulent and non-virulent strains, distinguishing the main human-related serotypes, and typing of conventionally untypeable strains. This genotyping scheme could be applied in microbiology laboratories as an alternative or complementary method to the traditional phenotypic assays, providing data for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of a Relaxation Scheme for a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation Occurring in Plasma Physics

    KAUST Repository

    Oelz, Dietmar; Trabelsi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a relaxation-type numerical scheme for a nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising in plasma physics. The scheme is shown to be preservative in the sense that it preserves mass and energy. We prove the well-posedness of the semidiscretized system and prove convergence to the solution of the time-continuous model. © 2014 © Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2014.

  16. Analysis of a Relaxation Scheme for a Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation Occurring in Plasma Physics

    KAUST Repository

    Oelz, Dietmar

    2014-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a relaxation-type numerical scheme for a nonlinear Schrödinger equation arising in plasma physics. The scheme is shown to be preservative in the sense that it preserves mass and energy. We prove the well-posedness of the semidiscretized system and prove convergence to the solution of the time-continuous model. © 2014 © Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2014.

  17. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorous in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the pa......Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified...... by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorous in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase...... associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...

  18. Sequential injection/bead injection lab-on-valve schemes for on-line solid phase extraction and preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals with determination by ETAAS and ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    are focused on the applications of SI-BI-LOV protocols for on-line microcolumn based solid phase extraction of ultra-trace levels of heavy metals, employing the so-called renewable surface separation and preconcentration manipulatory scheme. Two types of sorbents have been employed as packing material...

  19. Jet flow analysis of liquid poison injection in a CANDU reactor using source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2001-01-01

    For the performance analysis of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor shutdown system number 2 (SDS2), a computational fluid dynamics model of poison jet flow has been developed to estimate the flow field and poison concentration formed inside the CANDU reactor calandria. As the ratio of calandria shell radius over injection nozzle hole diameter is so large (1055), it is impractical to develop a full-size model encompassing the whole calandria shell. In order to reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of one-pitch length segment of the shell was modeled using symmetric nature of the jet; and the injected jet was treated as a source term to avoid the modeling difficulty caused by the big difference of the hole sizes. For the analysis of an actual CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection, the grid structure was determined based on the results of two-dimensional real- and source-jet simulations. The maximum injection velocity of the liquid poison is 27.8 m/s and the mass fraction of the poison is 8000 ppm (mg/kg). The simulation results have shown well-established jet flow field. In general, the jet develops narrowly at first but stretches rapidly. Then, the flow recirculates a little in r-x plane, while it recirculates largely in r-θ plane. As the time goes on, the adjacent jets contact each other and form a wavy front such that the whole jet develops in a plate form. his study has shown that the source term model can be effectively used for the analysis of the poison injection and the simulation result of the CANDU reactor is consistent with the model currently being used for the safety analysis. In the future, it is strongly recommended to analyze the transient (from helium tank to injection nozzle hole) of the poison injection by applying Bernoulli equation with real boundary conditions

  20. Load Flow Analysis of a 15Mva Injection Substation | Oshevire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This load flow helps to determine the state of the power system for a given load and generation distribution. This paper presents the computer aided power flow analysis of the existing Otovwodo33/11kV distribution network using the ETAP 7.0 software. The result showed that out of 91load feeders of which 6 is out of service, ...

  1. An analysis of control scheme and test results of fast feedback power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Shivam Kumar; Gupta, C.N.; Shah, Kunal; Makwana, Moti

    2017-01-01

    Real time Plasma Position Control is essential for obtaining long duration plasma in tokamaks. For that purpose four external coils has been installed in toroidal direction. Magnetic field of these coils interact with the plasma and tries to keep it radially stable in vacuum vessel to avoid direct contact of plasma to wall of tokamak. A fast feedback power supply has been installed in Aditya Tokamak which is able to set the appropriate current in either direction and current magnitude in external coils on the fast scale. In this paper, an analysis of control scheme and testing of Fast Feedback Power Supply (FFPS) has been described. FFPS is IGBT based H-bridge inverter programmable power supply

  2. Self-consistent clustering analysis: an efficient multiscale scheme for inelastic heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Bessa, M. A.; Liu, W.K.

    2017-10-25

    A predictive computational theory is shown for modeling complex, hierarchical materials ranging from metal alloys to polymer nanocomposites. The theory can capture complex mechanisms such as plasticity and failure that span across multiple length scales. This general multiscale material modeling theory relies on sound principles of mathematics and mechanics, and a cutting-edge reduced order modeling method named self-consistent clustering analysis (SCA) [Zeliang Liu, M.A. Bessa, Wing Kam Liu, “Self-consistent clustering analysis: An efficient multi-scale scheme for inelastic heterogeneous materials,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 306 (2016) 319–341]. SCA reduces by several orders of magnitude the computational cost of micromechanical and concurrent multiscale simulations, while retaining the microstructure information. This remarkable increase in efficiency is achieved with a data-driven clustering method. Computationally expensive operations are performed in the so-called offline stage, where degrees of freedom (DOFs) are agglomerated into clusters. The interaction tensor of these clusters is computed. In the online or predictive stage, the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is solved cluster-wise using a self-consistent scheme to ensure solution accuracy and avoid path dependence. To construct a concurrent multiscale model, this scheme is applied at each material point in a macroscale structure, replacing a conventional constitutive model with the average response computed from the microscale model using just the SCA online stage. A regularized damage theory is incorporated in the microscale that avoids the mesh and RVE size dependence that commonly plagues microscale damage calculations. The SCA method is illustrated with two cases: a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure with the concurrent multiscale model and an application to fatigue prediction for additively manufactured metals. For the CFRP problem, a speed up estimated to be about

  3. A morphing-based scheme for large deformation analysis with stereo-DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Katia; Sorgente, Donato

    2018-05-01

    A key step in the DIC-based image registration process is the definition of the initial guess for the non-linear optimization routine aimed at finding the parameters describing the pixel subset transformation. This initialization may result very challenging and possibly fail when dealing with pairs of largely deformed images such those obtained from two angled-views of not-flat objects or from the temporal undersampling of rapidly evolving phenomena. To address this problem, we developed a procedure that generates a sequence of intermediate synthetic images for gradually tracking the pixel subset transformation between the two extreme configurations. To this scope, a proper image warping function is defined over the entire image domain through the adoption of a robust feature-based algorithm followed by a NURBS-based interpolation scheme. This allows a fast and reliable estimation of the initial guess of the deformation parameters for the subsequent refinement stage of the DIC analysis. The proposed method is described step-by-step by illustrating the measurement of the large and heterogeneous deformation of a circular silicone membrane undergoing axisymmetric indentation. A comparative analysis of the results is carried out by taking as a benchmark a standard reference-updating approach. Finally, the morphing scheme is extended to the most general case of the correspondence search between two largely deformed textured 3D geometries. The feasibility of this latter approach is demonstrated on a very challenging case: the full-surface measurement of the severe deformation (> 150% strain) suffered by an aluminum sheet blank subjected to a pneumatic bulge test.

  4. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  5. Comprehensive experimental analysis of nonlinear dynamics in an optically-injected semiconductor laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the first comprehensive experimental study, to our knowledge, of the routes between nonlinear dynamics induced in a semiconductor laser under external optical injection based on an analysis of time-averaged measurements of the optical and RF spectra and phasors of real-time series of the laser output. The different means of analysis are compared for several types of routes and the benefits of each are discussed in terms of the identification and mapping of the nonlinear dynamics. Finally, the results are presented in a novel audio/video format that describes the evolution of the dynamics with the injection parameters.

  6. Recommended HPI [High Pressure Injection] rates for the TMI-2 analysis exercise (0 to 300 minutes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    An international analysis exercise has been organized to evaluate the ability of nuclear reactor severe accident computer codes to predict the TMI-2 accident sequence and core damage progression during the first 300 minutes of the accident. A required boundary condition for the analysis exercise is the High Pressure Injection or make-up rates into the primary system during the accident. Recommended injection rates for the first 300 minutes of the accident are presented. Recommendations for several sensitivity studies are also presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Meta-analysis of Huangqi injection for the adjunctive therapy of aplastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Gao, Yulu; Jiang, Ting; Hao, Cao; Gao, Zongshuai; Sun, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Aplastic anemia therapy remains difficult, due to lack of effective treatment regimens. In recent years, Huangqi injection for the adjunctive therapy of aplastic anemia has been reported in many clinical trials. Considering that Huangqi injection may be a novel approach to aplastic anemia treatment, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials to assess the clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of aplastic anemia. We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, PubMed and EMBASE database to collect the data about the trials of Huangqi injection combined with androgens for treating aplastic anemia. A total of ten studies involving 720 patients with aplastic anemia were included in this study. The meta-analysis showed significant increases in the pool effectiveness rate, white blood cells (WBC), haematoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLT), and reticulocytes (Ret) between the experimental group versus the control group. No severe side effects were found in this study. However, the lower Jadad scores and asymmetric funnel plot degrades the validity of the meta-analysis as the clinical evidence. Therefore, Huangqi injection may significantly enhance the efficacy of androgens for aplastic anemia, suggesting that the novel approach of Chinese traditional medicine combined with Western medicine is promising. The exact outcome required confirmation with rigorously well-designed multi-center trials. PMID:26379817

  8. Quantification of energy savings from Ireland's Home Energy Saving scheme. An ex post billing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, J.; Clancy, M.; Ni Hogain, S. [Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, Wilton Park House, Wilton Terrace, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-02-15

    This paper quantifies the energy savings realised by a sample of participants in the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland's Home Energy Saving (HES) residential retrofit scheme (currently branded as the Better Energy Homes scheme), through an ex post billing analysis. The billing data are used to evaluate: (1) the reduction in gas consumption of the sample between pre- (2008) and post- (2010) scheme participation when compared to the gas consumption of a control group, (2) an estimate of the shortfall when this result is compared to engineering-type ex ante savings estimates and (3) the degree to which these results may apply to the wider population. All dwellings in the study underwent energy efficiency improvements, including insulation upgrades (wall and/or roof), installation of high-efficiency boilers and/or improved heating controls, as part of the HES scheme. Metered gas use data for the 210 households were obtained from meter operators for a number of years preceding dwelling upgrades and for a post-intervention period of 1 year. Dwelling characteristics and some household behavioural data were obtained through a survey of the sample. The gas network operator provided anonymised data on gas usage for 640,000 customers collected over the same period as the HES sample. Dwelling type data provided with the population dataset enabled matching with the HES sample to increase the internal validity of the comparison between the control (matched population data) and the treatment (HES sample). Using a difference-in-difference methodology, the change in demand of the sample was compared with that of the matched population subset of gas-using customers in Ireland over the same time period. The mean reduction in gas demand as a result of energy efficiency upgrades for the HES sample is estimated as 21 % or 3,664{+-}603 kWh between 2008 and 2010. An ex ante estimate of average energy savings, based on engineering calculations (u value reductions and improved boiler

  9. Steam injection for heavy oil recovery: Modeling of wellbore heat efficiency and analysis of steam injection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hao; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Li, Bokai; Shen, Fei; Fang, Wenchao; Hu, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive mathematical model was established to estimate wellbore heat efficiency of steam injection wells. • A simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores was proposed. • High wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality can improve wellbore heat efficiency. • High wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean good performance of heavy oil recovery. • Using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels. - Abstract: The aims of this work are to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating wellbore heat efficiency and to analyze performance of steam injection for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, we firstly introduce steam injection process briefly. Secondly, a simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores is presented and a complete expression for steam quality is derived. More importantly, both direct and indirect methods are adopted to determine the wellbore heat efficiency. Then, the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. After the model is validated with measured field data, we study the effects of wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality on steam injection performance reflected in wellbores. Next, taking cyclic steam stimulation as an example, we analyze steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs with numerical reservoir simulation method. Finally, the significant role of improving wellbore heat efficiency in saving water and fuels is discussed in detail. The results indicate that we can improve the wellbore heat efficiency by enhancing wellhead injection rate or steam quality. However, high wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean satisfactory steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs or good performance of heavy oil recovery. Moreover, the paper shows that using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels due to enhancement of wellbore heat efficiency

  10. Effect analysis of intradermal hyaluronic acid injection to treat enlarged facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Hou, Ying; Lyu, Wei; Cao, Qian; Li, Yan-Qi; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2017-08-08

    To investigate the clinical application and efficacy of intradermal injection of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) for treating enlarged facial pores. From January 2015 to May 2016, 42 subjects who sought aesthetic treatment underwent intradermal injection of LMW-HA to improve enlarged facial pores. For each treatment, 2.5 mL (25 mg) of LMW-HA was injected into the skin of the full face. The treatment was repeated 2-5 times with an interval of 1 to 1.5 months between consecutive treatments. The postoperative follow-up period was 1 to 6 months. Statistical analysis was used to compare the degree of enlargement of facial pores before and after injection. The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were recorded. The enlarged facial pores before and after treatment were categorized and subjected to the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. The difference was statistically significant (Pinjection sites in the subjects who sought aesthetic treatment. The overall satisfaction rate was 92.8%. Intradermal injection of LMW-HA can significantly improve skin texture, reduce pore size, and enhance skin radiance. The injection technique was simple, safe, and effective and could easily be extended to clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Whole Genome Analysis of Injectional Anthrax Identifies Two Disease Clusters Spanning More Than 13 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keim

    2015-11-01

    Lay Person Interpretation: Injectional anthrax has been plaguing heroin drug users across Europe for more than 10 years. In order to better understand this outbreak, we assessed genomic relationships of all available injectional anthrax strains from four countries spanning a >12 year period. Very few differences were identified using genome-based analysis, but these differentiated the isolates into two distinct clusters. This strongly supports a hypothesis of at least two separate anthrax spore contamination events perhaps during the drug production processes. Identification of two events would not have been possible from standard epidemiological analysis. These comprehensive data will be invaluable for classifying future injectional anthrax isolates and for future geographic attribution.

  12. Cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed under local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, D; Woods, C M; Schar, M; Ma, N; Ooi, E H; Athanasiadis, T

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a cost analysis of injection laryngoplasty performed in the operating theatre under local anaesthesia and general anaesthesia. The retrospective study included patients who had undergone injection laryngoplasty as day cases between July 2013 and March 2016. Cost data were obtained, along with patient demographics, anaesthetic details, type of injectant, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, total operating theatre time and surgeon procedure time. A total of 20 cases (general anaesthesia = 6, local anaesthesia = 14) were included in the cost analysis. The mean total cost under general anaesthesia (AU$2865.96 ± 756.29) was significantly higher than that under local anaesthesia (AU$1731.61 ± 290.29) (p costs. Procedures performed under local anaesthesia in the operating theatre are associated with shorter operating theatre time and length of stay in the hospital, and provide significant cost savings. Further savings could be achieved if local anaesthesia procedures were performed in the office setting.

  13. Coupled Viscous Fluid Flow and Joint Deformation Analysis for Grout Injection in a Rock Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Lee, Jong-Won; Yazdani, Mahmoud; Tohidi, Elham; Nejati, Hamid Reza; Park, Eui-Seob

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow modeling is a major area of interest within the field of rock mechanics. The main objective of this study is to gain insight into the performance of grout injection inside jointed rock masses by numerical modeling of grout flow through a single rock joint. Grout flow has been widely simulated using non-Newtonian Bingham fluid characterized by two main parameters of dynamic viscosity and shear yield strength both of which are time dependent. The increasing value of these properties with injection time will apparently affect the parameters representing the grouting performance including grout penetration length and volumetric injection rate. In addition, through hydromechanical coupling a mutual influence between the injection pressure from the one side and the joint opening/closing behavior and the aperture profile variation on the other side is anticipated. This is capable of producing a considerable impact on grout spread within the rock joints. In this study based on the Bingham fluid model, a series of numerical analysis has been conducted using UDEC to simulate the flow of viscous grout in a single rock joint with smooth parallel surfaces. In these analyses, the time-dependent evolution of the grout fluid properties and the hydromechanical coupling have been considered to investigate their impact on grouting performance. In order to verify the validity of these simulations, the results of analyses including the grout penetration length and the injection flow rate were compared with a well-known analytical solution which is available for the simple case of constant grout properties and non-coupled hydraulic analysis. The comparison demonstrated that the grout penetration length can be overestimated when the time-dependent hardening of grout material is not considered. Moreover, due to the HM coupling, it was shown that the joint opening induced by injection pressure may have a considerable increasing impression on the values of penetration length and

  14. Performance Analysis of Virtual MIMO Relaying Schemes Based on Detect–Split–Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Basit, Suhaib M.; Al-Ghadhban, Samir; Zummo, Salam A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Virtual multi-input multi-output (vMIMO) schemes in wireless communication systems improve coverage, throughput, capacity, and quality of service. In this paper, we propose three uplink vMIMO relaying schemes based on detect–split–forward (DSF). In addition, we investigate the effect of several physical parameters such as distance, modulation type and number of relays. Furthermore, an adaptive vMIMO DSF scheme based on VBLAST and STBC is proposed. In order to do that, we provide analytical tools to evaluate the performance of the propose vMIMO relaying scheme.

  15. Performance Analysis of Virtual MIMO Relaying Schemes Based on Detect–Split–Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Basit, Suhaib M.

    2014-10-29

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Virtual multi-input multi-output (vMIMO) schemes in wireless communication systems improve coverage, throughput, capacity, and quality of service. In this paper, we propose three uplink vMIMO relaying schemes based on detect–split–forward (DSF). In addition, we investigate the effect of several physical parameters such as distance, modulation type and number of relays. Furthermore, an adaptive vMIMO DSF scheme based on VBLAST and STBC is proposed. In order to do that, we provide analytical tools to evaluate the performance of the propose vMIMO relaying scheme.

  16. Analysis of Precooling Injection Transient of Steam Generator for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a postulated design basis accident leads high temperature gas cooled reactor to emergency shutdown, steam generator still remains with high temperature level and needs to be cooled down by a precooling before reactor restarts with clearing of fault. For the large difference of coolant temperature between inlet and outlet of steam generator in normal operation, the temperature distribution on the components of steam generator is very complicated. Therefore, the temperature descending rate of the components in steam generator needs to be limited to avoid the potential damage during the precooling stage. In this paper, a pebble-bed high temperature gas cooled reactor is modeled by thermal-hydraulic system analysis code and several postulated precooling injection transients are simulated and compared to evaluate their effects, which will provide support for the precooling design. The analysis results show that enough precooling injection is necessary to satisfy the precooling requirements, and larger mass flow rate of precooling water injection will accelerate the precooling process. The temperature decrease of steam generator is related to the precooling injection scenarios, and the maximal mass flow rate of the precooling injection should be limited to avoid the excessively quick temperature change of the structures in steam generator.

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE BRAZILIAN FRUIT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA CRISTINA DÖRR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Certification has become increasingly relevant as a marketing signal for agribusiness especially in the fruit sector over the past few years. Substantial parts of many value chains are by now certified by standards as GlobalGAP, Fair Trade, Integrated Fruit Production and Organic. At the same time, in developed countries, particularly in the European Union and the United States, demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the implementation of certification programs that address more types of safety-related attributes and impose stricter standards. Certification systems play an important role in any market that is burdened with a high degree of information asymmetry and quality uncertainty. Thus, producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables from developing countries like Brazil are increasingly required to demonstrate the safety and traceability of their produce up to the consumption stage. The comparative analysis of the four certification schemes which exist in the fruit sector in Brazil has shown that GlobalGAP and the Integrated Fruit Production (PIF are similar certification schemes. However, they differ with respect to the number of requirements and their distribution over various stages (e.g. production, post-harvesting. Contrary to PIF and GlobalGAP, Fairtrade certification concentrates on producers’ organizations and cooperatives where small-scale farmers belong to and not on individual farmers. In addition, a lot of attention is paid to the labour and environmental conditions, besides the guarantee of a minimum price for farmers. With respect to organic certification, the requirements are not directed to a particular product or crop and their level of compliance is not indicated. Major emphasis is put on the production system. Organic and Fairtrade certification do not have an own book keeping for records.

  18. Effects of dezocine on prevention of propofol injection pain: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou C

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chengmao Zhou,1,* Yuting Yang,2,* Yu Zhu,3 Lin Ruan4 1Department of Anesthesiology, Zhaoqing Medical College, Zhaoqing, 2Department of Oncology, The First People’s Hospital of Changde, Changde, 3Department of Nursing, Zhaoqing Medical College, Zhaoqing, 4Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dezocine on the prevention of propofol injection pain.Materials and methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of dezocine in preventing propofol injection pain, from inception to April 2016, in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and CNKI. Next, two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed quality in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, RevMan 5.2 software was used to conduct a meta-analysis.Results: Seven RCTs totaling 630 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis study showed: 1 compared with the control group (relative risk [RR] =0.32, 95% CI [0.26, 0.39], P<0.00001, the dezocine group showed a decreasing incidence of propofol injection pain; 2 for severity of propofol injection pain, incidences of mild pain (RR =0.55, 95% CI [0.40, 0.75], P=0.0001, moderate pain (RR =0.28, 95% CI [0.18, 0.43], P<0.00001, and severe pain (RR =0.11, 95% CI [0.06, 0.23], P<0.00001 were considerably lower in the dezocine group than in the control group; 3 when comparing the incidence of propofol injection pain in the dezocine group with that of the lidocaine group, no statistically significant differences were found (RR =0.86, 95% CI [0.66, 1.13], P=0.29; and 4 subgroup analysis indicated a significant reduction in the incidence of propofol injection.Conclusion: Dezocine can both prevent propofol injection pain and mitigate its severity, and its efficacy shows no significant

  19. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  20. Analysis of Harmonic Injection to the Modulation of Multi-Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the analysis of third and ninth harmonic injection to the modulation of a multilevel diode clamped converter (DCC) at a varying modulation index. The spectral distributions of the various multi-level waveforms obtained under normal modulation index of 0.8 and over modulation index of 1.15 were ...

  1. Wavelet transform for the evaluation of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Hoogendam, E.

    1992-01-01

    The application of the wavelet transform in the determination of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis was studied with regard to its properties of minimizing the effects of noise and baseline drift. The results indicate that for white noise and a favourable peak shape a signal-to-noise ratio

  2. Wavelett transform for the evaluation of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Hoogendam, E.; Hoogendam, E.

    1992-01-01

    The application of the wavelet transform in the determination of peak intensities in flow-injection analysis was studied with regard to its properties of minimizing the effects of noise and baseline drift. The results indicate that for white noise and a favourable peak shape a signal-to-noise ratio

  3. Flow injection analysis using carbon film resistor electrodes for amperometric determination of ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Fabiana S; Brett, Christopher M A; Angnes, Lúcio

    2008-06-30

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) using a carbon film sensor for amperometric detection was explored for ambroxol analysis in pharmaceutical formulations. The specially designed flow cell designed in the lab generated sharp and reproducible current peaks, with a wide linear dynamic range from 5x10(-7) to 3.5x10(-4) mol L(-1), in 0.1 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid electrolyte, as well as high sensitivity, 0.110 Amol(-1) L cm(-2) at the optimized flow rate. A detection limit of 7.6x10(-8) mol L(-1) and a sampling frequency of 50 determinations per hour were achieved, employing injected volumes of 100 microL and a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The repeatability, expressed as R.S.D. for successive and alternated injections of 6.0x10(-6) and 6.0x10(-5) mol L(-1) ambroxol solutions, was 3.0 and 1.5%, respectively, without any noticeable memory effect between injections. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of ambroxol in pharmaceutical samples and the results obtained were compared with UV spectrophotometric and acid-base titrimetric methods. Good agreement between the results utilizing the three methods and the labeled values was achieved, corroborating the good performance of the proposed electrochemical methodology for ambroxol analysis.

  4. [Reliability theory based on quality risk network analysis for Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Kang, Li-Yuan; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2014-08-01

    A new risk analysis method based upon reliability theory was introduced in this paper for the quality risk management of Chinese medicine injection manufacturing plants. The risk events including both cause and effect ones were derived in the framework as nodes with a Bayesian network analysis approach. It thus transforms the risk analysis results from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) into a Bayesian network platform. With its structure and parameters determined, the network can be used to evaluate the system reliability quantitatively with probabilistic analytical appraoches. Using network analysis tools such as GeNie and AgenaRisk, we are able to find the nodes that are most critical to influence the system reliability. The importance of each node to the system can be quantitatively evaluated by calculating the effect of the node on the overall risk, and minimization plan can be determined accordingly to reduce their influences and improve the system reliability. Using the Shengmai injection manufacturing plant of SZYY Ltd as a user case, we analyzed the quality risk with both static FMEA analysis and dynamic Bayesian Network analysis. The potential risk factors for the quality of Shengmai injection manufacturing were identified with the network analysis platform. Quality assurance actions were further defined to reduce the risk and improve the product quality.

  5. Performance analysis of switch-based multiuser scheduling schemes with adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    the average spectral efficiency by selecting the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the relatively high feedback required by the first scheme, a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity is proposed, where the base

  6. Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables

  7. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    The determination of trace level concentrations of elements, such as metal species, in complex matrices by atomic absorption or emission spectrometric methods often require appropriate pretreatments comprising separation of the analyte from interfering constituents and analyte preconcentration...... are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...

  8. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1 it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreign agent, (2 it cannot protect the passwords of mobile users due to its vulnerability to an offline dictionary attack, and (3 it does not achieve session-key security against a man-in-the-middle attack. We also show how the security weaknesses of He et al.’s scheme can be addressed without degrading the efficiency of the scheme.

  9. Performance analysis of pulse analog control schemes for LLC resonant DC/DC converters suitable in portable applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kowstubha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance Analysis of Pulse Analog Control Schemes, predominantly Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM and Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM for LLC resonant DC/DC converter suitable in portable applications is addressed in this paper. The analysis is done for closed loop performance, frequency domain performance, primary and secondary side conduction losses and soft commutation using PSIM 6.0 software and observed that PPM scheme provides better performance at high input voltage with a good selectivity of frequency over a wide range of line and load variations. The performance of LLC resonant DC/DC converter is demonstrated using PPM scheme for a design specifications of 12 V, 5 A output.

  10. Laplace-Fourier-domain dispersion analysis of an average derivative optimal scheme for scalar-wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Bo

    2014-06-01

    By using low-frequency components of the damped wavefield, Laplace-Fourier-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) can recover a long-wavelength velocity model from the original undamped seismic data lacking low-frequency information. Laplace-Fourier-domain modelling is an important foundation of Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Based on the numerical phase velocity and the numerical attenuation propagation velocity, a method for performing Laplace-Fourier-domain numerical dispersion analysis is developed in this paper. This method is applied to an average-derivative optimal scheme. The results show that within the relative error of 1 per cent, the Laplace-Fourier-domain average-derivative optimal scheme requires seven gridpoints per smallest wavelength and smallest pseudo-wavelength for both equal and unequal directional sampling intervals. In contrast, the classical five-point scheme requires 23 gridpoints per smallest wavelength and smallest pseudo-wavelength to achieve the same accuracy. Numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical analysis.

  11. Analysis of Cavity Pressure and Warpage of Polyoxymethylene Thin Walled Injection Molded Parts: Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage...... was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure......, melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number...

  12. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

  13. Modelling injection moulding machines for micro manufacture applications through functional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantoni, G.; Tosello, Guido; Gabelloni, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of an injection moulding machine using functional analysis to identify both its critical components and possible working problems when such a machine is employed for the production of polymer-based micro products. The step-by-step procedure starts from the study...... of the process phases of a machine and then it employs functional analysis to decompose the phases and attributes functions to part features. Part features are subsequently analyzed to understand the causal chains bringing either to the desired behaviour or to failures to avoid. The assessment of the design...... solution is finally performed by gathering quantitative data from experiments. The case study investigates the design motivations and functional drivers of a micro injection moulding machine. The analysis allows identifying the correlations between failures and advantages with the design of the machine...

  14. Robust gene selection methods using weighting schemes for microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suyeon; Song, Jongwoo

    2017-09-02

    A common task in microarray data analysis is to identify informative genes that are differentially expressed between two different states. Owing to the high-dimensional nature of microarray data, identification of significant genes has been essential in analyzing the data. However, the performances of many gene selection techniques are highly dependent on the experimental conditions, such as the presence of measurement error or a limited number of sample replicates. We have proposed new filter-based gene selection techniques, by applying a simple modification to significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we considered a series of synthetic datasets with different noise levels and sample sizes along with two real datasets. The following findings were made. First, our proposed methods outperform conventional methods for all simulation set-ups. In particular, our methods are much better when the given data are noisy and sample size is small. They showed relatively robust performance regardless of noise level and sample size, whereas the performance of SAM became significantly worse as the noise level became high or sample size decreased. When sufficient sample replicates were available, SAM and our methods showed similar performance. Finally, our proposed methods are competitive with traditional methods in classification tasks for microarrays. The results of simulation study and real data analysis have demonstrated that our proposed methods are effective for detecting significant genes and classification tasks, especially when the given data are noisy or have few sample replicates. By employing weighting schemes, we can obtain robust and reliable results for microarray data analysis.

  15. Injection therapy for chronic prostatitis: A retrospective analysis of 77 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Toth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare pre- and post-therapy symptom scores reported on the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIHCPSI after trans-rectal antibiotic injections therapy for men suffering from chronic prostatitis. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of NIHCPSI symptom scores obtained from chart reviews of 77 treated males suffering from chronic prostatitis before and after trans rectal injections for the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Results: Most patients reported a 40% to 60% improvement in symptom scores. In subgroups comparing scores in patients with less than 5 injections, the improvement was less than in patients who received 10 or more injections. Patients’ responses after a shorter (3 months follow up showed better pain scores than patient’s scores after longer, over one-year or more, follow- up periods. Conclusion: Our findings show that direct antibiotic injection for chronic prostatitis is a viable addition to standard therapies. Improvements in symptom scores are long lasting. Discomfort is minimal and side effects are rare and avoidable

  16. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma

  17. A Blind Adaptive Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis, Singular Value Decomposition and Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A blind adaptive color image watermarking scheme based on principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, and human visual system is proposed. The use of principal component analysis to decorrelate the three color channels of host image, improves the perceptual quality of watermarked image. Whereas, human visual system and fuzzy inference system helped to improve both imperceptibility and robustness by selecting adaptive scaling factor, so that, areas more prone to noise can be added with more information as compared to less prone areas. To achieve security, location of watermark embedding is kept secret and used as key at the time of watermark extraction, whereas, for capacity both singular values and vectors are involved in watermark embedding process. As a result, four contradictory requirements; imperceptibility, robustness, security and capacity are achieved as suggested by results. Both subjective and objective methods are acquired to examine the performance of proposed schemes. For subjective analysis the watermarked images and watermarks extracted from attacked watermarked images are shown. For objective analysis of proposed scheme in terms of imperceptibility, peak signal to noise ratio, structural similarity index, visual information fidelity and normalized color difference are used. Whereas, for objective analysis in terms of robustness, normalized correlation, bit error rate, normalized hamming distance and global authentication rate are used. Security is checked by using different keys to extract the watermark. The proposed schemes are compared with state-of-the-art watermarking techniques and found better performance as suggested by results.

  18. Development of an automated flow injection analysis system for determination of phosphate in nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Sevinç; Görüşük, Emine M; Çetinkaya, Ebru; Deveci, Seda; Dönmez, Koray B; Uncuoğlu, Emre; Doğu, Mustafa

    2018-01-25

    A fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for determination of phosphate ion in nutrient solutions. This newly developed FIA system is a portable, rapid and sensitive measuring instrument that allows on-line analysis and monitoring of phosphate ion concentration in nutrient solutions. The molybdenum blue method, which is widely used in FIA phosphate analysis, was adapted to the developed FIA system. The method is based on the formation of ammonium Mo(VI) ion by reaction of ammonium molybdate with the phosphate ion present in the medium. The Mo(VI) ion then reacts with ascorbic acid and is reduced to the spectrometrically measurable Mo(V) ion. New software specific for flow analysis was developed in the LabVIEW development environment to control all the components of the FIA system. The important factors affecting the analytical signal were identified as reagent flow rate, injection volume and post-injection flow path length, and they were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The optimum point for the maximum analytical signal was calculated as 0.50 mL min -1 reagent flow rate, 100 µL sample injection volume and 60 cm post-injection flow path length. The proposed FIA system had a sampling frequency of 100 samples per hour over a linear working range of 3-100 mg L -1 (R 2  = 0.9995). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.09% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.34 mg L -1 . Various nutrient solutions from a tomato-growing hydroponic greenhouse were analyzed with the developed FIA system and the results were found to be in good agreement with vanadomolybdate chemical method findings. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Transient three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays: general equations and numerical scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnek, W.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Trapp, J.A.; Hughes, E.D.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1975-11-01

    A mathematical model and a numerical solution scheme for thermal-hydraulic analysis of fuel rod arrays are given. The model alleviates the two major deficiencies associated with existing rod array analysis models, that of a correct transverse momentum equation and the capability of handling reversing and circulatory flows. Possible applications of the model include steady state and transient subchannel calculations as well as analysis of flows in heat exchangers, other engineering equipment, and porous media

  20. Security analysis of a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wei-Chuen; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2013-12-01

    Many authentication schemes have been proposed for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) to ensure the privacy, integrity, and availability of patient records. These schemes are crucial for TMIS systems because otherwise patients' medical records become susceptible to tampering thus hampering diagnosis or private medical conditions of patients could be disclosed to parties who do not have a right to access such information. Very recently, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems in a recent issue of Journal of Medical Systems. They claimed that the authentication scheme can withstand various attacks and it is secure to be used in TMIS. In this paper, we show that this authentication scheme is vulnerable to key-compromise impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks upon compromising of a smart card, and parallel session attacks. We also exploit weaknesses in the password change phase of the scheme to mount a denial-of-service attack. Our results show that this scheme cannot be used to provide security in a telecare medicine information system.

  1. Implementation and analysis of trajectory schemes for informate: a serial link robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ahmed, S.M.; Asif, M.; Ahmad, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trajectory planning schemes generally interpolate or approximate the desired path by a class of polynomial functions and generate a sequence of time based control set points for the control of the manipulator movement from certain initial configuration to final configuration. Schemes for trajectory generation can be implemented in Joint space and in Cartesian space. This paper describes Joint Space trajectory schemes and Cartesian Space trajectory schemes and their implementation for Infomate, a six degrees of freedom serial link robot manipulator. LSPBs and cubic Spline are chosen as interpolating functions of time for each type of schemes. Modules developed have been incorporated in an OLP system for Infomate. Trajectory planning Schemes discussed in this paper incorporate the constraints of velocities and accelerations of the actuators. comparison with respect to computation and motion time is presented for above mentioned trajectory schemes. Algorithms have been developed that enable the end effector to follow a straight line; other paths like circle, ellipse, etc. can be approximated by straight line segments. (author)

  2. Performance analysis of joint diversity combining, adaptive modulation, and power control schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adaptive solutions for future generations of wireless communication systems. Indeed, in order to improve the performance and the efficiency of these systems, these two techniques have been recently used jointly in new schemes named joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (JAMDC) schemes. Considering the problem of finding low hardware complexity, bandwidth-efficient, and processing-power efficient transmission schemes for a downlink scenario and capitalizing on some of these recently proposed JAMDC schemes, we propose and analyze in this paper three joint adaptive modulation, diversity combining, and power control (JAMDCPC) schemes where a constant-power variable-rate adaptive modulation technique is used with an adaptive diversity combining scheme and a common power control process. More specifically, the modulation constellation size, the number of combined diversity paths, and the needed power level are jointly determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency with the lowest possible processing power consumption quantified in terms of the average number of combined paths, given the fading channel conditions and the required bit error rate (BER) performance. In this paper, the performance of these three JAMDCPC schemes is analyzed in terms of their spectral efficiency, processing power consumption, and error-rate performance. Selected numerical examples show that these schemes considerably increase the spectral efficiency of the existing JAMDC schemes with a slight increase in the average number of combined paths for the low signal-to-noise ratio range while maintaining compliance with the BER performance and a low radiated power which yields to a substantial decrease in interference to co-existing users and systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Modeling and Performance Analysis for Cell Access and Handoff Schemes in Two-Tier Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungkoo Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of handoff on system performance in two-tier cellular networks. Two of the main performance metrics are new call blocking probability and handoff drop rate. We develop analytical models to evaluate the performance of two different handoff schemes. One scheme considers only femto-to-macrocell handoff while the other is bidirectional including macro-to-femtocell handoff. Our model is more elaborate than existing ones which have not considered the mobility of mobile stations. Numerical results show that the bidirectional scheme performs better than the femto-to-macrocell handoff as it achieves lower blocking probability and drop rate.

  4. Implicit flux-split Euler schemes for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.

  5. A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

    2005-07-01

    As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

  6. Investigation of dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and spectral analysis methods for acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Florence O.; Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    Important characteristics of the aeroacoustic wave propagation are mostly encoded in their dispersion relations. Hence, a computational aeroacoustic (CAA) algorithm, which reasonably preserves these relations, was investigated. It was derived using an optimization procedure to ensure, that the numerical derivatives preserved the wave number and angular frequency of the differential terms in the linearized, 2-D Euler equations. Then, simulations were performed to validate the scheme and a compatible set of discretized boundary conditions. The computational results were found to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The boundary conditions were transparent to the outgoing waves, except when the disturbance source was close to a boundary. The time-domain data generated by such CAA solutions were often intractable until their spectra was analyzed. Therefore, the relative merits of three different methods were included in the study. For simple, periodic waves, the periodogram method produced better estimates of the steep-sloped spectra than the Blackman-Tukey method. Also, for this problem, the Hanning window was more effective when used with the weighted-overlapped-segment-averaging and Blackman-Tukey methods gave better results than the periodogram method. Finally, it was demonstrated that the representation of time domain-data was significantly dependent on the particular spectral analysis method employed.

  7. Data oriented job submission scheme for the PHENIX user analysis in CCJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; En'yo, H; Ichihara, T; Watanabe, Y; Yokkaichi, S

    2011-01-01

    The RIKEN Computing Center in Japan (CCJ) has been developed to make it possible analyzing huge amount of data corrected by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The corrected raw data or reconstructed data are transferred via SINET3 with 10 Gbps bandwidth from Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) by using GridFTP. The transferred data are once stored in the hierarchical storage management system (HPSS) prior to the user analysis. Since the size of data grows steadily year by year, concentrations of the access request to data servers become one of the serious bottlenecks. To eliminate this I/O bound problem, 18 calculating nodes with total 180 TB local disks were introduced to store the data a priori. We added some setup in a batch job scheduler (LSF) so that user can specify the requiring data already distributed to the local disks. The locations of data are automatically obtained from a database, and jobs are dispatched to the appropriate node which has the required data. To avoid the multiple access to a local disk from several jobs in a node, techniques of lock file and access control list are employed. As a result, each job can handle a local disk exclusively. Indeed, the total throughput was improved drastically as compared to the preexisting nodes in CCJ, and users can analyze about 150 TB data within 9 hours. We report this successful job submission scheme and the feature of the PC cluster.

  8. Data oriented job submission scheme for the PHENIX user analysis in CCJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; En'yo, H.; Ichihara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yokkaichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The RIKEN Computing Center in Japan (CCJ) has been developed to make it possible analyzing huge amount of data corrected by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The corrected raw data or reconstructed data are transferred via SINET3 with 10 Gbps bandwidth from Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) by using GridFTP. The transferred data are once stored in the hierarchical storage management system (HPSS) prior to the user analysis. Since the size of data grows steadily year by year, concentrations of the access request to data servers become one of the serious bottlenecks. To eliminate this I/O bound problem, 18 calculating nodes with total 180 TB local disks were introduced to store the data a priori. We added some setup in a batch job scheduler (LSF) so that user can specify the requiring data already distributed to the local disks. The locations of data are automatically obtained from a database, and jobs are dispatched to the appropriate node which has the required data. To avoid the multiple access to a local disk from several jobs in a node, techniques of lock file and access control list are employed. As a result, each job can handle a local disk exclusively. Indeed, the total throughput was improved drastically as compared to the preexisting nodes in CCJ, and users can analyze about 150 TB data within 9 hours. We report this successful job submission scheme and the feature of the PC cluster.

  9. How Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) over the past 25 years has changed our way of performing chemical analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Briefly looking back on the impact of flow injection analysis (FIA), as reflected in the rapid growth of publications in the scientific literature, and touching upon many of the novel and unique analytical chemical possibilities that FIA and its sequels, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and La...

  10. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred

  11. Review analysis of properties for an ideal secure biometric template scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, Phiwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available privacy and system security. To mitigate this problem, various biometric protection techniques have been proposed. Most of these schemes aim to satisfy diversity, revocability, security and performance properties, as requirements for ideal secured...

  12. An Analysis of an Implicit Factored Scheme for Simulating Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    can cope with a wide range of boundary conditions and equations of state, For modelling -( shock waves in solids, elastic- plastic terms must also be...positive caracteristic speeds. One-sided schemes have superior dissipative and dispersive properties compared to those of centered schemes (Steger and...Elastic- plastic con. ditions must be- incorporated into the problem and usually the addition of suitable bource or sink terms to c-’ustion (1

  13. Analysis and performance assessment of a fragment retransmission scheme for energy efficient IEEE 802.11 WLANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafole, Prosper; Aritsugi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Backoff-free fragment retransmission (BFFR) scheme enhances the performance of legacy MAC layer fragmentation by eliminating contention overhead. The eliminated overhead is the result of backoff executed before a retransmission attempt is made when fragment transmission failure occurs within a fragment burst. This paper provides a mathematical analysis of BFFR energy efficiency and further assesses, by means of simulations, the energy efficiency, throughput and delay obtained when BFFR is used. The validity of the new scheme is evaluated in different scenarios namely, constant bit rate traffic, realistic bursty internet traffic, node mobility, rigid and elastic flows and their combinations at different traffic loads. We also evaluate and discuss the impact of BFFR on MAC fairness when the number of nodes is varied from 4 to 10. It is shown that BFFR has advantages over legacy MAC fragmentation scheme in all the scenarios.

  14. A hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis with K-means clustering and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  15. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.

  16. The Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA): Evaluation of the statistical interpolation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea; Rasmussen, Peter; Fortin, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    CaPA (Canadian Precipitation Analysis) is a data assimilation system which employs statistical interpolation to combine observed precipitation with gridded precipitation fields produced by Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) climate model into a final gridded precipitation analysis. Precipitation is important in many fields and applications, including agricultural water management projects, flood control programs, and hydroelectric power generation planning. Precipitation is a key input to hydrological models, and there is a desire to have access to the best available information about precipitation in time and space. The principal goal of CaPA is to produce this type of information. In order to perform the necessary statistical interpolation, CaPA requires the estimation of a semi-variogram. This semi-variogram is used to describe the spatial correlations between precipitation innovations, defined as the observed precipitation amounts minus the GEM forecasted amounts predicted at the observation locations. Currently, CaPA uses a single isotropic variogram across the entire analysis domain. The present project investigates the implications of this choice by first conducting a basic variographic analysis of precipitation innovation data across the Canadian prairies, with specific interest in identifying and quantifying potential anisotropy within the domain. This focus is further expanded by identifying the effect of storm type on the variogram. The ultimate goal of the variographic analysis is to develop improved semi-variograms for CaPA that better capture the spatial complexities of precipitation over the Canadian prairies. CaPA presently applies a Box-Cox data transformation to both the observations and the GEM data, prior to the calculation of the innovations. The data transformation is necessary to satisfy the normal distribution assumption, but introduces a significant bias. The second part of the investigation aims at devising a bias

  17. The european union emission trading scheme and energy markets: economic and financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates relationships between the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and energy markets. A special focus is given to fuel switching, the main short term abatement measure within the EU ETS. This consists in substituting Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGTs) for hard-coal plants in off-peak power generation. Thereby coal plants run for shorter periods, which allows power producers to reduce their CO 2 emissions. In Chapter 1, we outline different approaches explaining relationships between carbon and energy markets. We also review the literature relating to these issues. Next, we further describe the fuel switching process and, in particular, we analyze the influence of energy and environmental efficiency of thermal power plants (coal and gas) on fuel switching. In Chapter 2, we provide a theoretical analysis that shows how differences in the efficiency of CCGTs can rule interactions between gas and carbon prices. The main result shows that the allowance price becomes more sensitive to the gas price when the level of CO 2 emissions increases. In Chapter 3, we examine interactions between carbon, coal, gas and electricity prices in an empirical study. Among the main results, we find that there is a significant link between carbon and gas prices in the long-run equilibrium. In Chapter 4, we analyze the cross-market price discovery process between gas and CO 2 markets. We identified in previous chapters that there is a robust significant link between gas and CO 2 markets. They are linked commodities, and their prices are affected by the same information. In an empirical analysis, we find that the carbon market is the leader in cross-market price discovery process. (author)

  18. Optimal Tradable Credits Scheme and Congestion Pricing with the Efficiency Analysis to Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We allow for three traffic scenarios: the tradable credits scheme, congestion pricing, and no traffic measure. The utility functions of different modes (car, bus, and bicycle are developed by considering the income’s impact on travelers’ behaviors. Their purpose is to analyze the demand distribution of different modes. A social optimization model is built aiming at maximizing the social welfare. The optimal tradable credits scheme (distribution of credits, credits charging, and the credit price, congestion pricing fees, bus frequency, and bus fare are obtained by solving the model. Mode choice behavior under the tradable credits scheme is also studied. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the model’s availability and explore the effects of the three schemes on traffic system’s performance. Results show congestion pricing would earn more social welfare than the other traffic measures. However, tradable credits scheme will give travelers more consumer surplus than congestion pricing. Travelers’ consumer surplus with congestion pricing is the minimum, which injures the travelers’ benefits. Tradable credits scheme is considered the best scenario by comparing the three scenarios’ efficiency.

  19. Numerical analysis of water hammer induced by injection of subcooled water into steam flow in a horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Akihiko; Nagoyoshi, Takuji; Nakamura, Akira; Fujii, Yuzo; Aya, Izuo; Yamane, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Subcooled water injection into steam flow in piping systems may generate a water column containing a large steam slug. The steam slug collapses due to rapid condensation and interfaces on both sides collides with each other. Water hammer takes place and sharp pressure pulse propagates through the pipe. The purpose of this study is to show capability of the present numerical simulation method for predictions of pressure transient and loads on a piping system following steam slug collapse. A three-dimensional computer code for transient gas-liquid two-phase flow was applied to simulate an experiment of steam-condensation-induced water hammer with a horizontal polycarbonate pipe. The code was based on the extended two-fluid model, which treated interface motion using the VOF (Volume of Fluid) technique. The Godunov scheme of highly compressible single-phase flow was modified for application to the Riemann problem solution of gas-liquid mixture. Analysis of local steam slug collapse resulted in comparable peak pressure and pulse width of pressure transients with the observation. The calculation of pressure pulse propagation and impact load on piping system showed the quasi-steady pressure load was imposed especially on elbow at 1/10 of water hammer peak pressure. (author)

  20. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuruzzaman, D M; Kusaseh, N; Basri, S; Hamedon, Z; Oumer, A N

    2016-01-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured. (paper)

  1. Theoretical considerations of Flow Injection Analysis in the Absence of Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism of flow injection analysis (FIA) is assumed to be simple dissusion and the response of the detector is included in a model description that provide information about the shape of the FIA peak in terms of, basically, five parameters. Two of the five parameters are associa...... that any deviation from the features of the present model and the results of a tentative chemical reaction with one of the test compounds, is related to chemical kinetics.......The fundamental mechanism of flow injection analysis (FIA) is assumed to be simple dissusion and the response of the detector is included in a model description that provide information about the shape of the FIA peak in terms of, basically, five parameters. Two of the five parameters...

  2. Optimized and validated flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of topiramate, piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy

    2011-12-01

    Application of a sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determination of topiramate, piracetam, and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations has been investigated. The method is based on the reaction with ortho-phtalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol in a basic buffer and measurement of absorbance at 295 nm under flow conditions. Variables affecting the determination such as sample injection volume, pH, ionic strength, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagent and other FIA parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results using a quarter-fraction factorial design, for five factors at two levels. Also, the method has been optimized and fully validated in terms of linearity and range, limit of detection and quantitation, precision, selectivity and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

  3. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  4. Pressure and pressure derivative analysis for injection tests with variable temperature without type-curve matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Freddy Humberto; Martinez, Javier Andres; Montealegre Matilde

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of injection tests under nonisothermic conditions is important for the accurate estimation of the reservoir permeability and the well's skin factor; since previously an isothermical system was assumed without taking into account a moving temperature front which expands with time plus the consequent changes in both viscosity and mobility between the cold and the hot zone of the reservoir which leads to unreliable estimation of the reservoir and well parameters. To construct the solution an analytical approach presented by Boughrara and Peres (2007) was used. That solution was initially introduced for the calculation of the injection pressure in an isothermic system. It was later modified by Boughrara and Reynolds (2007) to consider a system with variable temperature in vertical wells. In this work, the pressure response was obtained by numerical solution of the anisothermical model using the Gauss Quadrature method to solve the integrals, and assuming that both injection and reservoir temperatures were kept constant during the injection process and the water saturation is uniform throughout the reservoir. For interpretation purposes, a technique based upon the unique features of the pressure and pressure derivative curves were used without employing type-curve matching (TDS technique). The formulation was verified by its application to field and synthetic examples. As expected, increasing reservoir temperature causes a decrement in the mobility ratio, then estimation of reservoir permeability is some less accurate from the second radial flow, especially, as the mobility ratio increases

  5. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  6. The determination, by flow-injection analysis, of iron, sulphate, silver and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the spectrophotometric determination by flow-injection analysis including, where necessary, liquid-liquid extraction of iron with 1,10-phenanthroline; of sulphate by its catalytic effect on the methylthymol blue-zirconium reaction; of silver with bromopyrogallol red and 1,10-phenanthroline; and of cadmium with dithizone. Optimum conditions for each system are established, and sensitivities and ranges of determination are given

  7. Analysis and modeling of simulated residual stress of mold injected plastic parts by using robust correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Carlos; Sierra, Juan; Posada, Juan; Botero-Cadavid, Juan F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The injection molding process is the most widely used processing technique for polymers. The analysis of residual stresses generated during this process is crucial for the part quality assessment. The present study evaluates the residual stresses in a tensile strength specimen using the simulation software Moldex3D for two polymers, polypropylene and polycarbonate. The residual stresses obtained under a simulated design of experiment were modeled using a robust multivariable regressi...

  8. Analysis of a fourth-order compact scheme for convection-diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavneh, I.

    1997-01-01

    In, 1984 Gupta et al. introduced a compact fourth-order finite-difference convection-diffusion operator with some very favorable properties. In particular, this scheme does not seem to suffer excessively from spurious oscillatory behavior, and it converges with standard methods such as Gauss Seidel or SOR (hence, multigrid) regardless of the diffusion. This scheme has been rederived, developed (including some variations), and applied in both convection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations by several authors. Accurate solutions to high Reynolds-number flow problems at relatively coarse resolutions have been reported. These solutions were often compared to those obtained by lower order discretizations, such as second-order central differences and first-order upstream discretizations. The latter, it was stated, achieved far less accurate results due to the artificial viscosity, which the compact scheme did not include. We show here that, while the compact scheme indeed does not suffer from a cross-stream artificial viscosity (as does the first-order upstream scheme when the characteristic direction is not aligned with the grid), it does include a streamwise artificial viscosity that is inversely proportional to the natural viscosity. This term is not always benign. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Promoting renewable energy through capacity markets: An analysis of the Russian support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole

    2012-01-01

    Most existing support schemes aim to stimulate the deployment of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector on the basis of the electricity output (MW h) of renewable energy installations. Support is anchored in the electricity commodity market. In contrast to this established approach, Russia intends to promote renewable energy through the capacity market. The idea is to remunerate investors for the installed capacity (MW) of their installations, in particular for the availability of their installations to produce electricity. This article argues that, contrary to the implicit consensus, a capacity-based approach to supporting renewable energy can provide an alternative to the current output-based schemes. Capacity-based schemes limit the incentive that the operators of renewable energy installations currently have under output-based schemes to deliver electricity to the grid even in periods of low demand. These schemes also provide investors with a more predictable income flow. However, to be successful, the regulation of capacity supply – currently designed for flexible power plants – needs to accommodate the specific production patterns of variable renewable energy installations. This paper examines ways to overcome this challenge in Russia and provides more general conclusions on the complex interaction between capacity markets and renewable energy investments.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Resonance in LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters under Different Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basic building block in power systems, the three-phase voltage-source inverter (VSI connects the distributed energy to the grid. For the inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL-filter three-phase VSI, according to different current sampling position and different reference frame, there mainly exist four control schemes. Different control schemes present different impedance characteristics in their corresponding determined frequency range. To analyze the existing resonance phenomena due to the variation of grid impedances, the sequence impedance models of LCL-type grid-connected three-phase inverters under different control schemes are presented using the harmonic linearization method. The impedance-based stability analysis approach is then applied to compare the relative stability issues due to the impedance differences at some frequencies and to choose the best control scheme and the better controller parameters regulating method for the LCL-type three-phase VSI. The simulation and experiments both validate the resonance analysis results.

  11. Zinc injection implementation process at EDF: risk analysis, chemical specifications and operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, A.; Stutzmann, A.; Bremnes, O.; Claeys, M.; Ranchoux, G.; Segura, J.C.; Errera, J.; Bonne, S.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc's ability to replace cobalt from oxides of primary circuit surfaces has provided the first motivation for implementing the zinc addition in BWRs since the mid-1980s. The beneficial results regarding dose reductions have been demonstrated; therefore, this practice has been extended to PWRs since the 1990s, not only for radiation fields considerations, but also for reducing PWSCC. From the beginning of the 2000s, further reasons to inject zinc associated with the fuel management process have been identified (e; g; power increase, high burn-up, and/or cycle length increase). These evolutions must be accompanied by an adapted chemistry program in order to mitigate the crud deposition on fuel assemblies and the consequent AOA/CIPS or localized clad corrosion risks. The source term reduction (due to the decrease of the general corrosion rate of several materials) and the absence of negative impact on alloy cladding in the presence of zinc in the primary coolant are the main reasons for selecting zinc injection as a reliable option for preventing and/or mitigating the effects of fuel deposits. These three PWR motivations (field radiation, components performance, and fuel reliability) are also the major objectives of CANDU®, WWER, and new reactors (EPR, AP1000), where the zinc injection feasibility analyses are in progress in order to improve the safety of their operating conditions. With the purpose of achieving the optimal results of zinc injection, the process's implantation in a unit must be conducted with an appropriate risk analysis, covering all possible domains affected by this primary coolant chemistry modification : safety, fuel and component performance, radioprotection, waste, environment, human and installation security, human and material resources, staff formation, and documentation. EDF has performed a complete analysis of this enlarged scope, relying upon theoretical and experimental results as well as NPP feedback. This paper describes EDF

  12. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  13. LCI Databases Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Injection Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elduque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, society’s concern for the environment has increased. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes. Calculating the environmental impact of plastic products is relevant as the global plastics production rose to 288 million tons in 2012. Among the different ways of processing plastics, the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory for injection molding, and the data from which this database is created, have been studied. Generally, when an LCA of a product is carried out, databases such as EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used to quantify the environmental impact. This approach can be good enough in some cases but in order to assess a specific production process, like injection molding, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ for injection molding when using the PVC’s, PP’s or PET’s data. This aspect suggests the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process, to correctly evaluate its environmental burden. This also allows us to identify priority areas and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing plastics.

  14. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  15. Analysis and study of a handoff scheme with multiple priority strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 吴成柯; 椋本介士; 福田明

    2000-01-01

    A handoff scheme with the combination of channel reservation and preemptive priority in integrated voice/data cellular mobile systems is proposed. In the scheme, calls are divided into three different classes: handoff voice calls, originating voice calls, and data calls. An access strategy with the combination of channel reservation and preemptive priority is provided to a handoff voice call. Furthermore, in order to improve the system capacity for the total voice traffic, preemptive priority is also given to partial originating voice calls. The system is modeled by a two-dimensional Markov chain. Both the iteration method and the approximate method are used to calculate and analyze some of the most important performance measures of the system. It is shown that our scheme can provide better quality of services for mobile subscribers.

  16. Coupled analysis of passive safety injection and containment filtered venting for passive decay heat removal - 15140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Ham, J.H.; Jeong, Y.H.; Chang, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    developed based on the simulation results from two analysis codes, MARS and MAAP. The early initiation and high mass flow rate from the passive safety injection system could guarantee the convergent containment pressure. In addition, in the loss of coolant accident with the failures of safety injection systems, the passive safety injection system and the containment filtered venting system can be used as a new accident management method. (authors)

  17. Further optimization of a parallel double-effect organosilicon distillation scheme through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinsheng; Dai, Leilei; Shi, Ming; Gao, Hong; Cao, Xijia; Liu, Guangxin

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, a significant improvement in organosilicon monomer distillation using parallel double-effect heat integration between a heavies removal column and six other columns, as well as heat integration between methyltrichlorosilane and dimethylchlorosilane columns, reduced the total exergy loss of the currently running counterpart by 40.41%. Further research regarding this optimized scheme demonstrated that it was necessary to reduce the higher operating pressure of the methyltrichlorosilane column, which is required for heat integration between the methyltrichlorosilane and dimethylchlorosilane columns. Therefore, in this contribution, a challenger scheme is presented with heat pumps introduced separately from the originally heat-coupled methyltrichlorosilane and dimethylchlorosilane columns in the above-mentioned optimized scheme, which is the prototype for this work. Both schemes are simulated using the same purity requirements used in running industrial units. The thermodynamic properties from the simulation are used to calculate the energy consumption and exergy loss of the two schemes. The results show that the heat pump option further reduces the flowsheet energy consumption and exergy loss by 27.35% and 10.98% relative to the prototype scheme. These results indicate that the heat pumps are superior to heat integration in the context of energy-savings during organosilicon monomer distillation. - Highlights: • Combine the paralleled double-effect and heat pump distillation to organosilicon distillation. • Compare the double-effect with the heat pump in saving energy. • Further cut down the flowsheet energy consumption and exergy loss by 27.35% and 10.98% respectively

  18. A Scheme for Initial Exploratory Data Analysis of Multivariate Image Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    A new scheme is proposed for handling initial exploratory analyses of multivariate image data. The method is invariant to linear transformations of the original data and is useful for data fusion of multisource measurements. The scheme includes dimensionality reduction followed by unsupervised...... clustering of the data. A transformation is proposed which maximizes autocorrelation by projection onto subspaces with signal-to-noise ratio dependent variance. We apply the traditional fuzzy c-means algorithm and introduce two additional memberships enhancing the textural awareness of the algorithm. Cluster...

  19. Simultaneous analysis in renormalization and factorization scheme dependences in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakkagawa, Hisao; Niegawa, Akira.

    1983-01-01

    Combined and thorough investigations of both the factorization and the renormalization scheme dependences of perturbative QCD calculations are given. Our findings are that (i) by introducing a multiscale-dependent coupling the simultaneous parametrization of both scheme-dependences can be accomplished, (ii) Stevenson's optimization method works quite well so that it gives a remarkable prediction which forces us to exponentiate ''everything'' with uncorrected subprocess cross sections, and (iii) the perturbation series in QCD may converge when Stevenson's principle of minimal sensitivity is taken into account at each order of perturbative approximation. (author)

  20. Simulation analysis of security performance of DPSKOCDMA network via virtual user scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishav Jyoti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique to enhance the security of an optical code division multipleaccess (OCDMA system against eavesdropping is proposed. It has been observed that whena single user is active in the network, an eavesdropper can easily sift the data beingtransmitted without decoding. To increase the security, a virtual user scheme is proposed andsimulated on a differential phase shift keying (DPSK OCDMA system. By using the virtualuser scheme, the security of the DPSK-OCDMA system can be effectively improved and themultiple access interference, which is generally considered to be a limitation of the OCDMAsystem, is used to increase the confidentiality of the system.

  1. Transient computational fluid dynamics analysis of emergency core cooling injection at natural circulation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerer, Martina, E-mail: Martina.Scheuerer@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsinstitute, 85748 Garching (Germany); Weis, Johannes, E-mail: Johannes.Weis@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsinstitute, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressurized thermal shocks are important phenomena for plant life extension and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-hydraulics of PTS have been studied experimentally and numerically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the Large Scale Test Facility a loss of coolant accident was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFD software is validated to simulate the buoyancy driven flow after ECC injection. - Abstract: Within the framework of the European Nuclear Reactor Integrated Simulation Project (NURISP), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is validated for the simulation of the thermo-hydraulics of pressurized thermal shocks. A proposed validation experiment is the test series performed within the OECD ROSA V project in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1:48 volume-scaled model of a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). ROSA V Test 1-1 investigates temperature stratification under natural circulation conditions. This paper describes calculations which were performed with the ANSYS CFD software for emergency core cooling injection into one loop at single-phase flow conditions. Following the OECD/NEA CFD Best Practice Guidelines (Mahaffy, 2007) the influence of grid resolution, discretisation schemes, and turbulence models (shear stress transport and Reynolds stress model) on the mixing in the cold leg were investigated. A half-model was used for these simulations. The transient calculations were started from a steady-state solution at natural circulation conditions. The final calculations were obtained in a complete model of the downcomer. The results are in good agreement with data.

  2. Transient computational fluid dynamics analysis of emergency core cooling injection at natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerer, Martina; Weis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pressurized thermal shocks are important phenomena for plant life extension and aging. ► The thermal-hydraulics of PTS have been studied experimentally and numerically. ► In the Large Scale Test Facility a loss of coolant accident was investigated. ► CFD software is validated to simulate the buoyancy driven flow after ECC injection. - Abstract: Within the framework of the European Nuclear Reactor Integrated Simulation Project (NURISP), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is validated for the simulation of the thermo-hydraulics of pressurized thermal shocks. A proposed validation experiment is the test series performed within the OECD ROSA V project in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). The LSTF is a 1:48 volume-scaled model of a four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). ROSA V Test 1-1 investigates temperature stratification under natural circulation conditions. This paper describes calculations which were performed with the ANSYS CFD software for emergency core cooling injection into one loop at single-phase flow conditions. Following the OECD/NEA CFD Best Practice Guidelines (Mahaffy, 2007) the influence of grid resolution, discretisation schemes, and turbulence models (shear stress transport and Reynolds stress model) on the mixing in the cold leg were investigated. A half-model was used for these simulations. The transient calculations were started from a steady-state solution at natural circulation conditions. The final calculations were obtained in a complete model of the downcomer. The results are in good agreement with data.

  3. 3-D fracture analysis using a partial-reduced integration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents details of 3-D elastic-plastic analyses of axially orientated external surface flaw in an internally pressurized thin-walled cylinder and discusses the variation of the J-integral values around the crack tip. A partial-reduced-integration-penalty method is introduced to minimize this variation of the J-integral near the crack tip. Utilizing 3-D symmetry, an eighth segment of a tube containing an elliptically shaped external surface flaw is modelled using 20-noded isoparametric elements. The crack-tip elements are collapsed to form a 1/r stress singularity about the curved crack front. The finite element model is subjected to internal pressure and axial pressure-generated loads. The virtual crack extension method is used to determine linear elastic stress intensity factors from the J-integral results at various points around the crack front. Despite the different material constants and the thinner wall thickness in this analysis, the elastic results compare favourably with those obtained by other researchers. The nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of the tube material is modelled using an incremental theory of plasticity. Variations of the J-integral values around the curved crack front of the 3-D flaw were seen. These variations could not be resolved by neglecting the immediate crack-tip elements J-integral results in favour of the more remote contour paths or else smoothed out when all the path results are averaged. Numerical incompatabilities in the 20-noded 3-D finite elements used to model the surface flaw were found. A partial-reduced integration scheme, using a combination of full and reduced integration elements, is proposed to determine J-integral results for 3-D fracture analyses. This procedure is applied to the analysis of an external semicircular surface flaw projecting halfway into the tube wall thickness. Examples of the J-integral values, before and after the partial-reduced integration method is employed, are given around the

  4. Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Ricca, Flavia; DI Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. A systematic search of literature was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks, there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD=2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD=0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P=0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD=0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P=0.68) follow-up. Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite

  5. Multi-Level Simulated Fault Injection for Data Dependent Reliability Analysis of RTL Circuit Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIMARA, S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes data-dependent reliability evaluation methodology for digital systems described at Register Transfer Level (RTL. It uses a hybrid hierarchical approach, combining the accuracy provided by Gate Level (GL Simulated Fault Injection (SFI and the low simulation overhead required by RTL fault injection. The methodology comprises the following steps: the correct simulation of the RTL system, according to a set of input vectors, hierarchical decomposition of the system into basic RTL blocks, logic synthesis of basic RTL blocks, data-dependent SFI for the GL netlists, and RTL SFI. The proposed methodology has been validated in terms of accuracy on a medium sized circuit – the parallel comparator used in Check Node Unit (CNU of the Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC decoders. The methodology has been applied for the reliability analysis of a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES crypto-core, for which the GL simulation was prohibitive in terms of required computational resources.

  6. Numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, E V; Lobanov, P D; Pribaturin, N A; Mosunova, N A; Chuhno, V I; Kutlimetov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Presented paper contains results of a numerical analysis of experiments with gas injection in water and liquid metal which have been performed at the Institute of Thermophysics Russian Academy of Science (IT RAS). Obtained experimental data are very important to predict processes that take place in the BREST-type reactor during the hypothetical accident with damage of the steam generator tubes, and may be used as a benchmark to validate thermo-hydraulic codes. Detailed description of models to simulate transport of gas phase in a vertical liquid column is presented in a current paper. Two-fluid model with closing relation for wall friction and interface friction coefficients was used to simulate processes which take place in a liquid during injection of gaseous phase. It has being shown that proposed models allow obtaining a good agreement between experimental data and calculation results. (paper)

  7. Irreversibility analysis of magneto-hydrodynamic nanofluid flow injected through a rotary disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear Navier-Stokes equations governed on the nanofluid flow injected through a rotary porous disk in the presence of an external uniform vertical magnetic field can be changed to a system of non-linear partial differential equations by applying similar parameter. In this study, partial differential equations are analytically solved by the modified differential transform method, Pade differential transformation method to obtain self-similar functions of motion and temperature. A very good agreement is observed between the obtained results of Pade differential transformation method and those of previously published ones. Then it has become possible to do a comprehensive parametric analysis on the entropy generation in this case to demonstrate the effects of physical flow parameters such as magnetic interaction parameter, injection parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction, dimensionless temperature difference, rotational Brinkman number and the type of nanofluid on the problem.

  8. Analysis of floor technology scheme in open-top construction of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxia; Lu Qinwu; Han Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Open-top construction is general technology in Ⅲ generation in nuclear power project. Because traditional floor structure and its form board upholding doesn't meet open-top construction, four floor scheme are presented, whose characters, advantages and disadvantages, and its application are summarized. The research results will help to the application of open-top construction. (authors)

  9. A decision-support scheme for mapping endangered areas in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, R.H.A.; Benninga, J.; Bremmer, J.; Brunel, S.; Dupin, M.; Eyre, D.; Ilieva, Z.; Jarosik, V.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Kriticos, D.J.; Makowski, D.; Pergl, J.; Reynaud, P.; Robinet, C.; Soliman, T.; Werf, van der W.; Worner, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a decision-support scheme (DSS) for mapping the area where economically important loss is likely to occur (the endangered area). It has been designed by the PRATIQUE project to help pest risk analysts address the numerous risk mapping challenges and decide on the most suitable

  10. Analysis of the Properties of Current Penalty Schemes for Violations of Antitrust Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.; Kort, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main feature of the penalty schemes described in current sentencing guidelines is that the fine is based on the accumulated gains from cartel or price-fixing activities for the firm.These gains are usually difficult to estimate, but they can be approximated by a fraction of the turnover.The

  11. Development of a reactivity worth correction scheme for the one-dimensional transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.

    2003-11-01

    This work is to develop a reactivity worth correction scheme for the MASTER one-dimensional (1-D) calculation model. The 1-D cross section variations according to the core state in the MASTER input file, which are produced for 1-D calculation performed by the MASTER code, are incorrect in most of all the core states except for exactly the same core state where the variations are produced. Therefore this scheme performs the reactivity worth correction factor calculations before the main 1-D transient calculation, and generates correction factors for boron worth, Doppler and moderator temperature coefficients, and control rod worth, respectively. These correction factors force the one dimensional calculation to generate the same reactivity worths with the 3-dimensional calculation. This scheme is applied to the control bank withdrawal accident of Yonggwang unit 1 cycle 14, and the performance is examined by comparing the 1-D results with the 3-D results. This problem is analyzed by the RETRAN-MASTER consolidated code system. Most of all results of 1-D calculation including the transient power behavior, the peak power and time are very similar with the 3-D results. In the MASTER neutronics computing time, the 1-D calculation including the correction factor calculation requires the negligible time comparing with the 3-D case. Therefore, the reactivity worth correction scheme is concluded to be very good in that it enables the 1-D calculation to produce the very accurate results in a few computing time

  12. Assessing a Reclaimed Concrete Up-Cycling Scheme through Life-Cycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, Sylvain; Bru, Kathy; Touzé, Solène; Ménard, Yannick

    The present study evaluates the environmental impacts of a recycling scheme for gravels from building concretes wastes, in which the liberated aggregates are reused in structural concretes while the residual mortar fines are sent to the raw mill of a clinker kiln.

  13. Modeling and Analysis of DIPPM: A New Modulation Scheme for Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC uses an Intensity-Modulation and Direct-Detection (IM/DD scheme to transmit data. However, the light source used in VLC systems is continuously switched on and off quickly, resulting in flickering. In addition, recent illumination systems include dimming support to allow users to dim the light sources to the desired level. Therefore, the modulation scheme for data transmission in VLC system must include flicker mitigation and dimming control capabilities. In this paper, the authors propose a Double Inverse Pulse Position Modulation (DIPPM scheme that minimizes flickering and supports a high level of dimming for the illumination sources in VLC systems. To form DIPPM, some changes are made in the symbol structure of the IPPM scheme, and a detailed explanation and mathematical model of DIPPM are given in this paper. Furthermore, both analytical and simulation results for the error performance of 2-DIPPM are compared with the performance of VPPM. Also, the communication performance of DIPPM is analyzed in terms of the normalized required power.

  14. Pore network quantification of sandstones under experimental CO2 injection using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrezueta, Edgar; González-Menéndez, Luís; Ordóñez-Casado, Berta; Olaya, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. Our case study is focused on the application of these techniques to study the evolution of rock pore network subjected to super critical CO2-injection. We have proposed a Digital Image Analysis (DIA) protocol that guarantees measurement reproducibility and reliability. This can be summarized in the following stages: (i) detailed description of mineralogy and texture (before and after CO2-injection) by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using thin sections; (ii) adjustment and calibration of DIA tools; (iii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers); (iv) study and quantification by DIA that allow (a) identification and isolation of pixels that belong to the same category: minerals vs. pores in each sample and (b) measurement of changes in pore network, after the samples have been exposed to new conditions (in our case: SC-CO2-injection). Finally, interpretation of the petrography and the measured data by an automated approach were done. In our applied study, the DIA results highlight the changes observed by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in a porosity increase when CO2 treatment occurs. Other additional changes were minor: variations in the roughness and roundness of pore edges, and pore aspect ratio, shown in the bigger pore population. Additionally, statistic tests of pore parameters measured were applied to verify that the differences observed between samples before and after CO2-injection were significant.

  15. Multi-spectrum and transmit-antenna switched diversity schemes for spectrum sharing systems: A performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa

    2012-12-01

    In spectrum sharing systems, a secondary user (SU) is allowed to share the spectrum with a primary licensed user under the condition that the interference at the the primary user receiver (PU-Rx) is below a predetermined threshold. Joint primary spectrum and transmit antenna selection diversity schemes can be utilized as an efficient way to meet the quality of service (QoS) demands of the SUs while satisfying the interference constraint. In this paper, we consider a secondary link comprised of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx) sharing the same spectrum with a number of primary users (PUs) operating at distinct spectra. We present a performance analysis for two primary spectrum and transmit antenna switched selection schemes with different amount of feedback requirements. In particular, assuming Rayleigh fading and BPSK transmission, we derive approximate BER expressions for the presented schemes. For the sake of comparison, we also derive a closed-form BER expression for the optimal selection scheme that selects the best pair in terms of the SU-Rx signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which has the disadvantage of high feedback requirements. Finally, our results are verified with numerical simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. An analysis of respondent-driven sampling with injecting drug users in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Sanjib Kumar; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Thongamba, Gay; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Akoijam, Brogen S

    2017-07-03

    Personal networks are significant social spaces to spread of HIV or other blood-borne infections among hard-to-reach population, viz., injecting drug users, female sex workers, etc. Sharing of infected needles or syringes among drug users is one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Manipur, a high HIV prevalence state in India. This study was carried out to describe the network characteristics and recruitment patterns of injecting drug users and to assess the association of personal network with injecting risky behaviors in Manipur. A total of 821 injecting drug users were recruited into the study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from Bishnupur and Churachandpur districts of Manipur; data on demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and network size were collected from them. Transition probability matrices and homophily indices were used to describe the network characteristics, and recruitment patterns of injecting drug users. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were performed to analyze the association between the personal networks and sharing of needles or syringes. The average network size was similar in both the districts. Recruitment analysis indicates injecting drug users were mostly engaged in mixed age group setting for injecting practice. Ever married and new injectors showed lack of in-group ties. Younger injecting drug users had mainly recruited older injecting drug users from their personal network. In logistic regression analysis, higher personal network was found to be significantly associated with increased likelihood of injecting risky behaviors. Because of mixed personal network of new injectors and higher network density associated with HIV exposure, older injecting drug users may act as a link for HIV transmission or other blood-borne infections to new injectors and also to their sexual partners. The information from this study may be useful to understanding the network pattern of injecting drug users

  17. Comparison of the co-gasification of sewage sludge and food wastes and cost-benefit analysis of gasification- and incineration-based waste treatment schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Siming; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The compositions of food wastes and their co-gasification producer gas were compared with the existing data of sewage sludge. Results showed that food wastes are more favorable than sewage sludge for co-gasification based on residue generation and energy output. Two decentralized gasification-based schemes were proposed to dispose of the sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. Monte Carlo simulation-based cost-benefit analysis was conducted to compare the proposed schemes with the existing incineration-based scheme. It was found that the gasification-based schemes are financially superior to the incineration-based scheme based on the data of net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and internal rate of return (IRR). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to suggest effective measures to improve the economics of the schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Simulation of the Application Layer in NarrowBand Networks with Conditional Data Injection XML Scheme Based on Universal Data Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Vondrous

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we would like to deal with challenges and analysis approaches in the area of narrow band communication networks. Especially those networks which use TCP/IP protocol family. We also present a new universal data generator for OMNeT++ simulation environment. We created this generator to satisfy the evaluation, stress testing and benchmarking demands of more and more complex industrial and the Internet of Things networks. We also present the methods for evaluation and comparison of results obtained from simulated and real TCP/IP based networks in this article.

  20. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozaghi, Ehsan; Reid, Andrew A; Andresen, Martin A; Juneau, Alexandre

    2014-08-04

    Supervised injection facilities (SIFs) are venues where people who inject drugs (PWID) have access to a clean and medically supervised environment in which they can safely inject their own illicit drugs. There is currently only one legal SIF in North America: Insite in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The responses and feedback generated by the evaluations of Insite in Vancouver have been overwhelmingly positive. This study assesses whether the above mentioned facility in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver needs to be expanded to other locations, more specifically that of Canada's capital city, Ottawa. The current study is aimed at contributing to the existing literature on health policy by conducting cost-benefit and cost-effective analyses for the opening of SIFs in Ottawa, Ontario. In particular, the costs of operating numerous SIFs in Ottawa was compared to the savings incurred; this was done after accounting for the prevention of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections. To ensure accuracy, two distinct mathematical models and a sensitivity analysis were employed. The sensitivity analyses conducted with the models reveals the potential for SIFs in Ottawa to be a fiscally responsible harm reduction strategy for the prevention of HCV cases--when considered independently. With a baseline sharing rate of 19%, the cumulative annual cost model supported the establishment of two SIFs and the marginal annual cost model supported the establishment of a single SIF. More often, the prevention of HIV or HCV alone were not sufficient to justify the establishment cost-effectiveness; rather, only when both HIV and HCV are considered does sufficient economic support became apparent. Funded supervised injection facilities in Ottawa appear to be an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain.

  1. An analysis of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Teresa L.; Storey, John M. E.; Youngquist, Adam D.; Szybist, James P.

    2012-03-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL SCHEME FOR ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAMS BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  3. An analysis of ZEEP reaction rate measurements using the iterative five group scheme of METHUSELAH I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F R; Askew, J R [Technical Assessments and Services Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    The five group iterative scheme of METHUSELAH I has been used to provide estimates of reaction rates for comparison with measurements in a number of loop experiments in ZEEP. Theory and experiment show good agreement for individual fission rate distributions and for the Pu-239/U-235 reaction rate ratios. Estimates of Lu/Mn ratios are in reasonable agreement with measurements in the H{sub 2}O cores, but become progressively less satisfactory as the D{sub 2}O content of the coolant is increased. It is concluded that for assessment calculations, the introduction of an iterative five group scheme improves the representation of thermal spectra in pressure tube reactor lattices. (author)

  4. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Department of Economics and Business, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n., Toledo-45071 (Spain)]. E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

    2006-11-15

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors.

  5. Linking renewable energy CDM projects and TGC schemes: An analysis of different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Rio, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy CDM (RE-CDM) projects encourage cost-effective GHG mitigation and enhanced sustainable development opportunities for the host countries. CERs from CDM projects include the value of the former benefits (i.e., 'climate change benefits'), whereas the second can be given value through the issuing and trading of tradable green certificates (TGCs). Countries could agree to trade these TGCs, leading to additional revenues for the investors in renewable energy projects and, therefore, further encouraging the deployment of CDM projects, currently facing significant barriers. However, the design of a combination of CDM projects and TGC schemes raises several conflicting issues and leads to trade-offs. This paper analyses these issues, identifies the alternatives that may exist to link TGC schemes with RE-CDM projects and analyses the impacts of those options on different variables and actors

  6. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover...... the period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks...

  7. Performance Analysis of Simple Channel Feedback Schemes for a Practical OFDMA System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus, I.; Kolding, Troels; Kovacs, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the tradeoff between the amount of uplink channel feedback information and the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) downlink performance with opportunistic frequency-domain packet scheduling. Three candidate channel feedback schemes are investigated......, including practical aspects, such as the effects of terminal measurement errors, bandwidth measurement granularity, quantization, and uplink signaling delays. The performance is evaluated by means of system-level simulations with detailed modeling of various radio resource-management algorithms, etc. Our...... results show that the optimal tradeoff between the channel feedback and the downlink OFDMA system performance depends on the radio channel frequency coherence bandwidth. We conclude that the so-called average best-M scheme is the most attractive channel feedback solution, where only the average channel...

  8. Design and Analysis of Schemes for Adapting Migration Intervals in Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Andrea; Sudholt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The migration interval is one of the fundamental parameters governing the dynamic behaviour of island models. Yet, there is little understanding on how this parameter affects performance, and how to optimally set it given a problem in hand. We propose schemes for adapting the migration interval according to whether fitness improvements have been found. As long as no improvement is found, the migration interval is increased to minimise communication. Once the best fitness has improved, the migration interval is decreased to spread new best solutions more quickly. We provide a method for obtaining upper bounds on the expected running time and the communication effort, defined as the expected number of migrants sent. Example applications of this method to common example functions show that our adaptive schemes are able to compete with, or even outperform, the optimal fixed choice of the migration interval, with regard to running time and communication effort.

  9. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  10. Security and Correctness Analysis on Privacy-Preserving k-Means Clustering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chunhua; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Due to the fast development of Internet and the related IT technologies, it becomes more and more easier to access a large amount of data. k-means clustering is a powerful and frequently used technique in data mining. Many research papers about privacy-preserving k-means clustering were published. In this paper, we analyze the existing privacy-preserving k-means clustering schemes based on the cryptographic techniques. We show those schemes will cause the privacy breach and cannot output the correct results due to the faults in the protocol construction. Furthermore, we analyze our proposal as an option to improve such problems but with intermediate information breach during the computation.

  11. Beam dynamics analysis of dielectric laser acceleration using a fast 6D tracking scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Niedermayer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic tracking approach exploiting the periodicity properties of dielectric laser acceleration (DLA gratings is presented. The longitudinal kick is obtained from the spatial Fourier harmonics of the laser field within the structure, and the transverse kicks are obtained using the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem. Additionally to the usual, strictly longitudinally periodic gratings, our approach is also applicable to periodicity chirped (subrelativistic and tilted (deflection gratings. In the limit of small kicks and short periods we obtain the 6D Hamiltonian, which allows, for example, to obtain matched beam distributions in DLAs. The scheme is applied to beam and grating parameters similar to recently performed experiments. The paper concludes with an outlook to laser based focusing schemes, which are promising to overcome fundamental interaction length limitations, in order to build an entire microchip-sized laser driven accelerator.

  12. On Performance Analysis of Protective Jamming Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuran Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs play an important role in Cyber Physical Social Sensing (CPSS systems. An eavesdropping attack is one of the most serious threats to WSNs since it is a prerequisite for other malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel anti-eavesdropping mechanism by introducing friendly jammers to wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In particular, we establish a theoretical framework to evaluate the eavesdropping risk of WSNs with friendly jammers and that of WSNs without jammers. Our theoretical model takes into account various channel conditions such as the path loss and Rayleigh fading, the placement schemes of jammers and the power controlling schemes of jammers. Extensive results show that using jammers in WSNs can effectively reduce the eavesdropping risk. Besides, our results also show that the appropriate placement of jammers and the proper assignment of emitting power of jammers can not only mitigate the eavesdropping risk but also may have no significant impairment to the legitimate communications.

  13. Performance Analysis of Wavelet Based MC-CDMA System with Implementation of Various Antenna Diversity Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Matiqul; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The impact of using wavelet based technique on the performance of a MC-CDMA wireless communication system has been investigated. The system under proposed study incorporates Walsh Hadamard codes to discriminate the message signal for individual user. A computer program written in Mathlab source code is developed and this simulation study is made with implementation of various antenna diversity schemes and fading (Rayleigh and Rician) channel. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the p...

  14. RCNF: Real-time Collaborative Network Forensic Scheme for Evidence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Nour; Slay, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Network forensic techniques help in tracking different types of cyber attack by monitoring and inspecting network traffic. However, with the high speed and large sizes of current networks, and the sophisticated philosophy of attackers, in particular mimicking normal behaviour and/or erasing traces to avoid detection, investigating such crimes demands intelligent network forensic techniques. This paper suggests a real-time collaborative network Forensic scheme (RCNF) that can monitor and inves...

  15. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

  16. Analysis of the imbalance price scheme in the Spanish electricity market: A wind power test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno-Lorenzo, Miriam; Moreno, M. Ángeles; Usaola, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the interaction between wind power and electricity markets. The paper is focused on balancing markets pricing policies. The proposal of a new imbalance price scheme is included and conveniently evaluated. This proposed scheme tries to minimise the use of ancillary services to compensate for deviations in searching for a more efficient market design. The effectiveness of imbalance prices as market signals is also examined, and policy recommendations regarding imbalance services are discussed. Two test cases are included that analyse the participation of a wind power producer in the Spanish electricity market using a stochastic optimisation strategy. For this purpose, the uncertainty of the variables is considered, i.e., wind power production and prediction, intraday and imbalance prices. Test cases were run with real data for 10 months, and realistic results are presented along with a hypothetical test case. The regulation of the imbalance prices may not be adequate for the Spanish electricity market because an error drop is not sufficiently encouraged. Therefore, we suggest the application of a new imbalance price scheme, which includes an additional constraint. The conclusions of this paper can be assumed to be general policy recommendations

  17. An Empirical Study on User-oriented Association Analysis of Library Classification Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Library classification schemes are mostly organized based on disciplines with a hierarchical structure. From the user point of view, some highly related yet non-hierarchical classes may not be easy to perceive in these schemes. This paper is to discover hidden associations between classes by analyzing users’ usage of library collections. The proposed approach employs collaborative filtering techniques to discover associated classes based on the circulation patterns of similar users. Many associated classes scattered across different subject hierarchies could be discovered from the circulation patterns of similar users. The obtained association norms between classes were found to be useful in understanding users' subject preferences for a given class. Classification schemes can, therefore, be made more adaptable to changes of users and the uses of different library collections. There are implications for applications in information organization and retrieval as well. For example, catalogers could refer to the ranked associated classes when they perform multi-classification, and users could also browse the associated classes for related subjects in an enhanced OPAC system. In future research, more empirical studies will be needed to validate the findings, and methods for obtaining user-oriented associations can still be improved.[Article content in Chinese

  18. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems: Tradeoffs and performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a number of adaptive transmission techniques in order to improve the performance of the secondary link in a spectrum sharing system. We first introduce the concept of minimum-selection maximum ratio transmission (MS-MRT) as an adaptive variation of the existing MRT (MRT) technique. While in MRT all available antennas are used for transmission, MS-MRT uses the minimum subset of antennas verifying both the interference constraint (IC) to the primary user and the bit error rate (BER) requirements. Similar to MRT, MS-MRT assumes that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary transmitter (ST), which makes this scheme challenging from a practical point of view. To overcome this challenge, we propose another transmission technique based on orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS). This technique uses the full-rate full-diversity Alamouti scheme in order to maximize the secondary\\'s transmission rate. The performance of these techniques is analyzed in terms of the average spectral efficiency (ASE), average number of transmit antennas, average delay, average BER, and outage performance. In order to give the motivation behind these analytical results, the tradeoffs offered by the proposed schemes are summarized and then demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  19. Passivity-Based Stability Analysis and Damping Injection for Multiparalleled VSCs with LCL Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    is decomposed into a passive filter output admittance in series with an active admittance which is dependent on the current controller and the time delay. The frequency-domain passivity theory is then applied to the active admittance for system stability analysis. It reveals that the stability region...... of the single-loop grid current control is not only dependent on the time delay, but affected also by the resonance frequency of the converter-side filter inductor and filter capacitor. Further on, the damping injection based on the discrete derivative controller is proposed to enhance the passivity...

  20. Cross-flow analysis of injection wells in a multilayered reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Jalali

    2016-09-01

    Natural and forced cross-flow is modeled for some injection wells in an oil reservoir located at North Sea. The solution uses a transient implicit finite difference approach for multiple sand layers with different permeabilities separated by impermeable shale layers. Natural and forced cross-flow rates for each reservoir layer during shut-in are calculated and compared with different production logging tool (PLT measurements. It appears that forced cross-flow is usually more prolonged and subject to a higher flow rate when compared with natural cross-flow, and is thus worthy of more detailed analysis.

  1. Neutron multimonochromator-bipolarizer based on magnetic multilayer Fe/Co and new scheme for the total neutron polarization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syromyatnikov, V.G.; Zaw Lin, Kyaw

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new neutron-optical element, Neutron Multimonochromator-Bipolarizer (NMB). It consists of a multimultilayer structure made of 12 periodic multilayer Fe/Co magnetic nanostructures whose period increases with distance from the substrate. Results are presented of calculations of the reflection coefficients from the NMB. We propose a new scheme of the total neutron polarization analysis for the time-of-flight method in the reflectometry. In this scheme, double NMB is used as a polarizer and there is no spin-flipper before the sample. NMB can be used in polarized neutron reflectometry, in SESANS, and for research of low-angle and inelastic scattering of polarized neutrons. (paper)

  2. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  3. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by direct injection of samples for liquid-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, Wayne M

    2007-03-10

    The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time-consuming, tedious, and frequently overlooked. However, direct on-line injection methods offer the advantage of reducing sample preparation steps and enabling effective pre-concentration and clean-up of biological fluids. These procedures can be automated and therefore reduce the requirements for handling potentially infectious biomaterial, improve reproducibility, and minimize sample manipulations and potential contamination. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the existing literature with emphasis on advances in automated sample preparation methods for liquid-chromatographic methods. More specifically, this review concentrates on the use of direct injection techniques, such as restricted-access materials, turbulent-flow chromatography and other automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures. It also includes short overviews of emerging automated extraction-phase technologies, such as molecularly imprinted polymers, in-tube solid-phase micro-extraction, and micro-extraction in a packed syringe for a more selective extraction of analytes from complex samples, providing further improvements in the analysis of biological materials. Lastly, the outlook for these methods and potential new applications for these technologies are briefly discussed.

  4. 0D modelling and efficiency analysis of three power amplification schemes for inductive storage generators in the μs scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, D.; Lassalle, F.; Chuvatin, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive studies were conducted to sharpen current pulse on IES (Inductive Energy Storage) drivers using the plasma opening switch scheme. Due to the emergence of new power amplification concepts, new opportunities appear for improving IES generators operation. In order to evaluate and compare the performances of these schemes this paper proposes a system analysis based on a 0D modelling [ru

  5. INJECTION MOLDING AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN METAL TO PLASTIC CONVERSION OF BOLTED FLANGE JOINT BY CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Blaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many metal parts in various applications are being replaced by plastic parts. There are several reasons for that depending on actual application - minimize part cost, enhance corrosion resistance, integrating more components into one part etc. Most important steps of metal to plastic conversion are material selection and design of plastic part. Plastic part has to withstand the same load as metal part. To fulfill this requirement fiber reinforced engineering plastics are often used. Also it is convenient to substitute heavy wall sections with ribbed structure to increase load-carrying ability of part and decrease cycle time, eliminate voids, sink marks etc. Mechanical properties of such part could be highly affected by fiber orientation. Results of fiber orientation from injection molding filling analysis can be used in stress analysis for better prediction of part response to mechanical load. Such coupled analysis is performed here in this case study on bolted flange joint.

  6. Filterless preconcentration, flow injection analysis and detection by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    The influence of interferences in the analysis of elements by inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) may be significantly diminished by utilising a protocol of flow-injection analysis (FIA). The method is based on filterless preconcentration of metallic elements at the walls...... of a knotted reactor that was made of nylon tubings. In the load mode, the preconcentration was accomplished by precipitation of metallic species in alkaline-buffered carriers onto the inner walls of the hydrofilic tube. After a preconcen-tration period of 40-120 seconds using sample volumes of 4-10 m...... of 10-30 were obtained in the analysis of aluminium, of chromium and of iron, which resulted in detection limits (3) down to 20 g/L at a sampling frequency of 50 per hour. The preconcentration protocol improves the selectivity thus allowing direct determination of the elements in saline media. Anionic...

  7. Analysis and Improvement of the Generic Higher-Order Masking Scheme of FSE 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Arnab; Venkatesh, Srinivas Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Masking is a well-known technique used to prevent block cipher implementations from side-channel attacks. Higher-order side channel attacks (e.g. higher-order DPA attack) on widely used block cipher like AES have motivated the design of efficient higher-order masking schemes. Indeed, it is known that as the masking order increases, the difficulty of side-channel attack increases exponentially. However, the main problem in higher-order masking is to design an efficient and secure technique for...

  8. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  9. Space-partition method for the variance-based sensitivity analysis: Optimal partition scheme and comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Qingqing; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis has been widely studied and asserted itself among practitioners. Monte Carlo simulation methods are well developed in the calculation of variance-based sensitivity indices but they do not make full use of each model run. Recently, several works mentioned a scatter-plot partitioning method to estimate the variance-based sensitivity indices from given data, where a single bunch of samples is sufficient to estimate all the sensitivity indices. This paper focuses on the space-partition method in the estimation of variance-based sensitivity indices, and its convergence and other performances are investigated. Since the method heavily depends on the partition scheme, the influence of the partition scheme is discussed and the optimal partition scheme is proposed based on the minimized estimator's variance. A decomposition and integration procedure is proposed to improve the estimation quality for higher order sensitivity indices. The proposed space-partition method is compared with the more traditional method and test cases show that it outperforms the traditional one

  10. Ordering the mob: Insights into replicon and MOB typing schemes from analysis of a curated dataset of publicly available plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlek, Alex; Phan, Hang; Sheppard, Anna E; Doumith, Michel; Ellington, Matthew; Peto, Tim; Crook, Derrick; Walker, A Sarah; Woodford, Neil; Anjum, Muna F; Stoesser, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids. Here, a curated dataset of complete Enterobacteriaceae plasmids from NCBI was compiled, and used to assess the typeability and concordance of in silico replicon and MOB typing schemes. Concordance was assessed at hierarchical replicon type resolutions, from replicon family-level to plasmid multilocus sequence type (pMLST)-level, where available. We found that 85% and 65% of the curated plasmids could be replicon and MOB typed, respectively. Overall, plasmid size and the number of resistance genes were significant independent predictors of replicon and MOB typing success. We found some degree of non-concordance between replicon families and MOB types, which was only partly resolved when partitioning plasmids into finer-resolution groups (replicon and pMLST types). In some cases, non-concordance was attributed to ambiguous boundaries between MOBP and MOBQ types; in other cases, backbone mosaicism was considered a more plausible explanation. β-lactamase resistance genes tended not to show fidelity to a particular plasmid type, though some previously reported associations were supported. Overall, replicon and MOB typing schemes are likely to continue playing an important role in plasmid analysis, but their performance is constrained by the diverse and dynamic nature of plasmid genomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  12. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  13. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira

    2017-03-17

    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  14. EEG Classification for Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface Using a Tensor Based Multiclass Multimodal Analysis Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongfei; Li, Jie; Lu, Rongrong; Gu, Rong; Cao, Lei; Gong, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram- (EEG-) based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems usually utilize one type of changes in the dynamics of brain oscillations for control, such as event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), and P300 evoked potentials. There is a recent trend to detect more than one of these signals in one system to create a hybrid BCI. However, in this case, EEG data were always divided into groups and analyzed by the separate processing procedures. As a result, the interactive effects were ignored when different types of BCI tasks were executed simultaneously. In this work, we propose an improved tensor based multiclass multimodal scheme especially for hybrid BCI, in which EEG signals are denoted as multiway tensors, a nonredundant rank-one tensor decomposition model is proposed to obtain nonredundant tensor components, a weighted fisher criterion is designed to select multimodal discriminative patterns without ignoring the interactive effects, and support vector machine (SVM) is extended to multiclass classification. Experiment results suggest that the proposed scheme can not only identify the different changes in the dynamics of brain oscillations induced by different types of tasks but also capture the interactive effects of simultaneous tasks properly. Therefore, it has great potential use for hybrid BCI.

  15. Analysis and Design of Timing Recovery Schemes for DMT Systems over Indoor Power-Line Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés José Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multitone (DMT modulation is a suitable technique to cope with main impairments of broadband indoor power-line channels: spectral selectivity and cyclic time variations. Due to the high-density constellations employed to achieve the required bit-rates, synchronization issues became an important concern in these scenarios. This paper analyzes the performance of a conventional DMT timing recovery scheme designed for linear time-invariant (LTI channels when employed over indoor power lines. The influence of the channel cyclic short-term variations and the sampling jitter on the system performance is assessed. Bit-rate degradation due to timing errors is evaluated in a set of measured channels. It is shown that this synchronization mechanism limits the system performance in many residential channels. Two improvements are proposed to avoid this end: a new phase error estimator that takes into account the short-term changes in the channel response, and the introduction of notch filters in the timing recovery loop. Simulations confirm that the new scheme eliminates the bit-rate loss in most situations.

  16. Performance Analysis of AP1000 Passive Systems during Direct Vessel Injection (DVI Line Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ekariansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation II Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs have a design weakness as shown by the Fukushima accident. Therefore, Generation III+ NPPs are developed with focus on improvements of fuel technology and thermal efficiency, standardized design, and the use of passive safety system. One type of Generation III+ NPP is the AP1000 that is a pressurized water reactor (PWR type that has received the final design acceptance from US-NRC and is already under construction at several sites in China as of 2015. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior and performance of the passive safety system in the AP1000 and to verify the safety margin during the direct vessel injection (DVI line break as selected event. This event was simulated using RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4 as a best-estimate code developed for transient simulation of light water reactors during postulated accidents. This event is also described in the AP1000 design control document as one of several postulated accidents simulated using the NOTRUMP code. The results obtained from RELAP5 calculation was then compared with the results of simulations using the NOTRUMP code. The results show relatively good agreements in terms of time sequences and characteristics of some injected flow from the passive safety system. The simulation results show that the break of one of the two available DVI lines can be mitigated by the injected coolant flowing, which is operated effectively by gravity and density difference in the cooling system and does not lead to core uncovery. Despite the substantial effort to obtain an apropriate AP1000 model due to lack of detailed geometrical data, the present model can be used as a platform model for other initiating event considered in the AP1000 accident analysis.

  17. Linear stability analysis of the gas injection augmented natural circulation of STAR-LM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon-Jong Yoo; Qiao Wu; James J Sienicki

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A linear stability analysis has been performed for the gas injection augmented natural circulation of the Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor - Liquid Metal (STAR-LM). Natural circulation is of great interest for the development of Generation-IV nuclear energy systems due to its vital role in the area of passive safety and reliability. One of such systems is STAR-LM under development by Argonne National Laboratory. STAR-LM is a 400 MWt class modular, proliferation-resistant, and passively safe liquid metal-cooled fast reactor system that uses inert lead (Pb) coolant and the advanced power conversion system that consists of a gas turbine Brayton cycle utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to obtain higher plant efficiency. The primary loop of STAR-LM relies only on the natural circulation to eliminate the use of circulation pumps for passive safety consideration. To enhance the natural circulation of the primary coolant, STAR-LM optionally incorporates the additional driving force provided by the injection of noncondensable gas into the primary coolant above the reactor core, which is effective in removing heat from the core and transferring it to the secondary working fluid without the attainment of excessive coolant temperature at nominal operating power. Therefore, it naturally raises the concern about the natural circulation instability due to the relatively high temperature change in the core and the two-phase flow condition in the hot leg above the core. For the ease of analysis, the flow path of the loop was partitioned into five thermal-hydraulically distinct sections, i.e., heated core, unheated core, hot leg, heat exchanger, and cold leg. The one-dimensional single-phase flow field equations governing the natural circulation, i.e., continuity, momentum, and energy equations, were used for each section except the hot leg. For the hot leg, the one-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow field

  18. Three-Year Analysis of Value and Utilization After Development of an Ultrasound-Based Orthopedic Injection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Chase; Melton, Thomas; Turner, Eric; Jackson, Andrew; Grassbaugh, Jason; Slevin, John; Arrington, Edward D; Eichinger, Josef K

    2017-09-01

    Sonography is an effective method of diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal conditions, and the use of ultrasound has been shown to improve the accuracy, safety, and efficacy of both therapeutic and diagnostic injections. In 2012, we established an injection clinic at our institution to address our growing need for diagnostic and therapeutic injections. We performed an analysis of value and utilization following the development of an orthopedic injection clinic. This included an evaluation of the cost of materials, equipment, and training required to develop and run the clinic, and an analysis of the services rendered and relative value units (RVUs) generated over 3 fiscal years (FYs). The cost to develop the clinic was $42,498.30. The cost to run the clinic thereafter was $16.90 to $21.60 per injection. By the end of FY 2012, 60% of providers performed at least 1 injection under ultrasound guidance. Every successive year thereafter, 100% of providers were using ultrasound guidance. In FY 2012, we performed 738 injections, 5.4% used ultrasound guidance and generated a total of 1,786.36 RVUs. In FY 2013, we performed 1,814 injections, 17.6% used ultrasound guidance, and generated a total of 7,224.5 RVUs. In FY 2014, we performed 2,821 injections, 25.2% used ultrasound guidance, and generated 13,786.82 RVUs. RVUs generated solely from ultrasound guided injections were 463.2 (2012), 3,694 (2013), 8,221.8 (2014). Injection accuracy was at least 98%. Average time until injection was 0 days. The cost to start an injection clinic is modest, with the potential for large annual growth and early return on investment, and can generate significant revenue by recapturing RVUs that would otherwise be lost to outside referrals. Furthermore, it helps to increase clinic throughput, maximize services rendered during a single patient visit improving the overall quality of their encounter, expands the clinical practice of our midlevel providers, offloads clinical time for surgical

  19. Characterization and analysis of sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using White Light Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Surface topography is of great importance in polymer micro fluidics, therefore the replication capability of the process and the surface quality of the tool has to be suitably optimized. In this paper, optical profilometry (white light interferometry, WLI) is implemented for topographical...... characterization of polymer surfaces. In particular the study considers replication performance of injection moulding applied for the realization of microfluidic systems for blood analysis. Parts were produced by means of a series of statistically designed injection moulding experiments. Three process parameters...

  20. Public reporting influences antibiotic and injection prescription in primary care: a segmented regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping; Wan, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics and injections are serious threats to the global population, particularly in developing countries. In recent decades, public reporting of health care performance (PRHCP) has been an instrument to improve the quality of care. However, existing evidence shows a mixed effect of PRHCP. This study evaluated the effect of PRHCP on physicians' prescribing practices in a sample of primary care institutions in China. Segmented regression analysis was used to produce convincing evidence for health policy and reform. The PRHCP intervention was implemented in Qian City that started on 1 October 2013. Performance data on prescription statistics were disclosed to patients and health workers monthly in 10 primary care institutions. A total of 326 655 valid outpatient prescriptions were collected. Monthly effective prescriptions were calculated as analytical units in the research (1st to 31st every month). This study involved multiple assessments of outcomes 13 months before and 11 months after PRHCP intervention (a total of 24 data points). Segmented regression models showed downward trends from baseline on antibiotics (coefficient = -0.64, P = 0.004), combined use of antibiotics (coefficient = -0.41, P < 0.001) and injections (coefficient = -0.5957, P = 0.001) after PRHCP intervention. The average expenditure of patients slightly increased monthly before the intervention (coefficient = 0.8643, P < 0.001); PRHCP intervention also led to a temporary increase in average expenditure of patients (coefficient = 2.20, P = 0.307) but slowed down the ascending trend (coefficient = -0.45, P = 0.033). The prescription rate of antibiotics and injections after intervention (about 50%) remained high. PRHCP showed positive effects on physicians' prescribing behaviour, considering the downward trends on the use of antibiotics and injections and average expenditure through the intervention. However, the effect

  1. Large-volume injection in gas chromatographic trace analysis using temperature-programmable (PTV) injectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of programmed-temperature vaporising (PTV) injectors for large-volume injection in capillary gas chromatography is briefly reviewed. The principles and optimisation of large-volume PTV injection are discussed. Guidelines are given for selection of the PTV conditions and injection mode for

  2. Polyion selective polymeric membrane-based pulstrode as a detector in flow-injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Vlasov, Andrea K; Zajda, Joanna; Eldourghamy, Ayman; Malinowska, Elzbieta; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-04-15

    A method for the detection of polyions using fully reversible polyion selective polymeric membrane type pulstrodes as detectors in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) system is examined. The detection electrode consists of a plasticized polymeric membrane doped with 10 wt % of tridodecylmethylammonium-dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (TDMA/DNNS) ion-exchanger salt. The pulse sequence used involves a short (1 s) galvanostatic pulse, an open-circuit pulse (0.5 s) during which the EMF of the cell is measured, and a longer (15 s) potentiostatic pulse to return the membrane to its original chemical composition. It is shown that total pulse sequence times can be optimized to yield reproducible real-time detection of injected samples of protamine and heparin at up to 20 samples/h. Further, it is shown that the same membrane detector can be employed for FIA detection of both polycations at levels ≥10 μg/mL and polyanions at levels of ≥40 μg/mL by changing the direction of the galvanostatic pulse. The methodology described may also be applicable in the detection of polyionic species at low levels in other flowing configurations, such as in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

  3. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  4. Cost and Benefit Analysis of VSC-HVDC Schemes for Offshore Wind Power Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng WANG; Chunmei FENG; An WEN; Jun LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Due to low load factors of wind power generation,it is possible to reduce transmission capacity to minimize the cost of transmission system construction.Two VSC-HVDC schemes for offshore wind farm,called the point to point (PTP) and DC mesh connections are compared in terms of the utilization of transmission system and its cost.A Weibull distribution is used for estimating offshore wind power generation,besides,the cross correlation between wind farms is considered.The wind energy curtailment is analyzed using the capacity output possibility table (COPT).The system power losses,costs of transmission investment and wind energy curtailment are also computed.A statistic model for the wind generation and transmission is built and simulated in MATLAB to validate the study.It is concluded that a DC mesh transmission can reduce the energy curtailment and power losses.Further benefit is achievable as the wind cross correlation between wind farms decreases.

  5. Performance analysis of a handoff scheme for two-tier cellular CDMA networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hamad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A two-tier model is used in cellular networks to improve the Quality of Service (QoS, namely to reduce the blocking probability of new calls and the forced termination probability of ongoing calls. One tier, the microcells, is used for slow or stationary users, and the other, the macrocell, is used for high speed users. In Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA cellular systems, soft handoffs are supported, which provides ways for further QoS improvement. In this paper, we introduce such a way; namely, a channel borrowing scheme used in conjunction with a First-In-First-Out (FIFO queue in the macrocell tier. A multidimensional Markov chain to model the resulting system is established, and an iterative technique to find the steady-state probability distribution is utilized. This distribution is then used to find the performance measures of interest: new call blocking probability, and forced termination probability.

  6. ANALYSIS OF SEEING-INDUCED POLARIZATION CROSS-TALK AND MODULATION SCHEME PERFORMANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; De Wijn, A. G.; Judge, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the generation of polarization cross-talk in Stokes polarimeters by atmospheric seeing, and its effects on the noise statistics of spectropolarimetric measurements for both single-beam and dual-beam instruments. We investigate the time evolution of seeing-induced correlations between different states of one modulation cycle and compare the response to these correlations of two popular polarization modulation schemes in a dual-beam system. Extension of the formalism to encompass an arbitrary number of modulation cycles enables us to compare our results with earlier work. Even though we discuss examples pertinent to solar physics, the general treatment of the subject and its fundamental results might be useful to a wider community.

  7. Long-term stable time integration scheme for dynamic analysis of planar geometrically exact Timoshenko beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Long; Sansour, Carlo; Hjiaj, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an energy-momentum method for geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beam is proposed. The classical time integration schemes in dynamics are known to exhibit instability in the non-linear regime. The so-called Timoshenko-type beam with the use of rotational degree of freedom leads to simpler strain relations and simpler expressions of the inertial terms as compared to the well known Bernoulli-type model. The treatment of the Bernoulli-model has been recently addressed by the authors. In this present work, we extend our approach of using the strain rates to define the strain fields to in-plane geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beams. The large rotational degrees of freedom are exactly computed. The well-known enhanced strain method is used to avoid locking phenomena. Conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum is proved formally and numerically. The excellent performance of the formulation will be demonstrated through a range of examples.

  8. A review and analysis of renewable energy curtailment schemes and Principles of Access: Transitioning towards business as usual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Laura; Ault, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the EU has driven forward the development and connection of renewable power sources across Europe. This has changed the way in which distribution networks operate, moving from a passive system, to a more active system where generation and demand are located closer together with system states being more complex and variable. Increased penetration of renewable generation into distribution networks is presenting a number of challenges to Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) including the provision of network access in capacity constrained networks. The introduction of Active Network Management (ANM) is enabling an increase in renewable generation connections through enhanced network access in otherwise ‘full’ networks. This paper presents a way in which DNOs might move towards Business as Usual (BAU) arrangements for ANM schemes. It is necessary to determine the curtailment arrangements, or Principles of Access (PoA), and from this estimate generation access under ANM and the flow of services and money for different scenarios. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review, detailed case study evaluation on early ANM schemes, quantitative curtailment assessment for different PoA and a qualitative analysis of business models for different ANM PoA is presented in turn with conclusions drawn from these three approaches. - Highlights: • Literature review of Principles of Access. • Detailed case study analysis of Principles of Access in ANM projects. • Quantitative analysis of different Principles of Access. • Proposed business models for ANM as business as usual

  9. Sensitivity analysis of numerical weather prediction radiative schemes to forecast direct solar radiation over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkavilli, S. K.; Kay, M. J.; Taylor, R.; Prasad, A. A.; Troccoli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Solar Energy Forecasting System (ASEFS) project requires forecasting timeframes which range from nowcasting to long-term forecasts (minutes to two years). As concentrating solar power (CSP) plant operators are one of the key stakeholders in the national energy market, research and development enhancements for direct normal irradiance (DNI) forecasts is a major subtask. This project involves comparing different radiative scheme codes to improve day ahead DNI forecasts on the national supercomputing infrastructure running mesoscale simulations on NOAA's Weather Research & Forecast (WRF) model. ASEFS also requires aerosol data fusion for improving accurate representation of spatio-temporally variable atmospheric aerosols to reduce DNI bias error in clear sky conditions over southern Queensland & New South Wales where solar power is vulnerable to uncertainities from frequent aerosol radiative events such as bush fires and desert dust. Initial results from thirteen years of Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) deseasonalised DNI and MODIS NASA-Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) anomalies demonstrated strong negative correlations in north and southeast Australia along with strong variability in AOD (~0.03-0.05). Radiative transfer schemes, DNI and AOD anomaly correlations will be discussed for the population and transmission grid centric regions where current and planned CSP plants dispatch electricity to capture peak prices in the market. Aerosol and solar irradiance datasets include satellite and ground based assimilations from the national BOM, regional aerosol researchers and agencies. The presentation will provide an overview of this ASEFS project task on WRF and results to date. The overall goal of this ASEFS subtask is to develop a hybrid numerical weather prediction (NWP) and statistical/machine learning multi-model ensemble strategy that meets future operational requirements of CSP plant operators.

  10. 3-D steady state thermomechanical analysis of a piston of a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Bannikov, M.G.; Ali, H.

    2005-01-01

    Piston of internal combustion engine is subjected to the coupled action of the thermal and the mechanical loads. Piston distortion due to temperature nonuniformities has a significant impact on the piston component of the engine friction. In regions of high heat flux, thermal stresses can reach levels that would cause fatigue cracking. Any change of engine design and/or operating conditions resulting in an increased heat flux through the piston may cause engine performance deterioration and even engine failure. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a piston of a high power direct injection diesel engine. The goal of such analysis was the prediction of the piston behavior in conditions of the increased brake mean effective pressure and engine speed. Thermal and mechanical loads required for analysis were obtained from the engine cycle simulation. Thermal boundary conditions were determined in the form of the cycle averaged temperature of combustion chamber content and cycle averaged spatially distributed heat transfer coefficients. Mechanical load was represented by the combined gas pressure and inertia forces. Using ANSYS software temperature and stress distributions within the piston body as well as piston deformation were obtained. Analysis was performed for separate as well as combined load. It was shown that contribution of mechanical load is insignificant and can be neglected. Main emphasis is given to scuffing and strength analysis of the piston. Results obtained at various thermal loads are discussed. (author)

  11. Sexual and injection-related risks in Puerto Rican-born injection drug users living in New York City: A mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpí-Acosta Camila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data were collected as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS study. NHBS is a cross-sectional study to investigate HIV behavioral risks among core risk groups in 21 U.S. cities with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. This analysis examines data from the NHBS data collection cycle with IDU conducted in New York City in 2009. We explored how the recency of migration from Puerto Rico (PR to New York City (NYC impacts both syringe sharing and unprotected sex among injection drug users (IDU currently living in NYC. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to examine differences in risk between US-born IDU, PR IDU who migrated to NYC more than three years ago (non-recent migrants, and PR IDU who migrated in the last three years (recent migrants. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit the sample (n = 514. In addition, qualitative individual and group interviews with recent PR migrants (n = 12 and community experts (n = 2 allowed for an in-depth exploration of the IDU migration process and the material and cultural factors behind continued risk behaviors in NYC. Results In multiple logistic regression controlling for confounding factors, recent migrants were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse with casual or exchange partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.37-5.76 and receptive syringe sharing (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.20-4.97 in the past year, compared to US-born IDU. HIV and HCV seroprevalence were highest among non-recent migrants. Qualitative results showed that risky injection practices are partly based on cultural norms acquired while injecting drugs in Puerto Rico. These same results also illustrate how homelessness influences risky sexual practices. Conclusions Poor material conditions (especially homelessness may be key in triggering risky sexual practices. Cultural norms (ingrained while using drugs in PR around injection drug

  12. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  13. Modeling and performance analysis of an improved movement-based location management scheme for packet-switched mobile communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Kwon, Jae Kyun; Park, Suwon

    2014-01-01

    One of the key technologies to support mobility of mobile station (MS) in mobile communication systems is location management which consists of location update and paging. In this paper, an improved movement-based location management scheme with two movement thresholds is proposed, considering bursty data traffic characteristics of packet-switched (PS) services. The analytical modeling for location update and paging signaling loads of the proposed scheme is developed thoroughly and the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with that of the conventional scheme. We show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional scheme in terms of total signaling load with an appropriate selection of movement thresholds.

  14. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 2: Combustion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of injection technology on the fuel-air mixing process and the combustion development are analyzed by means of visualization techniques. For this purpose, two injectors (one solenoid and one piezoelectric) are characterized using an optical accessible two stroke engine. Visualization of liquid penetration has allowed the measurement of the stabilized liquid length, which is related with the efficiency of fuel-air mixing process. A theoretical derivation is used in order to relate this liquid length with chamber conditions, as well as to make a temporal analysis of these phenomena. After this, natural flame emission and chemiluminescence techniques are carried out. These results indicate that the piezoelectric system has a more efficient fuel-air mixing and combustion, reducing the characteristic times as well as soot formation. Finally, a correlation for the ignition delay of the two systems is obtained. (author)

  15. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  16. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX, carboxyl esterase (CaE and bovine serum albumin (BSA were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC. The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  17. Midfacial analysis and planning for midface augmentation with injectable filling materials: an anatomical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, A; Mansoori, P

    2012-06-01

      Midfacial augmentation improves the appearance of patients with flat or ptotic cheek.   To develop a simple method of preoperative delineating the location of the ideal malar prominence and determining the best area to augment with injectable filling materials.   We used detailed analysis of the facial features of some Caucasian men and women as the basis for this study.   We described a technique to locate the ideal malar prominence and proposed a classification of midfacial contour defects.   This method greatly simplifies the surgeon's task of determining the area to be augmented. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. An analysis on water hammer in liquid injection shutdown system of CANDU-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. H.; Heo, J.; Han, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.; No, T. S.

    2000-01-01

    The water hammer analysis code, PTRAN, is used for computation of transient pressures and pressure differentials in the Liquid Injection Shutdown System(LISS) piping network of CANDU-9 to ensure that the design allowables for LEVEL C Service Limit are met for the water hammer loads resulting from the water hammer. The LISS piping network of CANDU-9 has incorporated design improvement in considering the water hammer, such as declining the horizontal part of helium header, and raising the elevation of the overall system piping configuration, etc. The maximum pressure in the LISS piping network is found to be 7.92 MPa(a) at the closed valve in the vent line, which is below the allowable working pressure and the valve design pressure under Level C service conditions. And it is also shown that the maximum pressure in CANDU-9 is much lower than that in CANDU-6

  19. Reliability analysis of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.R.J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The calculation of several reliability parameters-failure probability, unavailability and unreliability - of the recirculation phase of the safety injection system of Angra-1, was done. This system has two distinct modes of operation (short term and long term) which were fault tree analysed both separately and as a whole. To obtain quantitative results the computer codes SAMPLE and PRET-KITT were utilized. The former was used to consider the uncertainties in the failure data (drawn integrally from WASH-1400) and the latter to obtain time dependent unreliability values. Hardware failures and common-mode failures were considered. Altough the analysis methods employed here differ somewhat from those used in WASH-1400, the results which could be compared were found to have the order of magnitude. A viability study of some suggestions of system's modifications was performed, and it has shown that some significant reliability improvements can be achieved with reasonably simple changes. (Author) [pt

  20. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  1. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  3. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  4. Fundamental characteristics of droplet direct injection ICPMS for nano liter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, N.; Miyahara, H.; Meguro, T.; Hotta, E.; Okino, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Recently, target of the elemental analysis has been shifted to smaller amount samples such as bio cells or nano-particles. However, a conventional ICP system consumes large amount sample solutions, so it was not suitable for these samples. To realize much smaller sample introduction, a droplet direct injection nebulizer (D-DIN) system has been developed. In this study, we applied the D-DIN system to an ICPMS device. As a result, using a single 5 nL sample solution contains 1 mg/L of Na, Mg, Sr and Ba, mass signal of these elements were successfully obtained. Fundamental characteristics of D-DIN ICPMS will be presented. (author)

  5. Analysis of dual-mode lasing characteristics in a 1310-nm optically injected quantum dot distributed feedback laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, R.; Olinger, J.; Hurtado, A.; Grillot, F.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2015-03-01

    Recent work has shown the Quantum Dot (QD) material system to be well-suited to support dual-mode lasing. In particular, optical injection from a master laser (ML) into the residual Fabry-Perot (FP) modes of a 1310 nm Quantum Dot Distributed Feedback (QD-DFB) laser has been recently demonstrated to offer a highly reliable platform for stable dual-mode lasing operation. External controls on the ML, such as operating temperature and bias current, can be used to precisely adjust the spacing between the two lasing modes. This tunability of modeseparation is very promising for a range of applications requiring the generation of microwave, millimeter wave and terahertz signals. Considering the versatility and utility of such a scheme, it is imperative to acquire a deeper understanding of the factors that influence the dual-mode lasing process, in order to optimize performance. Toward this end, this paper seeks to further our understanding of the optically-injected dual-mode lasing mechanism. For fixed values of optical power injected into each FP residual mode and wavelength detuning, the dual-mode lasing characteristics are analyzed with regard to important system parameters such as the position and the intensity of the injected residual mode (relative to the Bragg and the other residual FP modes of the device) for two similarly-fabricated QD-DFBs. Results indicate that for dual mode lasing spaced less than 5 nm apart, the relative intensity of the injected FP mode and intracavity noise levels are critical factors in determining dual mode lasing behavior. Insight into the dual-mode lasing characteristics could provide an important design guideline for the master and QD-DFB slave laser cavities.

  6. Polydrug Use and HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Heroin in Tijuana, Mexico: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Rudolph, Abby E; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rusch, Melanie L; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Patterson, Thomas L; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Roesch, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, primarily inject heroin, injection and non-injection use of methamphetamine and cocaine is common. We examined patterns of polydrug use among heroin injectors to inform prevention and treatment of drug use and its health and social consequences. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana, aged ≥18 years who reported heroin injection in the past six months and were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (n = 1,025). Latent class analysis was conducted to assign individuals to classes on a probabilistic basis, using four indicators of past six-month polydrug and polyroute use: cocaine injecting, cocaine smoking or snorting, methamphetamine injecting, and methamphetamine smoking or snorting. Latent class membership was regressed onto covariates in a multinomial logistic regression. Latent class analyses testing 1, 2, 3, and 4 classes were fit, with the 3-class solution fitting best. Class 1 was defined by predominantly heroin use (50.2%, n = 515); class 2 by methamphetamine and heroin use (43.7%, n = 448), and class 3 by methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin use (6.0%, n = 62). Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated a group of methamphetamine and cocaine users that exhibited higher-risk sexual practices and lower heroin injecting frequency, and a group of methamphetamine users who were younger and more likely to be female. Discrete subtypes of heroin PWID were identified based on methamphetamine and cocaine use patterns. These findings have identified subtypes of heroin injectors who require more tailored interventions to reduce the health and social harms of injecting drug use.

  7. Modeling analysis of urea direct injection on the NOx emission reduction of biodiesel fueled diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Li, J.; Zhou, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of urea direct injection on NO x emissions reduction was investigated. • Aqueous urea solution was proposed to be injected after the fuel injection process. • The optimized injection strategy achieved a reduction efficiency of 58%. • There were no severe impacts on the CO emissions and BSFC. - Abstract: In this paper, a numerical simulation study was conducted to explore the possibility of an alternative approach: direct aqueous urea solution injection on the reduction of NO x emissions of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. Simulation studies were performed using the 3D CFD simulation software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN II code for pure biodiesel combustion under realistic engine operating conditions of 2400 rpm and 100% load. The chemical behaviors of the NO x formation and urea/NO x interaction processes were modeled by a modified extended Zeldovich mechanism and urea/NO interaction sub-mechanism. To ensure an efficient NO x reduction process, various aqueous urea injection strategies in terms of post injection timing, injection angle, and injection rate and urea mass fraction were carefully examined. The simulation results revealed that among all the four post injection timings (10 °ATDC, 15 °ATDC, 20 °ATDC and 25 °ATDC) that were evaluated, 15 °ATDC post injection timing consistently demonstrated a lower NO emission level. The orientation of the aqueous urea injection was also shown to play a critical role in determining the NO x removal efficiency, and 50 degrees injection angle was determined to be the optimal injection orientation which gave the most NO x reduction. In addition, both the urea/water ratio and aqueous urea injection rate demonstrated important roles which affected the thermal decomposition of urea into ammonia and the subsequent NO x removal process, and it was suggested that 50% urea mass fraction and 40% injection rate presented the lowest NO emission levels. At last, with the optimized injection

  8. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Adaptive Admission Control Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.

  9. Quantitative identification and analysis of sub-seismic extensional structure system: technique schemes and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chen, Wei; Ma, Zhonggao

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of complex sub-seismic extensional structure system that essentially controls petroleum exploitation is difficult to implement in seismic profile interpretation. This research, based on a case study in block M of Myanmar, established a set of quantitative treatment schemes and technique processes for the identification of sub-seismic low-displacement (SSLD) extensional faults or fractures upon structural deformation restoration and geometric inversion. Firstly, the master-subsidiary inheritance relations and configuration of the seismic-scale extensional fault systems are determined by analyzing the structural pattern. Besides, three-dimensional (3D) pattern and characteristics of the seismic-scale extensional structure have been illustrated by a 3D structure model built upon seismic sections. Moreover, according to the dilatancy obtained from structural restoration on the basis of inclined shear method, as well as the fracture-flow index, potential SSLD extensional faults or fractures have been quantitatively identified. Application of the technique processes to the sub-seismic low-displacement extensional structures in block M in Myanmar is instructive to quantitatively interpret those SSLD extensional structure systems in practice. (paper)

  10. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  11. The clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of leucopenia: a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Huangqi injection is derived from Astragalus membranaceus root. In China, recent reports of Huangqi injection for the treatment of leucopenia have emerged. However, a systematic review of these reports has not been performed. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials to assess the clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of leucopenia. METHODS: We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP, as well as PubMed and EMBASE to collect the data about trials of Huangqi injection for treating leucopenia. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies involving 841 patients were included in this study. The overall study quality was lower according to the Jadad scale. The meta-analysis showed that experimentally treated patients experienced greater therapeutic efficacy and lower white blood cell counts than control groups treated with Western medicine (P < 0.05. No publication bias was evident, according to Egger's test. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of this meta-analysis was limited by the overall poor quality of the included studies. Huangqi injection may have potential clinical value in the treatment of leucopenia, but confirmation with rigorously well-designed multi-center trials is needed.

  12. Energy Stability Analysis of Some Fully Discrete Numerical Schemes for Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Zhang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i

  13. Performance analysis of joint multi-branch switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    desired performance for the primary link. The proposed switching efficient scheme (SES) and bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) use the scan and wait combining technique (SWC) where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance

  14. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  15. A General Finite Element Scheme for Limit State Analysis and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Limit State analysis which is based on a perfect material behaviour is used in many different applications primarily within Structural Engineering and Geotechnics. The calculation methods have not reached the same level of automation such as Finite Element Analysis for elastic structures....... The computer based systems are more ad hoc based and are typically not well-integrated with pre- and postprocessors well-known from commercial Finite Element codes.A finite element based formulation of limit state analysis is presented which allows an easy integration with standard Finite Element codes...... for elastic analysis. In this way the user is able to perform a limit state analysis on the same model used for elastic analysis only adding data for the yield surface.The method is based on the lower-bound theorem and uses stress-based elements with a linearized yield surface. The mathematical problem...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  17. Analysis of different schemes of dispatching in mixed-use complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dement'eva Marina Evgen'evna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At present time a lot of multi-functional centers are being built. Their safe operation depends on the quality of the dispatch service. In the article were considered various organization scheme the dispatch service as a queuing system. All the service facilities in the first variant are united. That facilitates reliability management, but increases the time of works execution. There is the general dispatching center in the second version, but the performers of the work are distributed by zones of a multifunctional complex. In such organization of a dispatching service the dispatcher must have a very high qualification. In the third version there are independent dispatching centers and the performers for each zone of a multifunctional complex. Independent service facilities increase the reliability because of complete redundancy. But thus the operating costs considerably increase. Engineering equipment damage was analyzed depending on functional purpose. The authors present the mathematical model of efficiency complex index of the dispatch service. The influence of the nature of damage was established as random factors of the time and cost needed for the damage elimination. It is possible to calculate the efficiency indicator of dispatching service by solving a two-criteria task in the conditions of uncertainty and risk. The first criterion is the execution time of the call. It depends on the type of damage and efficiency of dispatching service employees. The second criterion is the costs of the organization of dispatching service work. The main objective is the determination of ponderability of each criterion. Their importance can be set by the expert assessments method of the poll results of the consumers and also by opinions of service professionals. Further researches will include the assessment of organization expediency of one or several dispatch centers taking into account all the costs on the work organization.

  18. Design and Checking Analysis of Injection Mold for a Plastic Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebing

    2018-03-01

    A special injection mold was designed for the structural characteristics of a plastic cup part. The mold was simulated by Moldflow software and verified by calculating the stripping force, the pulling force and the clamping force of the mold so that to determine the appropriate injection parameters. It has been proved that the injection mold is effective and practical in the actual producing and can meet the quality requirements during the course of using it, which solved some problems for injection molding of this kind of parts and can provide some reference for the production of other products in the same industry.

  19. Impacts on CO2 Emission Allowance Prices in China: A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Shanghai Emission Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme (ETS has been implemented in China for more than two years. An investigation into the impacts of different factors on carbon dioxide (CO2 emission allowance prices provides guidance for price-making in 2017 when the nation-wide ETS of China will be established. This paper adopts a quantile regression approach to estimate the impacts of different factors in Shanghai emission trading scheme (SH-ETS, namely, economic growth, energy prices and temperature. The empirical analysis shows that: (i the economic growth in Shanghai leads to a drop in the carbon allowance prices; (ii the oil price has a slightly positive effect on the allowance prices regardless of the ordinary least squares (OLS or quantile regression method; (iii a long-run negative relationship exists between the coal price and the Shanghai emission allowances (SHEA prices, but a positive interaction under different quantiles, especially the 25%–50% quantiles; (iv temperature has a significantly positive effect at the 20%–30% quantiles and a conspicuous negative impact at the right tail of the allowances prices.

  20. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  1. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, I: analysis of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniak Victoria J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An advance in the treatment of schizophrenia is the development of long-acting intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics, such as olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI. During clinical trials, a post-injection syndrome characterized by signs of delirium and/or excessive sedation was identified in a small percentage of patients following injection with olanzapine LAI. Methods Safety data from all completed and ongoing trials of olanzapine LAI were reviewed for possible cases of this post-injection syndrome. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome. Regression analyses were conducted to assess possible risk factors. Results Based on approximately 45,000 olanzapine LAI injections given to 2054 patients in clinical trials through 14 October 2008, post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome occurred in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients. Symptomatology was consistent with olanzapine overdose (e.g., sedation, confusion, slurred speech, altered gait, or unconsciousness. However, no clinically significant decreases in vital signs were observed. Symptom onset ranged from immediate to 3 to 5 hours post injection, with a median onset time of 25 minutes post injection. All patients recovered within 1.5 to 72 hours, and the majority continued to receive further olanzapine LAI injections following the event. No clear risk factors were identified. Conclusions Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome can be readily identified based on symptom presentation, progression, and temporal relationship to the injection, and is consistent with olanzapine overdose following probable accidental intravascular injection of a portion of the olanzapine LAI dose. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, patients can be treated symptomatically as needed. Special precautions include use of proper injection technique and a post-injection

  2. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...

  3. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  4. The principles of analysis of competitiveness and control schemes in transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žvirblis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of constantly growing competition transportation companies are faced with theoretical and practical problems associated with the quality and stability of transport services, competitiveness on the market and marketing problems. Road transport services are considered in the terms of value analysis while the assessment of their competitiveness is based on the Pontriagin maximum principle. A model for transport risk analysis is constructed, taking into account the principles of correlation and co - variation of transport services. Formalized models of automated control of services in the system of marketing allowing the analysis of stability and other parameters to be made in the framework of automatic control theory are offered.

  5. Clinical analysis of intravitreal injection of Conbercept combined with 532-laser treating Coats disease in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze clinical observation and the efficiency of intravitreal conbercept combined with 532-laser on Coats disease in adulthood. METHODS: This was an retrospective analysis. Six eyes from 6 patients(5 males and 1 femalewith coats disease diagnosed by fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere enrolled. Before the injection, best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAof early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study(ETDRS, non-contact tonometer, ophthalmoscope, fundus photography, FFA, and OCT were examined. The initial average visual acuity(ETDRS letterswere 51.17±15.15. The initial average central retina thickness(CRTwas 303.30±107.87μm. All affected eyes were treated with intravitreal conbercept 0.05mL(10mg/mLcombined with 532-laser. Patients were followed up for 6 to 12mo, with a mean duration of 7.33±1.26mo. Post-treatment BCVA were compared with baseline using repeat analysis. RESULTS: The mean BCVA showed significant improvement during 1 wk, 1, 3mo post-treatment and the latest follow up(PCONCLUSION: Coats disease in adulthood more likely to have lower symptom and have a better response on treatment. Intravitreal conbercept combined with 532-laser significantly improve visual acuity and absorb the subretina fluid.

  6. Simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis of urinary albumin using dye-binding reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanawimarnwong, Nuanlaor; Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Nacapricha, Duangjai; Grudpan, Kate; Sakai, Tadao; Motomizu, Shoji

    2012-07-15

    A new four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for the determination of urinary albumin. The SIEMA system consisted of a syringe pump, two 5-way cross connectors, four holding coils, five 3-way solenoid valves, a 50-cm long mixing coil and a spectrophotometer. Tetrabromophenol blue anion (TBPB) in Triton X-100 micelle reacted with albumin at pH 3.2 to form a blue ion complex with a λ(max) 625nm. TBPB, Triton X-100, acetate buffer and albumin standard solutions were aspirated into four individual holding coils by a syringe pump and then the aspirated zones were simultaneously pushed in the reverse direction to the detector flow cell. Baseline drift, due to adsorption of TBPB-albumin complex on the wall of the hydrophobic PTFE tubing, was minimized by aspiration of Triton X-100 and acetate buffer solutions between samples. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-50μg/mL and the detection limit for albumin (3σ) was 0.53μg/mL. The RSD (n=11) at 30μg/mL was 1.35%. The sample throughput was 37/h. With a 10-fold dilution, interference from urine matrix was removed. The proposed method has advantages in terms of simple automation operation and short analysis time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological prevention of rocuronium-induced injection pain or withdrawal movements: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Beom; Min, Sang Kee; Moon, Bong Ki; Kim, Jong Yeop

    2013-10-01

    Rocuronium is reported to be associated with injection pain or withdrawal movement (IPWM). This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of different pharmacological treatments used to decrease the incidence of the rocuronium-induced IPWM. We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed for randomized controlled trials comparing a pharmacological drug with a placebo to prevent the rocuronium-induced IPWM and found 37 studies with 5,595 patients. Overall incidence of rocuronium-induced IPWM was 74%. Pretreatment with opioids [risk ratio (RR) 0.16; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.09-0.29], lidocaine (0.47; 0.35-0.64), and ketamine (0.41; 0.22-0.77) were effective in decreasing IPWM. Lidocaine pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.40; 0.32-0.49) and opioids pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.77; 0.61-0.96) were also effective. Mixing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) with rocuronium (0.15; 0.06-0.34) was also efficacious in reducing IPWM. Indirect comparison shows that the RR of NaHCO3 admixture and pretreatment with opioids were lower than that of the other four interventions (pretreatments of ketamine or lidocaine, and lidocaine or opioids with venous occlusion). This meta-analysis suggests that opioids, lidocaine, ketamine, and NaHCO3 are effective in decreasing rocuronium-induced IPWM. Considering the efficacy and convenience, pretreatment with opioids without venous occlusion is recommended for reducing rocuronium-induced IPWM.

  8. Review of recent applications of flow injection spectrophotometry to pharmaceutical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D.; Themelis, Demetrius G.

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceutical analysis is one of the most important fields in analytical chemistry. The discovery of new drugs and the on-going update of international regulations for the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical formulations demand the continuous development of new analytical methods. Inevitably, automation plays an important role, especially when a lot of samples have to be analyzed in the minimum of time. The present study reviews the applications of flow injection (FI) spectrophotometry to the determination of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in their respective formulations. However, the topic covered in this study is important not only to pharmaceutical analytical scientists. The principles, figures of merit and 'chemistry' of the presented methods can be of interest to bio-analytical and clinical chemists as well for the analysis of biological samples, to environmental analysts that study the up-to-date demand of the determination of the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment and even to toxicologists and forensic scientists. This review covers scientific contributions published later than 2000. A variety of FI procedures based on homogeneous (direct UV measurements, colour-forming reactions, metal-drug interactions) and heterogeneous (optical sensors and solid-phase reactors) systems are discussed. A third section covers on-line sample pretreatment (solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, on-line digestion, etc.)

  9. Flow Injection Analysis and Liquid Chromatography for Multifunctional Chemical Analysis (MCA) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ana V.; Loegel, Thomas N.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    The large class sizes of first-year chemistry labs makes it challenging to provide students with hands-on access to instrumentation because the number of students typically far exceeds the number of research-grade instruments available to collect data. Multifunctional chemical analysis (MCA) systems provide a viable alternative for large-scale…

  10. Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Sang; Han, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Shim, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Two kinds of green InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated in order to understand the different slopes in logarithmic light output power-current (L-I) curves. Through the analysis of the carrier rate equation and by considering the carrier density-dependent the injection efficiency into quantum wells, the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves can be more rigorously understood. The low current level, two as the tunneling current is initially dominant. The high current level beyond the peak of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) diminishes below one as the carrier overflow becomes dominant. In addition, the normalized carrier injection efficiency can be obtained by analyzing the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves. The carrier injection efficiency decreases after the EQE peak of the InGaN LEDs, determined from the analysis of the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves

  11. Transient performance analysis of pressurized safety injection tank with a partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of safety injection tanks with a partition is evaluated. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive features of the flow in multi-unit safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study has been performed to evaluate the functional performance of a pressurized multi-unit safety injection tank, which would be considered as one of the candidates for a passive safety injection system in a nuclear power plant. The influences of key design parameters including the orifice size, initial gas fraction, and resistance coefficients and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized with a discussion of the relevant flow features such as the choked flow of gas through an orifice and two interconnected regions of differing gaseous pressure. The obtained results indicate that a multi-unit safety injection tank can passively control the injection flow rate and provide a stable safety injection over a relatively long period even in the case of drastic depressurization of a reactor coolant system

  12. Control, data acquisition and analysis for the JET neutral injection test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Brenan, P.R.; Rodgers, M.E.; Stork, D.; Young, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Neutral Injection Test-Bed (NITB) is a major experimental assembly in support of the Neutral Beam Heating Programme for JET. In addition to its prime function of testing the Neutral Injection hardware, the Test Bed serves as the prototype to test the computer control and data acquisition system, which is described. (author)

  13. The Efficacy of Danshen Injection as Adjunctive Therapy in Treating Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huikai; Li, Mengsi; Chen, Fuchao; Chen, Lianghua; Jiang, Zhengjin; Zhao, Lingguo

    2018-04-01

    During the last 40 years, Danshen injection has been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for angina pectoris in China, but its efficacy is not yet well defined. The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of Danshen injection as adjunctive therapy in treating angina pectoris. The major databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Sino-Med, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Databases, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and the Chinese Science Citation Database were systematically searched for the published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on Danshen injection until April 2016. Meta-analysis was conducted on the primary outcomes (i.e., the improvements in symptoms and electrocardiography (ECG)). The quality of the included RCTs was evaluated with the M scoring system (the refined Jadad scale). Based on the quality, year of publication and sample size of RCTs, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed in this study. Ten RCTs, including 944 anginal patients, were identified in this meta-analysis. Compared with using antianginal agents (β-blockers, calcium antagonists, nitrates, etc.) alone, Danshen injection combined with antianginal agents had a better therapeutic effect in symptom improvement (odds ratio [OR], 3.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50-5.36) and in ECG improvement (OR, 3.25; 95% CI: 1.74-6.08). This study showed that Danshen injection as adjunctive therapy seemed to be more effective than antianginal agents alone in treating angina pectoris. However, more evidence is needed to accurately evaluate the efficacy of Danshen injection because of the low methodological quality of the included RCTs. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Convergence Analysis of a FV-FE Scheme for Partially Miscible Two-Phase Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Saad, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    We study the convergence of a combined finite volume nonconforming finite element scheme on general meshes for a partially miscible two-phase flow model in anisotropic porous media. This model includes capillary effects and exchange between the phase. The diffusion term,which can be anisotropic and heterogeneous, is discretized by piecewise linear nonconforming triangular finite elements. The other terms are discretized by means of a cell-centered finite volume scheme on a dual mesh. The relative permeability of each phase is decentred according the sign of the velocity at the dual interface. The convergence of the scheme is proved thanks to an estimate on the two pressures which allows to show estimates on the discrete time and compactness results in the case of degenerate relative permeabilities. A key point in the scheme is to use particular averaging formula for the dissolution function arising in the diffusion term. We show also a simulation of CO2 injection in a water saturated reservoir and nuclear waste management. Numerical results are obtained by in-house numerical code. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

  15. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a 1-D cold region lake model for land-surface schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, José-Luis; Pernica, Patricia; Wheater, Howard; Mackay, Murray; Spence, Chris

    2017-12-01

    Lakes might be sentinels of climate change, but the uncertainty in their main feedback to the atmosphere - heat-exchange fluxes - is often not considered within climate models. Additionally, these fluxes are seldom measured, hindering critical evaluation of model output. Analysis of the Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM), a one-dimensional integral lake model, was performed to assess its ability to reproduce diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and the sensitivity of simulated fluxes to changes in model parameters, i.e., turbulent transport parameters and the light extinction coefficient (Kd). A C++ open-source software package, Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE), was used to perform sensitivity analysis (SA) and identify the parameters that dominate model behavior. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was applied to quantify the fluxes' uncertainty, comparing daily-averaged eddy-covariance observations to the output of CSLM. Seven qualitative and two quantitative SA methods were tested, and the posterior likelihoods of the modeled parameters, obtained from the GLUE analysis, were used to determine the dominant parameters and the uncertainty in the modeled fluxes. Despite the ubiquity of the equifinality issue - different parameter-value combinations yielding equivalent results - the answer to the question was unequivocal: Kd, a measure of how much light penetrates the lake, dominates sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the uncertainty in their estimates is strongly related to the accuracy with which Kd is determined. This is important since accurate and continuous measurements of Kd could reduce modeling uncertainty.

  16. The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concoff, Andrew; Sancheti, Parag; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2017-12-21

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a common therapy used to treat knee pain and suppress knee inflammation in knee osteoarthritis (OA), typically prescribed in regimens ranging from a single injection to 5 weekly injections given once weekly. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of IA-HA, with subgroup analyses to explore the differences in knee pain and adverse events (AEs) across different dosing regimens. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify studies evaluating IA-HA for the management of knee OA compared to IA-saline. Primary outcome measure was the mean knee pain score at 13 Weeks (3 months) or 26 weeks (6 months). Secondary outcome was the number of treatment-related AEs and treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs). We evaluated differences in levels of pain and AEs/SAEs between dosing regimens compared to IA-Saline. Thirty articles were included. Overall, IA-HA injections were associated with less knee pain compared to IA-Saline injections for all dosing regimens. 2-4 injections of IA-HA vs. IA-Saline produced the largest effect size at both 3-months and 6-months (Standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.76; -0.98 to -0.53, 95% CI, P injection studies yielded a non-significant treatment effect at 3 and 6 months, while ≥5 5 injections demonstrated a significant improvement in pain only at 6 months. Five or more injections of IA-HA were associated with a higher risk of treatment-related AEs compared to IA-Saline (Risk ratio [RR] = 1.67; 1.09 to 2.56 95% CI, p = 0.02), which was a result not seen within the 1 and 2-4 injection subgroups. Overall, 2-4 and ≥5 injection regimens provided pain relief over IA-Saline, while single injection did not. Intra-articular injections of HA used in a 2-4 injection treatment regimen provided the greatest benefit when compared to IA-Saline with respect to pain improvement in patients with knee OA, and was generally deemed safe with few to no

  17. ESCL8R and LEVIT8R: interactive graphical analysis of {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data for level schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, D C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-08-01

    The extraction of complete and consistent nuclear level schemes from high-fold coincidence data will require intelligent computer programs. These will need to present the relevant data in an easily assimilated manner, keep track of all {gamma}-ray assignments and expected coincidence intensities, and quickly find significant discrepancies between a proposed level scheme and the data. Some steps in this direction have been made at Chalk River. The programs ESCL8R and LEVIT8R, for analysis of two-fold and three-fold data sets respectively, allow fast and easy inspection of the data, and compare the results to expectations calculations on the basis of a proposed level scheme. Least-squares fits directly to the 2D and/or 3D data, with the intensities and energies of the level scheme transitions as parameters, allow fast and easy extraction of the optimum physics results. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Effect of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injections (Macugen) in intraocular pressure: posthoc analysis from VISION study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyer, David S.; Goldbaum, Mauro; Leys, Anita M.; Starita, Carla; Blumenkranz, M.; Buyse, M.; Goldberg, M.; Gragoudas, E. S.; Miller, J.; Schwartz, S. D.; Singerman, L.; Yannuzzi, L.; Adamis, A. P.; Guyer, D. R.; O'Shaughnessy, D.; de Gronckel, S.; Fesneau, G.; Quinaux, E.; Tremolet, D.; Wang, K.; Brailey, A.; Finman, J.; Ting, N.; Bressler, N. M.; Bressler, S. B.; Denblow, R.; Schein, O. D.; Seabrook, S.; Solomon, S.; Schachat, A. P.; Philips, D.; Altaweel, M.; Davis, M. D.; Blodi, Ba; Danis, R. P.; Ip, M. S.; Hiner, C.; Elledge, J.; Webster, M.; Hannan, C.; Ficken, J.; Alexander, S.; Neider, M.; Wabers, H.; Vargo, P.; Lambert, E.; Kastorff, L.; Carr, A.; Shkiele, A.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the rate of pegaptanib-associated sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Methods A posthoc analysis was conducted on all IOP measurements, except the immediate 30-min postinjection, from all subjects randomised to pegaptanib 0.3 mg or sham injections continuously in the

  19. Mass spectrometric confirmation criterion for product-ion spectra generated in flow-injection analysis. Environmental application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, R.B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of a confirmation criterion recently recommended in the Netherlands for gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), was evaluated for flow-injection analysis (FIA) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation MS-MS detection. The main feature of the criterion is

  20. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  1. Mathematical analysis of the 1D model and reconstruction schemes for magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, W.; Weinmann, A.; Ahlborg, M.; Brandt, C.; Bringout, G.; Buzug, T. M.; Frikel, J.; Kaethner, C.; Knopp, T.; März, T.; Möddel, M.; Storath, M.; Weber, A.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising new in vivo medical imaging modality in which distributions of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are tracked based on their response in an applied magnetic field. In this paper we provide a mathematical analysis of the modeled MPI operator in the univariate situation. We provide a Hilbert space setup, in which the MPI operator is decomposed into simple building blocks and in which these building blocks are analyzed with respect to their mathematical properties. In turn, we obtain an analysis of the MPI forward operator and, in particular, of its ill-posedness properties. We further get that the singular values of the MPI core operator decrease exponentially. We complement our analytic results by some numerical studies which, in particular, suggest a rapid decay of the singular values of the MPI operator.

  2. The buffer management scheme for the new Triumf VAX-based data acquisition and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludgate, G.A.; Haley, B.; Lee, L.

    1987-01-01

    The new TRIUMF VAX-based DAAS requires data to be exchanged between acquisition, monitoring and analysis processes executing on a VAX. Data records are passed via a set of buffers contained in a region of memory shared by all processes. The responsibility for buffer management is distributed among the processes and synchronized access to the region is achieved by using the VAX self-relative queue instructions and common event flags

  3. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, Chien-Hung; CHUNG, Ming-Chih

    2002-01-01

    Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnai...

  4. Analysis of ferrite heating of the LHC injection kickers and proposals for future reduction of temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Mertens, V; Weterings, W

    2012-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker magnet (MKI) systems must produce a kick of 1.3 T.m with a flat top duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of the magnets: the screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors on the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the image current of the high intensity LHC beam and screen the ferrite against wake fields. The conductors initially used gave adequately low beam coupling impedance however screen conductor discharges occurred during pulsing of the magnet; hence an alternative design with fewer screen conductors was implemented to meet the often conflicting requirements for low beam coupling impedance, fast magnetic field rise-time and good high voltage behaviour. During 2011 the LHC was operated with high intensity beam, coasting for many hours at a time, resulting in heating of the ferrite yoke of the MKIs. This paper presents an analysis of thermal measurement dat...

  5. Chinese Medicine Shenfu Injection for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wen-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Heart failure (HF is a global public health problem. Early literature studies manifested that Shenfu injection (SFI is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicine for HF in China. This article intended to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFI for HF. Methods. An extensive search was performed within 6 English and Chinese electronic database up to November 2011. Ninety-nine randomized controlled trails (RCTs were collected, irrespective of languages. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trial quality independently. RevMan 5.0.2 was used for data analysis. Results. Compared with routine treatment and/or device support, SFI combined with routine treatment and/or device support showed better effect on clinical effect rate, mortality, heart rate, NT-proBNP and 6-minute walk distance. Results in ultrasonic cardiography also showed that SFI combined with routine treatment improved heart function of HF patients. There were no significant difference in blood pressure between SFI and routine treatment groups. Adverse events were reported in thirteen trails with thirteen specific symptoms, while no serious adverse effect was reported. Conclusion. SFI appear to be effective for treating HF. However, further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted because of insufficient methodological rigor in the majority of included trials.

  6. Chinese medicine shenfu injection for heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Ting, Song; Fa-Feng, Cheng; Li, Xu; Cheng-Ren, Lin; Jian-Xun, Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem. Early literature studies manifested that Shenfu injection (SFI) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicine for HF in China. This article intended to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of SFI for HF. Methods. An extensive search was performed within 6 English and Chinese electronic database up to November 2011. Ninety-nine randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were collected, irrespective of languages. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trial quality independently. RevMan 5.0.2 was used for data analysis. Results. Compared with routine treatment and/or device support, SFI combined with routine treatment and/or device support showed better effect on clinical effect rate, mortality, heart rate, NT-proBNP and 6-minute walk distance. Results in ultrasonic cardiography also showed that SFI combined with routine treatment improved heart function of HF patients. There were no significant difference in blood pressure between SFI and routine treatment groups. Adverse events were reported in thirteen trails with thirteen specific symptoms, while no serious adverse effect was reported. Conclusion. SFI appear to be effective for treating HF. However, further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted because of insufficient methodological rigor in the majority of included trials.

  7. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  8. Enhanced Silver Nanoparticle Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate using Sequential Injection Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarfaj, N.A.; Aly, F.A.; Tamimi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence detection has been proposed for the determination of the antibiotic gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX). The developed method is based on the enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the chemiluminescence (CL) signal of luminol-potassium ferricyanide reaction in alkaline medium. The introduction of gemifloxacin in this system produced a significant decrease in the CL intensity in presence of (Ag NPs). The optimum conditions for CL emission were investigated. Linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and concentration was obtained in the range 0.01-1000 ng mL-1, (r = 0.9997) with detection limit of 2.0 pg mL-1 and quantification limit of 0.01 pg mL-1. The relative standard deviation was 1.3 %. The proposed method was employed for the determination of gemifloxacin in bulk drug, in its pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids such as human serum and urine. The interference of some common additive compounds such as glucose, lactose, starch, talc and magnesium stearate was investigated, and no interference was found from these excipients. The obtained SIA results were statistically compared with those obtained from a reported method and did not show any significant difference at confidence level 95%. (author)

  9. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Generalized Selection Combining Scheme in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousa Maan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of fading on mobile communication channels calls for the combining of multiple diversity sources to achieve acceptable error rate performance. Traditional approaches perform the combining of the different diversity sources using either the conventional selective diversity combining (CSC, equal-gain combining (EGC, or maximal-ratio combining (MRC schemes. CSC and MRC are the two extremes of compromise between performance quality and complexity. Some researches have proposed a generalized selection combining scheme (GSC that combines the best branches out of the available diversity resources ( . In this paper, we analyze a generalized selection combining scheme based on a threshold criterion rather than a fixed-size subset of the best channels. In this scheme, only those diversity branches whose energy levels are above a specified threshold are combined. Closed-form analytical solutions for the BER performances of this scheme over Nakagami fading channels are derived. We also discuss the merits of this scheme over GSC.

  10. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  11. Control, data acquisition and analysis for the JET neutral injection test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Brenan, P.R.; Rodgers, M.E.; Stork, D.; Young, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Neutral Injection Test-Bed (NITB) is a major experimental assembly in support of the Neutral Beam Heating Programme for JET. In addition to its prime function of testing the Neutral Injection hardware, the Test Bed serves as the prototype to test the computer control and data acquisition system, which is described in this paper. The software system has been written in a portable, data-driven manner with the aim to adapt it, with only minor modifications to the operation of the first. Neutral Injection Beamline on JET, which will involve operation both synchronous and asynchronous with that of the JET Tokamak

  12. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  13. Computer-aided analysis of difference schemes for partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ganzha, Victor G

    2011-01-01

    VICTOR G. GANZHA is Visiting Professor of Mathematics with the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at the University of Kassel, Germany, where he presents lecture courses on advanced computer algebra systems and their applications to higher mathematics and numerical analysis. He is coauthor of Differentialgleichungen mit Mathematica. E. V. VOROZHTSOV is a research scientist at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, Russia, and Professor of Mathematics with the Faculty of Flying Vehicles at the Novosibirsk State Technical University. He is coauthor of Methods for the Localization o

  14. A Hop-Count Analysis Scheme for Avoiding Wormhole Attacks in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sung Laih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET, due to the nature of wireless transmission, has more security issues compared to wired environments. A specific type of attack, the Wormhole attack does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. Instead of detecting wormholes from the role of administrators as in previous methods, we implement a new protocol, MHA, using a hop-count analysis from the viewpoint of users without any special environment assumptions. We also discuss previous works which require the role of administrator and their reliance on impractical assumptions, thus showing the advantages of MHA.

  15. Comparison and Analysis of the Control Power Between Two Different Perfect Controlled Teleportation Schemes Using Four-particle Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-ting; Mo, Zhi-wen

    2017-10-01

    Control power is used to discuss about the controller's measurable authority. It's a new index to describe the controlled teleportation schemes from the point of view of the controller. In this paper, we introduce two perfect controlled teleportation schemes and calculate the control power under different control particles. In scheme 1, the controller just controls one particle, which is particle 2. And in scheme 2, the controller controls the particles 2 and 3. They both use the cluster state |ψ > _{1234}={1/2}(|0000> +|0011> +|1100> -|1111> )_{1234} as communication channel. By calculating the control power between two schemes, the control power of scheme 1 is 1/3, which is the minimal value of control power. On the contrary, the control power of scheme 2 is maximal, 1/2. Scheme 2 which controls two particles successfully promotes the control power comparing with scheme 1. It's evidently that controlling particle 2 is a necessary condition. And controlling particle 3 can gain the control power but the controller cannot control it solely.

  16. Analysis of bunch by bunch oscillations with bunch trains at injection into LHC at 25 ns bunch spacing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H

    2012-01-01

    An MD on August 26, 2011 was dedicated to injection studies of bunch trains with 25 ns spacing and nominal intensity of approximately 1×10(11) protons per bunch. Due to an electrical glitch, the MD was stopped after two attempts of injecting a train of 48 bunches for beam 2. Both injections were aborted after less than 0.1 s. In particular, the first attempt with transverse damper on was dumped after 1000 turns while the second attempt with transverse damper off was dumped after 500 turns only. In this note, an analysis of the bunch by bunch oscillation data recorded with the post-mortem system from the transverse damper is presented. The presented data clearly shows the presence of instabilities that affect mainly the second half of the batch. This is compatible with what would be expected qualitatively in the presence of the electron cloud effect.

  17. A microfabricated electroosmotic pump coupled to a gas-diffusion microchip for flow injection analysis of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann J.; Liu, Shaorong; Almeida, M. Inês G. S.; Kolev, Spas D.; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    We have microfabricated two functional components toward developing a microchip flow injection analysis (FIA) system, i.e., an open-channel electroosmotic pump and a gas-diffusion chip, consisting of two microfabricated glass wafers and a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. This is the first application of gas-diffusion separation in a microchip FIA system. To demonstrate the feasibility of using these two components for performing gas-diffusion FIA, we have incorporated them together with a regular FIA injection valve and a capillary electrophoresis absorbance detector in a flow injection system for determination of ammonia in environmental water samples. This system has a limit of detection of 0.10 mg L −1 NH 3 , with a good repeatability (relative standard deviation of less than 5 % for 4.0 mg L −1 NH 3 ). Parameters affecting its performance are also discussed. (author)

  18. The analysis of mechanical behaviour of reactor coolant system layout scheme with 60 degree angle for the second phase project of Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ruhong

    1993-01-01

    For the reactor coolant system of the second phase project of Qinshan NPP, the layout scheme with two loops and an angle of 60 degree is adopted. In this scheme, two loops are connected to reactor pressure vessel (RPV), and the angle included between the inlet and outlet nozzles of the RPV is 60 degree in a same loop. The issues involved in the analysis of mechanical behaviour of piping system to demonstrate the validity of such a scheme are described briefly in the paper, including the modelling technique adopted in establishing mathematical model, the methods used for structural analysis of piping system, stress and fatigue analysis in piping fittings. A brief description of the calculation results are given and the feasibility and rationality are discussed

  19. Hospitalizations and economic analysis in psychotic patients with paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesones-Peral, Jesús E; Gurillo-Muñoz, Pedro; Sánchez-Sicilia, Mari Paz; Miller, Adam; Griñant-Fernández, Alejandra

    Prevent hospitalizations in psychotic disorders is an important aim, so long-acting antipsychotic is a good option that can control better the correct adherence. Moreover, in the current economic context pharmacoeconomic studies are necessary. We estimate the effect in prevention of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP-LAI) and calculate the economic cost in the 12 months preceding the start of treatment with PP-LAI and 12 months later. Mirror image study of 71 outpatients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and treated with PP-LAI. In a first analysis, we measured along one year: number of hospitalizations/year, number of hospitalization in days, number of emergency assists/year and if there is antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment. After this phase, we applied Fees Act of Valencia for economic analysis and estimate of the cost per hospitalization (€ 5,640.41) and hospital emergency (€ 187.61). After one year of treatment with PP-LAI (mean dose=130.65mg/month), we obtained greater numbers in assistance variables: total hospitalizations decrease, 78.8% (P=.009); shortening in hospitalization days, 89.4% (P=.009); abridgement of number of emergency assists, 79.1% (P=.002); decrease of rate of antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment, 21% (P<.0001); increase in monotherapy, 53.8% (P<.0001). Therefore, after 12 months of treatment with PP-LAI we obtained a reduction in inpatient spending (savings of € 175,766.54) and increased spending on antipsychotics 32% (equivalent to € 151,126.92). PP-LAI can be an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with severe psychotic disorders: improves symptomatic stability and can prevent hospitalizations with cost-effective symptom control. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M.

    2006-04-01

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  1. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of a water pool under loading caused by steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Ilvonen, M. [VTT Technical Researc Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    CFD and structural analysis codes. MpCCI 3.0 was used for coupling Fluent CFD code with ABAQUS FE code. ES-FSI was used for coupling Star-CD CFD code with ABAQUS. FSI analyses, in which the calculation was carried out entirely in ABAQUS, were also performed. In this case, acoustic elements were used for the fluid and the acoustic and structural domains were coupled. FSI calculations were performed for simple test cases and for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The Method of Images was studied as an alternative method for the analyses of the pool. Particularly, the determination of pressure source for the method was studied. Earlier work carried out with the homogenous two-phase model was continued by testing the model with Fluent. Calculation of condensation of steam in a water pool was tested with a new implementation. The two-directionally coupled simulations of the pool with MpCCI and ES-FSI were found to be numerically instable. It was concluded that an implicit coupling method may have to be used in order to avoid the instability. Calculations of the pool were finally performed by using one directional coupling. In the simulations with MpCCI, the incompressible and compressible VOF models of Fluent were used. With ES-FSI, the incompressible VOF model of Star-CD was used for modelling the beginning of a steam injection experiment. The magnitudes of pressure and stress peaks in the simulation and experiment were of comparable size. Otherwise, however, differences between the simulation and experiment were large due to the simplifications used in the simulation. Results obtained with the acoustic-structural FE analyses were compared to analytical and experimental results. The results indicated that the coupled acoustic-structural analysis can be used for calculating the coupled Eigenmodes of BWR pressure suppression pools. (au)

  2. Short-term cessation of sex work and injection drug use: evidence from a recurrent event survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Urada, Lianne A; Martinez, Gustavo; Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Reed, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-06-01

    This study quantitatively examined the prevalence and correlates of short-term sex work cessation among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and determined whether injection drug use was independently associated with cessation. We used data from FSW-IDUs (n=467) enrolled into an intervention designed to increase condom use and decrease sharing of injection equipment but was not designed to promote sex work cessation. We applied a survival analysis that accounted for quit-re-entry patterns of sex work over 1-year stratified by city, Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Overall, 55% of participants stopped sex work at least once during follow-up. Controlling for other characteristics and intervention assignment, injection drug use was inversely associated with short-term sex work cessation in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, women receiving drug treatment during follow-up had a 2-fold increase in the hazard of stopping sex work. In both cities, income from sources other than sex work, police interactions and healthcare access were independently and significantly associated with shorter-term cessation. Short-term sex work cessation was significantly affected by injection drug use. Expanded drug treatment and counseling coupled with supportive services such as relapse prevention, job training, and provision of alternate employment opportunities may promote longer-term cessation among women motivated to leave the sex industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Retrospective Analysis of Cyanoacrylate Injection versus Hemoclip Placement for Bleeding Dieulafoy’s Lesion in Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL is a rare disease that may lead to lethal hemorrhage in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The best technique for endoscopic intervention still remains unclear. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of cyanoacrylate injection versus hemoclip placement for treating bleeding DLs. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed eighteen patients from three medical centers between October 2008 and February 2016; six patients received cyanoacrylate injection, while hemoclips were placed in 12 patients during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results. All patients received first endoscopic examination and/or endotherapy within 12 hours of admission to hospital. No difference was observed in the primary hemostasis rate or the recurrent hemorrhage rate between the cyanoacrylate injection (CI group and the hemoclip placement (HP group, except that in one patient from the HP group melena was found three days after the first endotherapy. This patient received cyanoacrylate injection once again. Conclusion. Both cyanoacrylate injection and hemoclip placement are effective in treating duodenal DL, and neither of them causes significant side effects.

  4. An Efficient SDN Load Balancing Scheme Based on Variance Analysis for Massive Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional network, server load balancing is used to satisfy the demand for high data volumes. The technique requires large capital investment while offering poor scalability and flexibility, which difficultly supports highly dynamic workload demands from massive mobile users. To solve these problems, this paper analyses the principle of software-defined networking (SDN and presents a new probabilistic method of load balancing based on variance analysis. The method can be used to dynamically manage traffic flows for supporting massive mobile users in SDN networks. The paper proposes a solution using the OpenFlow virtual switching technology instead of the traditional hardware switching technology. A SDN controller monitors data traffic of each port by means of variance analysis and provides a probability-based selection algorithm to redirect traffic dynamically with the OpenFlow technology. Compared with the existing load balancing methods which were designed to support traditional networks, this solution has lower cost, higher reliability, and greater scalability which satisfy the needs of mobile users.

  5. Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kelsey; Akwataghibe, Ngozi; Fakunle, Babatunde; Wolmarans, Liezel

    2016-11-01

    A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services. We multiplied the two to produce a total cost per patient, then deducted annual out-of-pocket expenditures to estimate the total community-based health insurance scheme benefit per person. Benefits were multiplied by the total number of persons in each socioeconomic group to aggregate benefits. We used concentration curves and dominance tests to determine statistical significance at 5% and 10% levels of significance. Collectively, the poorest 20% of the population received 12% of benefits while the richest quintile received the largest share (23%). Inpatient and outpatient benefits are weakly regressive (pro-rich), statistically significant at a 10% level of significance. Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A reavaluation of the reliability analysis of the low pressure injection system for Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The emergency core cooling system of Angra 1 is analysed aiming at the low pressure injection systems, using the fault tree technique. All the failure mode of the components are considered for this analyse. (author) [pt

  7. Large-Scale Analysis of Remote Code Injection Attacks in Android Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yongdae

    2018-01-01

    It is pretty well known that insecure code updating procedures for Android allow remote code injection attack. However, other than codes, there are many resources in Android that have to be updated, such as temporary files, images, databases, and configurations (XML and JSON). Security of update procedures for these resources is largely unknown. This paper investigates general conditions for remote code injection attacks on these resources. Using this, we design and implement a static detecti...

  8. TRANSPORTATION BOT SCHEMES FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCING SCENARIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung WEI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation Build-Operate-Transfer financing projects have larger payment risks and failure possibilities than other financing projects, and these factors are essential to financing scenarios. The changes of financing scenarios not only affect private sectors' financing process but the conflict between private sectors and banks. This study broadly reviews relevant factors affecting BOT financing strategies, interviews relevant experts and then uses scenario analysis to design a questionnaire to find out the most important factors affecting BOT financing. The findings of this study are four major factors affecting public and private financing scenarios. In this paper, we also propose some suggestions as possible complements to public and private sector financing strategies.

  9. Analysis of the Influence of Microcellular Injection Molding on the Environmental Impact of an Industrial Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elduque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular injection molding is a process that offers numerous benefits due to the internal structure generated; thus, many applications are currently being developed in different fields, especially home appliances. In spite of the advantages, when changing the manufacturing process from conventional to microcellular injection molding, it is necessary to analyze its new mechanical properties and the environmental impact of the component. This paper presents a deep study of the environmental behavior of a manufactured component by both conventional and microcellular injection molding. Environmental impact will be evaluated performing a life cycle assessment. Functionality of the component will be also evaluated with samples obtained from manufactured components, to make sure that the mechanical requirements are fulfilled when using microcellular injection molding. For this purpose a special device has been developed to measure the flexural modulus. With a 16% weight reduction, the variation of flexural properties in the microcellular injected components is only 6.8%. Although the energy consumption of the microcellular injection process slightly increases, there is an overall reduction of the environmental burden of 14.9% in ReCiPe and 15% in carbon footprint. Therefore, MuCell technology can be considered as a green manufacturing technology for components working mainly under flexural load.

  10. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  11. Dynamic Channel Slot Allocation Scheme and Performance Analysis of Cyclic Quorum Multichannel MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In high diversity node situation, multichannel MAC protocol can improve the frequency efficiency, owing to fewer collisions compared with single-channel MAC protocol. And the performance of cyclic quorum-based multichannel (CQM MAC protocol is outstanding. Based on cyclic quorum system and channel slot allocation, it can avoid the bottleneck that others suffered from and can be easily realized with only one transceiver. To obtain the accurate performance of CQM MAC protocol, a Markov chain model, which combines the channel-hopping strategy of CQM protocol and IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF, is proposed. The results of numerical analysis show that the optimal performance of CQM protocol can be obtained in saturation bound situation. And then we obtain the saturation bound of CQM system by bird swarm algorithm. In addition, to improve the performance of CQM protocol in unsaturation situation, a dynamic channel slot allocation of CQM (DCQM protocol is proposed, based on wavelet neural network. Finally, the performance of CQM protocol and DCQM protocol is simulated by Qualnet platform. And the simulation results show that the analytic and simulation results match very well; the DCQM performs better in unsaturation situation.

  12. A Resistive Boundary Condition Enhanced DGTD Scheme for the Transient Analysis of Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, the electromagnetic (EM) features of graphene are characterized by a discontinuous Galerkin timedomain (DGTD) algorithm with a resistive boundary condition (RBC). The atomically thick graphene is equivalently modeled using a RBC by regarding the graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet. To incorporate RBC into the DGTD analysis, the surface conductivity of the graphene composed of contributions from both intraband and interband terms is firstly approximated by rational basis functions using the fastrelaxation vector-fitting (FRVF) method in the Laplace-domain. Next, through the inverse Laplace transform, the corresponding time-domain matrix equations in integral can be obtained. Finally, these matrix equations are solved by time-domain finite integral technique (FIT). For elements not touching the graphene sheet, however, the well-known Runge-Kutta (RK) method is employed to solve the two first-order time-derivative Maxwell’s equations. The application of the surface boundary condition significantly alleviates the memory consuming and the limitation of time step size required by Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. To validate the proposed algorithm, various numerical examples are presented and compared with available references.

  13. A Resistive Boundary Condition Enhanced DGTD Scheme for the Transient Analysis of Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic (EM) features of graphene are characterized by a discontinuous Galerkin timedomain (DGTD) algorithm with a resistive boundary condition (RBC). The atomically thick graphene is equivalently modeled using a RBC by regarding the graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet. To incorporate RBC into the DGTD analysis, the surface conductivity of the graphene composed of contributions from both intraband and interband terms is firstly approximated by rational basis functions using the fastrelaxation vector-fitting (FRVF) method in the Laplace-domain. Next, through the inverse Laplace transform, the corresponding time-domain matrix equations in integral can be obtained. Finally, these matrix equations are solved by time-domain finite integral technique (FIT). For elements not touching the graphene sheet, however, the well-known Runge-Kutta (RK) method is employed to solve the two first-order time-derivative Maxwell’s equations. The application of the surface boundary condition significantly alleviates the memory consuming and the limitation of time step size required by Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. To validate the proposed algorithm, various numerical examples are presented and compared with available references.

  14. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  15. Cancerous Tumour Model Analysis and Constructing schemes of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy at an Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mukhomorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an alternative and successfully employed method for treatment of cancerous tumour. However, this therapy isn't widely used in medicine because of expensive drugs. It leads naturally to elaboration of such treatment regimens which use minimum amount of drugs.The aim of the paper is to investigate the model of development of illness and elaborate appropriate treatment regimens in the case of early diagnosis of the disease. The given model reflects the therapy at an intermediate stage of the disease treatment. Further treatment is aimed to destroy cancer cells and may be continued by other means, which are not reflected in the model.Analysis of the main properties of the model was carried out with consideration of two types of auxiliary systems. In the first case, the system is considered without control, as a model of tumour development in the absence of medical treatment. The study of the equilibrium point and determination of its type allowed us to describe disease dynamics and to determine tumour size resulting in death. In the second case a model with a constant control was investigated. The study of its equilibrium point showed that continuous control is not sufficient to support satisfactory patient's condition, and it is necessary to elaborate more complex treatment regimens. For this purpose, we used the method of terminal problems consisting in the search for such program control which forces system to a given final state. Selecting the initial and final states is due to medical grounds.As a result, we found two treatment regimens | one-stage treatment regimen and multi-stage one. The properties of each treatment regimen are analyzed and compared. The total amount of used drugs was a criterion for comparing these two treatment regimens. The theoretical conclusions obtained in this work are supported by computer modeling in MATLAB environment.

  16. Cost analysis of alternate management schemes in early stage testicular seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharda, Navneet N.; Kinsella, Timothy J.; Ritter, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Optimal management of early stage testicular seminoma remains uncertain. Standard therapy includes inguinal orchidectomy followed by irradiation of the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Due to the excellent survival rates (<4% seminoma specific mortality as per the Princess Margaret, Institute Goustave-Roussy experience), the option of observation following orchidectomy has been proposed, with no diminution in absolute survival noted since salvage chemotherapy is effective in the treatment of early systemic relapse. However, the intensity of follow-up required if observation is chosen will likely add an increased medical cost burden which needs to be balanced against the cost of standard treatment using radiation therapy. We have therefore performed a cost comparison between these two management strategies in order to define any differences. Methods and Materials: All costs reported are adjusted to 1994 dollars and analysis is begun immediately post-orchidectomy. The cost of observation was calculated assuming a 15% relapse rate (10%-20%) over seven years of follow-up. The follow-up schedule was assumed identical to that commonly reported in the literature (Princess Margaret, Institute Gustave-Roussy, Royal Marsden), consisting of periodic CXR, CT abd/pelvis, tumor markers and examinations. Chemotherapy costs associated with treatment of recurrences were generated from the inpatient hospital charges and physician billing of five patients who received three cycles of a standard United States regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide and cis-platinum in 1994. On average, four days of hospitalization were required. Radiological costs were also calculated from the actual patient billing records in 1994 and incremented at a rate of 3%/year over the length of proposed follow-up. Costs of irradiation and subsequent standard follow-up were similarly generated from the hospital charges and physician billing of five patients treated postoperatively. A 4% recurrence

  17. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  18. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  19. Experimental Analysis for Factors Affecting the Repeatability of Plastics Injection Molding Tests on the Self-developed Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 To improve the repeatability of the injection molding test result, the affecting factors were investigated by means of experiments. Besides the traditional processing parameter, the factors of test conditions were also considered. In order to focus on the molding process rather than the molded part, the curve measurement of the melt pressure at the entrance to the nozzle was used as the output characteristic. Experiments for polypropylene (PP showed that the injected volume was the key processing parameter. Within the test conditions, the injection number is the most important factor. According to the analysis the operating procedure was improved effectively. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.6-11 [How to cite this article: Huang, Y., Li, D., Liu, Y. (2013. Experimental Analysis for Factors Affecting the Repeatability of Plastics Injection Molding Tests on the Self-developed Apparatus. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(1,6-11. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.1.6-11]

  20. Metagenomic analysis indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a potential cause of microbial corrosion in pipelines injected with bisulfite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshan eAn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bisulfite (SBS is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P and downstream (PAS-821TP of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S0 originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe0. Overall this accelerates reaction of of S0 and Fe0 to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function.

  1. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  2. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wibowotomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100–1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λmax = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H2O2. The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H2O2, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9812 in the concentration range of 20–140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1–111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  3. Development of a Sequential Injection Analysis System for the Determination of Saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowotomo, Budi; Eun, Jong-Bang; Rhee, Jong Il

    2017-12-12

    Saccharin is a powerfully sweet nonnutritive sweetener that has been approved for food-processing applications within the range of 100-1200 mg/kg. A simple, rapid, and cost-effective sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique was developed to determine the saccharin level. This method is based on the reaction of saccharin with p-chloranil in an ethanol medium with a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) acceleration, and the resultant violet-red compound was detected using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max = 420 nm. To ascertain the optimal conditions for the SIA system, several parameters were investigated, including buffer flow rate and volume, p-chloranil concentration, and reactant volumes (saccharin, p-chloranil, and H₂O₂). The optimum setup of the SIA system was achieved with a buffer flow rate, buffer volume, and draw-up time of 1.2 mL/min, 2900 µL, and ~145 s, respectively. The optimal p-chloranil concentration is 30 mM, and the best reactant volumes, presented in an ordered sequence, are as follows: 30 µL of H₂O₂, 450 µL of saccharin, and 150 µL of p-chloranil. The optimized SIA configuration produced a good linear calibration curve with a correlation coefficient (R² = 0.9812) in the concentration range of 20-140 mg/L and with a detection limit of 19.69 mg/L. Analytical applications in different food categories also showed acceptable recovery values in the range of 93.1-111.5%. This simple and rapid SIA system offers great feasibility for the saccharin quality control in food-product processing.

  4. RAS screening in colorectal cancer: a comprehensive analysis of the results from the UK NEQAS colorectal cancer external quality assurance schemes (2009-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Susan D; Fairley, Jennifer; Butler, Rachel; Deans, Zandra C

    2017-12-01

    Evidence strongly indicates that extended RAS testing should be undertaken in mCRC patients, prior to prescribing anti-EGFR therapies. With more laboratories implementing testing, the requirement for External Quality Assurance schemes increases, thus ensuring high standards of molecular analysis. Data was analysed from 15 United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK NEQAS) for Molecular Genetics Colorectal cancer external quality assurance (EQA) schemes, delivered between 2009 and 2016. Laboratories were provided annually with nine colorectal tumour samples for genotyping. Information on methodology and extent of testing coverage was requested, and scores given for genotyping, interpretation and clerical accuracy. There has been a sixfold increase in laboratory participation (18 in 2009 to 108 in 2016). For RAS genotyping, fewer laboratories now use Roche cobas®, pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, with more moving to next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS is the most commonly employed technology for BRAF and PIK3CA mutation screening. KRAS genotyping errors were seen in ≤10% laboratories, until the 2014-2015 scheme, when there was an increase to 16.7%, corresponding to a large increase in scheme participants. NRAS genotyping errors peaked at 25.6% in the first 2015-2016 scheme but subsequently dropped to below 5%. Interpretation and clerical accuracy scores have been consistently good throughout. Within this EQA scheme, we have observed that the quality of molecular analysis for colorectal cancer has continued to improve, despite changes in the required targets, the volume of testing and the technologies employed. It is reassuring to know that laboratories clearly recognise the importance of participating in EQA schemes.

  5. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Multiple Injection Strategies Using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyujin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multiple injection strategy has been widely used in diesel engines to reduce engine noise, NOx and soot formation. Fuel injection developments such as the common-rail and piezo-actuator system provide more precise control of the injection quantity and time under higher injection pressures. As various injection strategies become accessible, it is important to understand the interaction of each fuel stream and following combustion process under the multiple injection strategy. To investigate these complex processes quantitatively, numerical analysis using CFD is a good alternative to overcome the limitation of experiments. A modified 2-D flamelet model is further developed from previous work to model multi-fuel streams with higher accuracy. The model was validated under various engine operating conditions and captures the combustion and emissions characteristics as well as several parametric variations. The model is expected to be used to suggest advanced injection strategies in engine development processes.

  7. Analysis of emergency core cooling capability of direct vessel vertical injection using CFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Yu, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2003-01-01

    More reliable and efficient safety injection system is of utmost importance in the design of advanced reactors such as the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this work, a new idea is proposed to inject the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water utilizing a dedicated nozzle with a vertically downward elbow. The Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) system is located horizontally above the cold leg in the APR1400. However, the horizontal injection method may not always satisfy the ECC penetration requirement into the core on account of rather involved multidimensional thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring in the annular reactor downcomer such as bypass, impingement, entrainment and sweepout, condensation oscillation, etc. Thus, a novel concept is called for from the reactor safety point of view. The Direct Vessel Vertical Injection (DVVI) system is one of these efforts to penetrate as much the ECC water through the downcomer into the core as is practically achievable. The DVVI system can increase the momentum of the downward flow, thus minimizing the effect of water impingement on the core barrel and the direct bypass though the break. To support the claim of increased downward momentum of flow in the DVVI system, computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed using CFX. The new concept of the DVVI system, which can certainly help increase the core thermal margin, is found to be more efficient than DVI. If the structural problem in the manufacturing process is properly solved, this concept can safely be applied in the advanced nuclear reactor design

  8. Clinical application analysis of andrographolide total ester sulfonate injection, a traditional Chinese medicine licensed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Huang, Pu; Chen, Zhe; Zheng, Si-Wei; Yu, Jin-Yang; Shi, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Andrographolide total ester sulfonate (ATES) injection is one of the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) currently used against viral infection in China. ATES injection was approved for manufacturing and marketing in January 2002. It is indicated for acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, influenza, foot and mouth disease, bronchiolitis, herpangina, mumps, infectious mononucleosis and psychosis. However, its usage also carries risk. We investigated the use of ATES at the Wuhan Union Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014 and evaluated its real-world clinical application using the hospital centralized monitoring method. A total of 848 cases were enrolled in this study. In these cases, it was mainly used for postoperative anti-inflammation and treating upper respiratory infection, pneumonia and bronchitis. Among them, 39.86% were contraindicated. Irregular medication of adults and children accounted for 1.91% and 23.38%, respectively. Improper choice of solvent accounted for 3.18%. The choice of intravenous drip versus aerosol inhalation was reasonable. A case of adverse events (AEs) was observed in the monitoring period, and the incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR) of ATES injection was 0.12%. ATES injection in our hospital is relatively safe with a low incidence of adverse reactions. The study assesses the clinical usage and adverse reactions of ATES injection, and provides suggestions for rational use in clinical practice.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Fredberg, Ulrich; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin

    2013-06-01

    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available. To assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of injection therapies in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials comparing different injection therapies for lateral epicondylitis were included provided they contained data for change in pain intensity (primary outcome). Trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Network (random effects) meta-analysis was applied to combine direct and indirect evidence within and across trial data using the final end point reported in the trials, and results for the arm-based network analyses are reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs). Seventeen trials (1381 participants; 3 [18%] at low risk of bias) assessing injection with 8 different treatments-glucocorticoid (10 trials), botulinum toxin (4 trials), autologous blood (3 trials), platelet-rich plasma (2 trials), and polidocanol, glycosaminoglycan, prolotherapy, and hyaluronic acid (1 trial each)-were included. Pooled results (SMD [95% confidence interval]) showed that beyond 8 weeks, glucocorticoid injection was no more effective than placebo (-0.04 [-0.45 to 0.35]), but only 1 trial (which did not include a placebo arm) was at low risk of bias. Although botulinum toxin showed marginal benefit (-0.50 [-0.91 to -0.08]), it caused temporary paresis of finger extension, and all trials were at high risk of bias. Both autologous blood (-1.43 [-2.15 to -0.71]) and platelet-rich plasma (-1.13 [-1.77 to -0.49]) were also statistically superior to placebo, but only 1 trial was at low risk of bias. Prolotherapy (-2.71 [-4.60 to -0.82]) and hyaluronic acid (-5.58 [-6.35 to -4.82]) were both more efficacious than placebo, whereas polidocanol (0.39 [-0.42 to 1.20]) and glycosaminoglycan (-0.32 [-1.02 to 0

  10. Economic Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Integration in Injection Molding Process Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    The purpose of this research is to analyze how additive manufacturing can create value when it is utilized as a supportive technology to injection molding by quantifying the cost advantages that can be obtained. Tooling for the product development phase is investigated as pilot integration area...... of additive manufacturing with injection molding. Cost considerations are discussed through the development of a cost estimation model. The study shows that integration of additive manufacturing in the product development phase for fabrication of soft tooling is economically convenient with a cost reduction...... of 79,8% and 89,9%. The cost models on additive manufacturing have been built so far on the idea of substituting injection molding with additive manufacturing. In response to this literature gap, this research addresses the advantages of additive manufacturing utilized in a synergistic rather than...

  11. Large-Scale Analysis of Remote Code Injection Attacks in Android Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunwoo Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is pretty well known that insecure code updating procedures for Android allow remote code injection attack. However, other than codes, there are many resources in Android that have to be updated, such as temporary files, images, databases, and configurations (XML and JSON. Security of update procedures for these resources is largely unknown. This paper investigates general conditions for remote code injection attacks on these resources. Using this, we design and implement a static detection tool that automatically identifies apps that meet these conditions. We apply the detection tool to a large dataset comprising 9,054 apps, from three different types of datasets: official market, third-party market, and preinstalled apps. As a result, 97 apps were found to be potentially vulnerable, with 53 confirmed as vulnerable to remote code injection attacks.

  12. Analysis of limited fertility in intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by electroejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Masaya; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Takeyama, Masami; Kondoh, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims:  We correlated findings in semen from patients with ejaculatory dysfunction with results of in vitro fertilization using their electroejaculated sperm. Methods and Results:  Electroejaculation was carried out in six patients with the above‐mentioned criteria for a total of eight times. Sperm was obtained in six attempts. Intracytoplasmic injection of these sperm was performed in 156 eggs. Sixty‐seven eggs were fertilized; most of these were injected with motile sperm. Two women became pregnant, both after injection with motile sperm. As previously reported, electroejaculated sperm showed low motility and a low fertilization rate, but even motile sperm had a low fertilization rate. Conclusion:  The results of the present study suggest the importance in fertilization of undetermined factors in addition to sperm motility. (Reprod Med Biol 2004; 3: 9–12) PMID:29662380

  13. [Registration study on analysis of adaptation syndromes and medication characteristics of tanreqing injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Lian-Xin; Chang, Yan-Peng; You, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Li

    2014-09-01

    Tanreqing injection is suitable for early pneumonia, acute bronchitis, acute exacerbations of chronic, and upper respiratory tract infection which are classified with phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine. To understand the clinical adaptation syndromes and medication characteristics of the post-market Tanreqing injection, the research team of the paper monitored the patients who are used with Tanreqing injection from September 2012 to October 2013 in four leader hospitals based on the method--prospective, multi-center, large sample, registration-type hospital centralized monitoring,and analyzes the general information, diagnostic information and medication characteristics of patients, in order to produce evidence for clinical practice and medication decisions and to establish the foundation of rational drug use.

  14. Comparative analysis of anterior and posterior contrast injection approaches for shoulder MR arthrograms in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, Theodore B.; Cahill, Anne M. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Delgado, Jorge [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Stanford University Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chauvin, Nancy A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal approach for performing a fluoroscopically guided shoulder arthrogram injection in a pediatric population. To compare adequacy of capsular injection and radiation doses between fluoroscopically guided anterior and posterior glenohumeral joint contrast injections in adolescents. We evaluated imaging in 67 adolescents (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.7-19.1 years) who underwent an anterior approach glenohumeral contrast injection with subsequent MR imaging, and 67 age- and gender-matched subjects (39 boys, 28 girls; mean age 16.0 years; range 11.1-19.2 years) who underwent a posterior approach injection during the period June 2010 to September 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated all MR shoulder arthrograms to assess adequacy of capsular distention and degree of contrast extravasation. We recorded total fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK). There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight or body mass index between the populations (P-values > 0.6). The amount of contrast extravasation between the groups was not significantly different (P = 0.27). Three anterior injections (4.5%) and one posterior (1.5%) were suboptimal (P = 0.62). Fluoroscopy time was not different: 1.1 min anterior and 1.3 min posterior (P = 0.14). There was a significant difference in CAK (0.7 mGy anterior and 1.1 mGy posterior; P = 0.007) and DAP (5.3 μGym{sup 2} anterior and 9.4 μGym{sup 2} posterior; P = 0.008). Inter-rater agreement was excellent (Cohen kappa >0.81). Both techniques were technically successful. There was no difference in the fluoroscopy time for either approach. The radiation dose was higher with the posterior approach but this is of questionable clinical significance. (orig.)

  15. Injectable loop recorder implantation in an ambulatory setting by advanced practice providers: Analysis of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Ryan; Young, Natasha; Barnett, Anne; Kopp, Douglas; Leal, Miguel A; Eckhardt, Lee L; Teelin, Thomas; Hoffmayer, Kurt S; Wright, Jennifer; Field, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Implantable loop recorder (ILR) insertion has historically been performed in a surgical environment such as the electrophysiology (EP) lab. The newest generation loop recorder (Medtronic Reveal LINQ™, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is injectable with potential for implantation in a non-EP lab setting by advanced practice providers (APPs) facilitating improved workflow and resource utilization. We report the safety and efficacy of injectable ILR placement in the ambulatory care setting by APPs. A retrospective review was performed including all patients referred for injectable ILR placement from March 2014 to November 2015. All device placement procedures were performed in an ambulatory care setting using the standard manufacturer deployment kit with sterile technique and local anesthetic following a single dose of intravenous antibiotics. Acute procedural success and complication rates following injectable ILR placement in the ambulatory setting were reviewed. During the study period, 125 injectable ILRs were implanted. Acute procedural success with adequate sensing (R-waves ≥ 0.2 mV) occurred in 100% of patients. There were no acute procedural complications. Subacute complications occurred in two patients (1.6% of implantations), including one possible infection treated with oral antibiotics and one device removal due to pain at the implant site. In this retrospective single-center study, implantation of injectable ILR in an ambulatory care setting by APPs following a single dose of intravenous antibiotics and standard manufacturer technique yielded a low complication rate with high acute procedural success. Use of this implantation strategy may improve EP lab workflow while providing a safe and effective technique for device placement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Performance analysis of joint multi-branch switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2012-12-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper two adaptive schemes using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link and maintain a desired performance for the primary link. The proposed switching efficient scheme (SES) and bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) use the scan and wait combining technique (SWC) where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In these schemes, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to minimize the average number of switched branches and to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver (PR). For delay-sensitive applications, we also propose two variations of the SES and BES schemes using power control (SES-PC and BES-PC) where the secondary transmitter (ST) starts sending data using a nominal power level which is selected in order to minimize the average delay introduced by the SWC technique. We demonstrate through numerical examples that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to the SES scheme. This spectral efficiency improvement comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. We also show that the SES-PC and the BES-PC schemes minimize the average delay while satisfying the same spectral efficiency as the SES and BES schemes, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Analysis of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99Tcm-MAG3 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qingquan; Xia Zhenmin

    1992-01-01

    A two-system paper chromatographic method has been established for the determination of RCP of 99 Tc m -MAG 3 injection. R f -values of 99 Tc m -MAG 3 , 99 Tc m O 4 - and H-R- 99 Tc m (hydrolysis reduced 99 Tc m ) are 0.9, 0.8, 0.0 in system I, and 0.0, 0.4, 0.0 in system II respectively. The RCP and percentages of 99 Tc m O 4 - and H-R- 99 Tc m of 99 Tc m -MAG 3 injection have been determined with this method

  18. The analysis of scaling mechanism for water-injection pipe columns in the Daqing Oilfield

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Guolin; Tang, Shan; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Although water-injection in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the process of development in the oilfield, scale has been produced in water-injection pipe columns. The ability to prevent and control the deposition of scale is critical to the efficient recovery of crude oil from hard environments, as part of the broader discipline of “flow assurance” in the petroleum industry. To this end laboratory-scale deposition tests have been useful to und...

  19. Developing the Model of Fuel Injection Process Efficiency Analysis for Injector for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. Yu; Kayukov, S. S.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Belousov, A. V.; Gallyamov, R. E.; Lysenko, Yu D.

    2018-01-01

    The article proposes an assessment option for analysing the quality of fuel injection by the injector constituting the development of calculation blocks in a common injector model within LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim. The parameters of the injector model in the article correspond to the serial injector Common Rail-type with solenoid. The possibilities of this approach are demonstrated with providing the results using the example of modelling the modified injector. Following the research results, the advantages of the proposed approach to analysing assessing the fuel injection quality were detected.

  20. Quantitative analysis and demonstration of modified triple-branch signal detection scheme for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fujun; Feng, Gang; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-10-01

    The triple-branch signal detection (TBSD) scheme can eliminate multiple-user interference (MUI) without fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) stipulation in the spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SACOCDMA) systems. In this paper, we modify the traditional TBSD scheme and theoretically analyze the principle of the MUI elimination. Then, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the modified TBSD scheme is investigated under multiple transmission rates. The results show that the modified TBSD employing the codes with unfixed IPCC can achieve simultaneous optical code recognition and MUI elimination in the SAC-OCDMA.

  1. Analytical scheme for group separation of the lanthanides from biological materials before their determination by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, B.; Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical procedure for the selective and quantitative isolation of the lanthanides as a group from biological materials has been developed on the basis of experiments with radio-tracers. Ion exchange and extraction column chromatography were used for the isolation of elements of interest from matrix and the other trace elements prior to irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The method enables quantitative separation of the lanthanide fraction, free from highly activating macro components, as well as from other trace elements including uranium, which can be the source of serious errors due to uranium 235 U fission reaction (n,f). In order to minimize the potential spectrometric interferences lanthanide fraction after neutron irradiation was divided into two sub-fractions, taking advantage of the different anion exchange affinities of individual lanthanide complexes with EDTA to strongly basic anion exchanger. The effective microwave digestion procedures for ca 500 mg biological samples was elaborated and the new, original method for checking the yield of the entire analytical procedure - including mineralization of the sample - was applied. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of BCR 670 Aquatic Plant ? one of the only two CRMs of biological origin available on the market, which offers the certified values for all lanthanides was used for verification of performance of the proposed analytical scheme. (authors)

  2. Investigation of the 107Cd and 115Cd decay schemes and their application in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.

    1980-01-01

    The γ-decay of 107 Cd and 115 Cd was measured with a Ge(Li)-detector. In addition to improvements of the data of known transitions several transitions have been verified (sup(115m)Cd: 1074.18, 1596.18 keV, 107 Cd: 1142.47 keV). Some γ-lines were observed for the first time (sup(115m)Cd: 132.88, 1071.01, 1239.61 keV, 107 Cd: 132.62, 185.70, 474.56 keV). The results are interpreted by means of nuclear models. A k = 1/2-rotations band is verified by adding the 1071 and 1239 keV-states in the level scheme of 115 In. The multielement activation analysis was used for the detection of Cd traces in birch trees, which were taken from different environments. Evidence was found for the assumption that the Cd was taken up from the soil and enriched by the trees. (orig.)

  3. An Analysis of Integrated Child Development Scheme Performance in Contributing to Alleviation of Malnutrition in Two Economically Resurgent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruia, Aparna; Gupta, Rajul Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Gupta, Rajshree R

    2018-01-01

    Good economic growth is considered synonymous with good nutrition. In recent past, some states (like Bihar and Gujarat) have seen unprecedented economic growth. Despite this and introducing plethora of programs (including integrated child development scheme [ICDS]) to reduce malnutrition, one state might be performing well in reducing malnutrition whereas other with equally high economic growth rate might lag behind. Is mere economic growth good enough to alleviate malnutrition? The aim of the article is to document a critical comparative analysis of malnutrition with special emphasis on ICDS (with respect to finances, infrastructure, training, performance) in the two economically resurgent states of Gujarat and Bihar. An exploratory study using secondary data sources (for ICDS performance) to critically analyze malnutrition status in Bihar and Gujarat. Gujarat, which was criticized for placing excessive emphasis on economic growth, has shown sharp improvement in combating malnutrition. Undernourished children declined from 73.04% in 2007 to 25.09% in 2013, with just 1.6% being severely malnourished. On the other hand, Bihar too exhibited an impressive economic growth but still languishes at bottom with malnutrition rate of 82%. A high economic growth does not have automatic immediate positive gains on malnutrition alleviation.

  4. Analysis of selected antibiotics in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Yi, Xinzhu; Segovia, Elvagris; Zhou, Zhi; Kelly, Barry C

    2014-04-18

    Emerging contaminants such as antibiotics have received recent attention as they have been detected in natural waters and health concerns over potential antibiotic resistance. With the purpose to investigate fast and high-throughput analysis, and eventually the continuous on-line analysis of emerging contaminants, this study presents results on the analysis of seven selected antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, tylosin) in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection of a small sample volume (20μL) in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Notably, direct injection of seawater in the LC-ESI-MS/MS was made possible on account of the post-column switch on the system, which allows diversion of salt-containing solutions flushed out of the column to the waste. Mean recoveries based on the isotope dilution method average 95±14% and 96±28% amongst the compounds for spiked freshwater and seawater, respectively. Linearity across six spiking levels was assessed and the response was linear (r(2)>0.99) for all compounds. Direct injection concentrations were compared for real samples to those obtained with the conventional SPE-based analysis and both techniques concurs on the presence/absence and levels of the compounds in real samples. These results suggest direct injection is a reliable method to detect antibiotics in both freshwater and seawater. Method detection limits for the direct injection technique (37pg/L to 226ng/L in freshwater, and from 16pg/to 26ng/L in seawater) are sufficient for a number of environmental applications, for example the fast screening of water samples for ecological risk assessments. In the present study of real samples, this new method allowed for example the positive detection of some compounds (e.g. lincomycin) down to the sub ng/L range. The direct injection method appears to be relatively cheaper and faster

  5. High-Throughput Fabrication of Nanocone Substrates through Polymer Injection Moulding For SERS Analysis in Microfluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viehrig, Marlitt; Matteucci, Marco; Thilsted, Anil H.

    analysis. Metal-capped silicon nanopillars, fabricated through a maskless ion etch, are state-of-the-art for on-chip SERS substrates. A dense cluster of high aspect ratio polymer nanocones was achieved by using high-throughput polymer injection moulding over a large area replicating a silicon nanopillar...... structure. Gold-capped polymer nanocones display similar SERS sensitivity as silicon nanopillars, while being easily integrable into a microfluidic chips....

  6. A detailed cost analysis of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, C.A.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hakkaart, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed information about costs of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment stages and to estimate the cost per IVF and ICSI treatment cycle and ongoing pregnancy. DESIGN: Descriptive micro-costing study. SETTING: Four Dutch IVF

  7. Solid reactors in sequential injection analysis: Recent trends in the environmental field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    -bead injection (SI-BI), used in either the jet-ring or lab-on-valve configurations, is presented as a front-end to many detectors. This article also outlines recent trends focused on exploiting SI as an automated tool for handling solid samples of environmental concern and accommodating dynamic fractionation...

  8. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  9. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin,

  10. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M.

    2017-01-01

    the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching......The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern...... is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes...

  12. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  13. Statistical Analysis of Interchange Injection Events from Over a Decade of Cassini Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, A.; Jia, X.; Liemohn, M. W.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Rymer, A. M.; Paranicas, C.; Provan, G.; Ye, S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has routinely observed interchange injection events with multiple instruments since arriving at Saturn in 2004. Interchange injection events are thought to initiate from a Rayleigh-Taylor like plasma instability sourced from Saturn's rapid rotation (period 10.8 hours) and dense plasma population outgassing primarily from Enceladus, and are the primary source of mass transport in the inner/middle magnetosphere. This dense plasma must be transported outward, and to conserve magnetic flux, inward moving flux tubes of low density, energetic (> keV) plasma from the outer reaches of the Saturnian system also occur. These inward-bound flux tubes are referred to as interchange injections. We will present a statistical evaluation of the occurrence rates of interchange injections at Saturn demonstrating seasonal dependence of interchange over the entirety of the Cassini mission's equatorial orbits between 2005 and 2016. We identify interchange events from CHarge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) H+ data using a trained and tested automated algorithm. Our event identification compares well with manual identification and previous surveys of injections by L-shell and local time (Chen and Hill, 2008, Lai et al., 2016, Kennelly et al., 2013). We find that peak rates of interchange events occur between 7 - 9 Saturn radii, in agreement with previous surveys. We also evaluate interchange by preferred local time sector and season, splitting our events into pre-equinox, equinox, and post - equinox time periods. We determine that over all seasons, nightside occurrence dominated as compared to dayside, but the preferred dayside sector shifts from pre-noon during equinox, to post-noon during post-equinox. We will further investigate seasonal dependence by presenting occurrence organized by the phase systems derived based on Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) and magnetic field perturbations (PPO).

  14. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  15. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  16. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  20. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  2. Effect of exercise referral schemes in primary care on physical activity and improving health outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A H; Fox, K R; Hillsdon, M; Anokye, N; Campbell, J L; Foster, C; Green, C; Moxham, T; Mutrie, N; Searle, J; Trueman, P; Taylor, R S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of exercise referral schemes on physical activity and health outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and ongoing trial registries up to October 2009. We also checked study references. Study selection Design: randomised controlled trials or non-randomised controlled (cluster or individual) studies published in peer review journals. Population: sedentary individuals with or without medical diagnosis. Exercise referral schemes defined as: clear referrals by primary care professionals to third party service providers to increase physical activity or exercise, physical activity or exercise programmes tailored to individuals, and initial assessment and monitoring throughout programmes. Comparators: usual care, no intervention, or alternative exercise referral schemes. Results Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, comparing exercise referral schemes with usual care (six trials), alternative physical activity intervention (two), and an exercise referral scheme plus a self determination theory intervention (one). Compared with usual care, follow-up data for exercise referral schemes showed an increased number of participants who achieved 90-150 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity per week (pooled relative risk 1.16, 95% confidence intervals 1.03 to 1.30) and a reduced level of depression (pooled standardised mean difference −0.82, −1.28 to −0.35). Evidence of a between group difference in physical activity of moderate or vigorous intensity or in other health outcomes was inconsistent at follow-up. We did not find any difference in outcomes between exercise referral schemes and the other two comparator groups. None of the included trials separately reported outcomes in individuals with specific medical diagnoses.Substantial heterogeneity in the quality and nature of the exercise referral

  3. Home-Made Micro Valve for Determining Malachite Green Dye by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Saadoon Majeed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research is included studying and designing micro flow injection system which is characterized with rapidity, simplicity, and low cost for the determination of green malachite dye. The study of flow rate of carrier stream, repeatability, dispersion coefficient, and calibration graph are conducted. It is found that the optimum conditions for the determination of mentioned dye are flow rate 4.200 mL/min, sampling rate 102 sample/h, limit of detection 0.05 ppm, linear range (0.05-18.00 ppm with linearity (R2=0.9700, RSD is 0.355, the repeatability for seven successive injections is studied for the two concentrations 5 ppm and 12 ppm, and the dispersion coefficient values are 1.73 and 1.28 at the two concentrations 2 ppm and 9 ppm respectively.

  4. Rheological and thermal analysis of the filling stage of injection moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szucs

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow conditions are different in the cavity of the injection mould from the capillary flow of a laboratory rheological instrument. An injection moulding slit die rheometer (Rheo-mould was designed with a series of slit and orifice dies. Four pressure sensors were built in the stationary side of the mould, therefore the pressure could be measured at four different places. A changeable slit die insert was designed in the moving side. The shear stress and the shear rate can be calculated from the pressure gradient and from the flow rate of the melt, respectively. Flow curves of low density polyethylene were determined using Bagley, Rabinowitsch and Mooney corrections. The results were compared to the flow curves determined by Göttfert and Haake capillary equipments. It was found that the agreement between the methods is excellent.

  5. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  6. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. PTV analysis of the entrained air into the diesel spray at high-pressure injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Naoki; Yamashita, Hayato; Mashida, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the effect of high-pressure injection on soot reduction in terms of the air entrainment into spray, the air flow surrounding the spray and set-off length indicating the distance from the nozzle tip to the flame region in diffusion diesel combustion were investigated using 300MPa injection of a multi-hole injector. The measurement of the air entrainment flow was carried out at non-evaporating condition using consecutive PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) method with a high-speed camera and a high-frequency pulse YAG laser. The set-off length was measured at highpressure and high-temperature using the combustion bomb of constant volume and optical system of shadow graph method. And the amount of air entrainment into spray until reaching set-off length in diffusion combustion was studied as a factor of soot formation.

  8. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    laminar-turbulent transition on slender bodies in a hypersonic flow at small angles of attack is caused by amplification of acoustic waves trapped in...x decreases and slowly approaches the no-blow distribution. These CFD data demonstrate that the injection strongly affects the near-wall flow...conclusion. Figure 10 shows that the spatial growth rates ( )  are maximal for mode 0 corresponding to the Mack second mode – typical for hypersonic

  10. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    . In the reported work, process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2015® are applied to a micro mechanical part to be fabricated by micro injection molding and with over-all dimensions of 12.0 × 3.0 × 0.8 mm³ and micro features (micro hole, diameter of 580 μm, and sharp radii down to 100 μm). Three...

  11. Estimation of operational parameters for a direct injection turbocharged spark ignition engine by using regression analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosun Erdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at estimating the variation of several engine control parameters within the rotational speed-load map, using regression analysis and artificial neural network techniques. Duration of injection, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas at turbine inlet, and within the catalytic converter brick were chosen as the output parameters for the models, while engine speed and brake mean effective pressure were selected as independent variables for prediction. Measurements were performed on a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline. A three-layer feed-forward structure and back-propagation algorithm was used for training the artificial neural network. It was concluded that this technique is capable of predicting engine parameters with better accuracy than linear and non-linear regression techniques.

  12. Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection at Night Considering Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    loading, considering the operation outside active feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime model is then employed for lifetime quantization based on the Palgrem Miner rule. Thereafter, considering the lifetime reduction of the PV inverter under different mission profiles with reactive power injection......The widespread adoption of mixed renewables urgently require reactive power exchange at various feed-in points of the utility grid. Photovoltaic (PV) inverters are able to provide reactive power in a decentralized manner at the grid-connection points even outside active power feed-in operation......, especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...

  13. Clinical analysis on Shengmai Injection in treating radiation pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chunxiao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Shengmai Injection in treating radiation pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis in the course of radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 96 cases were randomly and equally allocated into a treatment group and a control group, 48 cases each, All patients were treated with radical radiotherapy. The initial radiotherapy was using 10 MV X-rays at conventionally fractionated dose of 60-70 Gy. Patients of the control group were given conventional radiotherapy, and those of the treatment group were given both conventional radiotherapy and Shengmai Injection 40-60 ml by iv drip for 3-5 courses, 10 days for each course. Results: In the treatment group, the incidences of radiation pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis were 18.8%, 16.7%, respectively, whereas in the control group they were 37.5% and 35.4%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Shengmai Injection can decrease the incidences of radiation pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis

  14. Analysis of neutronics and dynamic characteristics with reactivity injection in LBE cooled sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen; Wu Yican; Jin Ming; Chen Zhibin; Bai Yunqing; Zhao Zhumin

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) has particular neutronics behaviors compared with the critical system. Prompt jump approximation point reactor kinetics equations taken external source into account have been deduced using an approach of prompt jump approximation. And the relationship between injection reactivity and power ampliation has been achieved. In addition, based on the RELAP5 code the prolong development of point reactor kinetics code used into assessing sub-critical system have been promoted. Different sub-criticality (k eff = 0.90, 0.95, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99) have been assessed in preliminary design of a type of natural circulation cooling sub-critical reactor under conditions of reactivity injection +1 β in one second. It shows that the external source prompt transient approximation method has an accurate solution after injecting reactivity around short time and has a capacity to solve the dynamic equation, and the sub-critical system has an inner stability while the deeper sub-criticality the less impact on the sub-critical system. (authors)

  15. Pathway analysis of systemic transcriptome responses to injected polystyrene particles in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Wouter J; Spaink, Herman P; Brun, Nadja R; Bosker, Thijs; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-09-01

    Microplastics are a contaminant of emergent concern in the environment, however, to date there is a limited understanding on their movement within organisms and the response of organisms. In the current study zebrafish embryos at different development stages were exposed to 700nm fluorescent polystyrene (PS) particles and the response pathway after exposure was investigated using imaging and transcriptomics. Our results show limited spreading of particles within the larvae after injection during the blastula stage. This is in contrast to injection of PS particles in the yolk of 2-day old embryos, which resulted in redistribution of the PS particles throughout the bloodstream, and accumulation in the heart region. Although injection was local, the transcriptome profiling showed strong responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to PS particle, indicating a systemic response. We found several biological pathways activated which are related to an immune response in the PS exposed zebrafish larvae. Most notably the complement system was enriched as indicated by upregulation of genes in the alternative complement pathway (e.g. cfhl3, cfhl4, cfb and c9). The fact that complement pathway is activated indicates that plastic microparticles are integrated in immunological recognition processes. This was supported by fluorescence microscopy results, in which we observed co-localisation of neutrophils and macrophages around the PS particles. Identifying these key events can be a first building block to the development of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP). These data subsequently can be used within ecological and human risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and thermal analysis of a mold used in the injection of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekiri, Nasser; Canto, Cécile; Madec, Yannick; Mousseau, Pierre; Plot, Christophe; Sarda, Alain

    2017-10-01

    In the process of injection molding of elastomers, improving the energy efficiency of the tools is a current challenge for industry in terms of energy consumption, productivity and product quality. In the rubber industry, 20% of the energy consumed by capital goods comes from heating processes; more than 50% of heat losses are linked to insufficient control and thermal insulation of Molds. The design of the tooling evolves in particular towards the reduction of the heated mass and the thermal insulation of the molds. In this paper, we present a complex tool composed, on one hand, of a multi-cavity mold designed by reducing the heated mass and equipped with independent control zones placed closest to each molding cavity and, on the other hand, of a regulated channel block (RCB) which makes it possible to limit the waste of rubber during the injection. The originality of this tool lies in thermally isolating the regulated channel block from the mold and the cavities between them in order to better control the temperature field in the material which is transformed. We present the design and the instrumentation of the experimental set-up. Experimental measurements allow us to understand the thermal of the tool and to show the thermal heterogeneities on the surface of the mold and in the various cavities. Tests of injection molding of the rubber and a thermal balance on the energy consumption of the tool are carried out.

  17. Performance Analysis of Scheduling Schemes for Femto to Macro Interference Coordination in LTE-Femtocell Deployment Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafina Destiarti Ainul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deploying femtocells that have low power level in LTE with small coverage area is an alternative solution for mobile operators to improve indoors network coverage area as well as system capacity. However deploying femtocells (HeNB that were used co-channel frequency, can be brought about interference problem to the Macro BTS (eNB. Close Subscriber Group (CSG of HeNB allows only User equipment (UE to access HeNB. HeNB is the source of interference for UE who cannot access it. Therefore it is necessary for interference coordination methods among the HeNB and eNB. The methods are ICIC (Intercell Interference Coordination and eICIC (enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination.  This paper proposed performance analysis of scheduling schemes for Femto to macro interference coordination that allocated resource in the frequency and time domain using LTE-Femtocell suburban and urban deployment scenario. Simulation result using ICIC methods can improve SINR performance 15.77 % in urban and 28.66 % in suburban, throughput performance 10.11 % in urban and 21.05 % in suburban. eICIC methods can improve SINR performance 17.44 % in urban and 31.14 % in suburban, throughput performance 19.83% in urban and 44.39 % in suburban.The result prove using eICIC method in time domain resource have better performance than using ICIC method in frequency resource. However using eICIC method in suburban deployment scenariocan increase the performance of SINR and throughput more effective than using eICIC method in urban deployment scenario.

  18. Security Analysis and Improvement of ‘a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, SK Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.’s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen’s scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1) the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2) it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3) it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4) the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5) user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP) in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature. PMID:26263401

  19. Security Analysis and Improvement of 'a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Hafizul Islam

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.'s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen's scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1 the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2 it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3 it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4 the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5 user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

    We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

  1. Development and validation of a model for CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. W.; Jung, C. J.; Min, B. J.; Yoon, H. J.; Choi, J. H.; Jang, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    In CANDU-6 reactor there are two independent reactor shutdown systems. The shutdown system no. 2(SDS2) injects the liquid poison into the moderator tank by high pressure via small holes on the 6 nozzle pipes and stops the nuclear chain reaction. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor loaded with either DUPIC or SEU fuels it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. The motivation for this work arose from the fact that the computer code package for performing this task is not transfered to Korea yet. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a commercial CFD code developed by AEA technology, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For the validation, a simulation for a generic CANDU-6 SDS2 design poison jet growth experiment was made to evaluate this model's capability against experiment. As no concentration field was measured and only the growth of the poison jet height was obtained by high speed camera, the validation was limited as such. The result showed that if one assume the jet front corresponds to 200 ppm of the poison the model succeed to

  2. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ( 85m Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H 2 O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H 2 O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770 degree C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H 2 O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol

  3. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-08-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

  4. Dual-phase gas-permeation flow-injection thermometric analysis for the determination of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S J; Tubino, M

    1998-11-01

    A flow-injection configuration based on a dual-phase gas-permeation system from a liquid donor to a gas acceptor stream with a thermistor flow-through detector is proposed for the direct analysis of the gas in the acceptor. This system was applied for the determination of carbon dioxide (in the form of carbonate) using the following chemical reaction: CO(2)(g)+2NH(3)(g)+H(2)O(g)=(NH(4))(2)CO(3)(s), with a linear response from 1x10(-3) to 50x10(-3) mol l(-1) of CO(3)(2-). Carbon dioxide was produced in the liquid donor and permeated into the gaseous acceptor stream of air/water vapor. The detection limit is 1x10(-3) mol l(-1) of carbonate, and a sampling frequency of 60 h(-1) is achieved with a relative standard deviation of 4.1% for replicate injections. The dual-phase gas-permeation flow-injection manifold, along with the membrane and phase separations, as well as the chemical reaction, provides enhanced selectivity when compared with the system employing a liquid acceptor stream, as serious interferents in this system, for instance, acetate and formate, among others, do not interfere in the proposed system.

  5. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The data analysis of the single well injection-withdraw tracer experiment using the MACRO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Yasuo; Hatanaka, Koichiro

    2001-04-01

    On understanding the radionuclide transport in natural barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, we have conducted lots of tracer experiments by the MACRO II facility with an artificially constructed heterogeneous permeability field. In order to study the scale dependence of dispersion coefficients in case of laboratory experiments, we placed the flow cell horizontally, and conducted injection-withdraw tracer experiment with a single well. We have conducted 15 cases experiments. These cases were prepared by changing a position of single well and the injection-withdraw time. At each position we have conducted 9 cases and 6 cases experiments. In this report, we evaluated the macroscopic dispersion coefficients by the fitting of analytical solution to breakthrough curve measured by the 15 cases pumping tracer experiment. Consequently, we could evaluate the dispersion coefficients for 12 cases of 15 cases. Then, we discussed the relation between a injection-withdraw flow rate and a property of heterogeneous media and dispersion coefficient. The conclusions obtained from the results of the evaluation are summarized as follows, It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front spread around a single well. We have conducted any experiments with s single well settled at two positions. In case of that there is low permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are large. In case of that there is high permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are small. In three cases that we could not evaluate because of incorrect accuracy of fitting, we have found it possible that there is some points that dispersion coefficients were strikingly small in tracer front. (author)

  7. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G; Camp, Jordan; Centrella, Joan; Boggs, William D; Buonanno, Alessandra; Boyle, Michael; Buchman, Luisa T; Chu, Tony; Brady, Patrick R; Brown, Duncan A; Bruegmann, Bernd; Cadonati, Laura; Campanelli, Manuela; Faber, Joshua; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

  8. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose; Hernandez-Santos, David; Costa-Garcia, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10 -6 M to 1 x 10 -3 M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10 -7 M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10 -5 M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  9. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Hernandez-Santos, David [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin, E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2009-04-13

    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 1 x 10{sup -3} M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10{sup -7} M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10{sup -5} M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  10. Nanodiamond-based injectable hydrogel for sustained growth factor release: Preparation, characterization and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Settimio; Acosta, Francisca; Chakravarti, Aparna R; Samanta, Saheli G; Whitlow, Jonathan; Modaresi, Saman; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Rajasingh, Johnson; Paul, Arghya

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) represent an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials that possess favorable physical and chemical properties to be used as multifunctional carriers for a variety of bioactive molecules. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new injectable ND-based nanocomposite hydrogel which facilitates a controlled release of therapeutic molecules for regenerative applications. In particular, we have formulated a thermosensitive hydrogel using gelatin, chitosan and NDs that provides a sustained release of exogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for wound healing applications. Addition of NDs improved the mechanical properties of the injectable hydrogels without affecting its thermosensitive gelation properties. Biocompatibility of the generated hydrogel was verified by in vitro assessment of apoptotic gene expressions and anti-inflammatory interleukin productions. NDs were complexed with VEGF and the inclusion of this complex in the hydrogel network enabled the sustained release of the angiogenic growth factor. These results suggest for the first time that NDs can be used to formulate a biocompatible, thermosensitive and multifunctional hydrogel platform that can function both as a filling agent to modulate hydrogel properties, as well as a delivery platform for the controlled release of bioactive molecules and growth factors. One of the major drawbacks associated with the use of conventional hydrogels as carriers of growth factors is their inability to control the release kinetics of the loaded molecules. In fact, in most cases, a burst release is inevitable leading to diminished therapeutic effects and unsuccessful therapies. As a potential solution to this issue, we hereby propose a strategy of incorporating ND complexes within an injectable hydrogel matrix. The functional groups on the surface of the NDs can establish interactions with the model growth factor VEGF and promote a prolonged release from the polymer network

  11. A novel current injection model of PWMSC for control and analysis of power system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel current injection model of Pulse width Modulation based Series Compensator (PWMSC, as new FACTS controller, for damping of low frequency oscillations. The PWMSC operates as a means of continuous control of the degree of series compensation through the variation of the duty cycle of a train of fixed frequency-pulses. The methodology is tested on the sample single machine power system including PWMSC controller by performing computer simulations for small and large distributions. MATLAB/ Simulink software package was used for the simulations.

  12. The determination of uranium(VI) by flow-injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for the direct determination of uranium(VI) in waste waters and acid leach liquors by use of a flow-injection procedure and spectrophotometric measurement with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (bromo-PADAP). The interference effects of several commonly occurring elements were studied. The calibration curve is linear over concentrations of uranium(VI) from 0,5 to 20 mg/1, and the precision obtained on a synthetic leach liquor was 0,019 (relative standard deviation). The procedure is rapid and convenient, and up to 40 samples can be analysed in an hour

  13. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Najla Dar-Odeh1, Soukaina Ryalat1, Mohammad Shayyab1, Osama Abu-Hammad21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Oral Medicine and Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Jordan; 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, JordanObjectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients.Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period.Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection.Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure.Keywords: dental records, documentation, prescriptions, local anesthesia

  14. Radiologic Analysis and Clinical Study of the Upper One-third Joint Technique for Fluoroscopically Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon; Sa, Gye Jeol; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection by the traditional technique can be challenging to perform when the joint is covered with osteophytes or is extremely narrow. To examine whether there is enough space for the needle to be advanced from the L5-S1 interspinous space to the upper one-third sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis as an alternative to fluoroscopically guided SIJ injection with the lower one-third joint technique, and to determine the feasibility of this novel technique in clinical practice. MRI analysis and observational study. An interventional pain management practice at a university hospital. We analyzed 200 axial T2-weighted MRIs between the L5 and S1 vertebrae of 100 consecutive patients. The following measurements were obtained on both sides: 1) the thickness of fat in the midline; 2) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point A) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the most medial cortex of the ilium; 3) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point B) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the L5 spinous process; 4) the distance between the SIJ and midline (Point C) on the skin, or between the SIJ and the midpoint (Point C') of the line from Point A to Point B; and 5) the angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin. The upper one-third joint technique was performed to establish the feasibility of the alternative technique in 20 patients who had unsuccessful sacroiliac intraarticular injections using the lower one-third joint technique. The mean distances from the midline to Point A and to Point B were 21.9 ± 13.7 mm and 27.8 ± 13.6 mm, respectively. The mean distance between the SIJ and Point C (or Point C') was 81.0 ± 13.3 mm. The angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin was 42.8 ± 5.1°. The success

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty. PMID:22219676

  16. Multi-spectrum and transmit-antenna switched diversity schemes for spectrum sharing systems: A performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa; Abdallah, Mohamed; Alouini, Mohamed Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    of comparison, we also derive a closed-form BER expression for the optimal selection scheme that selects the best pair in terms of the SU-Rx signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which has the disadvantage of high feedback requirements. Finally, our results are verified

  17. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…

  18. Costs, equity, efficiency and feasibility of identifying the poor in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: empirical analysis of various strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryeetey, G.C.N.O.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Spaan, E.; Agyepong, I.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the costs and evaluate the equity, efficiency and feasibility of four strategies to identify poor households for premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT), participatory wealth ranking (PWR) and

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Won Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  20. Influences of diesel pilot injection on ethanol autoignition - a numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnete, N. V.; Burnete, N.; Jurchis, B.; Iclodean, C.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the influences of the diesel pilot quantity as well as the timing on the autoignition of ethanol and the pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion process. The combustion concept presented in this paper requires the injection of a small quantity of diesel fuel in order to create the required autoignition conditions for ethanol. The combustion of the diesel droplets injected in the combustion chamber lead to the creation of high temperature locations that favour the autoignition of ethanol. However, due to the high vaporization enthalpy and the better distribution inside the combustion chamber of ethanol, the peak temperature values are reduced. Due to the lower temperature values and the high burning velocity of ethanol (combined with the fact that there are multiple ignition sources) the conditions required for the formation of nitric oxides are not achieved anymore, thus leading to significantly lower NOx emissions. This way the benefits of the Diesel engine and of the constant volume combustion are combined to enable a more efficient and environmentally friendly combustion process.