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Sample records for initial water quantification

  1. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J. S.; Mench, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at the Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  2. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)], E-mail: axh174@psu.edu; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J.S.; Mench, M.M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    2009-06-21

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  3. Quantification of water in hydrous ringwoodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia-Monique eThomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringwoodite, γ-(Mg,Fe2SiO4, in the lower 150 km of Earth’s mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth can incorporate up to 1.5-2 wt% H2O as hydroxyl defects. We present a mineral-specific IR calibration for the absolute water content in hydrous ringwoodite by combining results from Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometery (SIMS and proton-proton (pp-scattering on a suite of synthetic Mg- and Fe-bearing hydrous ringwoodites. H2O concentrations in the crystals studied here range from 0.46 to 1.7 wt% H2O (absolute methods, with the maximum H2O in the same sample giving 2.5 wt% by SIMS calibration. Anchoring our spectroscopic results to absolute H-atom concentrations from pp-scattering measurements, we report frequency-dependent integrated IR-absorption coefficients for water in ringwoodite ranging from 78180 to 158880 L mol-1cm-2, depending upon frequency of the OH absorption. We further report a linear wavenumber IR calibration for H2O quantification in hydrous ringwoodite across the Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4 solid solution, which will lead to more accurate estimations of the water content in both laboratory-grown and naturally occurring ringwoodites. Re-evaluation of the IR spectrum for a natural hydrous ringwoodite inclusion in diamond from the study of Pearson et al. (2014 indicates the crystal contains 1.43 ± 0.27 wt% H2O, thus confirming near-maximum amounts of H2O for this sample from the transition zone.

  4. Quantification of Water Flux in Vesicular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesschläger, Christof; Barta, Thomas; Siligan, Christine; Horner, Andreas

    2018-06-04

    Water transport across lipid membranes is fundamental to all forms of life and plays a major role in health and disease. However, not only typical water facilitators like aquaporins facilitate water flux, but also transporters, ion channels or receptors represent potent water pathways. The efforts directed towards a mechanistic understanding of water conductivity determinants in transmembrane proteins, the development of water flow inhibitors, and the creation of biomimetic membranes with incorporated membrane proteins or artificial water channels depend on reliable and accurate ways of quantifying water permeabilities P f . A conventional method is to subject vesicles to an osmotic gradient in a stopped-flow device: Fast recordings of scattered light intensity are converted into the time course of vesicle volume change. Even though an analytical solution accurately acquiring P f from scattered light intensities exists, approximations potentially misjudging P f by orders of magnitude are used. By means of computational and experimental data we point out that erroneous results such as that the single channel water permeability p f depends on the osmotic gradient are direct results of such approximations. Finally, we propose an empirical solution of which calculated permeability values closely match those calculated with the analytical solution in the relevant range of parameters.

  5. Voltammetric Quantification of Paraquat and Glyphosate in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Roberto Alza-Camacho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of pesticides on crops has a negative environmental impact that affects organisms, soil and water resources, essential for life. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the residual effect of these substances in water sources. A simple, affordable and accessible electrochemical method for Paraquat and Glyphosate quantification in water was developed. The study was conducted using as supporting electrolyte Britton-Robinson buffer solution, working electrode of glassy carbon, Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode, and platinum as auxiliary electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (VDP method for both compounds were validated. Linearity of the methods presented a correlation coefficient of 0.9949 and 0.9919 and the limits of detection and quantification were 130 and 190 mg/L for Paraquat and 40 and 50 mg/L for glyphosate. Comparison with the reference method showed that the electrochemical method provides superior results in quantification of analytes. Of the samples tested, a value of Paraquat was between 0,011 to 1,572 mg/L and for glyphosate it was between 0.201 to 2.777 mg/L, indicating that these compounds are present in water sources and that those may be causing serious problems to human health.

  6. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  7. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Quantification of discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations: Initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, M.; Marcos, B.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the results of cosmological N-body simulations, and the continuum theoretical models they simulate, is currently not understood in a way which allows a quantification of N dependent effects. In this first of a series of papers on this issue, we consider the quantification of such effects in the initial conditions of such simulations. A general formalism developed in [A. Gabrielli, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066131 (2004).] allows us to write down an exact expression for the power spectrum of the point distributions generated by the standard algorithm for generating such initial conditions. Expanded perturbatively in the amplitude of the input (i.e. theoretical, continuum) power spectrum, we obtain at linear order the input power spectrum, plus two terms which arise from discreteness and contribute at large wave numbers. For cosmological type power spectra, one obtains as expected, the input spectrum for wave numbers k smaller than that characteristic of the discreteness. The comparison of real space correlation properties is more subtle because the discreteness corrections are not as strongly localized in real space. For cosmological type spectra the theoretical mass variance in spheres and two-point correlation function are well approximated above a finite distance. For typical initial amplitudes this distance is a few times the interparticle distance, but it diverges as this amplitude (or, equivalently, the initial redshift of the cosmological simulation) goes to zero, at fixed particle density. We discuss briefly the physical significance of these discreteness terms in the initial conditions, in particular, with respect to the definition of the continuum limit of N-body simulations

  9. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-21

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  10. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared...... for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve....

  11. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  12. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy......% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance...... and scintillometry were on the water surface Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements Scintillometer estimates of latent heat flux were greater than eddy covariance...

  13. The Source Inversion Validation (SIV) Initiative: A Collaborative Study on Uncertainty Quantification in Earthquake Source Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. M.; Schorlemmer, D.; Page, M.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquake source inversions image the spatio-temporal rupture evolution on one or more fault planes using seismic and/or geodetic data. Such studies are critically important for earthquake seismology in general, and for advancing seismic hazard analysis in particular, as they reveal earthquake source complexity and help (i) to investigate earthquake mechanics; (ii) to develop spontaneous dynamic rupture models; (iii) to build models for generating rupture realizations for ground-motion simulations. In applications (i - iii), the underlying finite-fault source models are regarded as "data" (input information), but their uncertainties are essentially unknown. After all, source models are obtained from solving an inherently ill-posed inverse problem to which many a priori assumptions and uncertain observations are applied. The Source Inversion Validation (SIV) project is a collaborative effort to better understand the variability between rupture models for a single earthquake (as manifested in the finite-source rupture model database) and to develop robust uncertainty quantification for earthquake source inversions. The SIV project highlights the need to develop a long-standing and rigorous testing platform to examine the current state-of-the-art in earthquake source inversion, and to develop and test novel source inversion approaches. We will review the current status of the SIV project, and report the findings and conclusions of the recent workshops. We will briefly discuss several source-inversion methods, how they treat uncertainties in data, and assess the posterior model uncertainty. Case studies include initial forward-modeling tests on Green's function calculations, and inversion results for synthetic data from spontaneous dynamic crack-like strike-slip earthquake on steeply dipping fault, embedded in a layered crustal velocity-density structure.

  14. Quantification of micropollutants in some water sources in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    their waste assimilative capacity is a threat to both ecology of the ecosystems and health of the ... pesticide residues in river water and sediments from northern Tanzania. .... Pangani River Basin Water Board (PBWB). ..... release of Ni in the environment are forest fires and .... Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences.

  15. Quantification of water usage at a South African platinum processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of ..... be installed to make it easier to notice if there is a leak, or if a process .... water supply industry, 2010.

  16. Quantification of free water transport in peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Watske; Struijk, Dirk G.; Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, Marja M.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In peritoneal dialysis (PD) total net ultrafiltration (NUF) is dependent on transport through small pores and through water channels in the peritoneum. These channels are impermeable to solutes, and therefore, crystalloid osmotic-induced free water transport occurs through them. Several

  17. Quantification of the soil-water balance under different veld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly herbage production, water-use efficiency (WUE: above-ground phytomass production per unit of evapotranspiration), surface runoff and soil loss were determined on grassland in three different ecological conditions, viz. poor, moderate and good, over a four year (1995/1996 to 1998/1999) period. In addition ...

  18. Quantification of soil water evaporation using TDR-microlysimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is conventionally measured using microlysimeters by evaluating the daily change in mass. Daily removal is laborious and replacement immediately after irrigation events is impractical because of field wetness which leads to delays and an underestimation of evaporation. Irrigati...

  19. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  20. Uncertainty Quantification of Water Quality in Tamsui River in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, D.; Tsai, C.

    2017-12-01

    In Taiwan, modeling of non-point source pollution is unavoidably associated with uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to better understand water contamination in the metropolitan Taipei area, and also to provide a new analysis method for government or companies to establish related control and design measures. In this research, three methods are utilized to carry out the uncertainty analysis step by step with Mike 21, which is widely used for hydro-dynamics and water quality modeling, and the study area is focused on Tamsui river watershed. First, a sensitivity analysis is conducted which can be used to rank the order of influential parameters and variables such as Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate, Ammonia and Phosphorous. Then we use the First-order error method (FOEA) to determine the number of parameters that could significantly affect the variability of simulation results. Finally, a state-of-the-art method for uncertainty analysis called the Perturbance moment method (PMM) is applied in this research, which is more efficient than the Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS). For MCS, the calculations may become cumbersome when involving multiple uncertain parameters and variables. For PMM, three representative points are used for each random variable, and the statistical moments (e.g., mean value, standard deviation) for the output can be presented by the representative points and perturbance moments based on the parallel axis theorem. With the assumption of the independent parameters and variables, calculation time is significantly reduced for PMM as opposed to MCS for a comparable modeling accuracy.

  1. Quantification and Multi-purpose Allocation of Water Resources in a Dual-reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Y. D.

    2017-12-01

    Transboundary rivers that run through separate water management jurisdictions sometimes experience competitive water usage. Where the river has multiple existing or planned dams along its course, quantification and efficient allocation of water for such purposes as hydropower generation, irrigation for agriculture, and water supply can be a challenge. This problem is even more pronounced when large parts of the river basin are located in semi-arid regions known for water insecurity, poor crop yields from irrigation scheme failures, and human population displacement arising from water-related conflict. This study seeks to mitigate the impacts of such factors on the Kainji-Jebba dual-reservoir system located along the Niger River in Africa by seasonally quantifying and efficiently apportioning water to all stipulated uses of both dams thereby improving operational policy and long-term water security. Historical storage fluctuations (18 km3 to 5 km3) and flows into and out of both reservoirs were analyzed for relationships to such things as surrounding catchment contribution, dam operational policies, irrigation and hydropower requirements, etc. Optimum values of the aforementioned parameters were then determined by simulations based upon hydrological contributions and withdrawals and worst case scenarios of natural and anthropogenic conditions (like annual probability of reservoir depletion) affecting water availability and allocation. Finally, quantification and optimized allocation of water was done based on needs for hydropower, irrigation for agriculture, water supply, and storage evacuation for flood control. Results revealed that water supply potential increased by 69%, average agricultural yield improved by 36%, and hydropower generation increased by 54% and 66% at the upstream and downstream dams respectively. Lessons learned from this study may help provide a robust and practical means of water resources management in similar river basins and multi

  2. The quantification of instream flow rights to water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, their effects on the natural and human landscape, and public perceptions towards these issues. The Western Energy Citation Clearinghouse (WECC v.1.0), part of a suite of data and information management tools developed and managed by the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), provides resource managers with a searchable online database of citations that covers a broad spectrum of energy and landscape related topics relevant to resource managers, such as energy sources, natural and human landscape effects, and new research, methods and models. Based on the 2011 USGS Open-file Report "Abbreviated bibliography on energy development" (Montag, et al. 2011), WECC is an extensive collection of energy-related citations, as well as categorized lists of additional online resources related to oil and gas development, best practices, energy companies and Federal agencies. WECC incorporates the powerful web services of Sciencebase 2.0, the enterprise data and information platform for USGS scientists and partners, to provide secure, role-based data management features. For example, public/unauthenticated WECC users have full search and read access to the entire energy citation collection, while authenticated WLCI data stewards can manage WECC's citation collection using Sciencebase data management forms.

  3. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  4. Quantification of water penetration into concrete through cracks by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, M.; Maruyama, I.; Noguchi, T.; Iikura, H.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2009-01-01

    Improving the durability of concrete structures is one of the ways to contribute to the sustainable development of society, and it has also become a crucial issue from an environmental viewpoint. It is well known that moisture behavior in reinforced concrete is linked to phenomena such as cement hydration, volume change and cracking caused by drying shrinkage, rebar corrosion and water leakage that affect the durability of concrete. In this research, neutron radiography was applied for visualization and quantification of water penetration into concrete through cracks. It is clearly confirmed that TNR can make visible the water behavior in/near horizontal/vertical cracks and can quantify the rate of diffusion and concentration distribution of moisture with high spatial and time resolution. On detailed analysis, it is observed that water penetrates through the crack immediately after pouring and its migration speed and distribution depend on the moisture condition in the concrete.

  5. Quantification of tumour initiating effect of jute batching oil and its distillates over mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R; Kumar, S; Shukla, Y; Antony, M; Mehrotra, N K

    1985-09-30

    In order to identify the tumour initiating constituent(s) of a mineral oil, jute batching oil (JBO), used in the processing of jute fibres, it was fractionally distilled in various boiling range fractions. The latter were then subjected to in vivo assessment of their aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) inducing potential in mouse epidermis. Fractions with almost similar AHH inducing potential were regrouped and studied for their tumour initiating potential over mouse skin following two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and using 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumour promoter. It was noticed that: (1) JBO as initiator, provoked local development of benign skin tumours over mouse back; (2) fractions of JBO boiling below 335 degrees C and above 399 degrees C accounted for most of the tumour initiating potential of the oil; (3) the histological features of the tumours (i.e. benign papillomas and keratoacanthomas) initiated by these fractions were similar to those developed after being initiated with unfractionated or reconstituted JBO; (4) removal of these fractions from JBO may be attempted which could decontaminate the batch oil from most of its tumorigenic components and make it safer for industrial use.

  6. Quantification of renal allograft perfusion using arterial spin labeling MRI: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzman, Rotem S; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Martirosian, Petros; Zgoura, Panagiota; Bilk, Philip; Kröpil, Patric; Schick, Fritz; Voiculescu, Adina; Blondin, Dirk

    2010-06-01

    To quantify renal allograft perfusion in recipients with stable allograft function and acute decrease in allograft function using nonenhanced flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. Following approval of the local ethics committee, 20 renal allograft recipients were included in this study. ASL perfusion measurement and an anatomical T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) sequence were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). T2-weighted MR urography was performed in patients with suspected ureteral obstruction. Patients were assigned to three groups: group a, 6 patients with stable allograft function over the previous 4 months; group b, 7 patients with good allograft function who underwent transplantation during the previous 3 weeks; group c, 7 allograft recipients with an acute deterioration of renal function. Mean cortical perfusion values were 304.8 +/- 34.4, 296.5 +/- 44.1, and 181.9 +/- 53.4 mg/100 ml/min for groups a, b and c, respectively. Reduction in cortical perfusion in group c was statistically significant. Our results indicate that ASL is a promising technique for nonenhanced quantification of cortical perfusion of renal allografts. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of ASL for monitoring renal allograft recipients.

  7. Quantification of renal allograft perfusion using arterial spin labeling MRI: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Bilk, Philip; Kroepil, Patric; Blondin, Dirk; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Zgoura, Panagiota; Voiculescu, Adina

    2010-01-01

    To quantify renal allograft perfusion in recipients with stable allograft function and acute decrease in allograft function using nonenhanced flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-TrueFISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging. Following approval of the local ethics committee, 20 renal allograft recipients were included in this study. ASL perfusion measurement and an anatomical T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (HASTE) sequence were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). T2-weighted MR urography was performed in patients with suspected ureteral obstruction. Patients were assigned to three groups: group a, 6 patients with stable allograft function over the previous 4 months; group b, 7 patients with good allograft function who underwent transplantation during the previous 3 weeks; group c, 7 allograft recipients with an acute deterioration of renal function. Mean cortical perfusion values were 304.8 ± 34.4, 296.5 ± 44.1, and 181.9 ± 53.4 mg/100 ml/min for groups a, b and c, respectively. Reduction in cortical perfusion in group c was statistically significant. Our results indicate that ASL is a promising technique for nonenhanced quantification of cortical perfusion of renal allografts. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of ASL for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous quantification of 21 water soluble vitamin circulating forms in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisser Redeuil, Karine; Longet, Karin; Bénet, Sylvie; Munari, Caroline; Campos-Giménez, Esther

    2015-11-27

    This manuscript reports a validated analytical approach for the quantification of 21 water soluble vitamins and their main circulating forms in human plasma. Isotope dilution-based sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation using acidic methanol enriched with stable isotope labelled internal standards. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection performed by tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. Instrumental lower limits of detection and quantification reached water soluble vitamins in human plasma single donor samples. The present report provides a sensitive and reliable approach for the quantification of water soluble vitamins and main circulating forms in human plasma. In the future, the application of this analytical approach will give more confidence to provide a comprehensive assessment of water soluble vitamins nutritional status and bioavailability studies in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, quantification and typing of adenoviruses detected in river and treated drinking water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, J; Ehlers, M M; Heim, A; Grabow, W O K

    2005-01-01

    risk of infection constituted by these viruses. The risk of infection may have implications for the management of drinking water quality. This study is unique as it is the first report on the quantification and typing of HAds in treated drinking water and river water. This baseline data is necessary for the meaningful assessment of the potential risk of infection constituted by these viruses.

  10. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km 2 of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km 2 in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  11. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  12. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  13. Quantification of Humic Substances in Natural Water Using Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yan-Fang; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-12-19

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aqueous environments and plays a significant role in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical circulation. DOM is also capable of forming carcinogenic byproducts in the disinfection treatment processes of drinking water. Thus, efficient methods for DOM quantification are highly desired. In this work, a novel sensor for rapid and selective detection of humic substances (HS), a key component of DOM, based on fluorescence quenching of nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots was developed. The experimental results show that the HS detection range could be broadened to 100 mg/L with a detection limit of 0.2 mg/L. Moreover, the detection was effective within a wide pH range of 3.0 to 12.0, and the interferences of ions on the HS measurement were negligible. A good detection result for real surface water samples further validated the feasibility of the developed detection method. Furthermore, a nonradiation electron transfer mechanism for quenching the nitrogen-doped carbon-dots fluorescence by HS was elucidated. In addition, we prepared a test paper and proved its effectiveness. This work provides a new efficient method for the HS quantification than the frequently used modified Lowry method in terms of sensitivity and detection range.

  14. Neutron Time-of-Flight Quantification of Water Desorption Isotherms of Montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, Will P.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.; Aldridge, Laurence P.

    2012-01-01

    enabled us to differentiate at least two water motions during dehydration of Ca- and Na-SAz-1 (initially equilibrated at RH = 55%) by using a "controlled water loss" time-of-flight procedure. This work confirms that (a) interlayer and cationic water in dioctahedral smectites are characterized by slower...... motions than interparticle water, (b) interlayer cations influenced the dynamics of water loss, probably through its affect on clay fabric, and (c) interparticle water behaves more like bulk water. At 55% RH the Ca montmorillonite held more interparticle water, but on dehydration under controlled......The multiple energy states of water held by surfaces of a clay mineral can be effectively probed with time-of-flight and fixed elastic window neutron scattering. We used these techniques to quantitatively differentiate water types, including rotational and translational diffusions, in Ca- and Na...

  15. SCC Initiation Testing of Alloy 600 in High Temperature Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etien, Robert A.; Richey, Edward; Morton, David S.; Eager, Julie

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation tests have been conducted on Alloy 600 at temperatures from 304 to 367°C. Tests were conducted with in-situ monitored smooth tensile specimens under a constant load in hydrogenated environments. A reversing direct current electric potential drop (EPD) system was used for all of the tests to detect SCC initiation. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of stress (and strain), coolant hydrogen, and temperature on SCC initiation time. The thermal activation energy of SCC initiation was measured as 103 ± 18 kJ/mol in hydrogenated water, which is similar to the thermal activation energy for SCC growth. Results suggest that the fundamental mechanical parameter which controls SCC initiation is plastic strain not stress. SCC initiation was shown to have a different sensitivity than SCC growth to dissolved hydrogen level. Specifically, SCC initiation time appears to be relatively insensitive to hydrogen level in the nickel stability region.

  16. Quantification of surface water volume changes in the Mackenzie Delta using satellite multi-mission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Cassandra; Frappart, Frédéric; Lubac, Bertrand; Bélanger, Simon; Marieu, Vincent; Blarel, Fabien; Robinet, Arthur; Guiastrennec-Faugas, Léa

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of surface water storage in extensive floodplains and their dynamics are crucial for a better understanding of global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we present estimates of both surface water extent and storage combining multi-mission remotely sensed observations and their temporal evolution over more than 15 years in the Mackenzie Delta. The Mackenzie Delta is located in the northwest of Canada and is the second largest delta in the Arctic Ocean. The delta is frozen from October to May and the recurrent ice break-up provokes an increase in the river's flows. Thus, this phenomenon causes intensive floods along the delta every year, with dramatic environmental impacts. In this study, the dynamics of surface water extent and volume are analysed from 2000 to 2015 by combining multi-satellite information from MODIS multispectral images at 500 m spatial resolution and river stages derived from ERS-2 (1995-2003), ENVISAT (2002-2010) and SARAL (since 2013) altimetry data. The surface water extent (permanent water and flooded area) peaked in June with an area of 9600 km2 (±200 km2) on average, representing approximately 70 % of the delta's total surface. Altimetry-based water levels exhibit annual amplitudes ranging from 4 m in the downstream part to more than 10 m in the upstream part of the Mackenzie Delta. A high overall correlation between the satellite-derived and in situ water heights (R > 0.84) is found for the three altimetry missions. Finally, using altimetry-based water levels and MODIS-derived surface water extents, maps of interpolated water heights over the surface water extents are produced. Results indicate a high variability of the water height magnitude that can reach 10 m compared to the lowest water height in the upstream part of the delta during the flood peak in June. Furthermore, the total surface water volume is estimated and shows an annual variation of approximately 8.5 km3 during the whole study period, with

  17. Quantification of bisphenol A, 353-nonylphenol and their chlorinated derivatives in drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Antoine; Migeot, Virginie; Cariot, Axelle; Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Legube, Bernard; Rabouan, Sylvie

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are of major concern to public health due to their high potential for human exposure and to their demonstrated toxicity (endocrine disruptor effect). A limited number of studies have shown that BPA and NP are present in drinking water. The chlorinated derivatives that may be formed during the chlorination step in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) exhibit a higher level of estrogenic activity than their parent compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate BPA, 353NP, and their chlorinated derivative concentrations using an accurate and reproducible method of quantification. This method was applied to both surface and treated water samples from eight French DWTPs producing from surface water. Solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed in order to quantify target compounds from water samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 ng/L for BPA and chlorinated BPA and from 1.4 to 63.0 ng/L for 353NP and chlorinated 353NP. BPA and 353NP were found in most analyzed water samples, at a level ranging from 2.0 to 29.7 ng/L and from 0 to 124.9 ng/L, respectively. In most of DWTPs a decrease of BPA and 353NP was observed between surface water and treated water (36.6 to 78.9 % and 2.2 to 100.0 % for BPA and 353NP, respectively). Neither chlorinated BPA nor chlorinated 353NP was detected. Even though BPA and 353NP have been largely removed in the DWTPs studied, they have not been completely eliminated, and drinking water may consequently remain a source of human exposure.

  18. Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net, Sopheak; Delmont, Anne; Sempéré, Richard; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-05-15

    Because of their widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health, so their quantification has become a necessity. Various extraction procedures as well as gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection techniques are found as suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, PAEs are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment including ambient air, reagents, sampling equipment, and various analytical devices, that induces difficult analysis of real samples with a low PAE background. Therefore, accurate PAE analysis in environmental matrices is a challenging task. This paper reviews the extensive literature data on the techniques for PAE quantification in natural media. Sampling, sample extraction/pretreatment and detection for quantifying PAEs in different environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil) have been reviewed and compared. The concept of "green analytical chemistry" for PAE determination is also discussed. Moreover useful information about the material preparation and the procedures of quality control and quality assurance are presented to overcome the problem of sample contamination and these encountered due to matrix effects in order to avoid overestimating PAE concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of nitrate quantification techniques for in-line analysis in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Alpizar, Laura; Coy Herrera, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study are presented to determine the potential use of four techniques for the quantification of nitrates in continuous sampling: ion chromatography, ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry; one table equipment and two mini-spectrophotometers with continuous flow sample injection are used, one for measurements in the field of visible radiation and the other optimized for measurements of ultraviolet radiation absorption. Variables that are considered: reagent and accessory consumption, waste toxicity, analyte response, detection limit (LD), quantification limit (LC), linearity in the field of interest and sensitivity. Ultraviolet absorption detection spectro photometry with continuous flow sample injection is the best of the techniques for line analysis. The response has been between 0-10 mg / L linear, data recommended by WHO for the concentration of nitrates in drinking water. Low consumption of reagents and accessories is shown. This spectrophotometry without hazardous waste generated, has had LD 0.002 mg / L and LC 0.006 mg / L and an adequate sensitivity to respond rapidly to the concentration of the analyte without signal saturation. The desirable characteristics are fulfilled for an on-line analysis system. (author) [es

  20. Impact of polymeric membrane filtration of oil sands process water on organic compounds quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed M A; Kim, Eun-Sik; Alpatova, Alla; Sun, Nian; Smith, Scott; Kang, Seoktae; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between organic fractions in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and three polymeric membranes with varying hydrophilicity (nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene) at different pHs was studied to evaluate the impact of filtration on the quantification of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and naphthenic acids (NAs). Four functional groups predominated in OSPW (amine, phosphoryl, carboxyl and hydroxyl) as indicated by the linear programming method. The nylon membranes were the most hydrophilic and exhibited the lowest AEF removal at pH of 8.7. However, the adsorption of AEF on the membranes increased as the pH of OSPW decreased due to hydrophobic interactions between the membrane surfaces and the protonated molecules. The use of ultra pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) showed insignificant adsorption of NAs on the tested membranes at pH 8.7. However, 26±2.4% adsorption of NAs was observed at pH 5.3 following the protonation of NAs species. For the nylon membrane, excessive carboxylic acids in the commercial NAs caused the formation of negatively charged assisted hydrogen bonds, resulting in increased adsorption at pH 8.2 (25%) as compared to OSPW (0%). The use of membranes for filtration of soluble compounds from complex oily wastewaters before quantification analysis of AEF and NAs should be examined prior to application.

  1. A HPLC method for the quantification of butyramide and acetamide at ppb levels in hydrogeothermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracy Elias; Earl D. Mattson; Jessica E. Little

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative analytical method to determine butyramide and acetamide concentrations at the low ppb levels in geothermal waters has been developed. The analytes are concentrated in a preparation step by evaporation and analyzed using HPLC-UV. Chromatographic separation is achieved isocratically with a RP C-18 column using a 30 mM phosphate buffer solution with 5 mM heptane sulfonic acid and methanol (98:2 ratio) as the mobile phase. Absorbance is measured at 200 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) for BA and AA were 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 2.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for BA and AA were 5.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 7.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, at the detection wavelength of 200 nm. Attaining these levels of quantification better allows these amides to be used as thermally reactive tracers in low-temperature hydrogeothermal systems.

  2. Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, N.; Hughes, D.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Mvandaba, V.

    2018-06-01

    In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often inadequate in many sub-basins, necessitating the incorporation of the uncertainty related to the estimation process. This paper reports on the impact of the uncertainty related to the parameterization of the Pitman monthly model and water use data on the estimates of the water resources of the Luvuvhu, a sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin. The study reviews existing information sources associated with the quantification of water balance components and gives an update of water resources of the sub-basin. The flows generated by the model at the outlet of the basin were between 44.03 Mm3 and 45.48 Mm3 per month when incorporating +20% uncertainty to the main physical runoff generating parameters. The total predictive uncertainty of the model increased when water use data such as small farm and large reservoirs and irrigation were included. The dam capacity data was considered at an average of 62% uncertainty mainly as a result of the large differences between the available information in the national water resources database and that digitised from satellite imagery. Water used by irrigated crops was estimated with an average of about 50% uncertainty. The mean simulated monthly flows were between 38.57 Mm3 and 54.83 Mm3 after the water use uncertainty was added. However, it is expected that the uncertainty could be reduced by using higher resolution remote sensing imagery.

  3. Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W; Ko, Albert I; Stoddard, Robyn A

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden.

  5. Initial Quantification of Suspended Sediment Loads for Three Alaska North Slope Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lamb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an initial assessment of suspended sediment transport in three rivers on the Alaska North Slope. From 2011 to 2013, the Anaktuvuk (69°27′51.00′′ N, 151°10′07.00′′ W, Chandler (69°17′0.30′′ N, 151°24′16.14′′ W, and Itkillik (68°51′59.46′′ N, 150°2′24.00′′ W Rivers were monitored for a variety of hydrologic, meteorologic, and sedimentologic characteristics. Watershed response to summer precipitation events was examined for each river. Bed sediment grain-size distribution was calculated using a photographic grid technique. Mean sediment diameters were 27.1 and 41.5 mm (Samples A and B for the Chandler, 35.8 mm for the Anaktuvuk, and 65.0 mm for the Itkillik. Suspended sediment rating curves were developed for each river. Suspended sediment discharge was analyzed. In 2011 and 2013, most of the total annual suspended sediment transport occurred during spring melt and widespread rainfall events, respectively. The results show that each river reacts differently to environmental inputs such as rain and basin characteristics.

  6. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  7. Dry Juan de Fuca slab revealed by quantification of water entering Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Carton, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Water is carried by subducting slabs as a pore fluid and in structurally bound minerals, yet no comprehensive quantification of water content and how it is stored and distributed at depth within incoming plates exists for any segment of the global subduction system. Here we use controlled-source seismic data collected in 2012 as part of the Ridge-to-Trench seismic experiment to quantify the amount of pore and structurally bound water in the Juan de Fuca plate entering the Cascadia subduction zone. We use wide-angle OBS seismic data along a 400-km-long margin-parallel profile 10-15 km seaward from the Cascadia deformation front to obtain P-wave tomography models of the sediments, crust, and uppermost mantle, and effective medium theory combined with a stochastic description of crustal properties (e.g., temperature, alteration assemblages, porosity, pore aspect ratio), to analyze the pore fluid and structurally bound water reservoirs in the sediments, crust and lithospheric mantle, and their variations along the Cascadia margin. Our results demonstrate that the Juan de Fuca lower crust and mantle are much drier than at any other subducting plate, with most of the water stored in the sediments and upper crust. Previously documented, variable but limited bend faulting along the margin, which correlates with degree of plate locking, limits slab access to water, and a warm thermal structure resulting from a thick sediment cover and young plate age prevents significant serpentinization of the mantle. Our results have important implications for a number of subduction processes at Cascadia, such as: (1) the dryness of the lower crust and mantle indicates that fluids that facilitate episodic tremor and slip must be sourced from the subducted upper crust; (2) decompression rather than hydrous melting must dominate arc magmatism in northern-central Cascadia; and (3) dry subducted lower crust and mantle can explain the low levels of intermediate-depth seismicity in the Juan de

  8. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of water soluble photo-initiators of thioxanthone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Guozhen; Wang Jindi; Lin Yiqing

    1999-01-01

    Eight new photo-initiators of water-soluble thioxanthone derivatives were prepared. These compounds were identified by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis etc. The UV absorption wavelength, molar absorption coefficient and fluorescent quantum yield were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between structure and properties was discussed

  10. Synthesis of water soluble photo-initiators of thioxanthone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guozhen, Qi; Jindi, Wang; Yiqing, Lin [Inst. of Fine Chemicals ECUST, Shanghai (China)

    1999-07-01

    Eight new photo-initiators of water-soluble thioxanthone derivatives were prepared. These compounds were identified by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis etc. The UV absorption wavelength, molar absorption coefficient and fluorescent quantum yield were determined. Furthermore, the relationship between structure and properties was discussed.

  11. Quantification of the least limiting water range in an oxisol using two methodological strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrique Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The least limiting water range (LLWR has been used as an indicator of soil physical quality as it represents, in a single parameter, the soil physical properties directly linked to plant growth, with the exception of temperature. The usual procedure for obtaining the LLWR involves determination of the water retention curve (WRC and the soil resistance to penetration curve (SRC in soil samples with undisturbed structure in the laboratory. Determination of the WRC and SRC using field measurements (in situ is preferable, but requires appropriate instrumentation. The objective of this study was to determine the LLWR from the data collected for determination of WRC and SRC in situ using portable electronic instruments, and to compare those determinations with the ones made in the laboratory. Samples were taken from the 0.0-0.1 m layer of a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Oxisol. Two methods were used for quantification of the LLWR: the traditional, with measurements made in soil samples with undisturbed structure; and in situ , with measurements of water content (θ, soil water potential (Ψ, and soil resistance to penetration (SR through the use of sensors. The in situ measurements of θ, Ψ and SR were taken over a period of four days of soil drying. At the same time, samples with undisturbed structure were collected for determination of bulk density (BD. Due to the limitations of measurement of Ψ by tensiometer, additional determinations of θ were made with a psychrometer (in the laboratory at the Ψ of -1500 kPa. The results show that it is possible to determine the LLWR by the θ, Ψ and SR measurements using the suggested approach and instrumentation. The quality of fit of the SRC was similar in both strategies. In contrast, the θ and Ψ in situ measurements, associated with those measured with a psychrometer, produced a better WRC description. The estimates of the LLWR were similar in both methodological strategies. The quantification of

  12. Remote quantification of phycocyanin in potable water sources through an adaptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore P.; Li, Shuai; Hall, Bob E.; Du, Jia

    2014-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in water supply sources in both central Indiana USA (CIN) and South Australia (SA) are a cause of great concerns for toxin production and water quality deterioration. Remote sensing provides an effective approach for quick assessment of cyanobacteria through quantification of phycocyanin (PC) concentration. In total, 363 samples spanning a large variation of optically active constituents (OACs) in CIN and SA waters were collected during 24 field surveys. Concurrently, remote sensing reflectance spectra (Rrs) were measured. A partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) model, artificial neural network (ANN) and three-band model (TBM) were developed or tuned by relating the Rrs with PC concentration. Our results indicate that the PLS-ANN model outperformed the ANN and TBM with both the original spectra and simulated ESA/Sentinel-3/Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) and EO-1/Hyperion spectra. The PLS-ANN model resulted in a high coefficient of determination (R2) for CIN dataset (R2 = 0.92, R: 0.3-220.7 μg/L) and SA (R2 = 0.98, R: 0.2-13.2 μg/L). In comparison, the TBM model yielded an R2 = 0.77 and 0.94 for the CIN and SA datasets, respectively; while the ANN obtained an intermediate modeling accuracy (CIN: R2 = 0.86; SA: R2 = 0.95). Applying the simulated OLCI and Hyperion aggregated datasets, the PLS-ANN model still achieved good performance (OLCI: R2 = 0.84; Hyperion: R2 = 0.90); the TBM also presented acceptable performance for PC estimations (OLCI: R2 = 0.65, Hyperion: R2 = 0.70). Based on the results, the PLS-ANN is an effective modeling approach for the quantification of PC in productive water supplies based on its effectiveness in solving the non-linearity of PC with other OACs. Furthermore, our investigation indicates that the ratio of inorganic suspended matter (ISM) to PC concentration has close relationship to modeling relative errors (CIN: R2 = 0.81; SA: R2 = 0.92), indicating that ISM concentration exert

  13. Satellite Monitoring of Boston Harbor Water Quality: Initial Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P.; Chen, R. F.; Schaaf, C.; Pahlevan, N.; Lee, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The transformation of Boston Harbor from the "dirtiest in America" to a National Park Area is one of the most remarkable estuarine recoveries in the world. A long-term water quality dataset from 1991 to present exists in Boston Harbor due to a $3. 8 billion lawsuit requiring the harbor clean-up. This project uses discrete water sampling and underway transects with a towed vehicle coordinated with Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 to create surface maps of chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC), total suspended solids (TSS), diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd_490), and photic depth in Boston Harbor. In addition, 3 buoys have been designed, constructed, and deployed in Boston Harbor that measure Chl a and CDOM fluorescence, optical backscatter, salinity, temperature, and meteorological parameters. We are initially using summer and fall of 2015 to develop atmospheric corrections for conditions in Boston Harbor and develop algorithms for Landsat 8 data to estimate in water photic depth, TSS, Chl a, Kd_490, and CDOM. We will report on initial buoy and cruise data and show 2015 Landsat-derived distributions of water quality parameters. It is our hope that once algorithms for present Landsat imagery can be developed, historical maps of water quality can be constructed using in water data back to 1991.

  14. COGNITIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INITIAL RESPONSES DURING COOL WATER IMMERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Buoite Stella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial responses during water immersion are the first mechanisms reacting to a strong stimulation of superficial nervous cold receptors. Cold shock induces tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperventilation, and reduced end-tidal carbon dioxide fraction. These initial responses are observed immediately after the immersion, they last for about 3 min and have been also reported in water temperatures up to 25 °C. the aim of the present study was to observe cognitive and physiological functions during immersion in water at cool temperature. Oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory frequency, heart rate and expired fraction of oxygen were measured during the experiment. A code substitution test was used to evaluate executive functions and, specifically, working memory. This cognitive test was repeated consecutively 6 times, for a total duration of 5 minutes. Healthy volunteers (n = 9 performed the test twice in a random order, once in a dry thermoneutral environment and once while immersed head-out in 18 °C water. The results indicated that all the physiological parameters were increased during cool water immersion when compared with the dry thermoneutral condition (p < 0.05. Cognitive performance was reduced during the cool water immersion when compared to the control condition only during the first 2 min (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that planning the best rescue strategy could be partially impaired not only because of panic, but also because of the cold shock.

  15. Quantification of resilience to water scarcity, a dynamic measure in time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Simonovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are practical links between water resources management, climate change adaptation and sustainable development leading to reduction of water scarcity risk and re-enforcing resilience as a new development paradigm. Water scarcity, due to the global change (population growth, land use change and climate change, is of serious concern since it can cause loss of human lives and serious damage to the economy of a region. Unfortunately, in many regions of the world, water scarcity is, and will be unavoidable in the near future. As the scarcity is increasing, at the same time it erodes resilience, therefore global change has a magnifying effect on water scarcity risk. In the past, standard water resources management planning considered arrangements for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and recovery, as well as response. However, over the last ten years substantial progress has been made in establishing the role of resilience in sustainable development. Dynamic resilience is considered as a novel measure that provides for better understanding of temporal and spatial dynamics of water scarcity. In this context, a water scarcity is seen as a disturbance in a complex physical-socio-economic system. Resilience is commonly used as a measure to assess the ability of a system to respond and recover from a failure. However, the time independent static resilience without consideration of variability in space does not provide sufficient insight into system's ability to respond and recover from the failure state and was mostly used as a damage avoidance measure. This paper provides an original systems framework for quantification of resilience. The framework is based on the definition of resilience as the ability of physical and socio-economic systems to absorb disturbance while still being able to continue functioning. The disturbance depends on spatial and temporal perspectives and direct interaction between impacts of disturbance (social, health

  16. MRI measurements of water diffusion: impact of region of interest selection on ischemic quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsunar, Yelda; Koseoglu, Kutsi; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Koroshetz, Walter; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ADC heterogeneity on region of interest (ROI) measurement of isotropic and anisotropic water diffusion in acute (<12 h) cerebral infarctions. Methods and materials: Full diffusion tensor images were retrospectively analyzed in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in ischemic lesions and in the corresponding contralateral, normal appearing brain by using four ROIs for each patient. The 2x2 pixel square ROIs were placed in the center, the lateral rim and the medial rim of the infarction. In addition, the whole volume of the infarction was measured using a free hand method. Each ROI value obtained from the ischemic lesion was normalized using contralateral normal ROI values. Results: The localization of the ROIs in relation to the ischemic lesion significantly affected ADC measurement (P<0.01, using Friedman test), but not FA measurement (P=0.25). Significant differences were found between ADC values of the center of the infarction versus whole volume (P<0.01), and medial rim versus whole volume of infarction (P<0.001) with variation of relative ADC values up to 11%. The differences of absolute ADC for these groups were 22 and 23%, respectively. The lowest ADC was found in the center, followed by medial rim, lateral rim and whole volume of infarction. Conclusion: ADC quantification may provide variable results depending on ROI method. The ADC and FA values, obtained from the center of infarction tend to be lower compared to the periphery. The researchers who try to compare studies or work on ischemic quantification should be aware of these differences and effects

  17. Validated electrochemical and chromatographic quantifications of some antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical industrial waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Heba K; Abdel-Moety, Mona M; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Kawy, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-03-01

    Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Linear response for the membrane electrodes was in the concentration range of 10 -5 -10 -2  mol/L. For the PVC membrane electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 55.1, 56.5, 56.5, and 54.0 mV/decade were achieved over a pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. On the other hand, for GC electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 59.1, 58.2, 57.0, and 58.2 mV/decade were achieved over pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. In addition to assay validation to international industry standards, the fabricated electrodes were also cross-validated relative to conventional separation techniques; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry. The HPLC assay was applied in concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL, for all target analytes. The TLC-densitometry was adopted over a concentration range of 0.3-1.0 μg/band, for AMX, and 0.1-0.9 μg/band, for CPLX, NFLX, and TMP. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for quantification of the selected drugs either in pure form or waste water samples obtained from pharmaceutical plants. The actual waste water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment prior to the application of chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC-densitometry). On the other hand, the fabricated electrodes were successfully applied for quantification of the antibiotic residues in actual

  18. Method validation using weighted linear regression models for quantification of UV filters in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudia Pereira; Emídio, Elissandro Soares; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation of a method consisting of solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) filters benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl salicylate, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and octocrylene. The method validation criteria included evaluation of selectivity, analytical curve, trueness, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification. The non-weighted linear regression model has traditionally been used for calibration, but it is not necessarily the optimal model in all cases. Because the assumption of homoscedasticity was not met for the analytical data in this work, a weighted least squares linear regression was used for the calibration method. The evaluated analytical parameters were satisfactory for the analytes and showed recoveries at four fortification levels between 62% and 107%, with relative standard deviations less than 14%. The detection limits ranged from 7.6 to 24.1 ng L(-1). The proposed method was used to determine the amount of UV filters in water samples from water treatment plants in Araraquara and Jau in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 1. Theoretical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molerio Leon, LF; Fernandez Gomez, IM; Carrazana Gonzalez, J A

    2012-01-01

    This is the first of two papers presenting the basic concepts and the main results of the application of environmental Rn 222a nd Tritium in the identification and quantification of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids contamination of Cuban ground waters and their relation with sea water intrusion and/or spills of produced waters. The interpretation technique is based on the partition properties of the tracers involved and in the geochemical affinity of some major and minor constituents of the ground waters occurring beneath the exploration and production facilities of the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt. The second paper in this series discusses several cases of interaction among the fresh water aquifer, the sea, the sea water-fresh water interface and oil contamination

  20. Simultaneous quantification of acetanilide herbicides and their oxanilic and sulfonic acid metabolites in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, S A; Aga, D S; Hany, R; Müller, S R

    2000-02-15

    This paper describes a procedure for simultaneous enrichment, separation, and quantification of acetanilide herbicides and their major ionic oxanilic acid (OXA) and ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) metabolites in groundwater and surface water using Carbopack B as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) material. The analytes adsorbed on Carbopack B were eluted selectively from the solid phase in three fractions containing the parent compounds (PCs), their OXA metabolites, and their ESA metabolites, respectively. The complete separation of the three compound classes allowed the analysis of the neutral PCs (acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor) and their methylated OXA metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ESA compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The use of Carbopack B resulted in good recoveries of the polar metabolites even from large sample volumes (1 L). Absolute recoveries from spiked surface and groundwater samples ranged between 76 and 100% for the PCs, between 41 and 91% for the OXAs, and between 47 and 96% for the ESAs. The maximum standard deviation of the absolute recoveries was 12%. The method detection limits are between 1 and 8 ng/L for the PCs, between 1 and 7 ng/L for the OXAs, and between 10 and 90 ng/L for the ESAs.

  1. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, C.N.; Schrock, V.E.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model

  2. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  3. Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Kooij, Pascal J F

    2015-03-15

    For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely suitable multi element method for the identification of nanoparticles of different sizes below 100 nm and elemental composition by applying asymmetric flow field flow fraction (AF4) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is developed. A complete validation model of the quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles based on Ag and Au is presented for the most relevant aqueous matrices of tap water and domestic waste water. The samples are originated from locations in the Netherlands and it is of great interest to study the unwanted presence of Ag and Au as nanoparticle residues due to possible health and environmental risks. During method development, instability effects are observed for 60 nm and 70 nm Ag ENPs with different capping agents. These effects are studied more closely in relation to matrix effects. Besides the methodological aspects, the obtained analytical results and relevant performance characteristics (e.g. measuring range, limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, trueness, and expanded uncertainty of measurement) are determined and discussed. For the chosen aqueous matrices, the results of the performance characteristics are significantly better for Au ENPs in comparison to Ag ENPs; e.g. repeatability and reproducibility are below 10% for all Au ENPs respectively maximal 27% repeatability for larger Ag ENPs. The method is a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were

  5. Canine body composition quantification using 3 tesla fat-water MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Aliya; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Coate, Katie C; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that a whole-body fat-water MRI (FWMRI) protocol acquired at 3 Tesla combined with semi-automated image analysis techniques enables precise volume and mass quantification of adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots that agree with static scale mass and scale mass changes in the context of a longitudinal study of large-breed dogs placed on an obesogenic high-fat, high-fructose diet. Six healthy adult male dogs were scanned twice, at weeks 0 (baseline) and 4, of the dietary regiment. FWMRI-derived volumes of adipose tissue (total, visceral, and subcutaneous), lean tissue, and cortical bone were quantified using a semi-automated approach. Volumes were converted to masses using published tissue densities. FWMRI-derived total mass corresponds with scale mass with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.931 (95% confidence interval = [0.813, 0.975]), and slope and intercept values of 1.12 and -2.23 kg, respectively. Visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue masses increased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, while neither cortical bone nor lean tissue masses changed significantly. This is evidenced by a mean percent change of 70.2% for visceral, 67.0% for subcutaneous, and 67.1% for total adipose tissue. FWMRI can precisely quantify and map body composition with respect to adipose, lean, and bone tissue depots. The described approach provides a valuable tool to examine the role of distinct tissue depots in an established animal model of human metabolic disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative AGENCY... Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) or the Cooperative... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality...

  7. Quantification of trace metals in water using complexation and filter concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Japarov, Julia; Elish, Eyal; Edri, Elad; Schechter, Israel

    2010-06-15

    Various metals undergo complexation with organic reagents, resulting in colored products. In practice, their molar absorptivities allow for quantification in the ppm range. However, a proper pre-concentration of the colored complex on paper filter lowers the quantification limit to the low ppb range. In this study, several pre-concentration techniques have been examined and compared: filtering the already complexed mixture, complexation on filter, and dipping of dye-covered filter in solution. The best quantification has been based on the ratio of filter reflectance at a certain wavelength to that at zero metal concentration. The studied complex formations (Ni ions with TAN and Cd ions with PAN) involve production of nanoparticle suspensions, which are associated with complicated kinetics. The kinetics of the complexation of Ni ions with TAN has been investigated and optimum timing could be found. Kinetic optimization in regard to some interferences has also been suggested.

  8. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  9. Quantification of the interception and initial retention of radioactive contaminants deposited on pasture grass by simulated rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Frank, M.L.; Blaylock, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Simulated rain containing both soluble radionuclides and insoluble particles labeled with radionuclides was applied to pasture-type vegetation under conditions similar to those found during convective storms. The fraction of material in rain intercepted by vegetation and initially retained was determined for three sizes of insoluble polystyrene microspheres, soluble 7 Be 2+ and soluble 131 I as periodate or iodide, over a range of rainfall amounts of both moderate- and high-intensity precipitation. Values for the interception and initial retention by vegetation (interception fractions) for soluble forms of 131 I in simulated rain are much less than those for insoluble particles and the reactive cation 7 Be 2+ . The interception fraction for soluble 131 I is an inverse function of rain amount. The mass interception factor (the interception fraction normalized for biomass) of 131 I is almost solely dependent on the amount of rain. The 131 I vegetation-to-rain concentration ratio is relatively constant at approximately 2.6 ι kg -1 . For 7 Be 2+ and the insoluble particles, the interception fractions range from 0.1 to 0.6 with geometric means of approximately 0.3. For these materials there is a greater dependence on biomass than on rain amount; the geometric means of the mass interception factors for these substances range from 0.99 to 2.4 m 2 kg -1 . These results indicate that anionic 131 I is essentially removed with the water once the vegetation surface becomes saturated and that the 7 Be cation and the insoluble particles are adsorbed to or settle out on the plant surface. (Author)

  10. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Rabot, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  11. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo [University of Catania, Department of Biological, Geological and Environment Sciences, Catania (Italy); Rabot, Eva [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-15

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  12. Experimental design for TBT quantification by isotope dilution SPE-GC-ICP-MS under the European water framework directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fabbri, Barbara; Fettig, Ina; Yardin, Catherine; Del Castillo Busto, Maria Estela; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Fisicaro, Paola

    2015-03-01

    In Europe the maximum allowable concentration for tributyltin (TBT) compounds in surface water has been regulated by the water framework directive (WFD) and daughter directive that impose a limit of 0.2 ng L(-1) in whole water (as tributyltin cation). Despite the large number of different methodologies for the quantification of organotin species developed in the last two decades, standardised analytical methods at required concentration level do not exist. TBT quantification at picogram level requires efficient and accurate sample preparation and preconcentration, and maximum care to avoid blank contamination. To meet the WFD requirement, a method for the quantification of TBT in mineral water at environmental quality standard (EQS) level, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), was developed and optimised. The quantification was done using species-specific isotope dilution (SSID) followed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analytical process was optimised using a design of experiment (DOE) based on a factorial fractionary plan. The DOE allowed to evaluate 3 qualitative factors (type of stationary phase and eluent, phase mass and eluent volume, pH and analyte ethylation procedure) for a total of 13 levels studied, and a sample volume in the range of 250-1000 mL. Four different models fitting the results were defined and evaluated with statistic tools: one of them was selected and optimised to find the best procedural conditions. C18 phase was found to be the best stationary phase for SPE experiments. The 4 solvents tested with C18, the pH and ethylation conditions, the mass of the phases, the volume of the eluents and the sample volume can all be optimal, but depending on their respective combination. For that reason, the equation of the model conceived in this work is a useful decisional tool for the planning of experiments, because it can be applied to predict the TBT mass fraction recovery when the

  13. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  14. Quantification of pathogen inactivation efficacy by free chlorine disinfection of drinking water for QMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R; Stenström, T A

    2015-09-01

    To support the implementation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for managing infectious risks associated with drinking water systems, a simple modeling approach for quantifying Log10 reduction across a free chlorine disinfection contactor was developed. The study was undertaken in three stages: firstly, review of the laboratory studies published in the literature; secondly, development of a conceptual approach to apply the laboratory studies to full-scale conditions; and finally implementation of the calculations for a hypothetical case study system. The developed model explicitly accounted for variability in residence time and pathogen specific chlorine sensitivity. Survival functions were constructed for a range of pathogens relying on the upper bound of the reported data transformed to a common metric. The application of the model within a hypothetical case study demonstrated the importance of accounting for variable residence time in QMRA. While the overall Log10 reduction may appear high, small parcels of water with short residence time can compromise the overall performance of the barrier. While theoretically simple, the approach presented is of great value for undertaking an initial assessment of a full-scale disinfection contactor based on limited site-specific information.

  15. Quantification of water usage at a South African platinum processing plant

    OpenAIRE

    Haggard, EL; Sheridan, CM; Harding, KG

    2015-01-01

    The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of water quality in South Africa. Mine water requirements can be reduced with correct implementation and/ or improvement of current mine water management strategies. Any reduction in mine water requirements will reduce the demand on current water resources and hence the impact on water quality. The direct water footprint for 2 concentrators, a smelter and...

  16. Real-time three-dimensional color doppler evaluation of the flow convergence zone for quantification of mitral regurgitation: Validation experimental animal study and initial clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, Marta; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Agler, Deborah A.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pitfalls of the flow convergence (FC) method, including 2-dimensional imaging of the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the FC surface, can lead to erroneous quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). This limitation may be mitigated by the use of real-time 3D color Doppler echocardiography (CE). Our objective was to validate a real-time 3D navigation method for MR quantification. METHODS: In 12 sheep with surgically induced chronic MR, 37 different hemodynamic conditions were studied with real-time 3DCE. Using real-time 3D navigation, the radius of the largest hemispherical FC zone was located and measured. MR volume was quantified according to the FC method after observing the shape of FC in 3D space. Aortic and mitral electromagnetic flow probes and meters were balanced against each other to determine reference MR volume. As an initial clinical application study, 22 patients with chronic MR were also studied with this real-time 3DCE-FC method. Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract automated cardiac flow measurement (Toshiba Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and real-time 3D LV stroke volume were used to quantify the reference MR volume (MR volume = 3DLV stroke volume - automated cardiac flow measurement). RESULTS: In the sheep model, a good correlation and agreement was seen between MR volume by real-time 3DCE and electromagnetic (y = 0.77x + 1.48, r = 0.87, P time 3DCE-derived MR volume also showed a good correlation and agreement with the reference method (y = 0.89x - 0.38, r = 0.93, P time 3DCE can capture the entire FC image, permitting geometrical recognition of the FC zone geometry and reliable MR quantification.

  17. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  18. Direct quantification of thorium, uranium and rare earth element concentration in natural waters by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Knupp, Eliana A.N.; Auler, Lucia M.L.A.; Gomes, Luiza M.F.; Windmoeller, Claudia C.

    2011-01-01

    A direct quantification of the thorium, uranium and rare earth elements in natural water samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was evaluated with respect to selection of isotopes, detection limits, accuracy, precision, matrix effects for each isotope and spectral interferences. Accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of Spectra pure Standards (SPS-SW1 Batch 116-Norway) for the rare earth elements (REEs), thorium, uranium, scandium and yttrium. The measurements were carried out for each of the following analytical isotopes: 139 La, 140 Ce, 141 Pr, 143 Nd, 147 Sm, 151 Eu, 160 Gd, 159 Tb, 163 Dy, 165 Ho, 167 Er, 16 9Tm, 174 Yb, 175 Lu, 45 Sc, 89 Y, 232 Th and 238 U. Recovery percentage values found in these certified samples varied between 95 and 107%. The method was applied to the analysis of spring water samples collected in fountains spread throughout the historical towns of Ouro Preto, Mariana, Sabara and Diamantina in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the past these fountains played an essential and strategic role in supplying these towns with potable water. Until today this water is used by both the local population and tourists who believe in its quality. REE were quantified at levels comparable to those found in estuarine waters, which are characterized by low REE concentrations. In two fountains analyzed the concentration of REEs presented high levels and thus possible health risks for humans may not be excluded. (author)

  19. Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+ on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM, demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative B Appendix B to Part 132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes...

  1. Principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal-subordinate hierarchical multi-objective programming model of initial water rights allocation was developed based on the principle of coordinated and sustainable development of different regions and water sectors within a basin. With the precondition of strictly controlling maximum emissions rights, initial water rights were allocated between the first and the second levels of the hierarchy in order to promote fair and coordinated development across different regions of the basin and coordinated and efficient water use across different water sectors, realize the maximum comprehensive benefits to the basin, promote the unity of quantity and quality of initial water rights allocation, and eliminate water conflict across different regions and water sectors. According to interactive decision-making theory, a principal-subordinate hierarchical interactive iterative algorithm based on the satisfaction degree was developed and used to solve the initial water rights allocation model. A case study verified the validity of the model.

  2. Quantification of the impact of water as an impurity on standard physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andanson, J.-M.; Meng, X.; Traïkia, M.; Husson, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual water has a negligible impact on density of hydrophobic ionic liquids. • The density of a dry sample can be calculated from the density of a wet ionic liquid. • The viscosity of a dry sample can be calculated from the one of a wet ionic liquid. • Water can be quantified by NMR spectroscopy even in dried hydrophobic ionic liquids. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of the presence of water as impurity in ionic liquids. First, density and viscosity of five ionic liquids as well as their aqueous solutions were measured. For hydrophobic dried ionic liquids, traces of water (50 ppm) have measurable impact neither on the density nor on the viscosity values. In the concentration range studied (up to 5000 ppm), a linear evolution of the molar volume of the mixture with the mole fraction composition is observed. Practically, this allows to estimate the density of an neat ionic liquid provided (i) the water quantity and (ii) the density of the undried sample are known. This is particularly useful for hydrophilic ionic liquids that are difficult to dry. In the studied concentration range, a linear evolution of the relative viscosity was also depicted as a function of the mass fraction composition. It is thus possible to evaluate the viscosity of the pure ionic liquid knowing the water quantity and the viscosity of the undried sample. The comparison of the results obtained using two viscosimeters confirms that a Stabinger viscosimeter is appropriate to precisely measure ionic liquids viscosities. Second, NMR and IR spectroscopies were used to characterize the pure ionic liquids and their solutions with water. The sensitivity of IR spectroscopy does allow neither the quantification nor the detection of water below 1 mol%. With NMR spectroscopy, water can be quantified using either the intensity or the chemical shift of the water proton peak for mole fractions as low as 200 ppm. It is even possible to detect water in

  3. Comparative analysis of experimental methods for quantification of small amounts of oil in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Ahkami, Mehrdad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2016-01-01

    ) and the quantification of oil is then difficult. In this study, we compare four approaches to determine the volume of the collected oil fraction in core flooding effluents. The four methods are: Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...... comparison to a pre-made standard curve. Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, and liquid scintillation counting quantify only the oil fraction by comparing with a pre-made standard curve. The image analysis technique is reliable when more than 0.1 ml oil is present, whereas liquid scintillation counting...... performs well when less than 0.6 ml oil is present. Both UV/visible spectroscopy and NMR spectrometry produced high accuracy results in the entire studied range (0.006-1.1 ml). In terms of laboratory time, the liquid scintillation counting is the fastest and least user dependent, whereas the NMR...

  4. In vivo quantification of brain metabolites by 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Henriksen, O; Stubgaard, M

    1993-01-01

    in quantification of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was about 1-2 mM (6-12%). Also in vivo a good linearity between water signal and selected voxel size was seen. The same was true for the studied metabolites, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr), and choline (Cho). Calculated average...... concentrations of NAA, Cr/PCr, and Cho in the occipital lobe of the brain in five healthy volunteers were (mean +/- 1 SD) 11.6 +/- 1.3 mM, 7.6 +/- 1.4 mM, and 1.7 +/- 0.5 mM. The results indicate that the method presented offers reasonable estimation of metabolite concentrations in the brain in vivo...

  5. The green and blue water footprint of paper products: methodological considerations and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    For a hardcopy of this report, printed in the Netherlands, an estimated 200 litres of water have been used. Water is required during different stages in the production process, from growing wood to processing pulp into the final consumer product. Most of the water is consumed in the forestry stage,

  6. Quantification of the Water-Energy Nexus in Beijing City Based on Copula Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource and energy resource are intimately and highly interwoven, called ``water-energy nexus", which poses challenges for the sustainable management of water resource and energy resource. In this research, the Copula analysis method is first proposed to be applied in "water-energy nexus" field to clarify the internal relationship of water resource and energy resource, which is a favorable tool to explore the relevance among random variables. Beijing City, the capital of China, is chosen as a case study. The marginal distribution functions of water resource and energy resource are analyzed first. Then the Binary Copula function is employed to construct the joint distribution function of "water-energy nexus" to quantify the inherent relationship between water resource and energy resource. The results show that it is more appropriate to apply Lognormal distribution to establish the marginal distribution function of water resource. Meanwhile, Weibull distribution is more feasible to describe the marginal distribution function of energy resource. Furthermore, it is more suitable to adopt the Bivariate Normal Copula function to construct the joint distribution function of "water-energy nexus" in Beijing City. The findings can help to identify and quantify the "water-energy nexus". In addition, our findings can provide reasonable policy recommendations on the sustainable management of water resource and energy resource to promote regional coordinated development.

  7. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... for water filtration applications, but that further improvements are necessary before these membranes can be ... power supply, and a grounded collector. .... nanofibres so that the pore size increases and bacteria leak through ...

  8. Initial studies of submarine groundwater discharge in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, A. M.; Moore, W. S.; Joung, D. J.; Box, H.; Ho, P.; Whitmore, L. M.; Gilbert, M.; Anderson, H.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a critical component of coastal ecosystems, affecting biogeochemistry and productivity. The SGD flux and effect on the ecosystem of the Mississippi (MS) Bight has not previously been studied. We have determined Ba, δ18O of water, and Ra-isotopes, together with nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen (DO) during multiple cruises from fall 2015 to summer 2016. Water isotope distributions (δ18O) show that, although the MS River Delta bounds the western side of the Bight, nonetheless, Mobile Bay and other local rivers are the Bight's dominant freshwater sources. But elevated dissolved Ba and Ra isotopes cannot be explained by river input. Spatially, SGD in the MS Bight occurs over a wide area, with hot spots near the barrier islands (e.g., Chandeleurs, Horn and Dauphin Islands) and the mouth of Mobile Bay, probably in association with old buried river channels, or dredged ship channels. Based on their high concentrations in saline groundwaters sampled on the barrier islands, the elevated Ba and Ra in MS Bight water are likely due to SGD. In subsurface waters, long-lived Ra isotopes were negatively correlated with DO during spring and summer 2016, suggesting direct discharge of DO-depleted groundwater and/or accumulation of SGD-derived Ra and microbial DO consumption under strongly stratified conditions. Our ongoing study suggests that seasonal variability in flushing, water stratification, and SGD input play important roles in biological production and bottom water hypoxia in the MS Bight.

  9. Use of environmental isotopes in the quantification of the water budget of the nile delta Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Simpson, H.J.; Hamza, M.S.; White, J.W.C.; Nada, A.; Awad, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Expanded reuse of drainage waters for irrigation in Egypt is a central component of future agricultural planning for the country. Sources of the salinity of the drainage water discharge are often difficult to quantify with confidence. Variations of the stable environ mental isotope composition of water molecules within the irrigation network, which are quite sensitive to evaporation (but not transpiration ) and to mixing with water components other than Nile water, can provide new useful information for quantifying water budget of the Nile Delta. During the spring time of 1985, the drainage water of the Delta was enriched with deuterium and oxygen-18, only moderately above the average of the Nile. The magnitude of this enrichment for deuterium, when calibrated against heavy isotope enrichment trends for two evaporation pan experiments near Cairo at the southern apex of the Delta and Saha in the middle portion, indicates that about 6% of the original irrigation water volume was lost to evaporation through the system between Cairo and the discharge to the drainage network, compared to about 19 times that percentage lost through transpiration. Thus, the efficiency of water use by mature crops during early to mid spring time of 1965 appeared to be quite high. Drainage from the extreme edges of the Delta contained a substantial component of light isotope water suggesting significant contribution from Nile River since the completion of the High Dam. This particular remark necessitates, however, further study for quantifying these sources.1 tab., 7 fig

  10. Quantification of Water Energy Nexus for Sustainable Development at Local Level: Case Study of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S.; Tayal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interdependency between water and energy is generally transacted in trade-off mode; where either of the resource gets affected because of the other. Generally this trade-off is commonly known as water-energy nexus. Many studies have been undertaken in various parts of the world using various approaches to tease out the intricate nexus. This research has adopted a different approach to quantify the inter-dependency. The adopted approach made an attempt to tease out the nexus from demand side for both the resources. For water demand assessment PODIUM Sim model was used and for other parameters available secondary data was used. Using this approach percentage share of water for energy and energy for water was estimated. For an informed decision making and sustainable development, assessment was carried out at state level as most of the policies are made specifically for the state. The research was done for the southernmost state of India, Tamil Nadu which is a rapidly growing industrial hub. Tamil Nadu is energy and water intensive state and the analysis shows that the share of water demand from energy sector compared to water demand from other major sectors is miniscule. While, the energy demand in water sector for various processes in different sectors compared to energy demand as total has a comparable share of range 15-25%. This analysis indicated the relative risk sectors face in competition for the resource. It point outs that water sector faces fierce competition with other sectors for energy. Moreover, the results of the study has assessed that state has negative water balance, which may make access to water more energy intensive with time. But, a projection into future scenario with an assumption based on the ongoing policy program of improving irrigation efficiency was made. It provided a solution of a potential positive equilibrium which conserves both water and energy. This scenario gave promising results which indicated less of water demand from

  11. Quantification by Raman spectroscopy of the gamma radiation effects in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.M.; Santiago J, P.; Castano, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The world problem about water pollution has been confronted by traditional methods such as: chlorination, filtration, etc. In this work is presented an alternative method, which consists in to radiate different concentrations of simulated polluted water (purified water + thinner) at different gamma radiation doses. The structural changes were analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Using a 52.5 Krad dose it was possible to eliminate all the thinner chemical linkages, which appear in the Raman spectra corresponding to the 87.5/12.5 water/thinner mixture. (Author)

  12. Identification and quantification of point sources of surface water contamination in fruit culture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Werd, de H.A.E.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of pesticide concentrations in surface water by the water boards show that they have decreased less than was expected from model calculations. Possibly, the implementation of spray drift reducing techniques is overestimated in the model calculation. The impact of point sources is

  13. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nanofibre microfiltration membranes, spun by an innovative electrospinning technique, in water filtration applications. As such, this study bridges the gap between developments in electrospinning techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of ...

  14. The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives#

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-29

    Jun 29, 2009 ... ably is a key issue. Water use cannot continue to grow at current rates indefinitely ..... Hotels. 319.8. 6.11. -0.19. -22.110. Transport services. 497.11. 6.11. -0.19 .... government budget is neutral, since all the revenue that is col-.

  15. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences

  16. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  17. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  18. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Ritter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain: La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l., Taborno (1015 m a.s.l., and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.. Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/m2 of collecting surface. In La Esperanza, fog water harvesting occurred frequently, but was considerably lower than in the other two locations. However, while in Taborno fog water collection episodes were distributed throughout the period, in El Gaitero these were mainly concentrated in two periods, during autumn and winter 2012–2013. The study of the relationships between daily fog water yields and the averages of meteorological variables did not show any clear trend, but it suggested that the greater volumes of collected fog water were logically associated with higher wind speeds and lower solar radiation conditions. Fog water collection in La Esperanza and in Taborno typically occurred within a similar temperature interval (7.5–12.5 °C, while in El Gaitero the phenomenon was associated with a lower temperature range (2.5–10 °C.

  19. Legionella pneumophila: From potable water to treated greywater; quantification and removal during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanky, Marina; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Halpern, Malka; Friedler, Eran

    2015-11-15

    Greywater is an alternative water source that can help alleviate stress on depleted water resources. The main options for greywater reuse are toilet flushing and garden irrigation, both producing aerosols. For that reason transmission of inhalable pathogens like Legionella present a potential risk. To improve the understanding about Legionella in greywater, we traced the pathogen seasonally from the potable water system to the final steps of the greywater treatment in four houses in northern Israel. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in order to assess background greywater quality and to establish possible associations with Legionella. The mean concentrations of Legionella pneumophila isolated from the potable water system were 6.4×10(2) and 5.9×10(3) cfu/l in cold and hot water respectively. By amending the ISO protocol for Legionella isolation from drinking water, we succeeded in quantifying Legionella in greywater. The mean Legionella concentrations that were found in raw, treated and treated chlorinated greywater were 1.2×10(5), 2.4×10(4) and 5.7×10(3) cfu/l respectively. While Legionella counts in potable water presented a seasonal pattern with high concentrations in summer, its counts in greywater presented an almost inversed pattern. Greywater treatment resulted in 95% decrease in Legionella counts. No significant difference was found between Legionella concentrations in potable water and the treated chlorinated greywater. These findings indicate that regarding Legionella, reusing treated chlorinated greywater would exhibit a risk that is very similar to the risk associated with using potable water for the same non-potable uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilizing the fluidized bed to initiate water treatment on site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadvand, H.; Germann, G.; Gandee, J.P.; Buehler, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Escalating wastewater disposal costs coupled with enforcement of stricter regulations push industrial sites previously without water treatment to treat on site. These sites, inexperienced in water treatment, require a treatment technology that is easily installed, operated, and maintained. The aerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed incorporates biological and adsorptive technologies into a simple, cost-effective process capable of meeting strict effluent requirements. Two case studies at industrial sites illustrate the installation and operation of the fluidized bed and emphasize the ability to use the fluidized bed singularly or as an integral component of a treatment system capable of achieving treatment levels that allow surface discharge and reinjection. Attention is focused on BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes)

  1. Quantification of the Intracellular Life Time of Water Molecules to Measure Transport Rates of Human Aquaglyceroporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Madelene; Hernebring, Malin; Eriksson, Stefanie; Elbing, Karin; Geijer, Cecilia; Lasič, Samo; Dahl, Peter; Hansen, Jesper S; Topgaard, Daniel; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Orthodox aquaporins are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid diffusion of water, while aquaglyceroporins facilitate the diffusion of small uncharged molecules such as glycerol and arsenic trioxide. Aquaglyceroporins play important roles in human physiology, in particular for glycerol metabolism and arsenic detoxification. We have developed a unique system applying the strain of the yeast Pichia pastoris, where the endogenous aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins have been removed and human aquaglyceroporins AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 are recombinantly expressed enabling comparative permeability measurements between the expressed proteins. Using a newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance approach based on measurement of the intracellular life time of water, we propose that human aquaglyceroporins are poor facilitators of water and that the water transport efficiency is similar to that of passive diffusion across native cell membranes. This is distinctly different from glycerol and arsenic trioxide, where high glycerol transport efficiency was recorded.

  2. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0134] Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core..., entitled, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors,'' is...

  3. Automated quantification of surface water inundation in wetlands using optical satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Ben; Huang, Chengquan; Lang, Megan W.; Jones, John W.; Huang, Wenli; Creed, Irena F.; Carroll, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fully automated and scalable algorithm for quantifying surface water inundation in wetlands. Requiring no external training data, our algorithm estimates sub-pixel water fraction (SWF) over large areas and long time periods using Landsat data. We tested our SWF algorithm over three wetland sites across North America, including the Prairie Pothole Region, the Delmarva Peninsula and the Everglades, representing a gradient of inundation and vegetation conditions. We estimated SWF at 30-m resolution with accuracies ranging from a normalized root-mean-square-error of 0.11 to 0.19 when compared with various high-resolution ground and airborne datasets. SWF estimates were more sensitive to subtle inundated features compared to previously published surface water datasets, accurately depicting water bodies, large heterogeneously inundated surfaces, narrow water courses and canopy-covered water features. Despite this enhanced sensitivity, several sources of errors affected SWF estimates, including emergent or floating vegetation and forest canopies, shadows from topographic features, urban structures and unmasked clouds. The automated algorithm described in this article allows for the production of high temporal resolution wetland inundation data products to support a broad range of applications.

  4. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Quantification of rabbit bone metabolism (BM) before (B) and after (A) sub-therapeutic doses of (89 Sr) -Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, F.J.H.N.; Kinoshita, A.; Turco, F.P.; Moraes, F.A.; Iazigi, N.; Souza, J.F.; Trad, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Some beta emitters, such as 89 Sr, 153 Sm and 186 Re are in current use worldwide for the palliation of bone pain caused by metastases, mainly in cases of disseminated bone metastases when conventional radiotherapy has already been used to maximum dose and when pain relief does not occur with the use of current drugs. In order to quantifying the reduction of RBM after such procedures, we have studied 10 young rabbits (2.5 months old, 1.5 kg), 2 h after the intravenous injection with 150 MBq of 99 m Tc - M D P. Rabbits were counted for 30 seconds in a scintillation camera. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn in the left knee joint. The knee joint was chosen because of its high BM in young animals. Each rabbit received 1.5 MBq per kilo of 89 Sr intravenously immediately after this initial evaluation (therapeutic doses for humans are 2.0 MBq per kg). One month after, rabbits were evaluated again with 99 M T C- MDP as described before and a second ROI was drawn in the same knee joint.The means of counts observed B and A 89 Sr injection were 11, 222 and 4, 399 respectively. These means are significantly different (p <0.05) and represent a reduction of over 60% in the knee joint BM after the 89 Sr dose

  6. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in the viable but nonculturable state by quantitative PCR in water disinfected with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasola-Rodríguez, B; Orta de Velásquez, M T; Luqueño-Martínez, V G; Monje-Ramírez, I

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with gastric diseases. It may present a morphological adaptation when it is out of its natural environment, such as in water. The morphological adaptation is a coccoid form, which is a viable but non-culturable state (VNC) in which the DNA remains active and therefore infective. Due to the impossibility of culture by traditional methods in the VNC state, we developed a methodology that includes a molecular technique, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which is capable of measuring the bacteria in both forms (helical and coccoidal) and therefore is able to measure a disinfection process and to estimate the resistance of the bacteria to ozone. The methodology developed measures the efficiency of the ozone disinfection when bacteria are in a VNC state only. Bacterial culture at 9 × 10(8)CFU/mL diluted in 40 mL reaction volumes were exposed to a wide range of CT values (0.11-15 mg min/L). The results show a 3.92-log reduction when treated with 15 mg min/L. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR for the quantification and detection of H. pylori, in coccoid form, in water systems treated with an ozone disinfection process.

  7. DCE-MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma: perfusion quantification with Tofts model versus shutter-speed model--initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajamovich, Guido H; Huang, Wei; Besa, Cecilia; Li, Xin; Afzal, Aneela; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Taouli, Bachir

    2016-02-01

    To quantify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) perfusion and flow with the fast exchange regime-allowed Shutter-Speed model (SSM) compared to the Tofts model (TM). In this prospective study, 25 patients with HCC underwent DCE-MRI. ROIs were placed in liver parenchyma, portal vein, aorta and HCC lesions. Signal intensities were analyzed employing dual-input TM and SSM models. ART (arterial fraction), K (trans) (contrast agent transfer rate constant from plasma to extravascular extracellular space), ve (extravascular extracellular volume fraction), kep (contrast agent intravasation rate constant), and τi (mean intracellular water molecule lifetime) were compared between liver parenchyma and HCC, and ART, K (trans), v e and k ep were compared between models using Wilcoxon tests and limits of agreement. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed in 10 patients. ART and v e obtained with TM; ART, ve, ke and τi obtained with SSM were significantly different between liver parenchyma and HCC (p < 0.04). Parameters showed variable reproducibility (CV range 14.7-66.5% for both models). Liver K (trans) and ve; HCC ve and kep were significantly different when estimated with the two models (p < 0.03). Our results show differences when computed between the TM and the SSM. However, these differences are smaller than parameter reproducibilities and may be of limited clinical significance.

  8. Quantification of the impacts of coalmine water irrigation on the underlying aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B.; van Tonder, G. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of affected mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa, The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the last three years to supplement the groundwater monitoring programme at five different pilot sites, on both virgin soils (greenfields) and in coalmining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The research has included soil moisture measurements, collection of in situ soil moisture over time, long-term laboratory studies of the leaching and attenuation properties of different soils and the impact of irrigation on acid rock drainage processes, and in depth determination of the hydraulic properties of the subsurface at each of these sites, including falling head tests, pumping tests and point dilution tests. This has been supported by geochemical modelling of these processes to quantify the impacts. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that in the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts have been contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From this mixing ratios have been calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers.

  9. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with {sup 82}Rb positron emission tomography: clinical validation with {sup 15}O-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, John O.; Allenbach, Gilles; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Valenta, Ines; Burger, Cyrill [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, Francis R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with generator-produced {sup 82}Rb is an attractive alternative for centres without an on-site cyclotron. Our aim was to validate {sup 82}Rb-measured MBF in relation to that measured using {sup 15}O-water, as a tracer 100% of which can be extracted from the circulation even at high flow rates, in healthy control subject and patients with mild coronary artery disease (CAD). MBF was measured at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia with {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water PET in 33 participants (22 control subjects, aged 30 {+-} 13 years; 11 CAD patients without transmural infarction, aged 60 {+-} 13 years). A one-tissue compartment {sup 82}Rb model with ventricular spillover correction was used. The {sup 82}Rb flow-dependent extraction rate was derived from {sup 15}O-water measurements in a subset of 11 control subjects. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) was defined as the hyperaemic/rest MBF. Pearson's correlation r, Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LoA), and Lin's concordance correlation {rho} {sub c} (measuring both precision and accuracy) were used. Over the entire MBF range (0.66-4.7 ml/min/g), concordance was excellent for MBF (r = 0.90, [{sup 82}Rb-{sup 15}O-water] mean difference {+-} SD = 0.04 {+-} 0.66 ml/min/g, LoA = -1.26 to 1.33 ml/min/g, {rho} {sub c} = 0.88) and MFR (range 1.79-5.81, r = 0.83, mean difference = 0.14 {+-} 0.58, LoA = -0.99 to 1.28, {rho} {sub c} = 0.82). Hyperaemic MBF was reduced in CAD patients compared with the subset of 11 control subjects (2.53 {+-} 0.74 vs. 3.62 {+-} 0.68 ml/min/g, p = 0.002, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.53 {+-} 1.01 vs. 3.82 {+-} 1.21 ml/min/g, p = 0.013, for {sup 82}Rb) and this was paralleled by a lower MFR (2.65 {+-} 0.62 vs. 3.79 {+-} 0.98, p = 0.004, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.85 {+-} 0.91 vs. 3.88 {+-} 0.91, p = 0.012, for {sup 82}Rb). Myocardial perfusion was homogeneous in 1,114 of 1,122 segments (99.3%) and there were no differences in MBF among the

  10. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, C.H.; Kuo, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper attempts to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. It is reported that investigation of the signal response shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined. Laboratory data are used to demonstrate that the technique is applicable to water mixtures which contain constituents with both linear and nonlinear radiance gradients. Finally, it is concluded that instrument noise, ground-truth placement, and time lapse between remote sensor overpass and water sample operations are serious barriers to successful use of the technique

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF INSTREAM FLOW NEEDS OF A WILD AND SCENIC RIVER FOR WATER RIGHTS LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.

    1986-01-01

    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  12. Quantification of Fog Water Collection in Three Locations of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos; Guerra, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of fog water collection obtained with cylindrical fog gauges at three locations on the northern side of Tenerife island (Spain): La Esperanza (1093 m a.s.l.), Taborno (1015 m a.s.l.), and El Gaitero (1747 m a.s.l.). Concomitant meteorological variables were also measured. We show that fog precipitation was more frequent than rainfall. However, the volumes and frequency of daily fog water collection varied among the three studied sites, usually not exceeding 10–40 L d−1/...

  13. Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Schwan Hosseiny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the combined process of surface modification with electrochemical atom transfer radical polymerization (e-ATRP initiated from the surface of a modified gold-electrode in a pure aqueous solution without any additional supporting electrolyte. This approach allows for a very controlled growth of the polymer chains leading towards a steady increase in film thickness. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance displayed a highly regular increase in surface confined mass only after the addition of the pre-copper catalyst which is reduced in situ and transformed into the catalyst. Even after isolation and washing of the modified electrode surface, reinitiation was achieved with retention of the controlled electrochemical ATRP reaction. This reinitiation after isolation proves the livingness of the polymerization. This approach has interesting potential for smart thin film materials and offers also the possibility of post-modification via additional electrochemical induced reactions.

  14. Development of a Rapid Cartilage Damage Quantification Method for the Lateral Tibiofemoral Compartment Using Magnetic Resonance Images: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand and validate the cartilage damage index (CDI to detect cartilage damage in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment. We used an iterative 3-step process to develop and validate the lateral CDI: development (100 knees, testing (80 knees, and validation (100 knees. The validation set included 100 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative that was enriched to include all grades of lateral joint space narrowing (JSN, 0–3. Measurement of the CDI was rapid at 7.4 (s.d. 0.73 minutes per knee pair (baseline and follow-up of one knee. The intratester reliability is good (intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1 model = 0.86 to 0.98. At baseline, knees with greater KL grade and lateral JSN had a lower mean CDI (i.e., greater cartilage damage. Baseline lateral CDI is associated with both lateral JSW (r=0.81 to 0.85, p<0.01 and HKA (r=-0.30 to −0.33, p<0.05. The SRM is good (lateral femur SRM = −0.76; lateral tibia SRM = −0.73; lateral tibiofemoral total SRM = −0.87. The lateral tibiofemoral CDI quantification allows for rapid evaluation and is reliable and responsive, with good construct validity. It may be an efficient method to measure lateral tibiofemoral articular cartilage in large clinical and epidemiologic studies.

  15. Quantification of hydrological fluxes in irrigated lands using isotopes for improved water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Rafiq, M.; Iqbal, T.; Fazal, M.

    2012-01-01

    For the study of water percolation using stable and radioactive isotopes, two experimental plots each measuring 5m X 5m were prepared at NIAB Agriculture Farm, Faisalabad. One plot was given normal irrigation and the other was irrigated with almost double quantity of water than the first one. Study was carried out on wheat and maize crops during 2007-2010. Infiltration rates were calculated from the solute transport by advection. The infiltration rates were also calculated by the water balance approach using moisture content data obtained by neutron moisture probe and flow simulation approach using software 'HYDRUS 1D'. The moisture in the field with normal irrigation percolated up to 90 cm depth. It percolated up to 160 cm in the field with excess irrigation. Infiltration rates determined by different techniques are given. The infiltration rates varied during whole of the experiment period. The rates were highest right after irrigation and then decreased with increase in time. The maximum and minimum infiltration rates determined by different techniques are given, which shows that average infiltration rates calculated by the four methods in case of excess irrigation range between 0.4 and 0.51 cm/day and are in good agreement. Infiltration rates in case of normal irrigation were determined only by tritium and water balance approach and range between 0.21 and 0.34 cm/day. (orig./A.B.)

  16. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  17. Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n = 3) and rivers (n = 12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000 ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. -- Highlights: • A reliable method for analysing artificial sweeteners in water was validated. • Artificial sweeteners were quantified in boreal rivers and lakes. • Most concentrations were in accordance with previous European studies. • Acesulfame and saccharine concentrations were high in the most contaminated rivers. • Correlation observed between concentrations and mean water throughflow in rivers. -- High concentrations of artificial sweeteners were obtained, which indicates slow or negligible degradation of these compounds in boreal surface waters

  18. Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, A.D.; Meysman, F.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Bonnet, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Diagenetic modeling presents an interesting and robust way to understand sediment-water column processes. Here we present the application of such a model to the Day River in Northern Vietnam, a system that is subject to high levels of domestic wastewater inputs from the Hanoi metropolitan area.

  19. Hydrologic response of catchments to precipitation: Quantification of mechanical carriers and origins of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Brookfield, A. E.; Jones, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation-induced overland and groundwater flow and mixing processes are quantified to analyze the temporal (event and pre-event water) and spatial (groundwater discharge and overland runoff) origins of water entering a stream. Using a distributed-parameter control volume finite-element simulator that can simultaneously solve the fully coupled partial differential equations describing 2-D Manning and 3-D Darcian flow and advective-dispersive transport, mechanical flow (driven by hydraulic potential) and tracer-based hydrograph separation (driven by dispersive mixing as well as mechanical flow) are simulated in response to precipitation events in two cross sections oriented parallel and perpendicular to a stream. The results indicate that as precipitation becomes more intense, the subsurface mechanical flow contributions tend to become less significant relative to the total pre-event stream discharge. Hydrodynamic mixing can play an important role in enhancing pre-event tracer signals in the stream. This implies that temporally tagged chemical signals introduced into surface-subsurface flow systems from precipitation may not be strong enough to detect the changes in the subsurface flow system. It is concluded that diffusive/dispersive mixing, capillary fringe groundwater ridging, and macropore flow can influence the temporal sources of water in the stream, but any sole mechanism may not fully explain the strong pre-event water discharge. Further investigations of the influence of heterogeneity, residence time, geomorphology, and root zone processes are required to confirm the conclusions of this study.

  20. Quantification of proportions of different water sources in a mining operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2018-04-01

    The water drained in mining operations (galleries, shafts, open pits) usually comes from different sources. Evaluating the contribution of these sources is very often necessary for water management. To determine mixing ratios, a conventional mass balance is often used. However, the presence of more than two sources creates uncertainties in mass balance applications. Moreover, the composition of the end-members is not commonly known with certainty and/or can vary in space and time. In this paper, we propose a powerful tool for solving such problems and managing groundwater in mining sites based on multivariate statistical analysis. This approach was applied to the Cobre Las Cruces mining complex, the largest copper mine in Europe. There, the open pit water is a mixture of three end-members: runoff (RO), basal Miocene (Mb) and Paleozoic (PZ) groundwater. The volume of water drained from the Miocene base aquifer must be determined and compensated via artificial recharging to comply with current regulations. Through multivariate statistical analysis of samples from a regional field campaign, the compositions of PZ and Mb end-members were firstly estimated, and then used for mixing calculations at the open pit scale. The runoff end-member was directly determined from samples collected in interception trenches inside the open pit. The application of multivariate statistical methods allowed the estimation of mixing ratios for the hydrological years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Open pit water proportions have changed from 15% to 7%, 41% to 36%, and 44% to 57% for runoff, Mb and PZ end-members, respectively. An independent estimation of runoff based on the curve method yielded comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification results from an application of a new technique for human event analysis (ATHEANA) at a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Thompson, C.M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents results from the quantification of the three human failure events (HFEs) identified using the ATHEANA methodology as discussed in an earlier companion paper presented at this conference. Sections describe the quantification task, important basic events, and the results obtained from quantifying the three HFEs that were identified -- the first two of which were simulated at the Seabrook Station Simulator

  2. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  3. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  4. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... benchmarks often used for validation of deterministic water wave models. Based on numerical experiments and assumed uncertainties in boundary data, our analysis reveals that some of the known discrepancies from deterministic simulation in comparison with experimental measurements could be partially explained...

  5. Direct quantification of rare earth element concentrations in natural waters by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Collerson, Kenneth D.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2006-01-01

    A direct quadrupole ICP-MS technique has been developed for the analysis of the rare earth elements and yttrium in natural waters. The method has been validated by comparison of the results obtained for the river water reference material SLRS-4 with literature values. The detection limit of the technique was investigated by analysis of serial dilutions of SLRS-4 and revealed that single elements can be quantified at single-digit fg/g concentrations. A coherent normalised rare earth pattern was retained at concentrations two orders of magnitude below natural concentrations for SLRS-4, demonstrating the excellent inter-element accuracy and precision of the method. The technique was applied to the analysis of a diluted mid-salinity estuarine sample, which also displayed a coherent normalised rare earth element pattern, yielding the expected distinctive marine characteristics

  6. Non-destructive quantification of water gradient in sludge composting with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, F.P.; Quellec, S.; Tremier, A.; Druilhe, C.; Mariette, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sludge from a slaughter-house wastewater plant, and mixtures of bulking agent (crushed wood pallet) and sludge were studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The NMR spin-spin relaxation (T 2 ) and spin-lattice relaxation (T 1 ) signals for sludge, wet crushed wood pallet and mixtures of sludge and bulking agent were decomposed into three relaxation time components. Each relaxation time component was explained by a non-homogeneous water distribution on a microscopic length scale and by the porosity of the material. For all samples, the T 2 relaxation time value of each component was directly related to the dry matter content. The addition of wet crushed wood to sludge induced a decrease in the relaxation time, explained by water transfer between the sludge and the wood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and respirometric measurements were performed on sludge and wood mixtures. MR images of the mixtures were successfully obtained at different biodegradation states. Based on specific NMR measurements in an identified area located in the MRI cells, the results showed that grey levels of MR images reflected dry matter content. This preliminary study showed that MRI would be a powerful tool to measure water distribution in sludge and bulking agent mixtures and highlights the potential of this technique to increase the understanding of sludge composting.

  7. Quantification and characterization of putative diazotrophic bacteria from forage palm under saline water irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabiane dos Reis Antunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the density and phenotypical diversity of diazotrophic endophytic bacteria from the forage palm irrigated with different saline water depths. Opuntia stricta (IPA-200016 received five depths of saline water (L1: 80%. ETo; L2: 60%.ETo; L3: 40%; ETo; L4: 20%; ETo and, L5: 0% ETo, where ETo is the reference evapotranspiration. The roots were collected in the field, disinfected, grounded and serial diluted from 10-1 to 10-4. The total concentration of diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the most probable number method (MPN and the isolated bacteria were characterized phenotipically. The concentration of bacteria found in forage palm roots ranged from 0.36 x 104 to 109.89 104 cells per gram of root, with highest occurrence on the 60 and 80% ETo. In the dendrogram of similarity it was possible to observe the formation of 24 phenotypic groups with 100% similarity. All bacteria presented similarity superior to 40%. Among these groups, 14 are rare groups, formed by only a single bacterial isolate. In the Semi-Arid conditions, the forage palm that receives the highest amount of saline water, presents a higher density of putative nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria with high phenotypic diversity.

  8. Quantification of renal cortical blood flow using factor analysis of O-15 water dynamic PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kang Jun; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Noh, Tae Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    To obtain spatial distribution of renal factor images, input function, and regional tissue time-activity curve (TAC) from O-15 water dynamic PET images non-invasively, factor analysis (FA) was used. O-15 water dynamic PET scans were performed on 3 normal dogs (22 ∼ 29 kg) with the bolus injection of O-15 water (555 ∼ 740 Mbq). We performed FA on the masked dynamic images and obtained the pure TACs and the corresponding factor images. Microsphere experiment also was performed. 37MBq of microsphere labeled with Sc-46 was injected into the left ventricle. Arterial input functions derived from the PET images using FA were compared with the invasively derived arterial blood samples. The renal cortical blood flow using the TACs by FA was within the normal range of 1.23 ∼ 2.46 ml/min/g. In microsphere study, the renal cortical blood flow of left kidney by FA was 2.49±0.47 ml/min/g (1.81∼2.90 ml/min/g) and by microsphere was 2.52 ±0.19 ml/min/g (2.34 ∼2.68 ml/min/g). In right kidney, flow by FA was 2.02 ±0.32 ml/min/g (1.82∼2.49 ml/min/g) and by microsphere was 2.49 ±0.27 ml/min/g (2.02∼2.7). FA is a useful and robust method to extract input functions and tissue TACs from O-15 dynamic renal PET. Renal cortical blood flow can be estimated non-invasively using FA and it will be helpful for the assessment of renal functional disease

  9. Quality demonstration of analytica procedure for quantification of 134Cesium and 137Cesium in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Farias, E.E.G.; Filho, C.A.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Intercomparison programs are extremely important in attesting the metrological quality of laboratories, contributing to the improvement of the quality of the analytical procedures adopted and the validation of new analytical methodologies. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the quality of the analyzes of radionuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137 by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry in water samples of the PNI (National Intercomparison Program). Prior to the start of the analyzes, the vials containing the concentrated samples are shaken for about 10 minutes to ensure homogeneity. A 500 ml aliquot of the concentrated solution is transferred to a beaker for dilution with 1% (v / v) HNO 3 to 4 liters. After being shaken for 30 minutes, 2 liters of this diluted solution are transferred to a Marinelli vessel and then analyzed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (EGAR) using germanium Hyperpure-HPGe detectors. The results obtained are reported to the IRD for analytical performance evaluation. Based on the intercomparison rounds as of year 2011, the SEAMB/CRCN/NE (Environmental Monitoring Service of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast) participated in eight rounds of the PNI. All results were within the range of standard deviation evaluation parameter calculated by the IRD. The results obtained demonstrate the analytical capacity of the CRCN-NE for radiometric analyzes in water

  10. Letters initiating Clean Water Act 404(c) review of mining at Pebble deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correspondence between EPA and the Pebble Limited Partnership and the State of Alaska initiating review under section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act of potential adverse environmental effects associated with mining the Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska.

  11. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  12. Social benefits in the Working for Water programme as a public works initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magadlela, D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Working for Water programme is a pioneering environmental conservation initiative in that its implementation successfully combines ecological concerns and social development benefits. By addressing unemployment, skills training and empowerment...

  13. A study on the initiation of condensation-induced water hammer in a long horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan

    1992-02-01

    Condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) is the most severe and has the highest frequency among the water hammer events occurred in nuclear power plants. Among mechanisms associated with this type of water hammer, the steam and water countercurrent flow in a horizontal pipe is known as the dominant mechanism in Pressurized Water Reactors. The CIWH due to steam-water counter-flow in a long horizontal pipe has been analytically investigated with emphasis on the effect of pipe length, in order to identify the conditions necessary to initiate a water hammer and to provide stability maps describing the zone of water hammer to be avoided with the combination of filling water flowrate and pipe length. Analytical models which can be used to predict the limiting boundaries, upper and lower one, of CIWH initiation have been developed and the calculation results have been compared with the data of an actual incident occurred previously in a nuclear power plant. From the approach used in this study, boundary estimates including simple relationships between critical inlet water flowrates and pipe length-to-diameter on the CIWH initiation in a long horizontal pipe could be made, and several corrective actions to prevent water hammer recurrence could be taken. However, because of the limited understanding of the direct-contact condensation phenomena in the typical range of nuclear power plant operation, it is likely that the overall uncertainty of the analysis results will be high. Therefore, further research on this area including scaling analysis is required

  14. Escape of the martian protoatmosphere and initial water inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, N V; Lammer, H; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Stökl, A; Odert, P; Marcq, E; Dorfi, E A; Kislyakova, K G; Kulikov, Yu N; Leitzinger, M; Güdel, M

    2014-08-01

    that the timescales for H 2 O condensation and ocean formation may have been shorter compared to the atmosphere evaporation timescale, so that one can speculate that sporadically periods, where some amount of liquid water may have been present on the planet's surface. However, depending on the amount of the outgassed volatiles, because of impacts and the high XUV-driven atmospheric escape rates, such sporadically wet surface conditions may have also not lasted much longer than [Formula: see text]. After the loss of the captured hydrogen envelope and outgassed volatiles during the first 100 Myr period of the young Sun, a warmer and probably wetter period may have evolved by a combination of volcanic outgassing and impact delivered volatiles [Formula: see text] ago, when the solar XUV flux decreased to values that have been [Formula: see text] times that of today's Sun.

  15. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment... (DG), DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes... (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by January 31, 2013. Comments...

  16. Multiclass method for the quantification of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta, wastewater, and surface water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfang; Cui, Yonghui; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Chen, Dongmei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    A simple multiresidue method was developed for detecting and quantifying 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs from eight classes (β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycins, macrolides, chloramphenicols, and pleuromutilin) in livestock excreta and water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The feces samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) and edetate disodium, followed by a cleanup using solid-phase extraction with an amino cartridge. Water samples were purified with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction column. Urine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and edetate disodium. Detection of veterinary antimicrobial drugs was achieved by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. The recovery values of veterinary antimicrobial drugs in feces, urine, and water samples were 75-99, 85-110, and 85-101% and associated relative standard deviations were less than 15, 10, and 8%, respectively. The limits of quantification in feces, urine, and water samples were 0.5-1, 0.5-1, and 0.01-0.05 μg/L, respectively. This method was applied to determine real samples obtained from local farms and provides reliable quantification and identification results of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta and water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p1), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  18. Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to uncertainty quantification of a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.nielsen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [University of Idaho, Department of Computer Science, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tu, Lei [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems. Unfortunately DPRA methods introduce issues associated with combinatorial explosion of states. This paper presents a methodology to address combinatorial explosion using a Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to Dynamic Event Trees (DET), which utilize LENDIT (L – Length, E – Energy, N – Number, D – Distribution, I – Information, and T – Time) as well as a set theory to describe system, state, resource, and response (S2R2) sets to create bounding functions for the DET. The optimization of the DET in identifying high probability failure branches is extended to create a Phenomenological Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) methodology to evaluate modeling parameters important to safety of those failure branches that have a high probability of failure. The PIRT can then be used as a tool to identify and evaluate the need for experimental validation of models that have the potential to reduce risk. In order to demonstrate this methodology, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Station Blackout (SBO) case study is presented.

  19. Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to uncertainty quantification of a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Joseph; Tokuhiro, Akira; Hiromoto, Robert; Tu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems. Unfortunately DPRA methods introduce issues associated with combinatorial explosion of states. This paper presents a methodology to address combinatorial explosion using a Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to Dynamic Event Trees (DET), which utilize LENDIT (L – Length, E – Energy, N – Number, D – Distribution, I – Information, and T – Time) as well as a set theory to describe system, state, resource, and response (S2R2) sets to create bounding functions for the DET. The optimization of the DET in identifying high probability failure branches is extended to create a Phenomenological Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) methodology to evaluate modeling parameters important to safety of those failure branches that have a high probability of failure. The PIRT can then be used as a tool to identify and evaluate the need for experimental validation of models that have the potential to reduce risk. In order to demonstrate this methodology, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Station Blackout (SBO) case study is presented.

  20. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  1. Modeling Global Water Use for the 21st Century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative and Its Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Florke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Eisner, S.; Fischer, G.; Tramberend, S.; Satoh, Y.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yillia, P.; Ringler, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years, and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity conditions already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of the world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative coordinates its work with other ongoing scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

  2. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Mull

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems.

  3. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  4. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  5. Absolute quantitative proton NMR spectroscopy based on the amplitude of the local water suppression pulse. Quantification of brain water and metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E R; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    Quantification in localized proton NMR spectroscopy has been achieved by various methods in recent years. A new method for absolute quantification is described in this paper. The method simultaneously rules out problems with B1 field inhomogeneity and coil loading, utilizing a relation between th......M and [NAA] = 9.15 +/- 0.74 nM. It is concluded that the quantification method is easily applied in vivo, and that the absolute concentrations obtained are similar to results in other studies except those relying on assumptions of the concentration of an internal reference. The advantage...

  6. Single Picture Integration for Territorial Water Surveillance (SPITS): An initiative to improve situational awareness in littoral waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theil, A.; Huizing, A.; Heijningen, A.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    Single Picture Integration for Territorial Water Surveillance (SPITS) is an initiative conducted by TNO Defence, Security and Safety in which techniques to enhance the quality of the maritime surface picture are considered. Observing the environment with a suite of dissimilar sensors is considered

  7. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Oxidization and stress corrosion cracking initiation of austenitic alloys in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnamian, Y.; Li, M.; Luo, J.L.; Chen, W.X.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of austenitic alloys in pure supercritical water. Austenitic stainless steels 310S, 316L, and Inconel 625 were tested as static capsule samples at 500 o C for up to 5000 h. After that period, crack initiations were readily observed in all samples, signifying susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The microcracks in 316L stainless steel and Inconel 625 were almost intergranular, whereas transgranular microcrack initiation was observed in 310S stainless steel. (author)

  10. Cost benefit analysis of outsourcing initiatives/strategy at water utilities corporation (Botswana) / G Mogomotsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogomotsi, G

    2016-01-01

    After the Water Utilities Corporation adopted outsourcing as a policy initiative and operational directive various non-core functions were outsourced. This raises obvious questions as to why the Corporation suddenly decided to do this. Does the Corporation indeed benefit in terms of value addition from outsourced functions? Some of the pertinent questions include: To what extent did policy guidelines and operational measures govern the said outsourcing initiatives? What are the...

  11. Quantification of low fat fractions at 3T: comparison of water-fat imaging toolbox and MR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Gajdošík, M.; Trattnig, S.; Krššák, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, S1 (2016), s. 203 E-ISSN 1352-8661. [ESMRMB 2016 Congress. 29.09.2016-01.10.2016, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09086S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : MR spectroscopy * quantification of low fat fractions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  12. Multiple cracks initiation and propagation behavior of stainless steel in high temperature water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Chiba, Goro; Nakajima, Nobuo; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2001-01-01

    Environmentally assisted crack initiation behavior is greatly affected by applied stress and environmental factors, such as water temperature, contained impurities and so on. On the other hand, crack initiation behavior also influences crack propagation. A typical example of this influence can be observed as the interference effects of multiple cracks, such as the coalescence of approaching crack tips or the arrest phenomena in the relaxation zone of an adjacent crack. To understand these effects of crack initiation on crack propagation behavior is very important to predict the lifetime of components, in which quite a few cracks tend to occur. This study aimed at revealing the crack initiation behavior and the influence of this behavior on propagation. At first, to evaluate the effect of applied stress on crack initiation behavior, sensitized stainless steel was subjected to a four-point bending test in a high temperature water environment at the constant potentials of ECP +50 mV and ECP +150 mV. Secondly, a crack initiation and growth simulation model was developed, in which the interference effect of multiple cracks is evaluated by the finite element method, based on the experimental results. Using this model, the relationship between crack initiation and propagation was studied. From the model, it was revealed that the increasing number of the cracks accelerates crack propagation and reduces life. (author)

  13. Initiation and propagation of multiple cracks of stainless steel in high temperature water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Chiba, Goro; Nakajima, Nobuo; Totsuka, Nobuo [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Environmentally assisted crack initiation behavior is greatly affected by applied stress and environmental factors, such as water temperature, contained impurities and so on. Crack initiation behavior also influences crack propagation. A typical example of this influence can be observed as the interference effects of multiple cracks, such as the coalescence of approaching crack tips or the arrest phenomena in the relaxation zone of an adjacent crack. To understand these effects of crack initiation on crack propagation behavior is very important to predict the lifetime of components, in which relatively large number of cracks tend to occur. This study aimed at revealing the crack initiation behavior and the influence of this behavior on propagation. At first, to evaluate the effect of applied stress on crack initiation behavior, sensitized stainless steel was subjected to a four-point bending test in high temperature water environment at the constant potentials of +50 mV SHE and +150 mV SHE Secondly, a crack initiation and growth simulation model was developed, in which the interference effect of multiple cracks is evaluated by the finite element method, based on the experimental results. Using this model, the relationship between crack initiation and propagation was investigated, and it was revealed that the increasing number of the cracks accelerates crack propagation and reduces life. (author)

  14. Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. M. Pimblott

    2000-10-01

    OAK B188 Quarterly Progress Report on NERI Proposal No.99-0010 for the Development of an Experiment and Calculation Based Model to Describe the Effects of Radiation on Non-standard Aqueous Systems Like Those Encountered in the Advanced Light Water Reactor

  15. Predicting the initial freezing point and water activity of meat products from composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boer, E.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we predict the water activity and initial freezing point of food products (meat and fish) based on their composition. The prediction is based on thermodynamics (the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the Ross equation and an approximation of the Pitzer equation). Furthermore, we have taken

  16. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  17. Crack embryo formation before crack initiation and growth in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Koji; Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Crack growth measurements were performed in high temperature water and in air to examine the role of creep on IGSCC growth using cold rolled non-sensitized Type316(UNS S31600), TT690 alloy, MA600 alloy, and Carbon steel (STPT42). In addition, crack initiation tests were performed also in high temperature water and in air using specially designed CT specimen. The obtained major results are as follows: (1) TT690 did crack in intergranularly in hydrogenated high temperature water if material is cold worked in heavily. (2) Cold worked carbon steel also cracked in intergranularly in dearated high temperature water. (3) Intergranular crack growth was recognized on cold worked 316, TT690, MA600, and carbon steel even in air which might be crack embryo of IGSCC. (4) Simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence was observed on IGSCC in high temperature water and creep crack growth in air. This suggested that intergranular crack growth rate was determined by some thermal activated reaction. (5) Vacancy condensation was recognized at just ahead of the crack tips of IGSCC and creep crack of cold worked steel. This showed that IGSCC and creep crack growth was controlled by same mechanism. (6) Clear evidence of vacancies condensation was recognized at just beneath the surface before crack initiation. This proved that crack did initiate as the result of diffusion of vacancies in the solid. And the incubation time seems to be controlled by the required time for the condensation of vacancies to the stress concentrated zone. (7) Diffusion of subsituational atoms was also driven by stress gradient. This is the important knowledge to evaluate the SCC initiation after long term operation in LWR's. Based on the observed results, IGSCC initiation and growth mechanism were proposed considering the diffusion process of cold worked induced vacancies. (author)

  18. Effect of Residual Strain on PWSCC Initiation of Alloy 690 in Primary Water of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Woo; Eom, Ki-Hyeon; Hwang, Seong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to attempt to correlate the susceptibility to crack initiation of Alloy 690 with the levels of cold work in simulated primary water. Experiments were conducted in high-temperature water to accelerate the cracking behavior and to determine the severity of crack initiation as a function of level of cold work for Alloy 690. Cracking susceptibility was determined by measuring the crack length per unit area and crack density. SCC initiation susceptibility of Alloy 690 increased with increase of the residual strain induced by the prior cold-rolling process. The 20% cold-rolled specimen exhibited mostly IG cracks, while the 30% and 40% cold-rolled specimens revealed significant amounts of IG and TG cracks. Most cracks were observed near the smallest cross-section area of the tapered specimen, where the maximum stress was applied, indicating that the SCC initiation susceptibility was strongly dependent on the applied stress. In order to find the correlation between SCC initiation susceptibility and residual strain induced by cold work, more analyses need to be performed in terms of the crack length per unit area and the crack density, as a strong indicative for SCC initiation susceptibility

  19. Development of a MELCOR self-initialization algorithm for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.S.; Wang, S.J.; Cheng, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The MELCOR code, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is suitable for calculating source terms and simulating severe accident phenomena of nuclear power plants. Prior to simulating a severe accident transient with MELCOR, the initial steady-state conditions must be generated in advance. The current MELCOR users' manuals do not provide a self-initialization procedure; this is the reason users have to adjust the initial conditions by themselves through a trial-and-error approach. A MELCOR self-initialization algorithm for boiling water reactor plants has been developed, which eliminates the tedious trial-and-error procedures and improves the simulation accuracy. This algorithm adjusts the important plant variable such as the dome pressure, downcomer level, and core flow rate to the desired conditions automatically. It is implemented through input with control functions provided in MELCOR. The reactor power and feedwater temperature are fed as input data. The initialization work of full-power conditions of the Kuosheng nuclear power station is cited as an example. These initial conditions are generated successfully with the developed algorithm. The generated initial conditions can be stored in a restart file and used for transient analysis. The methodology in this study improves the accuracy and consistency of transient calculations. Meanwhile, the algorithm provides all MELCOR users an easy and correct method for establishing the initial conditions

  20. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The high......Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...

  1. Stakeholder Engagement for Inclusive Water Governance: “Practicing What We Preach” with the OECD Water Governance Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Akhmouch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A cursory glance at the literature on water governance reveals that stakeholder engagement has long been considered an integral part of sound governance processes. However, a closer look at the literature reveals that, beyond this general assertion, there is a lack of evidence-based assessment on how engagement processes contribute to water governance objectives. This article addresses this research gap by presenting key findings and policy guidance from a study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD on “Stakeholder Engagement for Inclusive Water Governance”. This study employed comprehensive methods, including a survey administered to 215 stakeholder groups worldwide and separately, 69 case studies of specific stakeholder engagement initiatives on water management. This article also shares the experiences and lessons that have emerged from engaging stakeholders in the OECD Water Governance Initiative—an international multi-stakeholder policy forum created in 2013 to share policy and practical experiences on water governance at different levels. We hope this research will be used to stimulate and enrich discussions about the necessary conditions for results-oriented stakeholder engagement, and to guide decision makers accordingly.

  2. Oxidization and stress corrosion cracking initiation of austenitic alloys in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnamian, Y.; Li, M.; Luo, J.L.; Chen, W.X. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Zheng, W. [Materials Technology Laboratory, NRCan, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Guzonas, D.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This study determined the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of austenitic alloys in pure supercritical water. Austenitic stainless steels 310S, 316L, and Inconel 625 were tested as static capsule samples at 500{sup o}C for up to 5000 h. After that period, crack initiations were readily observed in all samples, signifying susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The microcracks in 316L stainless steel and Inconel 625 were almost intergranular, whereas transgranular microcrack initiation was observed in 310S stainless steel. (author)

  3. Experimental study on isotope fractionation of evaporating water of different initial isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooja Devi; Jain, A.K.; Rao, M.S.; Kumar, B.

    2014-01-01

    The studies of evaporative isotopic fractionation in controlled conditions are of particular importance for understanding the mechanism of evaporation fractionation in natural conditions. We present the measurements of the average isotopic fractionation factors during the evaporation of water having different initial isotopic compositions at constant temperature. The results show that the isotopic composition of residual water become more enriched over the time and the initial isotopic composition of evaporating water has considerable effect on the average isotopic fractionation factors. The average isotopic fractionation factors in evaporation of Water A and Water B under the present experimental conditions were found to be 0.9817 ± 0.0044 and 0.9887 ± 0.0031 for oxygen and 0.9178 ± 0.0182 and 0.9437 ± 0.0169 for hydrogen, respectively. The findings of this work should lead to a better understanding and use of stable isotope techniques in isotope hydrology by using a simple technique of evaporation pan. (author)

  4. Habituation of the initial responses to cold water immersion in humans: a central or peripheral mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, M J; Eglin, C M; Golden, F S

    1998-10-15

    1. The initial respiratory and cardiac responses to cold water immersion are thought to be responsible for a significant number of open water deaths each year. Previous research has demonstrated that the magnitude of these responses can be reduced by repeated immersions in cold waterwhether the site of habituation is central or peripheral. 2. Two groups of subjects undertook two 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 C of the right-hand side of the body (R). Between these two immersions (3 whole days) the control group (n = 7) were not exposed to cold water, but the habituation group (n = 8) undertook a further six 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 C of the left-hand side of the body (L). 3. Repeated L immersions reduced (P immersion a reduction (P < 0.05) in the magnitude of the responses evoked was seen in the habituation group but not in the control group, despite both groups having identical skin temperature profiles. 4. It is concluded that the mechanisms involved in producing habituation of the initial responses are located more centrally than the peripheral receptors.

  5. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection and multivariate curve resolution for the selective and sensitive quantification of estrogens in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Rocío L; Escandar, Graciela M

    2014-07-04

    Following the green analytical chemistry principles, an efficient strategy involving second-order data provided by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD) was applied for the simultaneous determination of estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and estrone in natural water samples. After a simple pre-concentration step, LC-DAD matrix data were rapidly obtained (in less than 5 min) with a chromatographic system operating isocratically. Applying a second-order calibration algorithm based on multivariate curve resolution with alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS), successful resolution was achieved in the presence of sample constituents that strongly coelute with the analytes. The flexibility of this multivariate model allowed the quantification of the four estrogens in tap, mineral, underground and river water samples. Limits of detection in the range between 3 and 13 ng L(-1), and relative prediction errors from 2 to 11% were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on light water reactor fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident condition in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Masaaki; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Uemura, Mutsumi

    1981-05-01

    This report reviews the results of the fuel failure experiments performed in TREAT in the U.S.A. simulating Reactivity Initiated Accidents. One of the main purposes of the TREAT experiments is the study of the fuel failure behavior, and the other is the study of the molten fuel-water coolant interaction and the consequent hydrogen behavior. This report mainly shows the results of the TREAT experiments studying the fuel failure behavior in Light Water Reactor, and then it describes the fuel failure threshold and the fuel failure mechanism, considering the results of the photographic experiments of the fuel failure behavior with transparent capsules. (author)

  7. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  8. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2015-04-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence on subsequent simulations. A key challenge in model initialization is that it requires spatially distributed information on model states, groundwater levels and soil moisture, even when such data are not routinely available. Here, the impact of uncertainty in initial condition was explored across a 208 km2 catchment in Denmark using the ParFlow.CLM model. The initialization impact was assessed under two meteorological conditions (wet vs dry) using five depth to water table and soil moisture distributions obtained from various equilibrium states (thermal, root zone, discharge, saturated and unsaturated zone equilibrium) during the model spin-up. Each of these equilibrium states correspond to varying computation times to achieve stability in a particular aspect of the system state. Results identified particular sensitivity in modelled recharge and stream flow to the different initializations, but reduced sensitivity in modelled energy fluxes. Analysis also suggests that to simulate a year that is wetter than the spin-up period, an initialization based on discharge equilibrium is adequate to capture the direction and magnitude of surface water–groundwater exchanges. For a drier or hydrologically similar year to the spin-up period, an initialization based on groundwater equilibrium is required. Variability of monthly subsurface storage changes and discharge bias at the scale of a hydrological event show that the initialization impacts do not diminish as the simulations progress, highlighting the importance of robust and accurate initialization in capturing surface water–groundwater dynamics.

  9. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  10. Surfactant-adsorption-induced initial depinning behavior in evaporating water and nanofluid sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2015-05-19

    A surfactant-induced autophobic effect has been observed to initiate an intense depinning behavior at the initial stage of evaporation in both pure water and nanofluid sessile droplets. The cationic surfactant adsorbing to the negatively charged silicon wafer makes the solid surface more hydrophobic. The autophobing-induced depinning behavior, leading to an enlarged contact angle and a shortened base diameter, takes place only when the surfactant concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The initial spreading degree right before the droplet retraction, the retracting velocity of the contact line, and the duration of the initial droplet retraction are shown to depend negatively on the surfactant concentration below the cmc. An unexpected enhancement in the initial depinning has been found in the nanofluid droplets, possibly resulting from the hydrophilic interplay between the graphite nanoparticle deposition and the surfactant molecules. Such promotion of the initial depinning due to the nanoparticle deposition makes the droplet retract even at a surfactant concentration higher than the cmc (1.5 cmc). The resulting deposition formed in the presence of the depinning behavior has great enhancement for coffee-ring formation as compared to the one free of surfactant, implying that the formation of a coffee ring does not require the pinning of the contact line during the entire drying process.

  11. Warming by immersion or exercise affects initial cooling rate during subsequent cold water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Chris G; Ducharme, Michel B; Haman, François; Kenny, Glen P

    2004-11-01

    We examined the effect of prior heating, by exercise and warm-water immersion, on core cooling rates in individuals rendered mildly hypothermic by immersion in cold water. There were seven male subjects who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) seated rest for 15 min (control); 2) cycling ergometry for 15 min at 70% Vo2 peak (active warming); or 3) immersion in a circulated bath at 40 degrees C to an esophageal temperature (Tes) similar to that at the end of exercise (passive warming). Subjects were then immersed in 7 degrees C water to a Tes of 34.5 degrees C. Initial Tes cooling rates (initial approximately 6 min cooling) differed significantly among the treatment conditions (0.074 +/- 0.045, 0.129 +/- 0.076, and 0.348 +/- 0.117 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming conditions, respectively); however, secondary cooling rates (rates following initial approximately 6 min cooling to the end of immersion) were not different between treatments (average of 0.102 +/- 0.085 degrees C x min(-1)). Overall Tes cooling rates during the full immersion period differed significantly and were 0.067 +/- 0.047, 0.085 +/- 0.045, and 0.209 +/- 0.131 degrees C x min(-1) for control, active, and passive warming, respectively. These results suggest that prior warming by both active and, to a greater extent, passive warming, may predispose a person to greater heat loss and to experience a larger decline in core temperature when subsequently exposed to cold water. Thus, functional time and possibly survival time could be reduced when cold water immersion is preceded by whole-body passive warming, and to a lesser degree by active warming.

  12. EDF program on SCC initiation of cold-worked stainless steels in primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguenin, P.; Vaillant, F.; Couvant, T. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), Site des Renardieres, 77 - Moret sur loing (France); Buisse, L. [EDF UTO, 93 - Noisy-Le-Grand (France); Huguenin, P.; Crepin, J.; Duhamel, C.; Proudhon, H. [MINES ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, 91 - Evry (France); Ilevbare, G. [EPRI California (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A few cases of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) on cold-worked austenitic stainless steels in primary water have been detected in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). A previous program launched in the early 2000's identified the required conditions for SCC of cold-worked stainless steels. It was found that a high strain hardening coupled with cyclic loading favoured SCC, whereas cracking under static conditions appeared to be difficult. A propagation model was also proposed. The first available results of the present study demonstrate the strong influence of a trapezoidal cyclic loading on the creep of 304L austenitic stainless steel. While no creep was detected under a pure static loading, the creep rate was increased by a factor 102 under a trapezoidal cyclic loading. The first results of SCC initiation performed on notched specimens under a trapezoidal cyclic loading at low frequency are presented. The present study aims at developing an engineering model for IGSCC initiation of 304L, 316L and weld 308L stainless steels. The effect of the pre-straining on the SCC mechanisms is more specifically studied. Such a model will be based on (i) SCC initiation tests on notched and smooth specimens under 'trapezoidal' cyclic loading and, (ii) constant strain rate SCC initiation tests. The influence of stress level, cold-work level, strain path, surface roughness and temperature is particularly investigated. (authors)

  13. Precursor Evolution and Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Toloczko, Mychailo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Kruska, Karen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Bruemmer, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.

    2017-05-22

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either the 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  14. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khaksari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two separate liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry (MS methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide, B5, B6 (pyridoxine, B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OHD3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  15. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-04-01

    Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 6 (pyridoxine), B 7 , B 9 and B 12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D 3 , 25(OH)D 3, E and K 1 . These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  16. Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction Failure Threshold for Reactivity Initiated Accidents for Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Carl E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Kenneth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been requested by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests that have recently been performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and CABRI (French research reactor) on uranium dioxide (UO2) and mixed uranium and plutonium dioxide (MOX) fuels, and to propose pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) failure thresholds for RIA events. This report discusses how PNNL developed PCMI failure thresholds for RIA based on least squares (LSQ) regression fits to the RIA test data from cold-worked stress relief annealed (CWSRA) and recrystallized annealed (RXA) cladding alloys under pressurized water reactor (PWR) hot zero power (HZP) conditions and boiling water reactor (BWR) cold zero power (CZP) conditions.

  17. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  18. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0134] Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling....79.1, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This... emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling- water reactors (BWRs) whose licenses are issued after...

  19. Screening and Quantification of Aliphatic Primary Alkyl Corrosion Inhibitor Amines in Water Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Damon, Deidre E; Barrett, Richard M; Syed, S U; Heeren, Ron M A; Taylor, Stephen; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K

    2016-01-19

    Direct analysis and identification of long chain aliphatic primary diamine Duomeen O (n-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane), corrosion inhibitor in raw water samples taken from a large medium pressure water tube boiler plant water samples at low LODs (corrosion inhibitors in an industrial water boiler plant and other related samples in the water treatment industry. This approach was applied for the analysis of three complex water samples including feedwater, condensate water, and boiler water, all collected from large medium pressure (MP) water tube boiler plants, known to be dosed with varying amounts of polyamine and amine corrosion inhibitor components. Polyamine chemistry is widely used for example in large high pressure (HP) boilers operating in municipal waste and recycling facilities to prevent corrosion of metals. The samples used in this study are from such a facility in Coventry waste treatment facility, U.K., which has 3 × 40 tonne/hour boilers operating at 17.5 bar.

  20. Initiation of stress corrosion cracking in pre-stained austenitic stainless steels exposed to primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguenin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in primary circuits of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. However, a limited number of cases of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) has been detected in cold-worked (CW) areas of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steel components in French PWRs. A previous program launched in the early 2000's identified the required conditions for SCC of cold-worked stainless steels. It was found that a high strain hardening coupled with a cyclic loading favoured SCC. The present study aims at better understanding the role of pre-straining on crack initiation and at developing an engineering model for IGSCC initiation of 304L and 316L stainless steels in primary water. Such model will be based on SCC initiation tests on notched (not pre-cracked) specimens under 'trapezoidal' cyclic loading. The effects of pre-straining (tensile versus cold rolling), cold-work level and strain path on the SCC mechanisms are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate the dominating effect of strain path on SCC susceptibility for all pre-straining levels. Initiation can be understood as crack density and crack depth. A global criterion has been proposed to integrate both aspects of initiation. Maps of SCC initiation susceptibility have been proposed. A critical crack depth between 10 and 20 μm has been demonstrated to define transition between slow propagation and fast propagation for rolled materials. For tensile pre-straining, the critical crack depth is in the range 20 - 50 μm. Experimental evidences support the notion of a KISCC threshold, whose value depends on materials, pre-straining ant load applied. The initiation time has been found to depend on the applied loading as a function of (σ max max/YV) 11,5 . The effect of both strain path and surface hardening is indirectly taken into account via the yield stress. In this study, material differences rely on strain path effect on mechanical properties. As a result, a stress

  1. Effects of the Biofuels Initiative on Water Quality and Quantity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H. L.; Green, C. T.; Coupe, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The manifestation of the Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta was a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288 percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation, this crop type change has implications for water quantity and quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged due to concerns about sustainability. A mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta shows that increased fertilizer applications on corn will increase the extent of nitrate movement into the alluvial aquifer. Estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen from increased corn production increases the amount of nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River basin to the Gulf of Mexico by about 7 percent; increasing the Delta’s contribution to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol. All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  3. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jin

    2016-01-01

    A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH) and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol). All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs) for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  4. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  5. Numerical simulation of water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, B Y; Wu, G X, E-mail: g.wu@ucl.ac.uk [College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-08-15

    The free water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow, which is driven by the difference between the vertical fluid force and gravity, is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, and the flow to be irrotational. The velocity potential theory is adopted together with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface. The surface tension is neglected and the pressure is taken as constant on the free surface. The acceleration of the body at each time step is obtained as part of the solution. Its nonlinear mutual dependence on the fluid force is decoupled through the auxiliary function method. The free-surface breakup by body penetration and water detachment from the body are treated through numerical conditions. The slender body theory based on the zero potential assumption on the undisturbed flat free surface is adopted, through which a condition for full water exit of a spheroid is obtained. Comparison is made between the results from the slender body theory and from the fully nonlinear theory through the boundary-element method, and good agreement is found when the spheroid is slender. Extensive case studies are undertaken to investigate the effects of body density, dimensions and the initial submergence. (paper)

  6. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  7. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Kruska, Karen; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-03-27

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  8. Mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in light water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels (SSs) in light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments. The effects of key material and loading variables on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs in air and LWR environments have been evaluated. The influence of reactor coolant environments on the formation and growth of fatigue cracks in polished smooth SS specimens is discussed. The results indicate that the fatigue lives of these steels are decreased primarily by the effects of the environment on the growth of cracks <200 μm and, to a lesser extent, on enhanced growth rates of longer cracks. The fracture morphology in the specimens has been characterized. Exploratory fatigue tests were conducted to study the effects of surface micropits or minor differences in the surface oxide on fatigue crack initiation. (author)

  9. DWAF water services IAM strategy positioned within the context of other major national IAM initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available STRATEGY POSITIONED WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF OTHER MAJOR NATIONAL IAM INITIATIVES Nino Manus, Kribbs Moodley, Kevin Wall, Louis Boshoff and Arno Ottermann Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Private Bag X313, Pretoria 0001. ManusA@dwaf.gov.za P D... into one or other of 9 “solution types”, viz: • Awareness • Finance • Guidelines • HR (i.e. including ski l ls and appointments) • Legal and procurement • Monitoring and evaluation • Management and leadership • Operation and maintenance...

  10. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-02

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  11. Quantification of the impact of multifaceted initiatives intended to improve operational efficiency and the safety culture: a case study from an academic medical center radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chera, Bhishamjit S; Mazur, Lukasz; Jackson, Marianne; Taylor, Kinely; Mosaly, Prithima; Chang, Sha; Deschesne, Kathy; LaChapelle, Dana; Hoyle, Lesley; Saponaro, Patricia; Rockwell, John; Adams, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    We have systematically been incorporating several operational efficiency and safety initiatives into our academic radiation oncology clinic. We herein quantify the impact of these initiatives on prospectively collected, clinically meaningful, metrics. The data from 5 quality improvement initiatives, each focused on a specific safety/process concern in our clinic, are presented. Data was collected prospectively: operational metrics recorded before and after implementation of the initiative were compared using statistical analysis. Results from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient safety culture surveys administered during and after many of these initiatives were similarly compared. (1) Workload levels for nurses assisting with brachytherapy were high (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores >55-60, suggesting, "overwork"). Changes in work flow and procedure room layout reduced workload to more acceptable levels (NASA-TLX 50% to <10%; P < .01). To assess the overall changes in "patient safety culture," we conducted a pre- and postanalysis using the AHRQ survey. Improvements in all measured dimensions were noted. Quality improvement initiatives can be successfully implemented in an academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in operations resulting in improvement in patient safety culture. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durán, Gema M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); IRICA (Regional Institute of Applied Scientific Research), Avenida Camilo José Cela, s/n., 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Contento, Ana M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Ríos, Ángel, E-mail: Angel.Rios@uclm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L{sup −1}. The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10{sup 3} ng L{sup −1}. RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence.

  13. Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán, Gema M.; Contento, Ana M.; Ríos, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L −1 . The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10 3 ng L −1 . RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence

  14. Modeling the initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in nickel base alloys 182 and 82 of Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbi, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Nickel base welds are widely used to assemble components of the primary circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. International experience shows an increasing number of Stress Corrosion Cracks (SCC) in nickel base welds 182 and 82 which motivates the development of models predicting the time to SCC initiation for these materials. SCC involves several parameters such as materials, mechanics or environment interacting together. The goal of this study is to have a better understanding of the physical mechanisms occurring at grains boundaries involved in SCC. In-situ tensile test carried out on oxidized alloy 182 evidenced dispersion in the susceptibility to corrosion of grain boundaries. Moreover, the correlation between oxidation and cracking coupled with micro-mechanical simulations on synthetic polycrystalline aggregate, allowed to propose a cracking criterion of oxidized grain boundaries which is defined by both critical oxidation depth and local stress level. Due to the key role of intergranular oxidation in SCC and since significant dispersion is observed between grain boundaries, oxidation tests were performed on alloys 182 and 82 in order to model the intergranular oxidation kinetics as a function of chromium carbides precipitation, temperature and dissolved hydrogen content. The model allows statistical analyses and is embedded in a local initiation model. In this model, SCC initiation is defined by the cracking of the intergranular oxide and is followed by slow and fast crack growth until the crack depth reaches a given value. Simplifying assumptions were necessary to identify laws used in the SCC model. However, these laws will be useful to determine experimental conditions of future investigations carried out to improve the calibration used parameters. (author)

  15. A new approach for evaluating water hammer including the initial state of pressurization of the installation and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaless

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903 and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A novel approach is proposed including the initial state of pressurization into the governing equations and hence simplifying the calculus of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a critical reading of the deduction of the equations is done pointing out conceptual inconsistencies and proposing corrections.

  16. Quantification of the effect of water exchange in dynamic contrast MRI perfusion measurements in the brain and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Rosenbaum, S; Fritz-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial and brain perfusion when using exogenous contrast agents (CAs) such as gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and MRI is affected by the diffusion of water between compartments. This water exchange may have an impact on signal enhancement, or, equivalently, on the longitudinal...... exchange can have a significant effect on perfusion estimation (F) in the brain when using Gd-DTPA, where it acts as an intravascular contrast agent....

  17. Classification of cassava starch films by physicochemical properties and water vapor permeability quantification by FTIR and PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, C M; Teófilo, R F; Sabino, L; Ferreira, M M C; Cereda, M P

    2007-05-01

    Cassava starches are widely used in the production of biodegradable films, but their resistance to humidity migration is very low. In this work, commercial cassava starch films were studied and classified according to their physicochemical properties. A nondestructive method for water vapor permeability determination, which combines with infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration, is also presented. The following commercial cassava starches were studied: pregelatinized (amidomax 3550), carboxymethylated starch (CMA) of low and high viscosities, and esterified starches. To make the films, 2 different starch concentrations were evaluated, consisting of water suspensions with 3% and 5% starch. The filmogenic solutions were dried and characterized for their thickness, grammage, water vapor permeability, water activity, tensile strength (deformation force), water solubility, and puncture strength (deformation). The minimum thicknesses were 0.5 to 0.6 mm in pregelatinized starch films. The results were treated by means of the following chemometric methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. PCA analysis on the physicochemical properties of the films showed that the differences in concentration of the dried material (3% and 5% starch) and also in the type of starch modification were mainly related to the following properties: permeability, solubility, and thickness. IR spectra collected in the region of 4000 to 600 cm(-1) were used to build a PLS model with good predictive power for water vapor permeability determination, with mean relative errors of 10.0% for cross-validation and 7.8% for the prediction set.

  18. Detection and quantification of classic and emerging viruses by skimmed-milk flocculation and PCR in river water from two geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgua, Byron; Fumian, Tulio; Rusiñol, Marta; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Mbayed, Viviana A; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Miagostovich, Marize; Girones, Rosina

    2013-05-15

    Molecular techniques and virus concentration methods have shown that previously unknown viruses are shed by humans and animals, and may be transmitted by sewage-contaminated water. In the present study, 10-L river-water samples from urban areas in Barcelona, Spain and Rio Janeiro, Brazil, have been analyzed to evaluate the viral dissemination of human viruses, validating also a low-cost concentration method for virus quantification in fresh water. Three viral groups were analyzed: (i) recently reported viruses, klassevirus (KV), asfarvirus-like virus (ASFLV), and the polyomaviruses Merkel cell (MCPyV), KI (KIPyV) and WU (WUPyV); (ii) the gastroenteritis agents noroviruses (NoV) and rotaviruses (RV); and (iii) the human fecal viral indicators in water, human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV). Virus detection was based on nested and quantitative PCR assays. For KV and ASFLV, nested PCR assays were developed for the present study. The method applied for virus concentration in fresh water samples is a one-step procedure based on a skimmed-milk flocculation procedure described previously for seawater. Using spiked river water samples, inter- and intra-laboratory assays showed a viral recovery rate of about 50% (20-95%) for HAdV, JCPyV, NoV and RV with a coefficient of variation ≤ 50%. HAdV and JCPyV were detected in 100% (12/12) of the river samples from Barcelona and Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, NoV GGII was detected in 83% (5/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Barcelona, whereas none of the other viruses tested were detected. NoV GGII was detected in 33% (2/6), KV in 33% (2/6), ASFLV in 17% (1/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Rio de Janeiro, whereas KIPyV and WUPyV were not detected. RV were only analyzed in Rio de Janeiro and resulted positive in 67% (4/6) of the samples. The procedure applied here to river water represents a useful, straightforward and cost-effective method that could be applied in routine water quality testing

  19. Electrochemical quantification of some water soluble vitamins in commercial multi-vitamin using poly-amino acid caped by graphene quantum dots nanocomposite as dual signal amplification elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Omari, Ali

    2017-12-15

    Rapid analyses of some water soluble vitamins (Vitamin B2, B9, and C) in commercial multi vitamins could be routinely performed in analytical laboratories. This study reports on the electropolymerization of a low toxic and biocompatible polymer "poly aspartic acid-graphene quantum dots" as a novel strategy for surface modification of glassy carbon electrode and preparation a new interface for measurement of selected vitamins in commercial multi vitamins. Electrochemical deposition, as a well-controlled synthesis procedure, has been used for subsequently layer-by-layer preparation of graphene quantum dots nanostructures on a poly aspartic acid using cyclic voltammetry techniques in the regime of -1.5 to 2 V. The field emission scanning electron microscopy indicated immobilization of graphene quantum dots onto poly aspartic acid film. The modified electrode possessed as an effective electroactivity for detection of water soluble vitamins by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry. Enhancement of peak currents is ascribed to the fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics that arise from the synergistic coupling between the excellent properties of poly aspartic acid as semiconducting polymer, graphene quantum dots as high density of edge plane sites and chemical modification. Under the optimized analysis conditions, the prepared sensor for detection of VB2, VB9, and VC showed a low limit of quantification 0.22, 0.1, 0.1 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Superposition Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Na; Luo, Shun-Long; Sun, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    The principle of superposition is universal and lies at the heart of quantum theory. Although ever since the inception of quantum mechanics a century ago, superposition has occupied a central and pivotal place, rigorous and systematic studies of the quantification issue have attracted significant interests only in recent years, and many related problems remain to be investigated. In this work we introduce a figure of merit which quantifies superposition from an intuitive and direct perspective, investigate its fundamental properties, connect it to some coherence measures, illustrate it through several examples, and apply it to analyze wave-particle duality. Supported by Science Challenge Project under Grant No. TZ2016002, Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, Key Laboratory of Random Complex Structures and Data Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant under No. 2008DP173182

  1. Quantification of root water uptake in soil using X-ray computed tomography and image-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Keith R; Tracy, Saoirse R; Crout, Neil M J; Mairhofer, Stefan; Pridmore, Tony P; Mooney, Sacha J; Roose, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Spatially averaged models of root-soil interactions are often used to calculate plant water uptake. Using a combination of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and image-based modelling, we tested the accuracy of this spatial averaging by directly calculating plant water uptake for young wheat plants in two soil types. The root system was imaged using X-ray CT at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 d after transplanting. The roots were segmented using semi-automated root tracking for speed and reproducibility. The segmented geometries were converted to a mesh suitable for the numerical solution of Richards' equation. Richards' equation was parameterized using existing pore scale studies of soil hydraulic properties in the rhizosphere of wheat plants. Image-based modelling allows the spatial distribution of water around the root to be visualized and the fluxes into the root to be calculated. By comparing the results obtained through image-based modelling to spatially averaged models, the impact of root architecture and geometry in water uptake was quantified. We observed that the spatially averaged models performed well in comparison to the image-based models with <2% difference in uptake. However, the spatial averaging loses important information regarding the spatial distribution of water near the root system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation...Title: “Cinnamon Bark, Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled...as initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized, controlled trial. IRB #: FWH20110004H Principal Investigator (PI) Rank / Civ

  3. Initial-Boundary Value Problem Solution of the Nonlinear Shallow-water Wave Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The hodograph transformation solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow-water wave (NSW) equations are usually obtained through integral transform techniques such as Fourier-Bessel transforms. However, the original formulation of Carrier and Greenspan (1958 J Fluid Mech) and its variant Carrier et al. (2003 J Fluid Mech) involve evaluation integrals. Since elliptic integrals are highly singular as discussed in Carrier et al. (2003), this solution methodology requires either approximation of the associated integrands by smooth functions or selection of regular initial/boundary data. It should be noted that Kanoglu (2004 J Fluid Mech) partly resolves this issue by simplifying the resulting integrals in closed form. Here, the hodograph transform approach is coupled with the classical eigenfunction expansion method rather than integral transform techniques and a new analytical model for nonlinear long wave propagation over a plane beach is derived. This approach is based on the solution methodology used in Aydın & Kanoglu (2007 CMES-Comp Model Eng) for wind set-down relaxation problem. In contrast to classical initial- or boundary-value problem solutions, here, the NSW equations are formulated to yield an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) solution. In general, initial wave profile with nonzero initial velocity distribution is assumed and the flow variables are given in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The results reveal that the developed method allows accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal variation of the flow quantities, i.e., free-surface height and depth-averaged velocity, with much less computational effort compared to the integral transform techniques such as Carrier et al. (2003), Kanoglu (2004), Tinti & Tonini (2005 J Fluid Mech), and Kanoglu & Synolakis (2006 Phys Rev Lett). Acknowledgments: This work is funded by project ASTARTE- Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV

  4. The contribution of mosses to the carbon and water exchange of artic ecosystems: quantification and relationships with system properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Lang, S.I.; Shaver, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 exchange were measured in moss-dominated vegetation using a gas analyser and a 0.3 × 0.3 m chamber at 17 sites near Abisko, Northern Sweden and 21 sites near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, to quantify the contribution of mosses to ecosystem level fluxes. With the help of a simple

  5. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  6. Initial electron energy spectra in water irradiated by photons with energies to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, A.S.; Hiromoto, G.; Turner, J.E.; Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.

    1984-02-01

    This work was undertaken to provide basic physical data for use in the dosimetry of high-energy photons. Present and future sources of such photons are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed and summarized. Calculations were performed with a Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is also described. Tables of initial electron and positron energies are presented for monoenergetic photons undergoing single interactions in water. Photon energies to 1 GeV are treated. The code treats explicitly the production of electron-positron pairs, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, and the emission of Auger electrons following the occurrence of K-shell vacancies in oxygen. The tables give directly the information needed to specify the absolute single-collision kerma in water, which approximates tissue, at each photon energy. Results for continuous photon energy spectra can be obtained by using linear interpolation with the tables. (Continuous spectra can also be used directly in PHOEL-3.) The conditions under whch first-collision kerma approximate absorbed dose are discussed. A formula is given for estimating bremsstrahlung energy loss, one of the principal differences between kerma and absorbed dose in practical cases. 31 references, 4 figures, 18 tables

  7. The influence of initial conditions of water-entry on ricochet phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guoming, Chen; Jinfu, Feng; Junhua, Hu; An, Liu [Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an, 710038 (China); Yongli, Li, E-mail: 18192081790@163.com [Engineering University of CAPF, Xi’an 710086 (China)

    2017-08-15

    The ricochet phenomenon of the water-entry of the water–air crossing vehicle is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations of the water-entry process with different inclination angles, velocities, and attack angles are performed. The whole ricochet progress and the changing rules of angular acceleration, angular velocity, and displacement are obtained and analyzed by numerical simulation for a deeper understanding of ricochet phenomenon. The experiment is carried out to study the underwater trajectory by changing the initial condition only. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulations. The results show that: (1) A small inclination angle causes the trajectory to bend upward, favoring the ricochet phenomenon. (2) A large velocity value also favors the ricochet phenomenon, making it occur more easily and quickly, but lower velocities are insufficient to provide the necessary kinetic energy. (3) The ricochet phenomenon is more likely to occur under a negative attack angle that causes the trajectory to bend upward, but a positive angle balances the underwater trajectory. These results can provide guidance to design a new water–air cross vehicle. (paper)

  8. Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wærsted, Eivind G.; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Delanoë, Julien; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling and heating impact the liquid water balance of fog and therefore play an important role in determining their persistence or dissipation. We demonstrate that a quantitative analysis of the radiation-driven condensation and evaporation is possible in real time using ground-based remote sensing observations (cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer). Seven continental fog events in midlatitude winter are studied, and the radiative processes are further explored through sensitivity studies. The longwave (LW) radiative cooling of the fog is able to produce 40-70 g m-2 h-1 of liquid water by condensation when the fog liquid water path exceeds 30 g m-2 and there are no clouds above the fog, which corresponds to renewing the fog water in 0.5-2 h. The variability is related to fog temperature and atmospheric humidity, with warmer fog below a drier atmosphere producing more liquid water. The appearance of a cloud layer above the fog strongly reduces the LW cooling relative to a situation with no cloud above; the effect is strongest for a low cloud, when the reduction can reach 100 %. Consequently, the appearance of clouds above will perturb the liquid water balance in the fog and may therefore induce fog dissipation. Shortwave (SW) radiative heating by absorption by fog droplets is smaller than the LW cooling, but it can contribute significantly, inducing 10-15 g m-2 h-1 of evaporation in thick fog at (winter) midday. The absorption of SW radiation by unactivated aerosols inside the fog is likely less than 30 % of the SW absorption by the water droplets, in most cases. However, the aerosols may contribute more significantly if the air mass contains a high concentration of absorbing aerosols. The absorbed radiation at the surface can reach 40-120 W m-2 during the daytime depending on the fog thickness. As in situ measurements indicate that 20-40 % of this energy is transferred to the fog as sensible heat, this surface absorption can contribute

  9. Crack initiation behavior of neutron irradiated model and commercial stainless steels in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Kale J., E-mail: kalejs@umich.edu; Was, Gary S.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental constant extension rate tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated steel. • Percentage of intergranular cracking quantified the cracking susceptibility. • Cracking susceptibility varied with test environment, solute addition, and cold work. • No singular microstructural change could explain increases in cracking susceptibility with irradiation dose. • The increment of yield strength due to irradiation correlated well with cracking susceptibility. -- Abstract: The objective of this study was to isolate key factors affecting the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) susceptibility of eleven neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steel alloys. Four commercial purity and seven high purity stainless steels were fabricated with specific changes in composition and microstructure, and irradiated in a fast reactor spectrum at 320 °C to doses between 4.4 and 47.5 dpa. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests were performed in normal water chemistry (NWC), hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), or primary water (PW) environments to isolate the effects of environment, elemental solute addition, alloy purity, alloy heat, alloy type, cold work, and irradiation dose. The irradiated alloys showed a wide variation in IASCC susceptibility, as measured by the relative changes in mechanical properties and crack morphology. Cracking susceptibility measured by %IG was enhanced in oxidizing environments, although testing in the lowest potential environment caused an increase in surface crack density. Alloys containing solute addition of Ni or Ni + Cr exhibited no IASCC. Susceptibility was reduced in materials cold worked prior to irradiation, and increased with increasing irradiation dose. Irradiation-induced hardening was accounted for by the dislocation loop microstructure, however no relation between crack initiation and radiation hardening was found.

  10. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C.; Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)

  11. Non-contact quantification of laser micro-impulse in water by atomic force microscopy and its application for biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh

    2011-12-01

    We developed a local force measurement system of a femtosecond laser-induced impulsive force, which is due to shock and stress waves generated by focusing an intense femtosecond laser into water with a highly numerical aperture objective lens. In this system, the force localized in micron-sized region was detected by bending movement of a cantilever of atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we calculated the bending movement of the AFM cantilever when the femtosecond laser is focused in water at the vicinity of the cantilever and the impulsive force is loaded on the cantilever. From the result, a method to estimate the total of the impulsive force at the laser focal point was suggested and applied to estimate intercellular adhesion strength.

  12. Quantification of the contribution of nitrogen from septic tanks to ground water in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Kropf, Christian; Thomas, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of total dissolved nitrogen concentrations from soil water samples collected within the soil zone under septic tank leach fields in Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada, shows a median concentration of approximately 44 milligrams per liter (mg/L) from more than 300 measurements taken from four septic tank systems. Using two simple mass balance calculations, the concentration of total dissolved nitrogen potentially reaching the ground-water table ranges from 25 to 29 mg/L. This indicates that approximately 29 to 32 metric tons of nitrogen enters the aquifer every year from natural recharge and from the 2,070 houses that use septic tanks in the densely populated portion of Spanish Springs Valley. Natural recharge contributes only 0.25 metric tons because the total dissolved nitrogen concentration of natural recharge was estimated to be low (0.8 mg/L). Although there are many uncertainties in this estimate, the sensitivity of these uncertainties to the calculated load is relatively small, indicating that these values likely are accurate to within an order of magnitude. The nitrogen load calculation will be used as an input function for a ground-water flow and transport model that will be used to test management options for controlling nitrogen contamination in the basin.

  13. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth.

  14. Filtering high resolution hyperspectral imagery and analyzing it for quantification of water quality parameters and aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande-Chhetri, Roshan

    High resolution hyperspectral imagery (airborne or ground-based) is gaining momentum as a useful analytical tool in various fields including agriculture and aquatic systems. These images are often contaminated with stripes and noise resulting in lower signal-to-noise ratio, especially in aquatic regions where signal is naturally low. This research investigates effective methods for filtering high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery and use of the imagery in water quality parameter estimation and aquatic vegetation classification. The striping pattern of the hyperspectral imagery is non-parametric and difficult to filter. In this research, a de-striping algorithm based on wavelet analysis and adaptive Fourier domain normalization was examined. The result of this algorithm was found superior to other available algorithms and yielded highest Peak Signal to Noise Ratio improvement. The algorithm was implemented on individual image bands and on selected bands of the Maximum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformed images. The results showed that image filtering in the MNF domain was efficient and produced best results. The study investigated methods of analyzing hyperspectral imagery to estimate water quality parameters and to map aquatic vegetation in case-2 waters. Ground-based hyperspectral imagery was analyzed to determine chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in aquaculture ponds. Two-band and three-band indices were implemented and the effect of using submerged reflectance targets was evaluated. Laboratory measured values were found to be in strong correlation with two-band and three-band spectral indices computed from the hyperspectral image. Coefficients of determination (R2) values were found to be 0.833 and 0.862 without submerged targets and stronger values of 0.975 and 0.982 were obtained using submerged targets. Airborne hyperspectral images were used to detect and classify aquatic vegetation in a black river estuarine system. Image normalization for water

  15. Quantifying Methane Flux from a Prominent Seafloor Crater with Water Column Imagery Filtering and Bubble Quantification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Gharib, J. J.; Doolittle, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas flux from the seafloor to atmosphere is an important variable for global carbon cycle and climate models, yet is poorly constrained. Methodologies used to estimate seafloor gas flux commonly employ a combination of acoustic and optical techniques. These techniques often use hull-mounted multibeam echosounders (MBES) to quickly ensonify large volumes of the water column for acoustic backscatter anomalies indicative of gas bubble plumes. Detection of these water column anomalies with a MBES provides information on the lateral distribution of the plumes, the midwater dimensions of the plumes, and their positions on the seafloor. Seafloor plume locations are targeted for visual investigations using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to determine bubble emission rates, venting behaviors, bubble sizes, and ascent velocities. Once these variables are measured in-situ, an extrapolation of gas flux is made over the survey area using the number of remotely-mapped flares. This methodology was applied to a geophysical survey conducted in 2013 over a large seafloor crater that developed in response to an oil well blowout in 1983 offshore Papua New Guinea. The site was investigated by multibeam and sidescan mapping, sub-bottom profiling, 2-D high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection, and ROV video and coring operations. Numerous water column plumes were detected in the data suggesting vigorously active vents within and near the seafloor crater (Figure 1). This study uses dual-frequency MBES datasets (Reson 7125, 200/400 kHz) and ROV video imagery of the active hydrocarbon seeps to estimate total gas flux from the crater. Plumes of bubbles were extracted from the water column data using threshold filtering techniques. Analysis of video images of the seep emission sites within the crater provided estimates on bubble size, expulsion frequency, and ascent velocity. The average gas flux characteristics made from ROV video observations is extrapolated over the number

  16. Overview of the Ozone Water-Land Environmental Transition Study: Summary of Observations and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, T.; Sullivan, J.; Pippin, M. R.; Gronoff, G.; Knepp, T. N.; Twigg, L.; Schroeder, J.; Carrion, W.; Farris, B.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Nino, L.; Gargulinski, E.; Rodio, L.; Sanchez, P.; Desorae Davis, A. A.; Janz, S. J.; Judd, L.; Pusede, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Munyan, J.; Flynn, J.; Moore, B.; Dreessen, J.; Salkovitz, D.; Stumpf, K.; King, B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Brandt, J.; Blake, D. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Tzortziou, M.; Demoz, B.; Tsay, S. C.; Swap, R.; Holben, B. N.; Szykman, J.; McGee, T. J.; Neilan, J.; Allen, D.

    2017-12-01

    The monitoring of ozone (O3) in the troposphere is of pronounced interest due to its known toxicity and health hazard as a photo-chemically generated pollutant. One of the major difficulties for the air quality modeling, forecasting and satellite communities is the validation of O3 levels in sharp transition regions, as well as near-surface vertical gradients. Land-water gradients of O3 near coastal regions can be large due to differences in surface deposition, boundary layer height, and cloud coverage. Observations in horizontal and vertical directions over the Chesapeake Bay are needed to better understand O3 formation and redistribution within regional recirculation patterns. The O3 Water-Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS) was a field campaign conducted in the summer 2017 in the VA Tidewater region to better characterize O3 across the coastal boundary. To obtain over-water measurements, the NASA Langley Ozone Lidar as well as supplemental measurements from other sensors (e.g. Pandora, AERONET) were deployed on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel (CBBT) 7-8 miles offshore. These observations were complimented by NASA Goddard's Tropospheric Ozone Lidar along with ground-based measurements over-land at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA. On measurement days, time-synchronized data were collected, including launches of ozonesondes from CBBT and LaRC sites that provided additional O3, wind, and temperature vertical distribution differences between land and water. These measurements were complimented with: in-situ O3 sensors on two mobile cars, a micro-pulse lidar at Hampton University, an in-situ O3 sensor on a small UAV-drone, and Virginia DEQ air-quality sites. Two aircraft and a research vessel also contributed to OWLETS at various points during the campaign: the NASA UC-12B with the GeoTASO passive remote sensor, the NASA C-23 with an in-situ chemistry analysis suite, and a SERC research vessel with both remote and in-situ sensors. This

  17. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 1. Theoretical principles; Radon 222 y Tritio en la identificacion y cuantificacion de la contaminacion por hidrocarburos (LFNA) en las aguas subterraneas. 1. Principios teoricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molerio Leon, LF [Inversiones Gamma, La Habana (Cuba); Fernandez Gomez, IM; Carrazana Gonzalez, J A, E-mail: especialistaprincipal@gmail.com [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    This is the first of two papers presenting the basic concepts and the main results of the application of environmental Rn{sup 222a}nd Tritium in the identification and quantification of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids contamination of Cuban ground waters and their relation with sea water intrusion and/or spills of produced waters. The interpretation technique is based on the partition properties of the tracers involved and in the geochemical affinity of some major and minor constituents of the ground waters occurring beneath the exploration and production facilities of the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt. The second paper in this series discusses several cases of interaction among the fresh water aquifer, the sea, the sea water-fresh water interface and oil contamination.

  18. Quantification of endocrine disruptors and pesticides in water by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation using weighted linear regression schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Melo, A; Rebelo, H; Ferreira, I M P L V O; Pinho, O; Domingues, V; Pinho, C; Gameiro, P

    2010-10-22

    A multi-residue methodology based on a solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for trace analysis of 32 compounds in water matrices, including estrogens and several pesticides from different chemical families, some of them with endocrine disrupting properties. Matrix standard calibration solutions were prepared by adding known amounts of the analytes to a residue-free sample to compensate matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement observed for certain pesticides. Validation was done mainly according to the International Conference on Harmonisation recommendations, as well as some European and American validation guidelines with specifications for pesticides analysis and/or GC-MS methodology. As the assumption of homoscedasticity was not met for analytical data, weighted least squares linear regression procedure was applied as a simple and effective way to counteract the greater influence of the greater concentrations on the fitted regression line, improving accuracy at the lower end of the calibration curve. The method was considered validated for 31 compounds after consistent evaluation of the key analytical parameters: specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, range, precision, accuracy, extraction efficiency, stability and robustness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of water and silanol species on various silicas by coupling IR spectroscopy and in-situ thermogravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Jean-Paul; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Vimont, Alexandre; Lavalley, Jean-Claude; Gil, Barbara; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Miserque, Olivier

    2009-05-19

    Five silica samples (four precipitated silicas provided by commercial suppliers and one with the MCM-41 structure) have been studied by infrared spectroscopy and by a homemade thermogravimetry-infrared spectrum (TG-IR) setup. The silanol amount, accessibility to water, and different alcohols, and the affinity to water of these various silicas were compared and quantified. TG-IR measurements allowed the precise determination of the integrated molar absorption coefficient of the (nu+delta)OH band, epsilon(nu+delta)OH=(0.16+/-0.01) cm micromol(-1). It is independent of the sample origin and the concentration of silanol groups on silicas. For the precipitated dried samples evacuated at room temperature, the silanol concentration COH varies between 3.6 and 7.0 mmol g(-1). It is 5.3 mmol g(-1) in the case of the MCM-41 sample. Exchange experiments with D2O, followed by back-exchanges with different alcohols (methanol, propan-2-ol, 2-methyl-propan-2-ol, and 3-ethyl-pentan-3-ol) have been followed by infrared spectroscopy. All of the silanols of the MCM-41 sample are accessible to water and alcohol molecules. By contrast, about 20% of the silanols in precipitated samples are not exchanged by D2O (internal silanols). Accessibility decreases with alcohol size; the main effect is relative to methanol. Taking into account the sample specific surface areas and the silanol accessibility to D2O, the surface silanol density of precipitated silicas is close to 8 OH per nm2, at maximum coverage. At variance, the silanol surface density of the MCM silica is much lower, 4 OH per nm2. The TG-IR setup has also been used to determine the amount of water adsorbed on silicas through the intensity of the deltaH2O band. It varies linearly with the concentration of adsorbed water, whatever the silica sample. The integrated molar absorption coefficient of two bands, epsilondeltaH2O=(1.53+/-0.03) cm micromol(-1) and epsilon(nu+delta)H2O=(0.22+/-0.01) cm micromol(-1), have been determined. The

  20. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with dynamic perfusion 3.0 Tesla MRI: Validation with (15) O-water PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Yuuki; Manabe, Osamu; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Naya, Masanao; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Kenji; Mori, Yuki; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Kohsuke; Tamaki, Nagara; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2015-09-01

    To develop and validate a method for quantifying myocardial blood flow (MBF) using dynamic perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MBFMRI ) at 3.0 Tesla (T) and compare the findings with those of (15) O-water positron emission tomography (MBFPET ). Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (15) O-water positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and during adenosine triphosphate infusion. The single-tissue compartment model was used to estimate the inflow rate constant (K1). We estimated the extraction fraction of Gd-DTPA using K1 and MBF values obtained from (15) O-water PET for the first 10 subjects. For validation, we calculated MBFMRI values for the remaining 10 subjects and compared them with the MBFPET values. In addition, we compared MBFMRI values of 10 patients with coronary artery disease with those of healthy subjects. The mean resting and stress MBFMRI values were 0.76 ± 0.10 and 3.04 ± 0.82 mL/min/g, respectively, and showed excellent correlation with the mean MBFPET values (r = 0.96, P < 0.01). The mean stress MBFMRI value was significantly lower for the patients (1.92 ± 0.37) than for the healthy subjects (P < 0.001). The use of dynamic perfusion MRI at 3T is useful for estimating MBF and can be applied for patients with coronary artery disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Magnetic resonance image segmentation using semi-automated software for quantification of knee articular cartilage - initial evaluation of a technique for paired scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brem, M.H.; Lang, P.K.; Neumann, G.; Schlechtweg, P.M.; Yoshioka, H.; Pappas, G.; Duryea, J.; Schneider, E.; Jackson, R.; Yu, J.; Eaton, C.B.; Hennig, F.F.

    2009-01-01

    Software-based image analysis is important for studies of cartilage changes in knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study describes an evaluation of a semi-automated cartilage segmentation software tool capable of quantifying paired images for potential use in longitudinal studies of knee OA. We describe the methodology behind the analysis and demonstrate its use by determination of test-retest analysis precision of duplicate knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Test-retest knee MR images of 12 subjects with a range of knee health were evaluated from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) pilot MR study. Each subject was removed from the magnet between the two scans. The 3D DESS (sagittal, 0.456 mm x 0.365 mm, 0.7 mm slice thickness, TR 16.5 ms, TE 4.7 ms) images were obtained on a 3-T Siemens Trio MR system with a USA Instruments quadrature transmit-receive extremity coil. Segmentation of one 3D-image series was first performed and then the corresponding retest series was segmented by viewing both image series concurrently in two adjacent windows. After manual registration of the series, the first segmentation cartilage outline served as an initial estimate for the second segmentation. We evaluated morphometric measures of the bone and cartilage surface area (tAB and AC), cartilage volume (VC), and mean thickness (ThC.me) for medial/lateral tibia (MT/LT), total femur (F) and patella (P). Test-retest reproducibility was assessed using the root-mean square coefficient of variation (RMS CV%). For the paired analyses, RMS CV % ranged from 0.9% to 1.2% for VC, from 0.3% to 0.7% for AC, from 0.6% to 2.7% for tAB and 0.8% to 1.5% for ThC.me. Paired image analysis improved the measurement precision of cartilage segmentation. Our results are in agreement with other publications supporting the use of paired analysis for longitudinal studies of knee OA. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic resonance image segmentation using semi-automated software for quantification of knee articular cartilage - initial evaluation of a technique for paired scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brem, M.H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen Nurenberg, Division of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Lang, P.K.; Neumann, G.; Schlechtweg, P.M.; Yoshioka, H.; Pappas, G.; Duryea, J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Schneider, E. [LLC, SciTrials, Rocky River, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Jackson, R.; Yu, J. [Ohio State University, Diabetes and Metabolism and Radiology, Department of Endocrinology, Columbus, OH (United States); Eaton, C.B. [Center for Primary Care and Prevention and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, RI (United States); Hennig, F.F. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen Nurenberg, Division of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Software-based image analysis is important for studies of cartilage changes in knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study describes an evaluation of a semi-automated cartilage segmentation software tool capable of quantifying paired images for potential use in longitudinal studies of knee OA. We describe the methodology behind the analysis and demonstrate its use by determination of test-retest analysis precision of duplicate knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Test-retest knee MR images of 12 subjects with a range of knee health were evaluated from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) pilot MR study. Each subject was removed from the magnet between the two scans. The 3D DESS (sagittal, 0.456 mm x 0.365 mm, 0.7 mm slice thickness, TR 16.5 ms, TE 4.7 ms) images were obtained on a 3-T Siemens Trio MR system with a USA Instruments quadrature transmit-receive extremity coil. Segmentation of one 3D-image series was first performed and then the corresponding retest series was segmented by viewing both image series concurrently in two adjacent windows. After manual registration of the series, the first segmentation cartilage outline served as an initial estimate for the second segmentation. We evaluated morphometric measures of the bone and cartilage surface area (tAB and AC), cartilage volume (VC), and mean thickness (ThC.me) for medial/lateral tibia (MT/LT), total femur (F) and patella (P). Test-retest reproducibility was assessed using the root-mean square coefficient of variation (RMS CV%). For the paired analyses, RMS CV % ranged from 0.9% to 1.2% for VC, from 0.3% to 0.7% for AC, from 0.6% to 2.7% for tAB and 0.8% to 1.5% for ThC.me. Paired image analysis improved the measurement precision of cartilage segmentation. Our results are in agreement with other publications supporting the use of paired analysis for longitudinal studies of knee OA. (orig.)

  3. Electron density in surface barrier discharge emerging at argon/water interface: quantification for streamers and leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Galmiz, Oleksandr; Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Brablec, Antonín; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy, fast intensified CCD imaging and electrical measurements were applied to investigate the basic plasma parameters of surface barrier discharge emerging from a conductive water electrode. The discharge was generated at the triple-line interface of atmospheric pressure argon gas and conductive water solution at the fused silica dielectrics using a sinusoidal high-voltage waveform. The spectroscopic methods of atomic line broadening and molecular spectroscopy were used to determine the electron densities and the gas temperature in the active plasma. These parameters were obtained for both applied voltage polarities and resolved spatially. Two different spectral signatures were identified in the spatially resolved spectra resulting in electron densities differing by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that two discharge mechanisms take a place: the streamer and the leader one, with electron densities of 1014 and 1016 cm-3, respectively. This spectroscopic evidence is supported by the combined diagnostics of electrical current measurements and phase-resolved intensified CCD camera imaging.

  4. Expanding dryland ecosystem flux datasets enable novel quantification of water availability and carbon exchange in Southwestern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Smith, W. K.; Litvak, M. E.; MacBean, N.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale studies suggest that water-limited dryland ecosystems dominate the increasing trend in magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, the terrestrial biosphere models and remote sensing models used in large-scale analyses are poorly constrained by flux measurements in drylands, which are under-represented in global datasets. In this talk, I will address this gap with eddy covariance data from 30 ecosystems across the Southwest of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years each (160 site-years). This extensive dryland dataset enables new approaches including 1) separation of temporal and spatial patterns to infer fast and slow ecosystem responses to change, and 2) partitioning of precipitation into hydrologic losses, evaporation, and ecosystem-available water. I will then compare direct flux measurements with models and remote sensing used to scale fluxes regionally. Combining eddy covariance and streamflow measurements, I will show how evapotranspiration (ET), which is the efflux of soil moisture remaining after hydrologic losses, is a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive ecosystem CO2 exchange. Furthermore, I will present a novel method to partition ET into evaporation and transpiration using the tight coupling of transpiration and photosynthesis. In contrast with typical carbon sink function in wetter, more-studied regions, dryland sites express an annual net carbon uptake varying from -350 to +330 gC m-2. Due to less respiration losses relative to photosynthesis gains during winter, declines in winter precipitation across the Southwest since 1999 are reducing annual net CO2 uptake. Interannual variability of net uptake is larger than for wetter regions, and half the sites pivot between sinks in wet years to sources in dry years. Biospheric and remote sensing models capture only 20-30 % of interannual

  5. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Steven Ray

    1998-03-01

    The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

  6. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  7. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  8. Quantification of groundwater infiltration and surface water inflows in urban sewer networks based on a multiple model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Krebs, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The management of sewer systems requires information about discharge and variability of typical wastewater sources in urban catchments. Especially the infiltration of groundwater and the inflow of surface water (I/I) are important for making decisions about the rehabilitation and operation of sewer networks. This paper presents a methodology to identify I/I and estimate its quantity. For each flow fraction in sewer networks, an individual model approach is formulated whose parameters are optimised by the method of least squares. This method was applied to estimate the contributions to the wastewater flow in the sewer system of the City of Dresden (Germany), where data availability is good. Absolute flows of I/I and their temporal variations are estimated. Further information on the characteristics of infiltration is gained by clustering and grouping sewer pipes according to the attributes construction year and groundwater influence and relating these resulting classes to infiltration behaviour. Further, it is shown that condition classes based on CCTV-data can be used to estimate the infiltration potential of sewer pipes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of Using an Electrolysis Cell for Quantification of the Electrolytic Products of Water from Gravimetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Dabke, Rajeev B

    2018-01-01

    A gravimetric method for the quantitative assessment of the products of electrolysis of water is presented. In this approach, the electrolysis cell was directly powered by 9 V batteries. Prior to electrolysis, a known amount of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was added to the cathode compartment, and an excess amount of KHCO 3 was added to the anode compartment electrolyte. During electrolysis, cathode and anode compartments produced OH - (aq) and H + (aq) ions, respectively. Electrolytically produced OH - (aq) neutralized the KHP, and the completion of this neutralization was detected by a visual indicator color change. Electrolytically produced H + (aq) reacted with HCO 3 - (aq) liberating CO 2 (g) from the anode compartment. Concurrent liberation of H 2 (g) and O 2 (g) at the cathode and anode, respectively, resulted in a decrease in the mass of the cell. Mass of the electrolysis cell was monitored. Liberation of CO 2 (g) resulted in a pronounced effect of a decrease in mass. Experimentally determined decrease in mass (53.7 g/Faraday) agreed with that predicted from Faraday's laws of electrolysis (53.0 g/Faraday). The efficacy of the cell was tested to quantify the acid content in household vinegar samples. Accurate results were obtained for vinegar analysis with a precision better than 5% in most cases. The cell offers the advantages of coulometric method and additionally simplifies the circuitry by eliminating the use of a constant current power source or a coulometer.

  10. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.

  11. Buffering of suspended sediment transport in lowland river during low water stages: quantification in river Seine using environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, P.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Dumoulin, J.P.; Sogon, S.; Tessier, L.; Mouchel, J.M.; Thomas, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to test the application of environmental radioactive tracers for estimating sediment mass and sediment residence time in rivers. A continuous sampling of the Seine river suspended matter (SM) using sediment traps was made during two months, between Paris and the estuary, along a 120 km long river section. The hydrological regime corresponded to the low water stage, where the SM transport is reduced. The measured tracers in the SM include short-lived natural ( 7 Be, 234 Th xs ) and artificial ( 131 I) radionuclides, as well as the longer-lived natural 210 Pb xs and its descendant the 210 Po. 137 Cs was used to check grain-size effects. A simple steady state model allowed us to estimate the total sediment mass, i.e. the SM, plus the resuspendable matter (RM), and the sediment residence time. Despite their different half-lives (8 to 53 days) and their different geochemical properties, consistent results were obtained with 131 I, 7 Be and 234 Th xs . The best estimate of the sediment mass present in the river is (24-41)·10 3 tons; it is essentially composed of the RM which is 10-17 times more abundant than the SM. In these hydrological conditions, the sediment residence time is quite long (1.6-2.8 months). (author) [es

  12. Corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions. ► Identification of major parameters of influence on initiation and short crack growth. ► Critical system conditions for environmental reduction of fatigue initiation life. ► Comparison with the environmental factor (F env ) approach. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of different wrought low-carbon and stabilised austenitic stainless steels was characterised under simulated boiling water reactor and pressurised water reactor primary water conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens. The special emphasis was placed to the behaviour at low corrosion potentials and, in particular, to hydrogen water chemistry conditions. The major parameter effects and critical conjoint threshold conditions, which result in relevant environmental reduction and acceleration of fatigue initiation life and subsequent short crack growth, respectively, are discussed and summarised. The observed corrosion fatigue behaviour is compared with the fatigue evaluation procedures in codes and regulatory guidelines.

  13. Assessment of Core Failure Limits for Light Water Reactor Fuel under Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernkvist, Lars Olof; Massih, Ali R.

    2004-12-01

    Core failure limits for high-burnup light water reactor UO 2 fuel rods, subjected to postulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs), are here assessed by use of best-estimate computational methods. The considered RIAs are the hot zero power rod ejection accident (HZP REA) in pressurized water reactors and the cold zero power control rod drop accident (CZP CRDA) in boiling water reactors. Burnup dependent core failure limits for these events are established by calculating the fuel radial average enthalpy connected with incipient fuel pellet melting for fuel burnups in the range of 30 to 70 MWd/kgU. The postulated HZP REA and CZP CRDA result in lower enthalpies for pellet melting than RIAs that take place at rated power. Consequently, the enthalpy thresholds presented here are lower bounds to RIAs at rated power. The calculations are performed with best-estimate models, which are applied in the FRAPCON-3.2 and SCANAIR-3.2 computer codes. Based on the results of three-dimensional core kinetics analyses, the considered power transients are simulated by a Gaussian pulse shape, with a fixed width of either 25 ms (REA) or 45 ms (CRDA). Notwithstanding the differences in postulated accident scenarios between the REA and the CRDA, the calculated core failure limits for these two events are similar. The calculated enthalpy thresholds for fuel pellet melting decrease gradually with fuel burnup, from approximately 960 J/gUO 2 at 30 MWd/kgU to 810 J/gUO 2 at 70 MWd/kgU. The decline is due to depression of the UO 2 melting temperature with increasing burnup, in combination with burnup related changes to the radial power distribution within the fuel pellets. The presented fuel enthalpy thresholds for incipient UO 2 melting provide best-estimate core failure limits for low- and intermediate-burnup fuel. However, pulse reactor tests on high-burnup fuel rods indicate that the accumulation of gaseous fission products within the pellets may lead to fuel dispersal into the coolant at

  14. Chemical speciation of heavy metals by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy: identification and quantification of inorganic- and methyl-mercury in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.; Lee, Yih Hong; Ling, Xing Yi; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical speciation of heavy metals has become extremely important in environmental and analytical research because of the strong dependence that toxicity, environmental mobility, persistence and bioavailability of these pollutants have on their specific chemical forms. Novel nano-optical-based detection strategies, capable of overcoming the intrinsic limitations of well-established analytic methods for the quantification of total metal ion content, have been reported, but the speciation of different chemical forms has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first example of a SERS-based sensor for chemical speciation of toxic metal ions in water at trace levels. Specifically, the inorganic Hg2+ and the more toxicologically relevant methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are selected as analytical targets. The sensing platform consists of a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptopyridine (MPY) on highly SERS-active and robust hybrid plasmonic materials formed by a dense layer of interacting gold nanoparticles anchored onto polystyrene microbeads. The co-ordination of Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ to the nitrogen atom of the MPY ring yields characteristic changes in the vibrational SERS spectra of the organic chemoreceptor that can be qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to the presence of the two different mercury forms.Chemical speciation of heavy metals has become extremely important in environmental and analytical research because of the strong dependence that toxicity, environmental mobility, persistence and bioavailability of these pollutants have on their specific chemical forms. Novel nano-optical-based detection strategies, capable of overcoming the intrinsic limitations of well-established analytic methods for the quantification of total metal ion content, have been reported, but the speciation of different chemical forms has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first example of a SERS-based sensor for chemical speciation of toxic metal ions in water at trace levels

  15. Upper Limb Evaluation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Fat-Water Quantification by MRI, Muscle Force and Function Define Endpoints for Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Valeria; Evans, Matthew R B; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Butler, Jordan W; Ridout, Deborah A; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Emira, Ahmed; Morrow, Jasper M; Reilly, Mary M; Hanna, Michael G; Janiczek, Robert L; Matthews, Paul M; Yousry, Tarek A; Muntoni, Francesco; Thornton, John S

    2016-01-01

    A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function. 15 non-ambulant DMD boys (mean age 13.3 y) and 10 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 14.6 y) were recruited. 3-Tesla MRI fat-water quantification was used to measure forearm muscle fat transformation in non-ambulant DMD boys compared with healthy controls. DMD boys were assessed at 4 time-points over 12 months, using 3-point Dixon MRI to measure muscle fat-fraction (f.f.). Images from ten forearm muscles were segmented and mean f.f. and cross-sectional area recorded. DMD subjects also underwent comprehensive upper limb function and force evaluation. Overall mean baseline forearm f.f. was higher in DMD than in healthy controls (pmuscle f.f. as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in the upper limb in non-ambulant DMD, with sensitivity adequate to detect group-level change over time intervals practical for use in clinical trials. Clinical validity is supported by the association of the progressive fat transformation of muscle with loss of muscle force and function.

  16. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  17. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  18. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail

  19. Clean water initiative in Peru led by former IDRC awardee | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... In Peru, many sources of water are contaminated with harmful pathogens, heavy ... His research on water contamination in Lima was supported by an IDRC graduate research award. ... Wastewater shores up food security.

  20. SCC of cold-worked austenitic stainless steels exposed to PWR primary water conditions: susceptibility to initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herms, E.; Raquet, O.; Sejourne, L.; Vaillant, F.

    2009-01-01

    Heavily cold-worked austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304L and 316L types) could be significantly susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) when exposed to PWR nominal primary water conditions even in absence of any pollutants. Susceptibility to SCC was shown to be related with some conditions such as initial hardness, procedure of cold-work or dynamic straining. A dedicated program devoted to better understand the initiation stage on CW austenitic stainless steels in PWR water is presented. Initiation is studied thanks to SCC test conditions leading to an intergranular cracking propagation mode on a CW austenitic stainless steel which is the mode generally reported after field experience. SCC tests are carried out in typical primary water conditions (composition 1000 ppm B and 2 ppm Li) and for temperature in the range 290 - 340 C. Material selected is 316L cold-worked essentially by rolling (reduction in thickness of 40%). Initiation tests are carried out under various stress levels with the aim to investigate the evolution of the initiation period versus the value of applied stress. SCC tests are performed on cylindrical notched specimens in order to increase the applied stress and allow accelerated testing without modify the exposure conditions to strictly nominal hydrogenated PWR water. Respective influences of cyclic/dynamic conditions on SCC initiation are presented and discussed. Dedicated interrupted tests help to investigate the behaviour of the crack initiation process. These SCC tests have shown that crack initiation could be obtained after a very short time under dynamic loading conditions on heavily pre-strained austenitic stainless steels. Actual results show that the most limiting stage of the cracking process on CW 316L seems to be the transition from slow transgranular propagation of surface initiated cracks to intergranular fast propagation through the thickness of the sample. The duration of this stage during crack initiation tests is

  1. Initial pressure spike and its propagation phenomena in sodium-water reaction tests for MONJU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Hiroi, H.; Tanaka, N.; Hori, M.

    1977-01-01

    With the objective of demonstrating the safe design of steam generators for prototype LMFBR MONJU against the postulated large-leak accident, a number of large-leak sodium-water reaction tests have been conducted using the SWAT-1 and SWAT-3 rigs. Investigation of the potential effects of pressure load on the system is one of the major concerns in these tests. This paper reports the behavior of initial pressure spike in the reaction vessel, its propagation phenomena to the simulated secondary cooling system, and the comparisons with the computer code for one-dimensional pressure wave propagation problems. Both rigs used are the scaled-down models of the helically coiled steam generators of MONJU. The SWAT-1 rig is a simplified model and consists of a reaction vessel (1/8 scale of MONJU evaporator with 0.4 m dia. and 2.5 m height) and a pressure relief system i.e., a pressure relief line and a reaction products tank. On the other hand, the SWAT-3 rig is a 1/2.5 scale of MONJU SG system and consists of an evaporator (reaction vessel with 1.3 m dia. and 6.35 m height), a superheater, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), a piping system simulating the secondary cooling circuit and a pressure relief system. The both water injection systems consist of a water injection line with a rupture disk installed in front of injection hole and an electrically heated water tank. Choice of water injection rates in the scaled-down models is made based on the method of iso-velocity modeling. Test results indicated that the characteristics of the initial pressure spike are dominated by those of initial water injection which are controlled by the conditions of water heater and the size of water injection hole, etc

  2. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Initial experiments with gel-water: towards MRI-linac dosimetry and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaghy, Sarah J; Gargett, Maegan; Liney, Gary; Petasecca, Marco; Begg, Jarrad; Espinoza, Anthony; Newall, Matthew K; Duncan, Mitchell; Holloway, Lois; Lerch, Michael L F; Lazea, Mircea; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Metcalfe, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Tracking the position of a moving radiation detector in time and space during data acquisition can replicate 4D image-guided radiotherapy (4DIGRT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linacs need MRI-visible detectors to achieve this, however, imaging solid phantoms is an issue. Hence, gel-water, a material that provides signal for MRI-visibility, and which will in future work, replace solid water for an MRI-linac 4DIGRT quality assurance tool, is discussed. MR and CT images of gel-water were acquired for visualisation and electron density verification. Characterisation of gel-water at 0 T was compared to Gammex-RMI solid water, using MagicPlate-512 (M512) and RMI Attix chamber; this included percentage depth dose, tissue-phantom ratio (TPR 20/10 ), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), profiles, output factors, and a gamma analysis to investigate field penumbral differences. MR images of a non-powered detector in gel-water demonstrated detector visualisation. The CT-determined gel-water electron density agreed with the calculated value of 1.01. Gel-water depth dose data demonstrated a maximum deviation of 0.7% from solid water for M512 and 2.4% for the Attix chamber, and by 2.1% for TPR 20/10 and 1.0% for TMR. FWHM and output factor differences between materials were ≤0.3 and ≤1.4%. M512 data passed gamma analysis with 100% within 2%, 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator defined fields. Gel-water was shown to be tissue-equivalent for dosimetry and a feasible option to replace solid water.

  4. Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrier, R W; Arroyo, V; Bernardi, M

    1988-01-01

    Renal sodium and water retention and plasma volume expansion have been shown to precede ascites formation in experimental cirrhosis. The classical "underfilling" theory, in which ascites formation causes hypovolemia and initiates secondary renal sodium and water retention, thus seems unlikely...... with cirrhosis. Arterial vasodilators and arteriovenous fistula are other examples in which renal sodium and water retention occur secondary to a decreased filling of the arterial vascular tree. An increase in cardiac output and hormonal stimulation are common features of cirrhosis, arteriovenous fistula...... and drug-induced peripheral arterial vasodilation. However, a predilection for the retained sodium and water to transudate into the abdominal cavity occurs with cirrhosis because of the presence of portal hypertension. The Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation Hypothesis also explains the continuum from...

  5. 77 FR 15812 - Initial Test Program of Condensate and Feedwater Systems for Light-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Systems for Light-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... Feedwater Systems for Light- Water Reactors.'' DG-1265 is proposed revision 2 of Regulatory Guide 1.68.1... Plants,'' dated January 1977. This regulatory guide is being revised to: (1) expand the scope of the...

  6. Using Theory to Inform Water Conservation in Business Communities: Formative Research from a Chamber Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A.; Daggett, Samantha; VanDyke, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to collect formative information for the development of theoretically driven water conservation communication efforts targeting the business sector of water users. Members from a West Texas Chamber of Commerce were recruited for participation in an online survey. Questionnaire responses were collected from 176 commercial…

  7. General procedure to initialize the cyclic soil water balance by the Thornthwaite and Mather method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourado-Neto, D.; Lier, van Q.D.; Metselaar, K.; Reichardt, K.; Nielsen, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The original Thornthwaite and Mather method, proposed in 1955 to calculate a climatic monthly cyclic soil water balance, is frequently used as an iterative procedure due to its low input requirements and coherent estimates of water balance components. Using long term data sets to establish a

  8. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... most cost effective pollution prevention and treatment techniques available, and minimizes the... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify... result in an increased loading of BCCs to surface waters of the Great Lakes System and for which...

  9. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence

  10. Upper Limb Evaluation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Fat-Water Quantification by MRI, Muscle Force and Function Define Endpoints for Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ricotti

    Full Text Available A number of promising experimental therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD are emerging. Clinical trials currently rely on invasive biopsies or motivation-dependent functional tests to assess outcome. Quantitative muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI could offer a valuable alternative and permit inclusion of non-ambulant DMD subjects. The aims of our study were to explore the responsiveness of upper-limb MRI muscle-fat measurement as a non-invasive objective endpoint for clinical trials in non-ambulant DMD, and to investigate the relationship of these MRI measures to those of muscle force and function.15 non-ambulant DMD boys (mean age 13.3 y and 10 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 14.6 y were recruited. 3-Tesla MRI fat-water quantification was used to measure forearm muscle fat transformation in non-ambulant DMD boys compared with healthy controls. DMD boys were assessed at 4 time-points over 12 months, using 3-point Dixon MRI to measure muscle fat-fraction (f.f.. Images from ten forearm muscles were segmented and mean f.f. and cross-sectional area recorded. DMD subjects also underwent comprehensive upper limb function and force evaluation.Overall mean baseline forearm f.f. was higher in DMD than in healthy controls (p<0.001. A progressive f.f. increase was observed in DMD over 12 months, reaching significance from 6 months (p<0.001, n = 7, accompanied by a significant loss in pinch strength at 6 months (p<0.001, n = 9 and a loss of upper limb function and grip force observed over 12 months (p<0.001, n = 8.These results support the use of MRI muscle f.f. as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in the upper limb in non-ambulant DMD, with sensitivity adequate to detect group-level change over time intervals practical for use in clinical trials. Clinical validity is supported by the association of the progressive fat transformation of muscle with loss of muscle force and function.

  11. Effects of Water Radiolysis in Water Cooled Reactors - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Program. Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimblott, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    OAK B188 Quarterly Progress Report on NERI Proposal No.99-0010 for the Development of an Experiment and Calculation Based Model to Describe the Effects of Radiation on Non-standard Aqueous Systems Like Those Encountered in the Advanced Light Water Reactor

  12. Calculation of intercepted runoff depth based on stormwater quality and environmental capacity of receiving waters for initial stormwater pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xue-Long; Wang, Hong-Wu; Chen, Yi; Cai, Hui-Yi

    2017-11-01

    While point source pollutions have gradually been controlled in recent years, the non-point source pollution problem has become increasingly prominent. The receiving waters are frequently polluted by the initial stormwater from the separate stormwater system and the wastewater from sewage pipes through stormwater pipes. Consequently, calculating the intercepted runoff depth has become a problem that must be resolved immediately for initial stormwater pollution management. The accurate calculation of intercepted runoff depth provides a solid foundation for selecting the appropriate size of intercepting facilities in drainage and interception projects. This study establishes a separate stormwater system for the Yishan Building watershed of Fuzhou City using the InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (InfoWorks ICM), which can predict the stormwater flow velocity and the flow of discharge outlet after each rainfall. The intercepted runoff depth is calculated from the stormwater quality and environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.1 mm based on stormwater quality. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.4 mm based on the environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The intercepted runoff depth differs when calculated from various aspects. The selection of the intercepted runoff depth depends on the goal of water quality control, the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, and other factors of the region.

  13. Multi-model and multi-scenario assessments of Asian water futures: The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yusuke; Kahil, Taher; Byers, Edward; Burek, Peter; Fischer, Günther; Tramberend, Sylvia; Greve, Peter; Flörke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Nava, Luzma Fabiola; Cosgrove, William; Langan, Simon; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents one of the first quantitative scenario assessments for future water supply and demand in Asia to 2050. The assessment, developed by the Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative, uses the latest set of global climate change and socioeconomic scenarios and state-of-the-art global hydrological models. In Asia, water demand for irrigation, industry, and households is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades (30-40% by 2050 compared to 2010). These changes are expected to exacerbate water stress, especially in the current hotspots such as north India and Pakistan, and north China. By 2050, 20% of the land area in the Asia-Pacific region, with a population of 1.6-2 billion, is projected to experience severe water stress. We find that socioeconomic changes are the main drivers of worsening water scarcity in Asia, with climate change impacts further increasing the challenge into the 21st century. Moreover, a detailed basin-level analysis of the hydro-economic conditions of 40 Asian basins shows that although the coping capacity of all basins is expected to improve due to gross domestic product (GDP) growth, some basins continuously face severe water challenges. These basins will potentially be home to up to 1.6 billion people by mid-21st century.

  14. Numerical study of saturation steam/water mixture flow and flashing initial sub-cooled water flow inside throttling devices

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) approach to model this phenomenon inside throttling devices is proposed. To validate CFD results, different nozzle geometries are analyzed, comparing numerical results with experimental data. Two cases are studied: Case 1: saturation steam/water mixture flow inside 2D convergent-divergent nozzle (inlet, outlet and throat diameter of nozzle are 0.1213m, 0.0452m and 0.0191m respectively). In this benchmark, a range of total inle...

  15. The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  16. A methodological framework to support the initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbe, Johannes; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Adamowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multiple barriers constrain the widespread application of participatory methods in water management, including the more technical focus of most water agencies, additional cost and time requirements for stakeholder involvement, as well as institutional structures that impede collaborative management. This paper presents a stepwise methodological framework that addresses the challenges of context-sensitive initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes. The methodological framework consists of five successive stages: (1) problem framing and stakeholder analysis, (2) process design, (3) individual modeling, (4) group model building, and (5) institutionalized participatory modeling. The Management and Transition Framework is used for problem diagnosis (Stage One), context-sensitive process design (Stage Two) and analysis of requirements for the institutionalization of participatory water management (Stage Five). Conceptual modeling is used to initiate participatory modeling processes (Stage Three) and ensure a high compatibility with quantitative modeling approaches (Stage Four). This paper describes the proposed participatory model building (PMB) framework and provides a case study of its application in Québec, Canada. The results of the Québec study demonstrate the applicability of the PMB framework for initiating and designing participatory model building processes and analyzing barriers towards institutionalization.

  17. Radon 222 and Tritium in the identification and quantification of NAPL contamination in ground water. 2. 222RN, 3H and CL patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molerio Leon, LF; Fernandez Gomez, IM; Carrazana Gonzalez, J A

    2012-01-01

    This is a second and last paper on these theme and presents the typical behavior of Rn 222a nd 3H at the Northern Havana-Matanzas Heavy Oil Belt for the following cases: a) fresh ground waters (unaffected by sea water intrusion), b) fresh ground water affected by isolated advances of sea water intrusion, c) fresh ground water intruded by sea water, d) ground water affected by oil spill and e) ground water affected by produced water spill

  18. PWR water chemistry controls: a perspective on industry initiatives and trends relative to operating experience and the EPRI PWR water chemistry guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzzetti, K.; Choi, S.; Haas, C.; Pender, M.; Perkins, D.

    2010-01-01

    An effective PWR water chemistry control program must address the following goals: Minimize materials degradation (e.g., PWSCC, corrosion of fuel, corrosion damage of steam generator (SG) tubes); Maintain fuel integrity and good performance; Minimize corrosion product transport (e.g., transport and deposition on the fuel, transport into the SGs where it can foul tube surfaces and create crevice environments for the concentration of corrosive impurities); Minimize dose rates. Water chemistry control must be optimized to provide overall improvement considering the sometimes variant constraints of the goals listed above. New technologies are developed for continued mitigation of materials degradation, continued fuel integrity and good performance, continued reduction of corrosion product transport, and continued minimization of plant dose rates. The EPRI chemistry program, in coordination with other EPRI programs, strives to improve these areas through application of chemistry initiatives, focusing on these goals. This paper highlights the major initiatives and issues with respect to PWR primary and secondary system chemistry and outlines the recent, on-going, and proposed work to effectively address them. These initiatives are presented in light of recent operating experience, as derived from EPRI's PWR chemistry monitoring and assessment program, and EPRI's water chemistry guidelines. (author)

  19. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1988-06-01

    The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction - II. Initial catalyst optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR

    1997-12-23

    Full Text Available The initial Raney copper WGS activity based on catalyst volume has been shown to be comparable to industrial and co-precipitated alternatives under varying reaction conditions. The presence of zinc oxide in the Raney copper structure was shown...

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial oxidation of uranium metal in oxygen+water-vapour mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, G.C.; Tucker, P.M.; Lewis, R.A. (Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley (UK). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.)

    1984-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (X.p.s.) has been used to study the chemical nature of the oxide film initially produced on clean uranium metal in oxygen + water-vapour atmospheres. The rate of reaction has been monitored and the nature of the surface film determined. From a consideration of the O 1s and U 4f X.p. spectra it has been possible to advance a mechanism which explains the complex nature of the surface oxide and the lack of satellite structure in the spectra. This is postulated to be a consequence of the way in which OH/sup -/ is involved in the growth of the oxide and the presence of hydrogen in the surface film. The presence of oxygen retards the water oxidation reaction by inhibiting the decomposition of water vapour at the gas/oxide interface.

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the initial oxidation of uranium metal in oxygen+water-vapour mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Tucker, P.M.; Lewis, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (X.p.s.) has been used to study the chemical nature of the oxide film initially produced on clean uranium metal in oxygen + water-vapour atmospheres. The rate of reaction has been monitored and the nature of the surface film determined. From a consideration of the O 1s and U 4f X.p. spectra it has been possible to advance a mechanism which explains the complex nature of the surface oxide and the lack of satellite structure in the spectra. This is postulated to be a consequence of the way in which OH - is involved in the growth of the oxide and the presence of hydrogen in the surface film. The presence of oxygen retards the water oxidation reaction by inhibiting the decomposition of water vapour at the gas/oxide interface. (author)

  3. National uranium project - an initiative to generate national database on uranium in drinking water of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Jha, V.N.; Kumar, Ajay; Patra, A.C.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2018-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring lithophilic heavy element found in earth crust since inception of the earth. It is present naturally in all rock and soil and the concentration depends on geological formation and local geology. Groundwater interact with the host rocks and the wet weathering process facilitate the solubility of uranium in groundwater. The concentration of uranium in groundwater is influenced by geo-chemical parameters such as host rock characteristics and pH, Eh, ORP, ligands, etc. of the interacting water medium. Uranium is a radioactive element of low specific activity (25 Bq/mg) having both chemical and radiological toxicity but its chemical toxicity supersede the radio-toxicity. After a reporting of high uranium content in drinking water of Punjab, BARC has taken a pro-active initiative to generate a national database on uranium in drinking water in all the districts of India under National Uranium Project (NUP)

  4. Quantification of the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish boiling water reactors. A scoping study performed for the APRI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, T.; Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1995-07-01

    Results of a scoping study to quantify the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish BWRs are reported. The study considers that a pool of water is established in the containment prior to vessel failure, as prescribed by the accident management scheme for the newer Swedish BWRs. The integrated methodology developed and employed combines probabilistic and deterministic treatment of the various melt-structure-water interaction processes occurring in sequence. The potential steam explosion, and the melt attack on the containment basemat, are treated with enveloping analyses. Uncertain parameters in the models and the initial conditions are treated with Monte Carlo simulations. Independent models are developed for melt coolability and possible attack on the concrete basemat. It is found that, with current models, the melt discharge scenarios, in which a large amount of accumulated melt may be released from the vessel, could subject the containment to large steam explosion loads. However, the uncertainties are so large that no definite conclusion can be drawn. The assessment of ex-vessel core debris coolability is disturbed by similar phenomenological uncertainties. Presently, coolability of the core debris can not be demonstrated. 133 refs

  5. Quantification of the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish boiling water reactors. A scoping study performed for the APRI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T; Dinh, T N; Bui, V A; Sehgal, B R [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    Results of a scoping study to quantify the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish BWRs are reported. The study considers that a pool of water is established in the containment prior to vessel failure, as prescribed by the accident management scheme for the newer Swedish BWRs. The integrated methodology developed and employed combines probabilistic and deterministic treatment of the various melt-structure-water interaction processes occurring in sequence. The potential steam explosion, and the melt attack on the containment basemat, are treated with enveloping analyses. Uncertain parameters in the models and the initial conditions are treated with Monte Carlo simulations. Independent models are developed for melt coolability and possible attack on the concrete basemat. It is found that, with current models, the melt discharge scenarios, in which a large amount of accumulated melt may be released from the vessel, could subject the containment to large steam explosion loads. However, the uncertainties are so large that no definite conclusion can be drawn. The assessment of ex-vessel core debris coolability is disturbed by similar phenomenological uncertainties. Presently, coolability of the core debris can not be demonstrated. 133 refs.

  6. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S... Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the... power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2012-0293 about the availability of information...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Implementation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-specific modifications that result in less stringent criteria must be based on a sound scientific rationale... Handbook, Second Edition—Revised (1994). b. Less stringent site-specific modifications to chronic or acute...-specific criteria is provided in Chapter 3 of the U.S. EPA Water Quality Standards Handbook, Second Edition...

  8. Thermomechanical damage of nucleosome by the shock wave initiated by ion passing through liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov’yov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of full-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the heat spike in the water medium caused by the propagation of the heavy ion in the vicinity of its Bragg peak. High rate of energy transfer from an ion to the molecules of surrounding water environment leads to the rapid increase of the temperature of the molecules in the vicinity of ions trajectory. As a result of an abrupt increase of the temperature we observe the formation of the nanoscale shock wave propagating through the medium. We investigate the thermomechanical damage caused by the shock wave to the nucleosome located in the vicinity of heavy ion trajectory. We observe the substantial deformation of the DNA secondary structure. We show that the produced shock wave can lead to the thermomechanical breakage of the DNA backbone covalent bonds and present estimates for the number of such strand brakes per one cell nucleus.

  9. Analysis of Ventilation Regimes of the Oblique Wedge-Shaped Surface Piercing Hydrofoil During Initial Water Entry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadimi Parviz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The suction side of a surface piercing hydrofoil, as a section of a Surface Piercing Propeller (SPP, is usually exposed to three phases of flow consisting air, water, and vapour. Hence, ventilation and cavitation pattern of such section during the initial phase of water entry plays an essential role for the propeller’s operational curves. Accordingly, in the current paper a numerical simulation of a simple surface piercing hydrofoil in the form of an oblique wedge is conducted in three-phase environment by using the coupled URANS and VOF equations. The obtained results are validated against water entry experiments and super-cavitation tunnel test data. The resulting pressure curves and free surface profiles of the wedge water entry are presented for different velocity ratios ranging from 0.12 to 0.64. Non-dimensional forces and efficiency relations are defined in order to present the wedge water entry characteristics. Congruent patterns are observed between the performance curves of the propeller and the wedge in different fully ventilated or partially cavitated operation modes. The transition trend from fully ventilated to partially cavitated operation of the surface piercing section of a SPP is studied and analyzed through wedge’s performance during the transitional period.

  10. An Initial Classification of Neotropical Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia Based on Habitat Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing classifications of benthic and interstitial freshwater invertebrates are described and discussed. A classification is proposed for southern neotropical (south of latitude S 15 water mites in relation to their life style and habitat preferences. The classification includes planktonic, superficial, benthic, thermal, and subterranean forms. The diversity of the Hydrachnidia family and genera (22 families, 97 genera, and 521 species is then analyzed using the new classification. Ubiquitous stygobites deserve special consideration because they move through ecotone zones and tolerate extreme conditions. Water mite communities from a north-western Argentinean stream were first described using a surber net and consequently considered as benthic. Nineteen Hydrachnidia species (from benthic to stygobite were collected and classified. The vertical distribution observed during the year confirmed the permanent presence of benthic Hydrachnidia, even during the first flood, which is of special importance in running waters. The functional classification we propose will facilitate comparison of fauna from different areas that have different faunistic composition but may have similar functional distribution.

  11. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  12. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modernized CDTN's air-water experimental test circuit: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Mácio A.; Sobrinho, Mauricio R. da S.; Salomão, Eduardo A.; Ferreira, Arthur F.J.; Navarro, Moysés A.; Santos, André A. Campagnole dos, E-mail: marcioaraujopessoa@gmail.com, E-mail: mauricio.sobrinho223@gmail.com, E-mail: e.a.salomao@gmail.com, E-mail: arthur1303@gmail.com, E-mail: moysesnavarro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) phenomenon, specifically the control that the gas exerts in a liquid flow in the opposite direction, is of real importance in the study of design and operation of various industrial sectors, particularly the nuclear industry. In nuclear engineering, such a phenomenon can occur in a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) when there is the need to re-flood the reactor core during an emergency cooling process. The CCFL phenomenon is being investigated at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) thermo-hydraulics laboratory in order to better understand the flow and its limitations and thereby contribute to the improvement of its modeling for analysis of severe accidents. For this, a series of experiments were performed in CDTN in a reduced scale acrylic test section of the 'hot leg' of a PWR. The new proposed circuit is a closed loop and no water has to be discharged during the experiment. This is only possible due to the Python program, which is associated to the data acquisition system and can interface with the automated valves through the outputs of the data acquisition board to control the experiment. The trials compare the CCFL behavior for 500mm lengths of the horizontal section, for inclined duct slope 50° for a diameter of 54mm pipe's diameter. This paper describes the new tests in comparison to tests performed in the past. (author)

  14. Modernized CDTN's air-water experimental test circuit: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Mácio A.; Sobrinho, Mauricio R. da S.; Salomão, Eduardo A.; Ferreira, Arthur F.J.; Navarro, Moysés A.; Santos, André A. Campagnole dos

    2017-01-01

    The Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) phenomenon, specifically the control that the gas exerts in a liquid flow in the opposite direction, is of real importance in the study of design and operation of various industrial sectors, particularly the nuclear industry. In nuclear engineering, such a phenomenon can occur in a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) when there is the need to re-flood the reactor core during an emergency cooling process. The CCFL phenomenon is being investigated at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) thermo-hydraulics laboratory in order to better understand the flow and its limitations and thereby contribute to the improvement of its modeling for analysis of severe accidents. For this, a series of experiments were performed in CDTN in a reduced scale acrylic test section of the 'hot leg' of a PWR. The new proposed circuit is a closed loop and no water has to be discharged during the experiment. This is only possible due to the Python program, which is associated to the data acquisition system and can interface with the automated valves through the outputs of the data acquisition board to control the experiment. The trials compare the CCFL behavior for 500mm lengths of the horizontal section, for inclined duct slope 50° for a diameter of 54mm pipe's diameter. This paper describes the new tests in comparison to tests performed in the past. (author)

  15. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  16. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study

  17. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    , multiple development goals can be reinforced by specific climate funding granted on the basis of multiple benefits and synergies, for instance through currently negotiated mechanisms such as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) (REDD+, Kissinger et al 2012). 3. Challenges to quantifying GHG information for the agricultural sector The quantification of GHG emissions from agriculture is fundamental to identifying mitigation solutions that are consistent with the goals of achieving greater resilience in production systems, food security, and rural welfare. GHG emissions data are already needed for such varied purposes as guiding national planning for low-emissions development, generating and trading carbon credits, certifying sustainable agriculture practices, informing consumers' choices with regard to reducing their carbon footprints, assessing product supply chains, and supporting farmers in adopting less carbon-intensive farming practices. Demonstrating the robustness, feasibility, and cost effectiveness of agricultural GHG inventories and monitoring is a necessary technical foundation for including agriculture in the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and is needed to provide robust data and methodology platforms for global corporate supply-chain initiatives (e.g., SAFA, FAO 2012). Given such varied drivers for GHG reductions, there are a number of uses for agricultural GHG information, including (1) reporting and accounting at the national or company level, (2) land-use planning and management to achieve specific objectives, (3) monitoring and evaluating impact of management, (4) developing a credible and thus tradable offset credit, and (5) research and capacity development. The information needs for these uses is likely to differ in the required level of certainty, scale of analysis, and need for comparability across systems or repeatability over time, and they may depend on whether

  18. Role of cavity formation in SCC of cold worked carbon steel in high-temperature water. Part 2. Study of crack initiation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takuyo; Aoki, Masanori; Miyamoto, Tomoki; Arioka, Koji

    2013-01-01

    To consider the role of cavity formation in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked (CW) carbon steel in high-temperature water, SCC and creep growth (part 1) and initiation (part 2) tests were performed. The part 2 crack initiation tests used blunt notched compact tension (CT) type specimens of CW carbon steel exposed under the static load condition in hydrogenated pure water and in air in the range of temperatures between 360 and 450°C. Inter-granular (IG) crack initiation was observed both in water and in air even in static load condition when steel specimens had been cold worked. 1/T type temperature dependencies of initiation times were observed for CW carbon steel, and the crack initiation times in an operating pressurized heavy water reactor, PHWR (Pt Lepreau) seemed to lie on the extrapolated line of the experimental results. Cavities were identified at the grain boundaries near the bottom of a notch (highly stressed location) before cracks initiated both in water and air. The cavities were probably formed by the condensation of vacancies and they affected the bond strength of the grain boundaries. To assess the mechanism of IGSCC initiation in high temperature water, the diffusion of vacancies driven by stress gradients was studied using a specially designed CT specimen. As a model for IGSCC in CW carbon steel in high temperature water, it was concluded that the formation of cavities from the collapse of vacancies offers the best interpretation of the present data. (author)

  19. A potential environment for lasing below 15 nm initiated by exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Štraus, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2010), s. 61-67 ISSN 0263-0346. [International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology/4th./. Kathmandu, Nepal, 06.04.2009-10.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA AV ČR KJB100430702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : exploding wire in water * modeling of wire explosion * measurement of H-alpha line profile Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2010 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=7482804&jid=LPB&volumeId=28&issueId=01&aid=7482796

  20. Expressional Changes of Water Transport-related Molecules in the Efferent Ductules and Initial Segment of Mouse Treated with Bisphenol A-Containing Drinking Water for Two Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Yong; Lee, Ki-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disrupter. However, depending on a way of treatment, the harmful effects of BPA have not been confirmed. Also, trans-generational effects of BPA on male reproduction are still controversial. Because the reabsorption of testicular fluid in the efferent ductules (ED) and initial segment (IS) is important for sperm maturation, the present study was designed to determine trans-generational effect of BPA administrated orally on expression of water transport-related molecules in the mouse ED and IS. Ethanol-dissolved BPA was diluted in water to be 100 ng (low), 10 μg (medium), and 1 mg/Ml water (high). BPA-containing water was provided for two generations. Expression of ion transporters and water channels in the ED and IS were measured by relative real-time PCR analysis. In the ED, BPA treatment caused expressional increases of carbonic anhydrase II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α1 subunit, and aquaporin (AQP) 1. No change of Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) 3 expression was detected. BPA treatment at medium dose resulted in an increase of AQP9 expression. In the IS, the highest expressional levels of all molecules tested were observed in medium-dose BPA treatment. Generally, high-dose BPA treatment resulted in a decrease or no change of gene expression. Fluctuation of NHE3 gene expression by BPA treatment at different concentrations was detected. These findings suggest that trans-generational exposure to BPA, even at low dose, could affect gene expression of water-transport related molecules. However, such effects of BPA would be differentially occurred in the ED and IS.

  1. Lanthanum-modified drinking water treatment residue for initial rapid and long-term equilibrium phosphorus immobilization to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wu, Yu; Wang, Youquan; Bai, Leilei; Jiang, Helong; Yu, Juhua

    2018-06-15

    This study presents an approach for developing inactivating materials to achieve an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P immobilization to control eutrophication based on drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), which is a byproduct of potable water production. By taking advantage of the long-term equilibrium P adsorption by DWTR, the La chemical properties, and the previous success of using La-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock ® ), we used DWTR as a La carrier with different ratios to develop the specific materials. The La loading mechanisms, the potentially toxic effect of La-modified DWTR on snail Bellamya aeruginosa (within 120 d), and the short- and long-term (within 80 d) P immobilization characteristics of the modified DWTR were investigated to understand the performance of the developed materials. The results showed that La loading into DWTR was based on ligand exchanges and the formation of new particles; DWTR loaded with <5% La had no toxicity against the snail. Most importantly, the loading of 5% La to DWTR substantially enhanced the rapid immobilization capacity of DWTR, achieving an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P adsorption in aqueous solutions. This study promotes the beneficial recycling of DWTR and results in a win-win situation for lake restoration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent initiatives to improve tailings and water management in the expanding Australian uranium milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.; Woods, P.H.; Muller, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety related changes that have recently occurred, or are about to be implemented in the Australian uranium milling industry. There are several drivers for these changes. The most important are the significant expansions to the Ranger and Olympic Dam uranium mills, the mining of a new orebody at Ranger and Government permission for the development of the Jabiluka deposit. The major changes in the operation of mines relate to the conservation and recycle of water, an important environmental issue in the arid country surrounding the Olympic Dam deposit, and tailings disposal strategies recently adopted or under consideration. These strategies include methods such as central thickened discharge, and cemented paste-fill for both underground and above ground disposal. The new ICRP 60 recommendations concerning radiation exposure have not been of major concern to the Australian industry, as dose rates have been historically less than the new limits. Current and expected dose rates are discussed in the context of these recommendations. (author)

  3. Initial experimental evaluation of crud-resistant materials for light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumnernchanvanit, I.; Zhang, N. Q.; Robertson, S.; Delmore, A.; Carlson, M. B.; Hussey, D.; Short, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The buildup of fouling deposits on nuclear fuel rods, known as crud, continues to challenge the worldwide fleet of light water reactors (LWRs). Crud causes serious operational problems for LWRs, including axial power shifts, accelerated fuel clad corrosion, increased primary circuit radiation dose rates, and in some instances has led directly to fuel failure. Numerous studies continue to attempt to model and predict the effects of crud, but each assumes that it will always be present. In this study, we report on the development of crud-resistant materials as fuel cladding coatings, to reduce or eliminate these problems altogether. Integrated loop testing experiments at flowing LWR conditions show significantly reduced crud adhesion and surface crud coverage, respectively, for TiC and ZrN coatings compared to ZrO2. The loop testing results roughly agree with the London dispersion component of van der Waals force predictions, suggesting that they contribute most significantly to the adhesion of crud to fuel cladding in out-of-pile conditions. These results motivate a new look at ways of reducing crud, thus avoiding many expensive LWR operational issues.

  4. Quantification in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena 2 - Main problems impacting quantification in PET and SPECT: problems, consequences, correction methods, results (Attenuation, scattering, partial volume effect, movement, un-stationary spatial resolution in SPECT, fortuitous coincidences in PET, standardisation in PET); 3 - Synthesis: accessible efficiency, know-how, Precautions, beyond the activity measurement

  5. Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity in water diffusivity to differentiate malignant from benign tissues of urinary bladder: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen T; Shah, Zarine K; Mortazavi, Amir; Pohar, Kamal S; Wei, Lai; Jia, Guang; Zynger, Debra L; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the heterogeneity of the tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using voxel-based analysis to differentiate malignancy from benign wall thickening of the urinary bladder. Nineteen patients with histopathological findings of their cystectomy specimen were included. A data set of voxel-based ADC values was acquired for each patient's lesion. Histogram analysis was performed on each data set to calculate uniformity (U) and entropy (E). The k-means clustering of the voxel-wised ADC data set was implemented to measure mean intra-cluster distance (MICD) and largest inter-cluster distance (LICD). Subsequently, U, E, MICD, and LICD for malignant tumours were compared with those for benign lesions using a two-sample t-test. Eleven patients had pathological confirmation of malignancy and eight with benign wall thickening. Histogram analysis showed that malignant tumours had a significantly higher degree of ADC heterogeneity with lower U (P = 0.016) and higher E (P = 0.005) than benign lesions. In agreement with these findings, k-means clustering of voxel-wise ADC indicated that bladder malignancy presented with significantly higher MICD (P bladder cancer. • Heterogeneity is an intrinsic characteristic of tumoral tissue. • Non-invasive quantification of tumour heterogeneity can provide adjunctive information to improve cancer diagnosis accuracy. • Histogram analysis and k-means clustering can quantify tumour diffusion heterogeneity. • The quantification helps differentiate malignant from benign urinary bladder tissue.

  6. The initial step of silicate versus aluminosilicate formation in zeolite synthesis: a reaction mechanism in water with a tetrapropylammonium template

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Thuat T.

    2012-01-01

    The initial step for silicate and aluminosilicate condensation is studied in water in the presence of a realistic tetrapropylammonium template under basic conditions. The model corresponds to the synthesis conditions of ZSM5. The free energy profile for the dimer formation ((OH) 3Si-O-Si-(OH) 2O - or [(OH) 3Al-O-Si-(OH) 3] -) is calculated with ab initio molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration. The Si-O-Si dimer formation occurs in a two-step manner with an overall free energy barrier of 75 kJ mol -1. The first step is associated with the Si-O bond formation and results in an intermediate with a five-coordinated Si, and the second one concerns the removal of the water molecule. The template is displaced away from the Si centres upon dimer formation, and a shell of water molecules is inserted between the silicate and the template. The main effect of the template is to slow down the backward hydrolysis reaction with respect to the condensation one. The Al-O-Si dimer formation first requires the formation of a metastable precursor state by proton transfer from Si(OH) 4 to Al(OH) 4 - mediated by a solvent molecule. It then proceeds through a single step with an overall barrier of 70 kJ mol -1. The model with water molecules explicitly included is then compared to a simple calculation using an implicit continuum model for the solvent. The results underline the importance of an explicit and dynamical treatment of the water solvent, which plays a key role in assisting the reaction. © the Owner Societies 2012.

  7. Potential for hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic populations to initiate biofilm formation in oligotrophic, deep terrestrial subsurface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofen; Pedersen, Karsten; Edlund, Johanna; Eriksson, Lena; Åström, Mats; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2017-03-23

    Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we showed that planktonic and attached populations were dissimilar while gene frequencies in the metagenomes suggested that hydrogen-fed, carbon dioxide- and nitrogen-fixing populations were responsible for biofilm formation across the two aquifers. Metagenome analyses further suggested that only a subset of the populations were able to attach and produce an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Initial biofilm formation is thus likely to be mediated by a few bacterial populations which were similar to Epsilonproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. Populations potentially capable of attaching to a surface and to produce extracellular polysaccharide matrix for attachment were identified in the terrestrial deep biosphere. Our results suggest that the biofilm populations were taxonomically distinct from the planktonic community and were enriched in populations with a chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic metabolism coupling hydrogen oxidation to energy conservation under oligotrophic conditions.

  8. PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Control Status: A Summary of Industry Initiatives, Experience and Trends Relative to the EPRI PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzzetti, Keith; Choi, Samuel

    2012-09-01

    The latest revision of the EPRI Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines was issued in February 2009. The Guidelines continue to focus on minimizing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator tubes, as well as minimizing degradation of other major components / subsystems of the secondary system. The Guidelines provide a technically-based framework for a plant-specific and effective PWR secondary water chemistry program. With the issuance of Revision 7 of the Guidelines in 2009, many plants have implemented changes that allow greater flexibility on startup. For example, the previous Guidelines (Revision 6) contained a possible low power hold at 5% power and a possible mid power hold at approximately 30% power based on chemistry constraints. Revision 7 has established a range over which a plant-specific value can be chosen for the possible low power hold (between 5% and 15%) and mid power hold (between 30% and 50%). This has provided plants the ability to establish significant plant evolutions prior to reaching the possible power hold; such as establishing seal steam to the condenser, placing feed pumps in service, or initiating forward flow of heater drains. The application of this flexibility in the industry will be explored. This paper also highlights the major initiatives and industry trends with respect to PWR secondary chemistry; and outlines the recent work to effectively address them. These will be presented in light of recent operating experience, as derived from EPRI's PWR Chemistry Monitoring and Assessment (CMA) program (which contains more than 400 cycles of operating chemistry data). (authors)

  9. Florida's ground water quality monitoring program: background hydrogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Gary; Upchurch, Sam; Lloyd, Jacqueline; Scott, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the initial quantification of background water quality in each of the state's major potable aquifer systems. Results are presented and interpreted in light of the influencing factors which locally and regionally affect ambient ground-water quality. This initial data will serve as a baseline from which future sampling results can be compared. Future sampling of the Network will indicate the extent to which Flori...

  10. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  11. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The initiation of excess power and possible products of nuclear interactions during the electrolysis of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.D.; Mrochek, J.E.; Scott, T.C.; Michaels, G.E.; Newman, E.; Petek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electrolysis of heavy water is being investigated with an insulated flow calorimetric system. The electrolyte was 0.1 to 1.0 N LiOD in D 2 O and cylindrical palladium cathodes surrounded by wire-wound platinum anodes have been used at cathode current densities of 100 to 800 mA/cm 2 . The most recent test has been made with a ''closed system'' without off-gal in which the electrolysis gases were internally recombined. Fast neutrons and gamma rays were measured continuously during the tests. It was shown that certain system perturbations could initiate and extend generation of excess power. In one test, there was an apparent increase in the neutron count rate that was also coincident with system perturbations. 4 refs., 6 figs

  13. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide the technical information and rationale in support of the proposed procedures to determine bioaccumulation factors. Bioaccumulation factors, together with the quantity of aquatic organisms eaten, determine the extent to which people and wildlife are exposed to chemicals through the consumption of aquatic organisms. The more bioaccumulative a pollutant is, the more important the consumption of aquatic organisms becomes as a potential source of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Bioaccumulation factors are needed to determine both human health and wildlife tier I water quality criteria and tier II values. Also, they are used to define Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern among the Great Lakes Initiative universe of pollutants. Bioaccumulation factors range from less than one to several million

  14. Quantification of long-term wastewater fluxes at the surface water/groundwater-interface: an integrative model perspective using stable isotopes and acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, I; Barth, J A C; Bol, R; Schulz, M; Ternes, T A; Schüth, C; van Geldern, R

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of acesulfame to trace wastewater-related surface water fluxes from streams into the hyporheic and riparian zones over long-term periods was investigated. The transport behavior of acesulfame was compared with the transport of water stable isotopes (δ(18)O or δ(2)H). A calibrated model based on a joint inversion of temperature, acesulfame, and piezometric pressure heads was employed in a model validation using data sets of acesulfame and water stable isotopes collected over 5months in a stream and groundwater. The spatial distribution of fresh water within the groundwater resulting from surface water infiltration was estimated by computing groundwater ages and compared with the predicted acesulfame plume obtained after 153day simulation time. Both, surface water ratios calculated with a mixing equation from water stable isotopes and simulated acesulfame mass fluxes, were investigated for their ability to estimate the contribution of wastewater-related surface water inflow within groundwater. The results of this study point to limitations for the application of acesulfame to trace surface water-groundwater interactions properly. Acesulfame completely missed the wastewater-related surface water volumes that still remained in the hyporheic zone under stream-gaining conditions. In contrast, under stream-losing conditions, which developed after periods of stagnating hydraulic exchange, acesulfame based predictions lead to an overestimation of the surface water volume of up to 25% in the riparian zone. If slow seepage velocities prevail a proportion of acesulfame might be stored in smaller pores, while when released under fast flowing water conditions it will travel further downstream with the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, under such conditions acesulfame can be a less-ideal tracer in the hyporheic and riparian zones and additional monitoring with other environmental tracers such as water stable isotopes is highly recommended. © 2013 Elsevier

  15. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range under atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reichert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a first quantification of the near-infrared (NIR water vapor continuum absorption from an atmospheric radiative closure experiment carried out at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.. Continuum quantification is achieved via radiative closure using radiometrically calibrated solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR absorption spectra covering the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range. The dry atmospheric conditions at the Zugspitze site (IWV 1.4 to 3.3 mm enable continuum quantification even within water vapor absorption bands, while upper limits for continuum absorption can be provided in the centers of window regions. Throughout 75 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range, the Zugspitze results agree within our estimated uncertainty with the widely used MT_CKD 2.5.2 model (Mlawer et al., 2012. In the wings of water vapor absorption bands, our measurements indicate about 2–5 times stronger continuum absorption than MT_CKD, namely in the 2800 to 3000 cm−1 and 4100 to 4200 cm−1 spectral ranges. The measurements are consistent with the laboratory measurements of Mondelain et al. (2015, which rely on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CDRS, and the calorimetric–interferometric measurements of Bicknell et al. (2006. Compared to the recent FTIR laboratory studies of Ptashnik et al. (2012, 2013, our measurements are consistent within the estimated errors throughout most of the spectral range. However, in the wings of water vapor absorption bands our measurements indicate typically 2–3 times weaker continuum absorption under atmospheric conditions, namely in the 3200 to 3400, 4050 to 4200, and 6950 to 7050 cm−1 spectral regions.

  16. Application of the GRAAL model to leaching experiments with SON68 nuclear glass in initially pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frugier, P.; Chave, T.; Gin, S.; Lartigue, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass we have proposed a mechanistic model, GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) [P. Frugier, S. Gin, Y. Minet, T. Chave, B. Bonin, N. Godon, J.E. Lartigue, P. Jollivet, A. Ayral, L. De Windt, G. Santarini, J. Nucl. Mater. 380 (2008) 8]. This article describes how the GRAAL model hypotheses are solved using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport. The geochemical solution of this model combines three major phenomena: chemical equilibria in solution, water and ion transport by convection or diffusion, and element diffusion through the passivating reactive interphase. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, the glass surface area in contact with solution, and the solution renewal rate. This success is due to the fact that the diffusion of elements through the alteration gel is taken into account in the model. This mechanism cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution pH - and must therefore be an integral part of the geochemical model.

  17. Management of rural drinking water supplies and waste using the participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) initiative in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) and how the methodology can be taken to scale. It uses the Zimbabwe experience and highlights some of the benefits in the application of PHAST, conditions necessary for scaling up and possible constraints. The PHAST initiative started off as a pilot process seeking to promote improved hygiene behaviour and promotion of sanitation. Having successfully piloted PHAST, Zimbabwe has scaled up the use of the methodology at a country level. While impact studies have not yet been conducted, reviews of the effects of the process have indicated positive behaviour change in such areas as management of water, construction and use of latrines. The process has also led to a change of institutional approaches in planning for improved water and sanitation from supply driven projects to demand responsive approaches. Some lessons learnt have included the need for baseline surveys at the start of the use of PHAST, the difficulty in developing monitoring indicators and hence difficulty in measuring impacts. Conclusions being drawn using assessment studies are that the use of participatory approaches has led to improved hygiene behaviour with communities being able to link causes and effects. The use of participatory methods also necessitates a change in institutional approaches from supply driven approaches to demand responsiveness. Other lessons drawn were related to the creation of an enabling environment for the application of participatory processes. Such enabling environment includes capacity building, resource allocation, policy and institutional support.

  18. Quantification by Raman spectroscopy of the gamma radiation effects in water purification; Cuantificacion por espectroscopia Raman de los efectos de la radiacion gamma en la purificacion de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez C, V M; Santiago J, P; Castano, V M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The world problem about water pollution has been confronted by traditional methods such as: chlorination, filtration, etc. In this work is presented an alternative method, which consists in to radiate different concentrations of simulated polluted water (purified water + thinner) at different gamma radiation doses. The structural changes were analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Using a 52.5 Krad dose it was possible to eliminate all the thinner chemical linkages, which appear in the Raman spectra corresponding to the 87.5/12.5 water/thinner mixture. (Author)

  19. Quantification of the impacts of climate change and human agricultural activities on oasis water requirements in an arid region: a case study of the Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingran; Shen, Yanjun

    2018-03-01

    Ecological deterioration in arid regions caused by agricultural development has become a global issue. Understanding water requirements of the oasis ecosystems and the influences of human agricultural activities and climate change is important for the sustainable development of oasis ecosystems and water resource management in arid regions. In this study, water requirements of the main oasis in Heihe River basin during 1986-2013 were analyzed and the amount showed a sharp increase from 10.8 × 108 m3 in 1986 to 19.0 × 108 m3 in 2013. Both human agricultural activities and climate change could lead to the increase in water requirement. To quantify the contributions of agricultural activities and climate change to the increase in water requirements, partial derivative and slope method were used. Results showed that climate change and human agricultural activities, such as oasis expansion and changes in land cropping structure, has contributed to the increase in water requirement at rates of 6.9, 58.1, and 25.3 %, respectively. Overall, human agricultural activities were the dominant forces driving the increase in water requirement. In addition, the contribution of oasis expanding to the increased water requirement was significantly greater than that of other concerned variables. This reveals that controlling the oasis scale is extremely important and effective for balancing water for agriculture and ecosystems and to achieving a sustainable oasis development in arid regions.

  20. Quantification of long-term wastewater fluxes at the surface water/groundwater-interface: An integrative model perspective using stable isotopes and acesulfame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, I., E-mail: i.engelhardt@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere — IBG-3 (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute of Applied Geosciences (Germany); Barth, J.A.C. [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Bol, R. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere — IBG-3 (Germany); Schulz, M.; Ternes, T.A. [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) (Germany); Schüth, C. [Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute of Applied Geosciences (Germany); van Geldern, R. [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of acesulfame to trace wastewater-related surface water fluxes from streams into the hyporheic and riparian zones over long-term periods was investigated. The transport behavior of acesulfame was compared with the transport of water stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O or δ{sup 2}H). A calibrated model based on a joint inversion of temperature, acesulfame, and piezometric pressure heads was employed in a model validation using data sets of acesulfame and water stable isotopes collected over 5 months in a stream and groundwater. The spatial distribution of fresh water within the groundwater resulting from surface water infiltration was estimated by computing groundwater ages and compared with the predicted acesulfame plume obtained after 153 day simulation time. Both, surface water ratios calculated with a mixing equation from water stable isotopes and simulated acesulfame mass fluxes, were investigated for their ability to estimate the contribution of wastewater-related surface water inflow within groundwater. The results of this study point to limitations for the application of acesulfame to trace surface water–groundwater interactions properly. Acesulfame completely missed the wastewater-related surface water volumes that still remained in the hyporheic zone under stream-gaining conditions. In contrast, under stream-losing conditions, which developed after periods of stagnating hydraulic exchange, acesulfame based predictions lead to an overestimation of the surface water volume of up to 25% in the riparian zone. If slow seepage velocities prevail a proportion of acesulfame might be stored in smaller pores, while when released under fast flowing water conditions it will travel further downstream with the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, under such conditions acesulfame can be a less-ideal tracer in the hyporheic and riparian zones and additional monitoring with other environmental tracers such as water stable isotopes is highly recommended

  1. Dense shelf water cascading in the northwestern Mediterranean during the cold winter 2005: Quantification of the export through the Gulf of Lion and the Catalan margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Puig, P.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Marsaleix, P.

    2008-01-01

    Dense shelf water cascading in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during winter 2005, which was shown to cause large erosion in the canyons and to influence deep benthic ecosystem, was investigated using numerical modeling validated with temperature and current observations. Intense dense water

  2. Fluorescent quantification of melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Matamá, Teresa; Guimarães, Diana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Melanin quantification is reportedly performed by absorption spectroscopy, commonly at 405 nm. Here, we propose the implementation of fluorescence spectroscopy for melanin assessment. In a typical in vitro assay to assess melanin production in response to an external stimulus, absorption spectroscopy clearly overvalues melanin content. This method is also incapable of distinguishing non-melanotic/amelanotic control cells from those that are actually capable of performing melanogenesis. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is the best method for melanin quantification as it proved to be highly specific and accurate, detecting even small variations in the synthesis of melanin. This method can also be applied to the quantification of melanin in more complex biological matrices like zebrafish embryos and human hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Observation and quantification of water penetration into Strain Hardening Cement-based Composites (SHCC) with multiple cracks by means of neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Wittmann, F.H.; Zhao, T.J.; Lehmann, E.H.; Tian, L.; Vontobel, P.

    2010-01-01

    Durability of reinforced concrete structures has become a crucial issue with respect to economy, ecology and sustainability. One major reason for durability problems of concrete structures is the limited strain capacity of cement-based materials under imposed tensile stress. By adding PVA fibers, a new material named Strain Hardening Cement-based Composites (SHCC) with high strain capacity can be produced. Due to the formation of multiple micro-cracks, wide cracks can be avoided in SHCC under an imposed strain. The high strain capacity, however, is beneficial with respect to durability only if the multi-crack formation in SHCC does not lead to significantly increased water penetration. If water and aggressive chemical compounds such as chlorides and sulfates dissolved in water penetrate into the cement-based matrix and reach the steel reinforcement service-life of reinforced concrete structures will be reduced significantly. In this project, neutron radiography was applied to observe and quantify the process of water penetration into uncracked SHCC and after the multi-crack formation. In addition, water penetration into integral water repellent cracked and uncracked SHCC, which has been produced by adding a silane-based water repellent agent to the fresh SHCC mortar has been investigated. Results will be discussed with respect to durability.

  4. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  5. Verification of RELAP5-3D code in natural circulation loop as function of the initial water inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, C.; Falcone, N.; Bersano, A.; Caramello, M.; Matsushita, T.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2017-11-01

    High safety and reliability of advanced nuclear reactors, Generation IV and Small Modular Reactors (SMR), have a crucial role in the acceptance of these new plants design. Among all the possible safety systems, particular efforts are dedicated to the study of passive systems because they rely on simple physical principles like natural circulation, without the need of external energy source to operate. Taking inspiration from the second Decay Heat Removal system (DHR2) of ALFRED, the European Generation IV demonstrator of the fast lead cooled reactor, an experimental facility has been built at the Energy Department of Politecnico di Torino (PROPHET facility) to study single and two-phase flow natural circulation. The facility behavior is simulated using the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5-3D, which is widely used in nuclear applications. In this paper, the effect of the initial water inventory on natural circulation is analyzed. The experimental time behaviors of temperatures and pressures are analyzed. The experimental matrix ranges between 69 % and 93%; the influence of the opposite effects related to the increase of the volume available for the expansion and the pressure raise due to phase change is discussed. Simulations of the experimental tests are carried out by using a 1D model at constant heat power and fixed liquid and air mass; the code predictions are compared with experimental results. Two typical responses are observed: subcooled or two phase saturated circulation. The steady state pressure is a strong function of liquid and air mass inventory. The numerical results show that, at low initial liquid mass inventory, the natural circulation is not stable but pulsated.

  6. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  7. Chemical and Sensory Quantification of Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Recirculated Aquacultures in Relation to Concentrations in Basin Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikael A.; Hyldig, Grethe; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, aquaculture systems with water recirculation experience increasing problems with microbial taste and odor compounds (TOCs) such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). This study investigated the content of geosmin and MIB in water and the flesh of 200 rainbow trouts from eight...... recirculated aquaculture systems in Denmark. TOC content in the fish flesh was measured by a dynamic headspace extraction method and was evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed significant correlations between TOC content in water and fish and between chemical analysis and sensory perception. When...... geosmin exceeded 20 ng/L in the water, 96% of the fish had an intense muddy flavor, but below 10 ng geosmin/L, 18% of the fish (only 3% in special depuration ponds) had an intense muddy flavor. The results indicate that TOC levels...

  8. Rapid quantification of viable Legionella in nuclear cooling tower waters using filter cultivation, fluorescent in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudart, J; Guillaume, C; Mercier, A; Lebaron, P; Binet, M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive method to quantify viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples. A rapid, culture-based method capable of quantifying as few as 600 Legionella microcolonies per litre within 2 days in industrial waters was developed. The method combines a short cultivation step of microcolonies on GVPC agar plate, specific detection of Legionella cells by a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, and a sensitive enumeration using a solid-phase cytometer. Following optimization of the cultivation conditions, the qualitative and quantitative performance of the method was assessed and the method was applied to 262 nuclear power plant cooling water samples. The performance of this method was in accordance with the culture method (NF-T 90-431) for Legionella enumeration. The rapid detection of viable Legionella in water is a major concern to the effective monitoring of this pathogenic bacterium in the main water sources involved in the transmission of legionellosis infection (Legionnaires' disease). The new method proposed here appears to be a robust, efficient and innovative means for rapidly quantifying cultivable Legionella in cooling tower water samples within 48 h. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very ...

  10. Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX): Descent and initial spreading of Red Sea Water in the northwestern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, A.; Johns, W.; Peters, H.; Fratantoni, D.

    2003-04-01

    Two comprehensive surveys were carried out during 2001 to investigate the dense overflow and initial spreading of Red Sea Water (RSW) in the Gulf of Aden. The cruises were timed to coincide with the climatological maximum (February) and minimum (August) periods of outflow transport. The surveys included high-resolution CTD/lowered ADCP/shipboard ADCP observations in the descending plume and in the western gulf, and trajectories from 50 acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats released at the center of the equilibrated RSW (650 m). The measurements reveal a complicated descending plume structure in the western gulf with three main pathways for the high salinity RSW. Different mixing intensities along these pathways lead to variable penetration depths of the Red Sea plume between 450-900 m in the Gulf of Aden. The observations also revealed the hydrographic and velocity structure of large, energetic, deep-reaching mesoscale eddies in the gulf that fundamentally impact the spreading rates and pathways of RSW. Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed, with horizontal scales up to 250 km and azimuthal speeds as high as 0.5 m/s. The eddies appear to reach nearly to the sea floor and entrain RSW from the western gulf at mid-depth. Post-cruise analysis of SeaWiffs imagery suggests that some of these eddies form in the Indian Ocean and propagate into the gulf.

  11. Global opportunities in land and water use while staying within the safe (and just) operating space: quantifications of interactions and tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, Dieter; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Heck, Vera

    2016-04-01

    Staying within the safe and just operating space as defined by multiple planetary boundaries will be a major challenge especially in view of anticipated future increases in food demand, the potential need for balancing climate change (e.g. through terrestrial carbon dioxide removal) and its impacts, and the water and land demand associated with these goals and measures. This presentation will show simulation results from a comprehensive model-based study on the global potentials of diverse crop management options considered as opportunities to stay within the planetary boundaries for human freshwater use and land-system change. The quantified on-farm options include rainwater harvesting, soil conservation and more efficient irrigation, all of which are designed to use neither more water nor more land for agriculture than is presently the case. Results show that irrigation efficiency improvements could save substantial amounts of water in many river basins (globally 48% of non-productive water consumption in an ambitious scenario), and if rerouted to irrigate neighbouring rainfed systems, could at the same time boost kilocalorie production by 26% globally. Low-tech solutions for small-scale farmers on water-limited croplands show the potential to increase rainfed yields to a similar extent. In combination, such ambitious yet achievable integrated water management strategies could increase global kcal production by 41% and close the water-related yield gap by 62%. Global climate change would have adverse effects on crop yields in many regions, but the improvements in water management quantified here could buffer such effects to a significant degree. Thus, a substantial amount of anticipated future needs for food production could be fulfilled without further approaching / transgressing planetary boundaries. In addition, it will be shown how large-scale biomass plantations for the purpose of terrestrial CO2 removal (climate engineering, potentially implemented should

  12. Plasma-activation of tap water using DBD for agronomy applications: Identification and quantification of long lifetime chemical species and production/consumption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judée, F; Simon, S; Bailly, C; Dufour, T

    2018-04-15

    Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications. For that purpose, colorimetry and acid titrations are performed, considering acid-base equilibria, pH and temperature variations induced during plasma activation. 16 species are quantified and monitored: hydroxide and hydronium ions, ammonia and ammonium ions, orthophosphates, carbonate ions, nitrite and nitrate ions and hydrogen peroxide. The related consumption/production mechanisms are discussed. In parallel, a chemical model of electrical conductivity based on Kohlrausch's law has been developed to simulate the electrical conductivity of the plasma-activated tap water (PATW). Comparing its predictions with experimental measurements leads to a narrow fitting, hence supporting the self-sufficiency of the experimental set, I.e. the fact that all long lifetime radicals of interest present in PATW are characterized. Finally, to evaluate the potential of cold atmospheric plasmas for agriculture applications, tap water has been daily plasma-treated to irrigate lentils seeds. Then, seedlings lengths have been measured and compared with untreated tap water, showing an increase as high as 34.0% and 128.4% after 3 days and 6 days of activation respectively. The interaction mechanisms between plasma and tap water are discussed as well as their positive synergy on

  13. Evaluation of six-point modified dixon and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for fat quantification: a fat-water-iron phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Kei; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Junji; Yoshihara, Chiharu; Tano, Masakatsu; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Saitoh, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate (1) the agreement between the true fat fraction (FF) and proton density FF (PDFF) measured using a six-echo modified Dixon (6mDixon) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and (2) the influence of fat on T2* values. The study was performed using phantoms of varying fat and iron content. Point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with single-echo (S) and multiecho (M) (PRESS-S, PRESS-M, STEAM-S, and STEAM-M) were used for MRS. In phantoms without iron, the agreement between the true FF and measured PDFF was tested using Bland-Altman analysis. The influence of iron on PDFF was evaluated in phantoms with iron. The relationship between the true FF and T2* value was assessed in phantoms without iron, wherein the mean differences (limits of agreement) for each method were as follows: 6mDixon 2.9% (-2.4 to 8.1%); STEAM-S 3.2% (-9.5 to 16.0%); STEAM-M -0.7% (-6.9 to 5.5%); PRESS-S 8.9% (-14.5 to 32.4%); and PRESS-M -5.8% (-18.3 to 6.7%). In the 20% fat phantoms with iron, as iron increased, PDFFs with STEAM-S, PRESS-S, and PRESS-M were considerably overestimated, while, PDFF with STEAM-M was stable at 0.04-0.2 mM iron concentrations (17.2 and 21.4%, respectively), and PDFF with 6mDixon was reliable at even 0.4 mM iron concentration (24.8%). The T2* value showed a negative correlation with the true FF (r = -0.942, P = 0.005). STEAM-M and 6mDixon were reliable methods of fat quantification in the absence of iron, and the T2* value was shortened by fat.

  14. Non-invasive quantification of triglyceride content in steatotic rat livers by (1)H-MRS: when water meets (too much) fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heger, Michal; Marsman, Hendrik A.; Bezemer, Rick; Cloos, Martijn A.; van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between triglyceride (TG) and water in steatotic rat livers and to accordingly test the validity of the currently used steatosis calculation methods from magnetic resonance spectra. The approximations commonly used to derive steatosis degrees

  15. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  16. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: Model development and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R. César; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO 2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land–atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land–atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. - Highlights: • Expanding the SWAT

  17. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: Model development and initial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R. César [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Arnold, Jeffrey G. [Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory USDA-ARS, Temple, TX 76502 (United States); Williams, Jimmy R. [Blackland Research and Extension Center, AgriLIFE Research, 720 E. Blackland Road, Temple, TX 76502 (United States); Srinivasan, Raghavan [Spatial Sciences Laboratory in the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, College Stations, TX 77845 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO{sub 2} emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land–atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land–atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. - Highlights: • Expanding the

  18. Cost-Effective, Insitu Field Measurements for Determining the Water Retention Quantification onBehavior of Individual Right-of-Way Bioswales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; McGillis, W. R.; Hu, R.; Culligan, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) interventions, such as right-of-way bioswales, are being implemented in many urban areas, including New York City, to help mitigate the negative impacts of stormwater runoff. To understand the storm water retention capacity of bioswales, hydrological models, at scales ranging from the tributary area of a single right-of-way bioswale to an entire watershed, are often invoked. The validation and calibration of these models is, however, currently hampered by lack of extensive field measurements that quantify bioswale stormwater retention behaviors for different storm sizes and bioswale configurations. To overcome this problem, three field methods to quantify the water retention capacity of individual bioswales were developed. The methods are potentially applicable to other applications concerned with quantifying flow regimes in urban area. Precise measurements with high time resolutions and low environmental impacts are desired for gauging the hydraulic performance of bioswales, and similar GI configurations. To satisfy these requirements, an in-field measurement method was developed which involved the deployment of acoustic water-level sensors to measure the upstream and downstream water levels of flow into and out of a bioswale located in the Bronx areas of New York City. The measurements were made during several individual storm events. To provide reference flow rates to enable accurate calibration of the acoustic water level measurements, two other conductometry-based methods, which made use of YSI sensors and injected calcium chloride solutions, were also developed and deployed simultaneously with the water level measurements. The suite of data gathered by these methods enabled the development of a relationship between stage-discharge and rainfall intensity, which was then used to obtain the upstream and downstream hydrographs for the individual bioswale for the different storm events. This presentation will describe in detail the

  19. Quantification of polyphenols and evaluation of antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and acetone-water extracts of Libidibia ferrea, Parapiptadenia rigida and Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Assunção Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny; de Souza Neto, Manoel André; da Silva, Giselle Ribeiro; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes

    2014-10-28

    Vast numbers of plant species from northeastern Brazil have not yet been phytochemically or biologically evaluated. The goal of this work was to obtain, characterize and show the antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and acetone-water extracts of Libidibia ferrea, Parapiptadenia rigida and Psidium guajava. The plant material (100g) was dried, and the crude extracts were obtained by using turbo-extraction (10%; w/v) with water or acetone:water (7:3, v/v) as the extraction solvent. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to screen the crude extracts for hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid) and condensed tannins (catechins). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar-diffusion and microdilution methods against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis INCQS 00016, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) as well as Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis INCQS 00258, Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae). To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, a leukocyte migration model was used. Analgesic activity was determined by the hot plate test and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 5%. Parapiptadenia rigida presented the highest amount of total polyphenols (35.82 ± 0.20%), while the greatest catechin content was found in the acetone-water extract of Psidium guajava (EAWPg; 1.04 μg/g). The largest amounts of catechins were found in the aqueous extract of Libidibia ferrea (EALf; 1.07 μg/g) and the acetone-water extract of Parapiptadenia rigida (EAWPr; 1.0 μg/g). All extracts showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The aqueous and acetone-water extracts of Psidium guajava showed the greatest inhibition zones in the agar diffusion tests. In the evaluation of the minimum

  20. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde (PA, rosmarinic acid (RA, and salvianolic acid B (SAB concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  2. Predicting Retear after Repair of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear: Two-Point Dixon MR Imaging Quantification of Fatty Muscle Degeneration-Initial Experience with 1-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Tasaki, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Saya; Ochi, Junko; Starkey, Jay; Hara, Takeshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the degree of preoperative fatty degeneration within muscles, postoperative longitudinal changes in fatty degeneration, and differences in fatty degeneration between patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears who do and those who do not experience a retear after surgery. Materials and Methods This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was conducted in accordance with the Committee for Human Research. Informed consent was obtained. Fifty patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears (18 men, 32 women; mean age, 67.0 years ± 8.0; age range, 41-91 years) were recruited. The degrees of preoperative and postoperative fatty degeneration were quantified by using a two-point Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence; two radiologists measured the mean signal intensity on in-phase [S(In)] and fat [S(Fat)] images. Estimates of fatty degeneration were calculated with "fat fraction" values by using the formula S(Fat)/S(In) within the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles at baseline preoperative and at postoperative 1-year follow-up MR imaging. Preoperative fat fractions in the failed-repair group and the intact-repair group were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The preoperative fat fractions in the supraspinatus muscle were significantly higher in the failed-repair group than in the intact-repair group (37.0% vs 19.5%, P muscle tended to progress at 1 year postoperatively in only the failed-repair group. Conclusion MR imaging quantification of preoperative fat fractions by using a two-point Dixon sequence within the rotator cuff muscles may be a viable method for predicting postoperative retear. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  3. On the Definition Mechanism of Initial Water Rights%初始水权界定机制的比较与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丙毅

    2015-01-01

    水权界定即水权的初次分配及其权利主体的清晰化,是水权配置过程中的首要环节,也是水权交易和水市场形成的基础和前提。水权配置机制主要包括行政机制、市场机制和自主协商机制。利用完全信息静态博弈模型和动态重复博弈模型对水权界定机制进行分析所得出的结论是:私人之间以竞争的方式来界定初始水权,会造成“公地悲剧”,甚至分水冲突的发生;自主协商机制虽然能够在小规模人群之间实现初始水权的分配,但其分水协议不具有强制性约束力,特别是在人数较多的情况下,分水协议更不具有约束力。唯有民主协商基础上的政府行政机制才是水权界定的最佳选择。%To definite the initial water rights means the first allocation of water rights and the clear of water rights owner witch is not only the first step in the process of water rights allocation, but also the basis and premise of water rights trading and water market.The mechanisms of allocation of Water rights generally include administrative mechanism, market mechanism and independent negotiation mechanism.Through the analysis by u-sing the complete information static game model and dynamic game model for water rights distribution mechanism , we concluded that:the competi-tion between private to the way to define the initial water rights , will cause the"tragedy of the commons", even the water conflict;autonomous ne-gotiation mechanism can realize the initial allocation of water rights in small groups , but the water diversion agreement is not mandatory and bind-ing, especially in a large number of cases, the water protocol is not binding.Only on the basis of deliberative democracy, government administrative mechanism is the best choice of the definition of water rights .

  4. Evaluation of initiation behavior of stress corrosion cracking for type 316L stainless steel in high temperature water. Behavior of crack initiation and effects of distribution of plastic strain on crack initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasufumi; Miyahara, Yuichi; Kako, Kenji; Sato, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in components such as the reactor core shroud and primary loop re-circulation piping made of L-grade stainless steel is affected by the properties of surface work hardened layer. Therefore, it is important to clarify the effect of the hardened layer on SCC initiation behavior. In this study, creviced bent beam (CBB) test using specimens made of Type 316L stainless steel with controlled distribution of surface work hardened layer was conducted in a simulated BWR environment in order to evaluate the effect of the controlled layer on SCC initiation behavior. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Micro intergranular SCC of low carbon stainless steel was initiated in 50 hours. (2) In this SCC test, it was found that only micro cracks whose depths were smaller than 50 μm were observed until 250 hours and cracks whose depths were larger than 50 μm were observed after 500 hours. (3) SCC was initiated preferentially on the region with high plastic strain gradient in the specimen with controlled distribution of work hardened layer. (author)

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... If the acute toxicity of the material to aquatic animals has been shown to be related to a water... material to aquatic animals has been shown to be related to a water quality characteristic such as hardness... a material in the water column to which an aquatic community can be exposed briefly without...

  6. Initial three-dimensional neutronics calculations for the EU water cooled lithium-lead test blanket module for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, J.; Poitevin, Y.; Li Puma, A.; Kirov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper summarizes the main results of the initial three-dimensional radiation transport analysis of the EU water-cooled lithium-lead test blanket module performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Estimates of tritium production rate, nuclear energy deposition and cumulative fluence effects such as radiation damage through atomic displacement and production of He and H are presented. (author)

  7. Quantification of 226Ra at environmental relevant levels in natural waters by ICP-MS: Optimization, validation and limitations of an extraction and preconcentration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, François; Foucher, Delphine; Surette, Céline; Clarisse, Olivier

    2017-05-15

    Radium (Ra) at environmental relevant levels in natural waters was determined by ICP-MS after an off-line pre-concentration procedure. The latter consisted of Ra selective elution from potential interfering elements (i.e. other alkaline earth cations: Ba 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) on a series of two different ion exchange resins (AG50W-X8 and Sr-resin). The overall analytical method was optimized according to the instrumental performance, the volume of water sample loaded on resins, and the sample salinity. Longer acquisition time (up to 150 s) was required to ensure stable measurement of Ra by ICP-MS at ultra trace level (1.0pgL -1 ). For a synthetic groundwater spiked with Ra at 10.0pgL -1 , the analytical procedure demonstrated efficient separation of the analyte from its potential interfering elements and a complete recovery, independent of the sample volume tested from 10 up to 100mL. For synthetic seawater spiked at a level of 10.0pgL -1 of Ra, the total load of salts on the two resins should not exceed 0.35g in order to ensure a complete separation and recovery of Ra. The method was validated on natural waters (i.e. groundwater, freshwater and seawater samples) spiked with Ra at different levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0pgL -1 ). Absolute Ra detection limits were determined at 0.020pgL -1 (0.73mBqL -1 ) and 0.12pgL -1 (4.4mBqL -1 ) respectively for 60.0mL of freshwater sample and for 10.0mL of seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of Complex-Based and Magnitude-Based Multiecho Water-Fat Separation for Accurate Quantification of Fat-Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; Hines, Catherine D. G.; McKenzie, Charles A.; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.; Brittain, Jean H.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Multipoint water–fat separation techniques rely on different water–fat phase shifts generated at multiple echo times to decompose water and fat. Therefore, these methods require complex source images and allow unambiguous separation of water and fat signals. However, complex-based water–fat separation methods are sensitive to phase errors in the source images, which may lead to clinically important errors. An alternative approach to quantify fat is through “magnitude-based” methods that acquire multiecho magnitude images. Magnitude-based methods are insensitive to phase errors, but cannot estimate fat-fraction greater than 50%. In this work, we introduce a water–fat separation approach that combines the strengths of both complex and magnitude reconstruction algorithms. A magnitude-based reconstruction is applied after complex-based water–fat separation to removes the effect of phase errors. The results from the two reconstructions are then combined. We demonstrate that using this hybrid method, 0–100% fat-fraction can be estimated with improved accuracy at low fat-fractions. PMID:21695724

  9. Fundamental Analysis of the Linear Multiple Regression Technique for Quantification of Water Quality Parameters from Remote Sensing Data. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H., III

    1977-01-01

    Constituents with linear radiance gradients with concentration may be quantified from signals which contain nonlinear atmospheric and surface reflection effects for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous water bodies provided accurate data can be obtained and nonlinearities are constant with wavelength. Statistical parameters must be used which give an indication of bias as well as total squared error to insure that an equation with an optimum combination of bands is selected. It is concluded that the effect of error in upwelled radiance measurements is to reduce the accuracy of the least square fitting process and to increase the number of points required to obtain a satisfactory fit. The problem of obtaining a multiple regression equation that is extremely sensitive to error is discussed.

  10. Comparative substoichiometric extraction and quantification of mercury in geological water samples with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, R.P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1996-01-01

    The relative extent of extraction of mercury with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates has been studied employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The effect of pH on the extractability of mercury xanthate complexes into chloroform was investigated. Buffer solutions of pH 12, 11, 10, 9 and 5.5 were found to be suitable media for the maximum extraction of mercury as ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthate complexes, respectively. The procedures developed were utilized for the determination of mercury content in standard solutions and geological water samples collected in eight parts of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Evaluation of a cloud point extraction approach for the preconcentration and quantification of trace CuO nanoparticles in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Kelly, Barry C.; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The robustness of cloud point extraction approach was investigated for the analysis of trace CuO NPs in water. • The behavior and fate, and therefore, the recovery of CuO NPs varied substantially under different extraction conditions. • The effects of environmental factors on the NP behavior and extraction were determined and minimized. • Limits of detection of 0.02 and 0.06 μg L −1 were achieved using ICP-MS and GF-AAS, respectively. • Environmental water samples were successfully pre-treated and analyzed. - Abstract: The cloud point extraction (CPE) of commercial copper(II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, mean diameter of 28 nm) in water samples was fully investigated. Factors such as Triton X-114 (TX-114) concentration, pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized. The effects of CuO NP behavior like agglomeration, dissolution, and surface adsorption of natural organic matter, Cu 2+ , and coating chemicals, on its recovery were studied. The results indicated that all the CPE factors had significant effects on the extraction efficiency. An enrichment factor of ∼89 was obtained under optimum CPE conditions. The hydrodynamic diameter of CuO NPs increased to 4–5 μm upon agglomeration of NP-micelle assemblies, and decreased at pH >10.0 at which the extraction efficiency was also lowered. The solubility and therefore, the loss of NPs were greatly enhanced at pH 5 mg C L −1 and Cu 2+ >2 times that of CuO NPs, lowered and enhanced the extraction efficiency, respectively. Pre-treatment of samples with 3% w v −1 of hydrogen peroxide and 10 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid minimized the interferences posed by DOC and Cu 2+ , respectively. The decrease in CPE efficiency was also evident for ligands like poly(ethylene glycol). The TX-114-rich phase could be determined with either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave digestion, or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

  12. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  13. Towards a Better Quantification of Cropland Contribution to Carbon and Water Cycling Using the ORCHIDEE-STICS Ecosystem Model Across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; Viovy, N.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Gervois, S.; Seguin, B.; Bondeau, A.

    2006-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere model ORCHIDEE (itself part of the IPSL Earth System Model) was coupled to a generic crop model, STICS, for quantitative studies of the past and future impact of agriculture on biogeochemical cycles as well as biophysical surface properties at regional scale. This modelling effort resulted in improved simulated crop productivity and fluxes seasonality as compared with site-level Eddy- covariance network data and other field measurements. ORCHIDEE-STICS, driven by gridded climate reconstructions, soil and vegetation forcings was run for the northern hemisphere temperate crops over the last 35 years. Seasonal, interannual, and spatial performance of the model is evaluated against satellite observations, national and sub-national statistical yield records and inverse atmospheric estimates across Europe. We analyse the spatial pattern and temporal development of the extreme 1976 and 2003 years anomalies, compare the two European drought events with each other and quantify their differential impact on carbon sequestration, energy partitioning and water availability in different agricultural ecosystems. We discuss the modelled and observed 2003 ecosystem Net Primary Productivity drop and anomalous carbon source. Simulations over the past century in Europe reproduce the tripling of wheat and corn yields and confirm the driving effect of management on agro-ecosystems productivity vs. climate change and atmospheric CO2 alone.

  14. [Application of robustness test for assessment of the measurement uncertainty at the end of development phase of a chromatographic method for quantification of water-soluble vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssane, B; Bouchafra, H; El Karbane, M; Azougagh, M; Saffaj, T

    2016-05-01

    We propose in this work an efficient way to evaluate the measurement of uncertainty at the end of the development step of an analytical method, since this assessment provides an indication of the performance of the optimization process. The estimation of the uncertainty is done through a robustness test by applying a Placquett-Burman design, investigating six parameters influencing the simultaneous chromatographic assay of five water-soluble vitamins. The estimated effects of the variation of each parameter are translated into standard uncertainty value at each concentration level. The values obtained of the relative uncertainty do not exceed the acceptance limit of 5%, showing that the procedure development was well done. In addition, a statistical comparison conducted to compare standard uncertainty after the development stage and those of the validation step indicates that the estimated uncertainty are equivalent. The results obtained show clearly the performance and capacity of the chromatographic method to simultaneously assay the five vitamins and suitability for use in routine application. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for human health criteria and values (January 1993 draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the human health criteria and values for the Great Lakes is the protection of humans from unacceptable exposure to toxicants from consumption of contaminated fish, drinking water and water related to recreational activities. Emphasis is on the protection of the individual in evaluating toxicity information and its application in the derivation of criteria and values

  16. Level 2 probabilistic event analyses and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an example of quantification of a severe accident phenomenological event is given. The performed analysis for assessment of the probability that the debris released from the reactor vessel was in a coolable configuration in the lower drywell is presented. It is also analysed the assessment of the type of core/concrete attack that would occur. The coolability of the debris ex-vessel evaluation by an event in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Containment Event Tree (CET) and a detailed Decomposition Event Tree (DET) developed to aid in the quantification of this CET event are considered. The headings in the DET selected to represent plant physical states (e.g., reactor vessel pressure at the time of vessel failure) and the uncertainties associated with the occurrence of critical physical phenomena (e.g., debris configuration in the lower drywell) considered important to assessing whether the debris was coolable or not coolable ex-vessel are also discussed

  17. Re-initiation of bottom water formation in the East Sea (Japan Sea) in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Tae; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun; Rho, TaeKeun; Kang, Dong-Jin; Lee, Tongsup; Park, Kyung-Ae; Lobanov, Vyacheslav; Kaplunenko, Dmitry; Tishchenko, Pavel; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2018-01-25

    The East Sea (Japan Sea), a small marginal sea in the northwestern Pacific, is ventilated deeply down to the bottom and sensitive to changing surface conditions. Addressing the response of this marginal sea to the hydrological cycle and atmospheric forcing would be helpful for better understanding present and future environmental changes in oceans at the global and regional scales. Here, we present an analysis of observations revealing a slowdown of the long-term deepening in water boundaries associated with changes of water formation rate. Our results indicate that bottom (central) water formation has been enhanced (reduced) with more (less) oxygen supply to the bottom (central) layer since the 2000s. This paper presents a new projection that allows a three-layered deep structure, which retains bottom water, at least until 2040, contrasting previous results. This projection considers recent increase of slope convections mainly due to the salt supply via air-sea freshwater exchange and sea ice formation and decrease of open-ocean convections evidenced by reduced mixed layer depth in the northern East Sea, resulting in more bottom water and less central water formations. Such vigorous changes in water formation and ventilation provide certain implications on future climate changes.

  18. Investigation into the Mpemba Effect: Variation in the Freezing Time of Water Dependent on Initial Temperature and Purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvedt, Ingrid; Roseberry, Martha; Lehman, Susan

    2009-03-01

    The observation that hot water sometimes appears to freeze more quickly than cold water, known as the Mpemba effect, has generated vigorous debate. Prior research [1] into the Mpemba effect has resulted in conflicting results, due to a variety of observation techniques, multiple definitions of freezing, and different water treatments. To clarify the previous results, we have tested multiple types of water and improved the sample monitoring. During cooling and freezing, each 50 g water sample is continually monitored by three thermistors at different depths. Samples of tap, distilled, and nanopure water were heated, heated and cooled, or boiled before being frozen. We monitor the time to reach freezing, the duration of freezing, and the total time to reach -7^oC. We observe the Mpemba effect most consistently in the length of the freezing transition in tap water. Observations of temperature variation during freezing will also be presented. [1] See the review by M. Jeng, Am.J.Phys. 74 514 (2006).

  19. A simple model for the initial phase of a water plasma cloud about a large structure in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Mogstad, T.

    1988-01-01

    Large structures in the ionosphere will outgas or eject neutral water and perturb the ambient neutral environment. This water can undergo charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions and form a water plasma cloud. Additionally, water dumps or thruster firings can create a water plasma cloud. A simple model for the evolution of a water plasma cloud about a large space structure is obtained. It is shown that if the electron density around a large space structure is substantially enhanced above the ambient density then the plasma cloud will move away from the structure. As the cloud moves away, it will become unstable and will eventually break up into filaments. A true steady state will exist only if the total electron density is unperturbed from the ambient density. When the water density is taken to be consistent with shuttle-based observations, the cloud is found to slowly drift away on a time scale of many tens of milliseconds. This time is consistent with the shuttle observations

  20. Damage analysis of ceramic boron absorber materials in boiling water reactors and initial model for an optimum control rod management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Operating experience has proved so far that BWR control rods cannot be used for the total reactor life time as originally presumed, but instead has to be considered as a consumable article. After only few operating cycles, the mechanism of absorber failure has been shown to be neutron induced boron carbide swelling and stress cracking of the absorber tubes, followed by erosion of the absorber material. In the case that operation of such a control rod is continued in control cells, this can lead to an increase of the local power density distribution in the core and, under certain conditions, can even cause fuel rod damage. A non destructive testing method has been developed called 'UNDERWATER NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY' applicable for any BWR control rod. 'Lead-control rods' being radiographed are used to evaluate their actual nuclear worth by the help of a special analytical procedure developed and verified by the author. Nuclear worth data plotted against bum up history data will allow to create an 'EMPIRIC MODEL'. This model includes the basic idea of operating control rods of a certain design first in a control position up to a target fluence limited to an amount just below the appearance of control rod washout. Afterwards they have to be moved in a shut down position to work therefor the total remaining holding period. The initial model is applicable to any CR-design as long as sufficient measuring-data and thus data about the nuclear worth are available. The results of these experiences are extrapolated to the whole reactor holding period. After modelling no further measurements of this particular control rod type are necessary in any reactor. The second focal point is to provide an APPROXIMATION EQUATION. By knowing the absorber radius, B 4 C density and absorber enclosure data an engineer will calculate reliably the working life of any control rod design on control position. indicated as maximum allowable neutron fluence margin until absorber wash-out starts. This

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  3. Hydroponic Green Farming Initiative : increasing water use efficiency by use of hydroponic cultivation methods in Jordan : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Os, van Erik; Daoud, Raed; Waked, Laith; Hasan, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydroponic Green Farming Initiative was executed in Jordan. Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticultureanalysed the present situation at hydroponic farmers with the aim to adapt and to improve where possibleand to disseminate results and knowledge to other farmers in training sessions. With large amounts

  4. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  5. Non disturbing characterization and quantification of natural organic matter (NOM) contained in clay rock pore water by mass spectrometry using electro-spray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Landesman, C.; Grambow, B.; Rogniaux, H.; Monteau, F.; Vinsot, A.

    2010-01-01

    chemical treatment or sample crushing and for naturally occurring concentrations. Due to the experimental conditions used, the organics features observed are not expected to correspond to a contamination from microbial activity but would rather be representative of the in-situ pore water composition. The structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds, fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. Nonetheless, if one wants to evaluate the impact of this organic matter on the migration of radionuclides, the determination of the concentration of organic molecules in the aqueous media is required. Thus, an in-situ method of quantification has been developed by keeping 2 main factors: no chemical treatment or sample crushing and analysis for naturally occurring concentrations

  6. Evaluation of water security in Jordan using a multi-agent, hydroeconomic model: Initial model results from the Jordan Water Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Rajsekhar, D.; Tilmant, A.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Mustafa, D.; Talozi, S.; Sigel, K.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Our work focuses on development of a multi-agent, hydroeconomic model for water policy evaluation in Jordan. Jordan ranks among the most water-scarce countries in the world, a situation exacerbated due to a recent influx of refugees escaping the ongoing civil war in neighboring Syria. The modular, multi-agent model is used to evaluate interventions for enhancing Jordan's water security, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena with human modules that represent behavior at multiple levels of decision making. The hydrologic modules are developed using spatially-distributed groundwater and surface water models, which are translated into compact simulators for efficient integration into the multi-agent model. For the multi-agent model, we explicitly account for human agency at multiple levels of decision making, with agents representing riparian, management, supplier, and water user groups. Human agents are implemented as autonomous entities in the model that make decisions in relation to one another and in response to hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions. The integrated model is programmed in Python using Pynsim, a generalizable, open-source object-oriented software framework for modeling network-based water resource systems. The modeling time periods include historical (2006-2014) and future (present-2050) time spans. For the historical runs, the model performance is validated against historical data for several observations that reflect the interacting dynamics of both the hydrologic and human components of the system. A historical counterfactual scenario is also constructed to isolate and identify the impacts of the recent Syrian civil war and refugee crisis on Jordan's water system. For the future period, model runs are conducted to evaluate potential supply, demand, and institutional interventions over a wide range of plausible climate and socioeconomic scenarios. In addition, model sensitivity analysis is conducted

  7. An infrared scattering by evaporating droplets at the initial stage of a pool fire suppression by water sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovsky, Leonid A.; Dembele, Siaka; Wen, Jennifer X.

    2018-06-01

    The computational analysis of downward motion and evaporation of water droplets used to suppress a typical transient pool fire shows local regions of a high volume fraction of relatively small droplets. These droplets are comparable in size with the infrared wavelength in the range of intense flame radiation. The estimated scattering of the radiation by these droplets is considerable throughout the entire spectrum except for a narrow region in the vicinity of the main absorption peak of water where the anomalous refraction takes place. The calculations of infrared radiation field in the model pool fire indicate the strong effect of scattering which can be observed experimentally to validate the fire computational model.

  8. Retrospective Methods Analysis of Semiautomated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume Quantification From a Selection of the STICH II Cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Mark D; Gregson, Barbara A; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel F; Mendelow, Alexander David

    2018-02-01

    The ABC/2 method for calculating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume has been well validated. However, the formula, derived from the volume of an ellipse, assumes the shape of ICH is elliptical. We sought to compare the agreement of the ABC/2 formula with other methods through retrospective analysis of a selection of the STICH II cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). From 390 patients, 739 scans were selected from the STICH II image archive based on the availability of a CT scan compatible with OsiriX DICOM viewer. ICH volumes were calculated by the reference standard semiautomatic segmentation in OsiriX software and compared with calculated arithmetic methods (ABC/2, ABC/2.4, ABC/3, and 2/3SC) volumes. Volumes were compared by difference plots for specific groups: randomization ICH (n=374), 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH (n=206), antithrombotic-associated ICH (n=79), irregular-shape ICH (n=703) and irregular-density ICH (n=650). Density and shape were measured by the Barras ordinal shape and density groups (1-5). The ABC/2.4 method had the closest agreement to the semiautomatic segmentation volume in all groups, except for the 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH group where the ABC/3 method was superior. Although the ABC/2 formula for calculating elliptical ICH is well validated, it must be used with caution in ICH scans where the elliptical shape of ICH is a false assumption. We validated the adjustment of the ABC/2.4 method in randomization, antithrombotic-associated, heterogeneous-density, and irregular-shape ICH. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22153967. Unique identifier: ISRCTN22153967. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The initial step of silicate versus aluminosilicate formation in zeolite synthesis: a reaction mechanism in water with a tetrapropylammonium template

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Thuat T.; Rozanska, Xavier; Delbecq, Franç oise; Sautet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    is then compared to a simple calculation using an implicit continuum model for the solvent. The results underline the importance of an explicit and dynamical treatment of the water solvent, which plays a key role in assisting the reaction. © the Owner Societies

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria D Appendix D to Part 132 Protection of Environment... Development of Wildlife Criteria Great Lakes States and Tribes shall adopt provisions consistent with (as protective as) this appendix. I. Introduction A. A Great Lakes Water Quality Wildlife Criterion (GLWC) is the...

  11. A Monte Carlo Code (PHOEL) for generating initial energies of photoelectrons and compton electrons produced by photons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Modolo, J.T.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    PHOEL provides a source term for a Monte Carlo code which calculates the electron transport and energy degradation in liquid water. This code is used to study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low-LET radiation at low doses. The basic numerical data used and their mathematical treatment are described as well as the operation of the code [pt

  12. Initiating rain water harvest technology for climate change induced drought resilient agriculture: scopes and challenges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of the economy since it comprises about 18.6% of the country's GDP and employs around 45% of the total labor force. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic indicators like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resource development and food security. The agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to disaster and climate induced risks. Climate change is anticipated to aggravate the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in Bangladesh. Drought is one of the major setbacks for the agriculture and its development. Therefore, disaster and climatic risk, especially drought management in agriculture is a major challenge for Bangladesh in achieving sustainable agricultural development. There are some regions in Bangladesh where every steps of agriculture from field preparation to ripening of crops dependents on rainfall. Consequently, drought affects annually 2.5 million ha in kharif (wet season and 1.2 million ha in dry season. Water is a natural resource with spatial scarcity and availability. Additionally, Cross-country anthropogenic activities caused a severe negative impact on water resources and eco-systems of Bangladesh in the recent years. The rivers and cannels dry up during the dry season and make the people completely dependent on groundwater (Abdullah, 2015. Accordingly the contribution of groundwater as a source of irrigation has increased and surface water has declined. It is now inevitable to look for alternate water source for agriculture. Water harvest technologies (WHTs can play an important role in this regard. WHTs can provide an additional source of water for crop production at the most critical stages of the growing season, thereby increasing yields and food security. The study is consists of drought scenario analysis, GIS based drought mapping and systematic literature

  13. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  14. Automatic quantification of subarachnoid hemorrhage on noncontrast CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Anna Maria Merel; Zijlstra, I.A.; Gathier, C.S.; van den Berg, R.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Marquering, H.A.; Majoie, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of blood after SAH on initial NCCT is an important radiologic measure to predict patient outcome and guide treatment decisions. In current scales, hemorrhage volume and density are not accounted for. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic method for

  15. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)- residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  16. Developing Community-Focused Solutions using a Food-Energy-Water Calculator, with Initial Application to Western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Pahwa, A.; Rogers, D.; Roundy, J. K.; Barron, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Many agricultural areas are facing difficult circumstances. Kansas is one example, with problems that are typical. Past agricultural and hydrologic data document how irrigation in western Kansas has produced a multi-billion-dollar agricultural economy that is now threatened by pumping-induced declines in groundwater levels. Although reduced pumping could mitigate much of the threat and preserve much of Kansas' agricultural economy (albeit at a reduced level) in the long term, a primary disincentive for reducing pumping is the immediate economic impact of diminished irrigation. One alternative to continued unsustainable groundwater use is a water-energy tradeoff program that seeks to reduce pumping from the Ogallala aquifer to sustainable rates while maintaining local income levels. This program would allow development of the region's rich wind and solar energy resources in a way that focuses on local economic benefits, in exchange for water rights concessions from affected stakeholders. In considering this alternative, most citizens are currently unable to address a key question, "What could this mean for me?" Answering this question requires knowledge of agriculture, energy, water, economics, and drought probabilities, knowledge that is available at Kansas universities. This talk presents a joint University of Kansas - Kansas State University effort to address this need through development of the Food-Energy-Water Calculator. This talk will present the idea and discuss how the calculator would work. It is suggested that the framework created provides a powerful way to organize data and analysis results, and thus to seek solutions to difficult problems in many regions of the US and the world.

  17. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  18. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  19. The initial study on supercritical water flow and heat transfer in square rod bundle channel with mixing vane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Guoping; Cao Can; Yu Tao

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional rectangular channel with the mixing wine in supercritical water reactor was studied in the paper using the FLUENT software. The mixing wing elevation influence on temperature distribution and flow field were studied in the model. The results showed the mixing wing caused fluid circumferential flow, making flow hot and cold fluids mixed and fluid temperature uniform distribution, effectively improved the fuel rod surface temperature distribution and reduced hot temperature. Among the four cases of mixing wing elevation of 15, 30, 45 and 50 angle, 30 angle is the best case in improving temperature distribution. (authors)

  20. On a Green Municipal Initiative in Cape Town (South Africa): Lessons from the Solar Water Heater Advanced Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubresson, Alain

    2013-01-01

    During the 2000's, the metropolitan municipality of Cape Town elaborated an ambitious energy transition strategy, backed up by the Energy and Climate Action Plan approved in 2010. One element of this plan is a mass solar water heater roll-out programme for households. Analysing the difficulties in the implementation of this programme, this article argues that the main limits to metropolitan action do not result primarily from local and/or multi-level governance issues but from national constraints and stakes which are deeply rooted in the political economy of South Africa. Any attempt to build an autonomous metropolitan energy policy is therefore today illusory in South Africa

  1. Development of a competitive PCR assay for the quantification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... quantification of total Escherichia coli DNA in water. Omar Kousar Banu, Barnard .... Thereafter the product was ligated into the pGEM®T-easy cloning ... agarose gel using the high pure PCR product purification kit. (Roche® ...

  2. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  3. Mechanisms and kinetics laws of inactive R7T7 reference glass dissolution in water at 90 deg C: initial dissolution rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.

    1993-02-01

    The initial dissolution rate of inactive R7T7 reference glass was measured at 90 deg C in dilute aqueous solutions first at unspecified pH, then with imposed pH values. In distilled water, R7T7 glass corrosion initially involved preferential extraction of boron and network modifier elements (Li, Na, Ca) as long as the solution pH remained acid. When the solution pH became alkaline, glass dissolution was stoichiometric. These two mechanisms were confirmed by dissolution tests in aqueous solutions at imposed pH values under acid and alkaline conditions. The initial dissolution rate r 0 in mole.cm -3 .s -1 also increased significantly in alkaline media when the pH of the aqueous phase increased: in slightly acid media, selective glass dissolution formed a residual, de-alkalinized, hydrated glass that was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Under steady-state dissolution conditions, the initial glass corrosion rate (in mole.cm -3 .s -1 ) was: in acid and alkaline media, amorphous and crystallized alteration products formed after complete dissolution of the silicated glass network. The first products formed consisted mainly of Zr, Rare Earths, Fe and Al. (author). 67 refs., 29 figs., 26 tabs., 21 plates

  4. Water sector fund (CT-hi dro) and wastewater reuse activities: initiatives to promote environment ally sustainable development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Sector Fund (CT-Hidro) is presented as an innovative mechanism to foster the scientific and technological sector of the country as well as a model instrument to promote environmentally sustainable development in Brazil and in other developing countries. CT-Hidro is shown as an instrument that provides support for scientific and technological development research activities in the following areas: experimental technological development, scientific and technological research projects, development of basic industrial technology and implantation of research infrastructure. CT-Hidro is presented as a key mechanism to finance wastewater reuse projects as an imperative action to fight poverty and promote social inclusion in Brazil. The concept of wastewater reuse for beneficial purposes is presented. Its growing importance as an essential part of the planning of the integrated and sustainable water resources management is also evidenced. In this perspective, the need for sanitation, wastewater treatment and its reuse in agriculture for food production are presented as imperative measures that must be taken in Brazil in order to promote sustainable development, fight poverty, improve public health conditions and enhance environmental quality in the country. (author)

  5. Quantification of informed opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

  6. Quantification In Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netravati M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of farnesyl laurate in organic solvent: initial water activity, kinetics mechanism, optimization of continuous operation using packed bed reactor and mass transfer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N K; Kamaruddin, A H; Uzir, M H

    2011-08-01

    The influence of water activity and water content was investigated with farnesyl laurate synthesis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Lipozyme RM IM activity depended strongly on initial water activity value. The best results were achieved for a reaction medium with an initial water activity of 0.11 since it gives the best conversion value of 96.80%. The rate constants obtained in the kinetics study using Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi and Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanisms with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid were compared. The corresponding parameters were found to obey the Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid. Kinetic parameters were calculated based on this model as follows: V (max) = 5.80 mmol l(-1) min(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,A) = 0.70 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,B) = 115.48 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (i) = 11.25 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1). The optimum conditions for the esterification of farnesol with lauric acid in a continuous packed bed reactor were found as the following: 18.18 cm packed bed height and 0.9 ml/min substrate flow rate. The optimum molar conversion of lauric acid to farnesyl laurate was 98.07 ± 0.82%. The effect of mass transfer in the packed bed reactor has also been studied using two models for cases of reaction limited and mass transfer limited. A very good agreement between the mass transfer limited model and the experimental data obtained indicating that the esterification in a packed bed reactor was mass transfer limited.

  8. Cold-water coral distributions in the drake passage area from towed camera observations--initial interpretations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian G Waller

    Full Text Available Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean, yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage, using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace and alcyonacean (soft corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these

  9. Cold-Water Coral Distributions in the Drake Passage Area from Towed Camera Observations – Initial Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Robinson, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    Seamounts are unique deep-sea features that create habitats thought to have high levels of endemic fauna, productive fisheries and benthic communities vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Many seamounts are isolated features, occurring in the high seas, where access is limited and thus biological data scarce. There are numerous seamounts within the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean), yet high winds, frequent storms and strong currents make seafloor sampling particularly difficult. As a result, few attempts to collect biological data have been made, leading to a paucity of information on benthic habitats or fauna in this area, particularly those on primarily hard-bottom seamounts and ridges. During a research cruise in 2008 six locations were examined (two on the Antarctic margin, one on the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and three on seamounts within the Drake Passage), using a towed camera with onboard instruments to measure conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity. Dominant fauna and bottom type were categorized from 200 randomized photos from each location. Cold-water corals were present in high numbers in habitats both on the Antarctic margin and on the current swept seamounts of the Drake Passage, though the diversity of orders varied. Though the Scleractinia (hard corals) were abundant on the sedimented margin, they were poorly represented in the primarily hard-bottom areas of the central Drake Passage. The two seamount sites and the Shackleton Fracture Zone showed high numbers of stylasterid (lace) and alcyonacean (soft) corals, as well as large numbers of sponges. Though data are preliminary, the geological and environmental variability (particularly in temperature) between sample sites may be influencing cold-water coral biogeography in this region. Each area observed also showed little similarity in faunal diversity with other sites examined for this study within all phyla counted. This manuscript highlights how little is understood of these isolated

  10. The effect of chloride on general corrosion and crack initiation of low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Matthias; Roth, Armin; Widera, Martin; Kuester, Karin; Huettner, Frank; Nowak, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chloride on the general corrosion and its potential impact on EAC crack initiation of low-alloy steel (German reactor pressure vessel steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7) in oxygenated high-temperature water were investigated. The general corrosion behavior was analyzed by exposure tests with either permanently increased chloride concentration levels or temporary chloride transients. The potential effect on EAC crack initiation was analyzed with pre-strained C-ring specimens and in SSRT (CERT) tests with slowly rising strain. Both kinds of tests were performed under simulated BWR conditions and with different chloride levels. The chloride concentrations of 5 to 50 ppb were chosen according to the action levels of the German water chemistry guideline for the reactor coolant of BWRs (VGB R401J, 2006). In all exposure tests, none of the pre-strained C-ring specimens showed crack initiation during up to 1000 hours of exposure time with up to 50 ppb chloride. Investigations of the oxide layer thickness after immersion testing revealed a decrease with increasing chloride concentration. As shown by post-test chemical analysis of the oxide layer composition by TOF-SIMS, this effect is most likely primarily due to adsorption of chloride on the oxide layer surface, since only very limited penetration of chloride into the oxide was detected. In contrast to the tests with C-ring specimens, where no crack initiation occurred, slightly accelerated crack initiation at lower elongation levels was observed at increasing chloride concentrations in SSRT tests under simulated BWR conditions using actively loaded specimens. In addition, SSRT specimens that were cyclically loaded at the oxide fracture elongation level were used to generate a continuous, exposure of bare metal to the environment by repeated fracture of the oxide. This loading pattern did not cause crack initiation at all chloride concentrations applied (up to 50 ppb). From these results, it may be concluded that at least

  11. Dry preparation for virtual CT colonography with fecal tagging using water-soluble contrast medium: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielen, Didier; Thomeer, Maarten; Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Marchal, Guy; Kiss, Gabriel; Maes, Frederik; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a dry bowel preparation, i.e. without laxative fluids, for virtual CT colonography (VCTC), and its impact on patient acceptance compared with conventional colonoscopy (CC). A randomly chosen patient population scheduled for CC (n=11) was first submitted to VCTC after a dry preparation, consisting of low-residue meals combined with a small amount of a iodinated water-soluble contrast medium during each meal 3 days before VCTC. In different colon segments and between different persons, the degree of tagging in VCTC was evaluated and graded. Patient acceptance and future preference were assessed for both preparations as well as for both investigations. The mixing of the contrast with the intestinal content results in contrast impregnated stool, the tagged feces. The degree of fecal tagging was good in the majority of the patients and the colonic segments, especially in the descending colon and sigmoid. Furthermore, patient acceptance and preference were clearly in favour of VCTC compared with CC merely because of the non-invasiveness of the dry preparation. Dry bowel preparation and VCTC is a promising approach towards a patient-friendly colon cancer-screening setup. (orig.)

  12. Study on the behavior of unirradiated light water reactor fuel with iodine-127 under the reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki

    1988-07-01

    In a light water reactor fuel, a stress arised from pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) will have possibility to cause stress corrosion claddling (PCI failure) under an environment of corrosive fission product ; line iodine. A pulse irradiation experiment by NSRR was carried out to examine whether or not an unirradiated NSRR standard fuel rod in which 1.3 mg (33 x 10 -6 g/cm 2 ) of iodine was artificially filled could cause the PCI failure. Obtained results are: (1) The fuel rods with iodine did not fail both at deposited energy levels of 268 and 280 cal/g · UO 2 . On the other hand, the fuel rods without iodine failed at the same energy levels due to thinning of the cladding wall thickness. Within this experimental scope, PCI-failure did not occur on iodine filled fuel rods. (2) At a periphery of the fuel pellet of iodine filled rod, an uniform torus ring was formed. The torus ring consisted of an equi-axed large grains at 268 cal/g · UO 2 and a columnar ones at 280 cal/g · UO 2 . The torus ring was not formed in the fuel without iodine. (author)

  13. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets initiated by humic-like substances as a function of water activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Rigg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH42SO4 droplets containing leonardite (LEO and Pahokee peat (PP serving as surrogates for humic-like substances (HULIS has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85 to 1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5–15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw by Δaw = 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding hetrogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4×104 cm−2 s−1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by Δaw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and ice nuclei (IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (α(T-model to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, α(T-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free-fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for the entire population (single-α model is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of α-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Furthermore, when using a single parameterization of α-PDF or

  14. Estimation of core-damage frequency to evolutionary ALWR [advanced light water reactor] due to seismic initiating events: Task 4.3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Harrison, D.G.; Summitt, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presently developing a requirements document for the design of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One of the basic goals of the EPRI ALWR Requirements Document is that the core-damage frequency for an ALWR shall be less than 1.0E-5. To aid in this effort, the Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) initiated a functional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to determine how effectively the evolutionary plant requirements contained in the existing EPRI Requirements Document assure that this safety goal will be met. This report develops an approximation of the core-damage frequency due to seismic events for both evolutionary plant designs (pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor(BWR)) as modeled in the corresponding functional PRAs. Component fragility values were taken directly form information which has been submitted for inclusion in Appendix A to Volume 1 of the EPRI Requirements Document. The results show a seismic core-damage frequency of 5.2E-6 for PWRS and 5.0E-6 for BWRs. Combined with the internal initiators from the functional PRAs, the overall core-damage frequencies are 6.0E-6 for the pwr and BWR, both of which satisfy the 1.0E-5 EPRI goal. In addition, site-specific considerations, such as more rigid components and less conservative fragility data and seismic hazard curves, may further reduce these frequencies. The effect of seismic events on structures are not addressed in this generic evaluation and should be addressed separately on a design-specific basis. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Quantification of competitive value of documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šimek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Internet users use the global network to search for different information using fulltext search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, or Seznam. The web presentation operators are trying, with the help of different optimization techniques, to get to the top places in the results of fulltext search engines. Right there is a great importance of Search Engine Optimization and Search Engine Marketing, because normal users usually try links only on the first few pages of the fulltext search engines results on certain keywords and in catalogs they use primarily hierarchically higher placed links in each category. Key to success is the application of optimization methods which deal with the issue of keywords, structure and quality of content, domain names, individual sites and quantity and reliability of backward links. The process is demanding, long-lasting and without a guaranteed outcome. A website operator without advanced analytical tools do not identify the contribution of individual documents from which the entire web site consists. If the web presentation operators want to have an overview of their documents and web site in global, it is appropriate to quantify these positions in a specific way, depending on specific key words. For this purpose serves the quantification of competitive value of documents, which consequently sets global competitive value of a web site. Quantification of competitive values is performed on a specific full-text search engine. For each full-text search engine can be and often are, different results. According to published reports of ClickZ agency or Market Share is according to the number of searches by English-speaking users most widely used Google search engine, which has a market share of more than 80%. The whole procedure of quantification of competitive values is common, however, the initial step which is the analysis of keywords depends on a choice of the fulltext search engine.

  16. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: III. A Round-Robin Comparison on In-Water Bio-Optical Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J.W.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Muller, Dagmar; Brockmann, Carsten; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Devred, Emmanuel; Doerffer, Roland; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan; Grant, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-derived remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) can be used for mapping biogeochemically relevant variables, such as the chlorophyll concentration and the Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) of the water, at global scale for use in climate-change studies. Prior to generating such products, suitable algorithms have to be selected that are appropriate for the purpose. Algorithm selection needs to account for both qualitative and quantitative requirements. In this paper we develop an objective methodology designed to rank the quantitative performance of a suite of bio-optical models. The objective classification is applied using the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset (NOMAD). Using in situ Rrs as input to the models, the performance of eleven semianalytical models, as well as five empirical chlorophyll algorithms and an empirical diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithm, is ranked for spectrally-resolved IOPs, chlorophyll concentration and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 489 nm. The sensitivity of the objective classification and the uncertainty in the ranking are tested using a Monte-Carlo approach (bootstrapping). Results indicate that the performance of the semi-analytical models varies depending on the product and wavelength of interest. For chlorophyll retrieval, empirical algorithms perform better than semi-analytical models, in general. The performance of these empirical models reflects either their immunity to scale errors or instrument noise in Rrs data, or simply that the data used for model parameterisation were not independent of NOMAD. Nonetheless, uncertainty in the classification suggests that the performance of some semi-analytical algorithms at retrieving chlorophyll is comparable with the empirical algorithms. For phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm, some semi-analytical models also perform with similar accuracy to an empirical model. We discuss the potential biases, limitations and uncertainty in the approach, as well as additional

  18. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  19. Uncertainty quantification for environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10

  20. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  2. Development of crack growth and crack initiation test units for stress corrosion cracking examinations in high-temperature water environments under neutron irradiation (1) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Ishida, Takuya; Kawamata, Kazuo; Inoue, Shuichi; Ide, Hiroshi; Saito, Takashi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Ise, Hideo; Miwa, Yukio; Ugachi, Hirokazu; Nakano, Junichi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate integrity of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) on in-core structural materials used in light water reactors (LWRs), useful knowledge regarding IASCC has been obtained mainly by post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). In the core of commercial LWRs, however, the actual IASCC occurs under the effects of irradiation on both materials and high-temperature water environment. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm the suitability of the knowledge by PIE with comparison to IASCC behaviors during in-core SCC tests. Fundamental techniques for in-core crack growth and crack initiation tests have been developed already at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). For the in-core crack growth test technique, to evaluate the effects of neutron irradiation on stainless steels irradiated to low neutron fluences, it is indispensable to develop new loading technique which is applicable to compact tension (CT) specimens with thickness of 0.5 inch (0.5T), from the viewpoint of validity based on the fracture mechanics. Based on the present technical investigation for the in-core loading technique, it is expected that a target load of 7.6 kN approximately can apply to a 0.5T-CT specimen by adopting a loading unit of a lever type instead of the previous uni-axial tension type. For the in-core crack initiation test technique, moreover, construction of a loading unit adopting linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been investigated and technical issues have examined. (author)

  3. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  4. Plasma-initiated polymerization of chitosan-based CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) flocculant for the enhanced flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhu, Chengyu; Sun, Wenquan; Xu, Yanhua; Xiao, Xuefeng; Zheng, Huaili; Wu, Huifang; Liu, Cuiyun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a highly efficient and environmentally friendly chitosan-based graft flocculant, namely, acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-grafted chitosan [CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC)], was prepared successfully through plasma initiation. FTIR results confirmed the successful polymerization of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and P(AM-DMDAAC). P(AM-DMDAAC) was the copolymer of acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride. SEM results revealed that a densely cross-linked network structure formed on the surface. XRD results verified that the ordered crystal structure of chitosan in CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) was changed into an amorphous structure after plasma-induced polymerization. The flocculation results of low-algal-turbidity water further showed the optimal flocculation efficiency of turbidity removal rate, COD removal rate, and Chl-a removal rate were 99.02%, 96.11%, and 92.20%, respectively. The flocculation efficiency of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) were significantly higher than those obtained by cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and Polymeric aluminum and iron (PAFC). This work provided a valuable basis for the design of eco-friendly naturally modified polymeric flocculants to enhance the flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Artificially sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, plain water, and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the prospective Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengna; Quddus, Abdullah; Stinson, Lynda; Shikany, James M; Howard, Barbara V; Kutob, Randa M; Lu, Bing; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas the association with artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) is unclear. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations of ASB and SSB consumption with the risk of developing DM and the potential benefit of replacing SSBs with ASBs or water. Design: The national Women's Health Initiative recruited a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998. ASB, SSB, and water consumption was measured by lifestyle questionnaires, and DM was self-reported. Results: Of 64,850 women, 4675 developed diabetes over an average of 8.4 y of follow-up. ASBs and SSBs were both associated with an increased risk of DM with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.36) comparing ASB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to never or <3 serving/mo, and an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.75) comparing SSB consumption of ≥2 serving/d to <1 serving/wk (1 serving = one 12-ounce can or 355 mL). Subgroup analysis found an increased risk of DM associated with ASBs only in the obese group. Modeling the substitution of SSBs with an equal amount of ASBs did not significantly reduce the risk of developing DM. However, statistically substituting 1 serving of ASBs with water was associated with a significant risk reduction of 5% (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99), whereas substituting 1 serving of SSBs with water was associated with a risk reduction of 10% (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.95). Conclusions: ASBs were associated with a 21% increased risk of developing DM, approximately half the magnitude of SSBs (associated with a 43% increased risk). Replacing ASBs and SSBs with water could potentially reduce the risk. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results as causal because both residual confounding and reverse causation could explain these results. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  7. Survey and Evaluate Uncertainty Quantification Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2012-02-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions that will develop and deploy state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. The CCSI Toolset will provide end users in industry with a comprehensive, integrated suite of scientifically validated models with uncertainty quantification, optimization, risk analysis and decision making capabilities. The CCSI Toolset will incorporate commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry and will also develop new software tools as necessary to fill technology gaps identified during execution of the project. The CCSI Toolset will (1) enable promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of devices and processes; (2) reduce the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes; (3) quantify the technical risk in taking technology from laboratory-scale to commercial-scale; and (4) stabilize deployment costs more quickly by replacing some of the physical operational tests with virtual power plant simulations. The goal of CCSI is to deliver a toolset that can simulate the scale-up of a broad set of new carbon capture technologies from laboratory scale to full commercial scale. To provide a framework around which the toolset can be developed and demonstrated, we will focus on three Industrial Challenge Problems (ICPs) related to carbon capture technologies relevant to U.S. pulverized coal (PC) power plants. Post combustion capture by solid sorbents is the technology focus of the initial ICP (referred to as ICP A). The goal of the uncertainty quantification (UQ) task (Task 6) is to provide a set of capabilities to the user community for the quantification of uncertainties associated with the carbon

  8. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero Alvarez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  9. Compressive strength and initial water absorption rate for cement brick containing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a substitutional material for sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Noorwirdawati; Din, Norhasmiza; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Samad, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah

    2017-11-01

    The rapid growth of today’s construction sector requires high amount of building materials. Bricks, known to have solid properties and easy to handle, which leads to the variety of materials added or replaced in its mixture. In this study, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was selected as the substitute materials in the making of bricks. The reason behind the use of HDPE is because of its recyclable properties and the recycling process that do not emit hazardous gases to the atmosphere. Other than that, the use of HDPE will help reducing the source of pollution by avoiding the millions of accumulated plastic waste in the disposal sites. Furthermore, the material has high endurance level and is weatherproof. This study was carried out on experimenting the substitute materials in the mixture of cement bricks, a component of building materials which is normally manufactured using the mixture of cement, sand and water, following a certain ratios, and left dried to produce blocks of bricks. A series of three different percentages of HDPE were used, which were 2.5%, 3.0% and 3.5%. Tests were done on the bricks, to study its compressive strength and the initial water absorption rate. Both tests were conducted on the seventh and 28th day. Based on the results acquired, for compressive strength tests on the 28th day, the use of 2.5% of HDPE shown values of 12.6 N/mm2 while the use of 3.0% of HDPE shown values of 12.5 N/mm2. Onto the next percentage, 3.5% of HDPE shown values of 12.5 N/mm2.

  10. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  12. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  13. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  14. On the Confounding Effect of Temperature on Chemical Shift-Encoded Fat Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Diego; Sharma, Samir D.; Kramer, Harald; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the confounding effect of temperature on chemical shift-encoded (CSE) fat quantification. Methods The proton resonance frequency of water, unlike triglycerides, depends on temperature. This leads to a temperature dependence of the spectral models of fat (relative to water) that are commonly used by CSE-MRI methods. Simulation analysis was performed for 1.5 Tesla CSE fat–water signals at various temperatures and echo time combinations. Oil–water phantoms were constructed and scanned at temperatures between 0 and 40°C using spectroscopy and CSE imaging at three echo time combinations. An explanted human liver, rejected for transplantation due to steatosis, was scanned using spectroscopy and CSE imaging. Fat–water reconstructions were performed using four different techniques: magnitude and complex fitting, with standard or temperature-corrected signal modeling. Results In all experiments, magnitude fitting with standard signal modeling resulted in large fat quantification errors. Errors were largest for echo time combinations near TEinit ≈ 1.3 ms, ΔTE ≈ 2.2 ms. Errors in fat quantification caused by temperature-related frequency shifts were smaller with complex fitting, and were avoided using a temperature-corrected signal model. Conclusion Temperature is a confounding factor for fat quantification. If not accounted for, it can result in large errors in fat quantifications in phantom and ex vivo acquisitions. PMID:24123362

  15. Development of Accident Scenarios and Quantification Methodology for RAON Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjin; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The RIsp (Rare Isotope Science Project) plans to provide neutron-rich isotopes (RIs) and stable heavy ion beams. The accelerator is defined as radiation production system according to Nuclear Safety Law. Therefore, it needs strict operate procedures and safety assurance to prevent radiation exposure. In order to satisfy this condition, there is a need for evaluating potential risk of accelerator from the design stage itself. Though some of PSA researches have been conducted for accelerator, most of them focus on not general accident sequence but simple explanation of accident. In this paper, general accident scenarios are developed by Event Tree and deduce new quantification methodology of Event Tree. In this study, some initial events, which may occur in the accelerator, are selected. Using selected initial events, the accident scenarios of accelerator facility are developed with Event Tree. These results can be used as basic data of the accelerator for future risk assessments. After analyzing the probability of each heading, it is possible to conduct quantification and evaluate the significance of the accident result. If there is a development of the accident scenario for external events, risk assessment of entire accelerator facility will be completed. To reduce the uncertainty of the Event Tree, it is possible to produce a reliable data via the presented quantification techniques

  16. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  17. Acceleration of lipid peroxidation in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein-knockout mice following the consumption of drinking water containing a radical initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasukazu; Hayakawa, Mieko; Cynshi, Osamu; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Niki, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    To assess the antioxidative role of vitamin E (VE) in a mouse model of severe VE deficiency by using biomarkers, alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP(-/-))-knockout mice were maintained on a VE-deficient diet for 28 weeks [KO group, n = 6]. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a diet containing 0.002% alpha-tocopherol [WT group, n = 6]. The animals were housed individually in a metabolic cage from the age of 9 weeks (Week 0) to 27 weeks. Urine was collected every week, and the levels of total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), 7-hydroxycholesterol (t7-OHCh), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)(t8-isoPGF(2alpha)), which are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation, were measured by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. From the age of 21 weeks (Week 12), three mice in each group were provided drinking water containing the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl)propane] dihydrochloride (AIPH) until the end of the study (Week 19). Blood and tissue samples were collected, and the levels of the abovementioned biomarkers therein were assessed. AIPH consumption clearly elevated the plasma and erythrocyte levels of tHODE and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) in both the WT and KO groups except for the erythrocyte level of tHODE in the WT group. Furthermore, this elevation was more prominent in the KO group than in the WT group. Interestingly, AIPH consumption reduced the stereoisomer ratio of HODE (ZE/EE), which is reflective of the efficacy of a compound as an antioxidant in vivo; this suggests that free radical-mediated oxidation reduces the antioxidant capacity in vivo. The urine levels of tHODE, t7-OHCh, and t8-isoPGF(2alpha) tended to increase with AIPH consumption, but these individual levels fluctuated. It was clearly demonstrated by the proposed biomarkers that maintaining alpha-TTP(-/-) mice on a VE-deficient diet results in a severe VE deficiency and promotes lipid peroxidation.

  18. Pseudoalteromonas spp. serve as initial bacterial attractants in mesocosms of coastal waters but have subsequent antifouling capacity in mesocosms and when embedded in paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Gram, Lone

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 10(5) cells/cm(2) after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 10(6) to 10(8) cells/cm(2). However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine

  19. Eco-toxicity and human estrogenic exposure risks from "·OH-initiated photochemical transformation of four phthalates in water: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yanpeng; An, Taicheng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Transformation products (TPs) of emerging organic contaminates (EOCs) in water are still rarely considered in environmental risk assessment, although some have been found to be concern. "·OH is believed as an important reactive species both in indirect phototransformation and advanced oxidation technology. Thus, eco-toxicity and human estrogenic exposure risks of four phthalates and TPs during the "·OH-initiated photochemical process were investigated using computational approach. Four phthalates can be degraded through "·OH-addition and H-transfer pathways. The "·OH-addition TPs were predominant for dimethyl phthalates, while H-transfer TPs were predominant for other three phthalates. Compared with phthalates, "·OH-addition TPs (o-OH-phthalates) were one level more toxic to aquatic organisms, and m-OH-phthalates exhibit higher estrogenic activity. Although H-transfer TPs were less harmful than "·OH-addition TPs, some of them still have aquatic toxicity and estrogenic activity. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to photochemical TPs and original EOCs, particularly those exhibiting high estrogenic activity to humans. - Highlights: • Phthalates can be degraded with "·OH-addition and H-transfer pathways. • "·OH-addition products are mainly formed during DMP transformation. • H-transfer products were predominant for the transformation of DEP, DPP and DBP. • o-"·OH-addition products have greater eco-toxicity than corresponding phthalates. • m-"·OH-addition products have higher estrogenic activity than corresponding phthalates. - Computational approach could provide valuable information on the mechanisms, kinetics, eco-toxicity as well as human estrogenic exposure risks of EOCs and their transformation products.

  20. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  1. Method for indirect quantification of CH4 production via H2O production using hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth-Sophie eTaubner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ydrogenotrophic methanogens are an intriguing group of microorganisms from the domain Archaea. They exhibit extraordinary ecological, biochemical, physiological characteristics colorbox{yellow}{and have a huge biotechnological potential}. Yet, the only possibility to assess the methane (CH$_4$ production potential of hydrogenotrophic methanogens is to apply gas chromatographic quantification of CH$_4$.In order to be able to effectively screen pure cultures of hydrogenotrophic methanogens regarding their CH$_4$ production potential we developed a novel method for indirect quantification of colorbox{yellow}{the} volumetric CH$_4$ production rate by measuring colorbox{yellow}{the} volumetric water production rate. This colorbox{yellow}{ } method was established in serum bottles for cultivation of methanogens in closed batch cultivation mode. Water production was colorbox{yellow}{estimated} by determining the difference in mass increase in an isobaric setting.This novel CH$_4$ quantification method is an accurate and precise analytical technique, colorbox{yellow}{which can be used} to rapidly screen pure cultures of methanogens regarding colorbox{yellow}{their} volumetric CH$_{4}$ evolution rate. colorbox{yellow}{It} is a cost effective alternative colorbox{yellow}{determining} CH$_4$ production of methanogens over CH$_4$ quantification by using gas chromatography, especially if colorbox{yellow}{ } applied as a high throughput quantification method. colorbox{yellow}{Eventually, the} method can be universally applied for quantification of CH$_4$ production from psychrophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  2. In-line monitoring of cocrystallization process and quantification of carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Frederico L. F.; Carneiro, Renato L.

    2017-06-01

    A cocrystallization process may involve several molecular species, which are generally solid under ambient conditions. Thus, accurate monitoring of different components that might appear during the reaction is necessary, as well as quantification of the final product. This work reports for the first time the synthesis of carbamazepine-nicotinamide cocrystal in aqueous media with a full conversion. The reactions were monitored by Raman spectroscopy coupled with Multivariate Curve Resolution - Alternating Least Squares, and the quantification of the final product among its coformers was performed using Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares regression. The slurry reaction was made in four different conditions: room temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C. The slurry reaction at 80 °C enabled a full conversion of initial substrates into the cocrystal form, using water as solvent for a greener method. The employment of MCR-ALS coupled with Raman spectroscopy enabled to observe the main steps of the reactions, such as drug dissolution, nucleation and crystallization of the cocrystal. The PLS models gave mean errors of cross validation around 2.0 (% wt/wt), and errors of validation between 2.5 and 8.2 (% wt/wt) for all components. These were good results since the spectra of cocrystals and the physical mixture of the coformers present some similar peaks.

  3. Comparison of five DNA quantification methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hedman, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Six commercial preparations of human genomic DNA were quantified using five quantification methods: UV spectrometry, SYBR-Green dye staining, slot blot hybridization with the probe D17Z1, Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit and RB1 rt-PCR. All methods measured higher DNA concentrations than...... Quantification kit in two experiments. The measured DNA concentrations with Quantifiler were 125 and 160% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. When the Quantifiler human DNA standard (Raji cell line) was replaced by the commercial human DNA preparation G147A (Promega) to generate the DNA...... standard curve in the Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit, the DNA quantification results of the human DNA preparations were 31% higher than expected based on the manufacturers' information. The results indicate a calibration problem with the Quantifiler human DNA standard for its use...

  4. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  5. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  6. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  7. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  8. Construction and application of Bayesian networks to support decision-making in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector: a case study of SIASAR initiative in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Requejo Castro, David; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Martínez Crespo, Gonzalo; Rodríguez Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda includes a dedicated goal on water and sanitation (SDG 6) that sets out to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. SDG 6 expands the MDG focus on drinking water and sanitation to cover the entire water cycle. A clear lesson from the MDGs is that we cannot manage what we do not measure, and there is little doubt about the role of monitoring and evaluation data in providing the evidence base for decision-making. Against this background, ...

  9. Detection and quantification of Leveillula taurica growth in pepper leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Bóka, Károly; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Visser, Richard G F; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Kiss, Levente; Bai, Yuling

    2013-06-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread unobserved; for example, in pepper and tomato production fields and greenhouses. The objective of this study was to develop a detection and quantification method of L. taurica biomass in pepper leaves with special regard to the early stages of infection. We monitored the development of the disease to time the infection process on the leaf surface as well as inside the pepper leaves. The initial and final steps of the infection taking place on the leaf surface were consecutively observed using a dissecting microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The development of the intercellular mycelium in the mesophyll was followed by light and transmission electron microscopy. A pair of L. taurica-specific primers was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence of L. taurica and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify the fungal DNA during infection. The specificity of this assay was confirmed by testing the primer pair with DNA from host plants and also from another powdery mildew species, Oidium neolycopersici, infecting tomato. A standard curve was obtained for absolute quantification of L. taurica biomass. In addition, we tested a relative quantification method by using a plant gene as reference and the obtained results were compared with the visual disease index scoring. The real-time PCR assay for L. taurica provides a valuable tool for detection and quantification of this pathogen in breeding activities as well in plant-microbe interaction studies.

  10. Uncertainty quantification in flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter; Hall, Julia; Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj; Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, José Luis; Viglione, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty is inherent to flood risk assessments because of the complexity of the human-water system, which is characterised by nonlinearities and interdependencies, because of limited knowledge about system properties and because of cognitive biases in human perception and decision-making. On top of the uncertainty associated with the assessment of the existing risk to extreme events, additional uncertainty arises because of temporal changes in the system due to climate change, modifications of the environment, population growth and the associated increase in assets. Novel risk assessment concepts are needed that take into account all these sources of uncertainty. They should be based on the understanding of how flood extremes are generated and how they change over time. They should also account for the dynamics of risk perception of decision makers and population in the floodplains. In this talk we discuss these novel risk assessment concepts through examples from Flood Frequency Hydrology, Socio-Hydrology and Predictions Under Change. We believe that uncertainty quantification in flood risk assessment should lead to a robust approach of integrated flood risk management aiming at enhancing resilience rather than searching for optimal defense strategies.

  11. Preliminary Results on Uncertainty Quantification for Pattern Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracuzzi, David John [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brost, Randolph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Maximillian Gene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malinas, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Matthew Gregor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Woodbridge, Diane [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes preliminary research into uncertainty quantification for pattern ana- lytics within the context of the Pattern Analytics to Support High-Performance Exploitation and Reasoning (PANTHER) project. The primary focus of PANTHER was to make large quantities of remote sensing data searchable by analysts. The work described in this re- port adds nuance to both the initial data preparation steps and the search process. Search queries are transformed from does the specified pattern exist in the data? to how certain is the system that the returned results match the query? We show example results for both data processing and search, and discuss a number of possible improvements for each.

  12. Direct and indirect methods for the quantification of leg volume: Comparison between water displacement volumetry, the disk model method and the frustum sign model method, using the correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.K.S. Kaulesar Sukul (D. M K S); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); T. Johannes (Tanja); R. van Dolder (R.); E. Benda (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractVolume changes can be measured either directly by water-displacement volumetry or by various indirect methods in which calculation of the volume is based on circumference measurements. The aim of the present study was to determine the most appropriate indirect method for lower leg volume

  13. In situ quantification of the in-plane water content in the Nafion {sup registered} membrane of an operating polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell using {sup 1}H micro-magnetic resonance imaging experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingtao; Feindel, Kirk W.; Bergens, Steven H.; Wasylishen, Roderick E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, E3-24 Gunning/Lemieux Chemistry Center, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    Spatial, quantitative, and temporal information regarding the water content distribution in the transverse-plane between the catalyst layers of an operating polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of water dynamics in these systems. We report {sup 1}H micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments that measure the number of water molecules per SO{sub 3}H group, {lambda}, within a Nafion {sup registered} -117 membrane between the catalyst stamps of a membrane-electrode assembly, MEA. The measurements were made both ex situ, and inside a PEMFC operating on hydrogen and oxygen. The observed {sup 1}H MRI T{sub 2} relaxation time of water in the PEM was measured for several known values of {lambda}. The signal intensity of the images was then corrected for T{sub 2} weighting to yield proton density-weighted images, thereby establishing a calibration curve that correlates the {sup 1}H MRI density-weighted signal with {lambda}. Subsequently, the calibration curve was used with proton density weighted (i.e., T{sub 2}-corrected) signal intensities of transverse-plane {sup 1}H MRI images of water in the PEM between the catalyst stamps of an operating PEMFC to determine {lambda} under various operational conditions. For example, the steady state, transverse-plane {lambda} was 9 {+-} 1 for a PEMFC operating at {proportional_to}26.4 mW cm{sup -2} ({proportional_to}20.0 mA, {proportional_to}0.661 V, 20 C, flow rates of the dry H{sub 2}(g) and O{sub 2}(g) were 5.0 and 2.5 mL min{sup -1}, respectively). (author)

  14. Comparison between standard culture and peptide nucleic acid 16S rRNA hybridization quantification to study the influence of physico-chemical parameters on Legionella pneumophila survival in drinking water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gião, M S; Wilks, S A; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen that is mainly transmitted by the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In this article, the influence of several physico-chemical parameters relating to the supply of potable water was studied using a L. pneumophila peptide nucleic acid (PNA) specific probe to quantify total L. pneumophila in addition to standard culture methods. A two-stage chemostat was used to form the heterotrophic biofilms, with biofilm generating vessels fed with naturally occurring L. pneumophila. The substratum was the commonly used potable water pipe material, uPVC. It proved impossible to recover cultivable L. pneumophila due to overgrowth by other microorganisms and/or the loss of cultivability of this pathogen. Nevertheless, results obtained for total L. pneumophila cells in biofilms using a specific PNA probe showed that for the two temperatures studied (15 and 20 degrees C), there were no significant differences when shear stress was increased. However, when a source of carbon was added there was a significant increase in numbers at 20 degrees C. A comparison of the two temperatures showed that at 15 degrees C, the total cell numbers for L. pneumophila were generally higher compared with the total microbial flora, suggesting that lower temperatures support the inclusion of L. pneumophila in drinking water biofilms. The work reported in this article suggests that standard culture methods are not accurate for the evaluation of water quality in terms of L. pneumophila. This raises public health concerns since culture methods are still considered to be the gold standard for assessing the presence of this opportunistic pathogen in water.

  15. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il; Choi, Eun Seo; Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young

    2009-01-01

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  16. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  17. Substance-specific water quality criteria for the protection of South African freshwater ecosystems: methods for derivation and initial results for some inorganic toxic substances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems form the resource base on which water users, such as the agricultural, recreational, domestic and industrial sectors depend. These essential resources therefore need to be protected and maintained in a healthy state...

  18. Evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands in 1975: dose assessment based on initial sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islands) and the cistern water on Bikini Island. Based on analyses of these samples, we found that the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U.S. Public Health Service. However, on both islands the quality of the groundwater varied from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both are unacceptable according to U.S. Public Health Standards. The doses we predict from consumption of both cistern and groundwater are acceptable under federal guidelines. However, doses predicted from consumption of groundwater are high enough to warrant careful evaluation of other potential exposure pathways

  19. Effects of humic substances on fluorometric DNA quantification and DNA hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachoon, DS; Otero, E; Hodson, RE

    2001-01-01

    DNA extracts from sediment and water samples are often contaminated with coextracted humic-like impurities, Estuarine humic substances and vascular plant extract were used to evaluate the effect of the presence of such impurities on DNA hybridization and quantification. The presence of humic

  20. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  1. The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation of an uncertainty quantification challenge problem consisting of five subproblems. These problems focus on key aspects of uncertainty characterization, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation, extreme-case analysis, and robust design.

  2. Uncertainty quantification theory, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Ralph C

    2014-01-01

    The field of uncertainty quantification is evolving rapidly because of increasing emphasis on models that require quantified uncertainties for large-scale applications, novel algorithm development, and new computational architectures that facilitate implementation of these algorithms. Uncertainty Quantification: Theory, Implementation, and Applications provides readers with the basic concepts, theory, and algorithms necessary to quantify input and response uncertainties for simulation models arising in a broad range of disciplines. The book begins with a detailed discussion of applications where uncertainty quantification is critical for both scientific understanding and policy. It then covers concepts from probability and statistics, parameter selection techniques, frequentist and Bayesian model calibration, propagation of uncertainties, quantification of model discrepancy, surrogate model construction, and local and global sensitivity analysis. The author maintains a complementary web page where readers ca...

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in Aerodynamics Simulations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work (Phases I and II) is to develop uncertainty quantification methodologies and software suitable for use in CFD simulations of...

  4. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... alternative for the quantification of the disease' syndromes in regards to this crop. The result of these ..... parison of treatments such as cultivars or control measures and ..... Vascular discoloration and stem necrosis. 2.

  5. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.; Curioni, A.; Fedulova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost

  6. Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    We consider uncertainty quantification problem in aerodynamic simulations. We identify input uncertainties, classify them, suggest an appropriate statistical model and, finally, estimate propagation of these uncertainties into the solution (pressure, velocity and density fields as well as the lift and drag coefficients). The deterministic problem under consideration is a compressible transonic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Strokes flow around an airfoil with random/uncertain data. Input uncertainties include: uncertain angle of attack, the Mach number, random perturbations in the airfoil geometry, mesh, shock location, turbulence model and parameters of this turbulence model. This problem requires efficient numerical/statistical methods since it is computationally expensive, especially for the uncertainties caused by random geometry variations which involve a large number of variables. In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al \\'17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.

  8. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  9. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  10. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.

    2014-01-01

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  11. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-18

    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  12. Study of the initial stages of oxidation of stainless steels in high temperature water; Etude des premiers stades d'oxydation d'alliages inoxydables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A

    2004-06-15

    Steam Generator tubes (alloys 600, 690 and 800) are protected against corrosion by an oxide layer. The release of corrosion products into the primary water of the Pressurised Water Reactor is limited by this layer. Activation of these products increases the radioactivity. Breakdown of the passive film can lead to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The aim of this study is to understand the early stages of passivation of these alloys, in high temperature and high pressure water. A new micro-autoclave was developed to achieve short time exposures (from several seconds to 10 minutes). The surfaces were characterised by XPS, NRA, STM and SEM and a kinetic model is proposed for the alloy 600. Longer oxidation times were studied (up to 400 hours). The kinetics obtained for short time oxidations were used to fit the long oxidation time behaviour. This reveals that the initial stages of oxidation are essential in the passive films growth in such conditions. (author)

  13. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-11

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  14. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g−1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g−1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g−1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  15. Lung involvement quantification in chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, Guilherme; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.; Pina, Diana R.; Pereira, Paulo C.M.; Ribeiro, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an infectious disease which remains a global health problem. The chest radiography is the commonly method employed to assess the TB's evolution. The methods for quantification of abnormalities of chest are usually performed on CT scans (CT). This quantification is important to assess the TB evolution and treatment and comparing different treatments. However, precise quantification is not feasible for the amount of CT scans required. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for quantification of lung damage caused by TB through chest radiographs. It was developed an algorithm for computational processing of exams in Matlab, which creates a lungs' 3D representation, with compromised dilated regions inside. The quantification of lung lesions was also made for the same patients through CT scans. The measurements from the two methods were compared and resulting in strong correlation. Applying statistical Bland and Altman, all samples were within the limits of agreement, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed an average variation of around 13% between the two quantification methods. The results suggest the effectiveness and applicability of the method developed, providing better risk-benefit to the patient and cost-benefit ratio for the institution. (author)

  16. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  17. Water Footprint Symposium : where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, Martin R.; Liu, Junguo; Guan, Dabo; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, Stephan; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  18. Hanford Tanks Initiative risk management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This project-specific Risk Management Guide describes the general approach and process being used by the HTI Project to manage risk associated with execution of the HTI mission. It includes the initial identification of risk and the quantification of its likelihood and severity of its consequences. It further addresses the formulation of risk mitigation plans, periodic statusing of the Risk Management List, and risk closure

  19. Chromatographic background drift correction coupled with parallel factor analysis to resolve coelution problems in three-dimensional chromatographic data: quantification of eleven antibiotics in tap water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Fu, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Juan; Li, Yuan-Na; Li, Shu-Fang; Kang, Chao; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-08-09

    Chromatographic background drift correction has been an important field of research in chromatographic analysis. In the present work, orthogonal spectral space projection for background drift correction of three-dimensional chromatographic data was described in detail and combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve overlapped chromatographic peaks and obtain the second-order advantage. This strategy was verified by simulated chromatographic data and afforded significant improvement in quantitative results. Finally, this strategy was successfully utilized to quantify eleven antibiotics in tap water samples. Compared with the traditional methodology of introducing excessive factors for the PARAFAC model to eliminate the effect of background drift, clear improvement in the quantitative performance of PARAFAC was observed after background drift correction by orthogonal spectral space projection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 561 SOURCE SPECIFIC QUANTIFICATION, CHARACTERISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-09-02

    Sep 2, 2013 ... Lapai town lacks data on quantity of waste generated and their characteristics for efficient and sustainable ... crude open dump sites, burning without air and water pollution control, the breeding of flies and vermin, and the ...

  1. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research objectives to support the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration initiative-Water Conservation Areas, Lake Okeechobee, and the East/West waterways

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchens, Wiley M.

    1994-01-01

    The South Florida Ecosystem encompasses an area of approximately 28,000 km2 comprising at least 11 major physiographic provinces, including the Kissimmee River Valley, Lake Okeechobee, the Immokalee Rise, the Big Cypress, the Everglades, Florida Bay, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, Biscayne Bay, the Florida Keys, the Florida Reef Tract, and nearshore coastal waters. South Florida is a heterogeneous system of wetlands, uplands, coastal areas, and marine areas, dominated by the watershe...

  3. Assessment of bioavailable fraction of POPS in surface water bodies in Johannesburg City, South Africa, using passive samplers: an initial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdany, Robert; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa; Kukučka, Petr; Kohoutek, Jiří; Tölgyessy, Peter; Vrana, Branislav

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive samplers were used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in selected water bodies situated in and around Johannesburg City, South Africa. The devices were deployed for 14 days at each sampling site in spring and summer of 2011. Time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the water-borne contaminants were calculated from the amounts of analytes accumulated in the passive samplers. In the area of interest, concentrations of analytes in water ranged from 33.5 to 126.8 ng l(-1) for PAHs, from 20.9 to 120.9 pg l(-1) for PCBs and from 0.2 to 36.9 ng l(-1) for OCPs. Chlorinated pesticides were mainly composed of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.15-36.9 ng l(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane (DDT) with its metabolites (0.03-0.55 ng l(-1)). By applying diagnostic ratios of certain PAHs, identification of possible sources of the contaminants in the various sampling sites was performed. These ratios were generally inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution by PAHs in all study sites except in the Centurion River (CR), Centurion Lake (CL) and Airport River (AUP) that indicated petrogenic origins. This study highlights further need to map up the temporal and spatial variations of these POPs using passive samplers.

  4. Thermostability of biological systems: fundamentals, challenges, and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the fundamentals and challenges in engineering/understanding the thermostability of biological systems over a wide temperature range (from the cryogenic to hyperthermic regimen). Applications of the bio-thermostability engineering to either destroy unwanted or stabilize useful biologicals for the treatment of diseases in modern medicine are first introduced. Studies on the biological responses to cryogenic and hyperthermic temperatures for the various applications are reviewed to understand the mechanism of thermal (both cryo and hyperthermic) injury and its quantification at the molecular, cellular and tissue/organ levels. Methods for quantifying the thermophysical processes of the various applications are then summarized accounting for the effect of blood perfusion, metabolism, water transport across cell plasma membrane, and phase transition (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium such as ice formation and glass transition) of water. The review concludes with a summary of the status quo and future perspectives in engineering the thermostability of biological systems.

  5. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  6. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  7. Quantification of Concentration of Microalgae Anabaena Cylindrica, Coal-bed Methane Water Isolates Nannochloropsis Gaditana and PW-95 in Aquatic Solutions through Hyperspectral Reflectance Measurement and Analytical Model Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhou, X.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Three species of microalgae, Anabaena cylindrica (UTEX # 1611), coal-bed methane water isolates Nannochloropsis gaditana and PW-95 were cultured for the measurements of their hyperspectral profiles in different concentrations. The hyperspectral data were measured by an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiomter with the spectral resolution of 1 nanometer over the wavelength ranges from 350nm to 1050 nm for samples of microalgae of different concentration. Concentration of microalgae was measured using a Hemocytometer under microscope. The objective of this study is to establish the relation between spectral reflectance and micro-algal concentration so that microalgae concentration can be measured remotely by space- or airborne hyperspectral or multispectral sensors. Two types of analytical models, linear reflectance-concentration model and Lamber-Beer reflectance-concentration model, were established for each species. For linear modeling, the wavelength with the maximum correlation coefficient between the reflectance and concentrations of algae was located and then selected for each species of algae. The results of the linear models for each species are shown in Fig.1(a), in which Refl_1, Refl_2, and Refl_3 represent the reflectance of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. C1, C2, and C3 represent the Concentrations of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. The Lamber-Beer models were based on the Lambert-Beer Law, which states that the intensity of light propagating in a substance dissolved in a fully transmitting solvent is directly proportional to the concentration of the substance and the path length of the light through the solution. Thus, for the Lamber-Beer modeling, a wavelength with large absorption in red band was selected for each species. The results of Lambert-Beer models for each species are shown in Fig.1(b). Based on the Lamber-Beer models, the absorption coefficient for the three different species will be quantified.

  8. A comparative study of U937 cell size changes during apoptosis initiation by flow cytometry, light scattering, water assay and electronic sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina; Aksenov, Nikolay; Moshkov, Alexey; Model, Michael; Goryachaya, Tatyana; Vereninov, Alexey

    2017-10-01

    A decrease in flow cytometric forward light scatter (FSC) is commonly interpreted as a sign of apoptotic cell volume decrease (AVD). However, the intensity of light scattering depends not only on the cell size but also on its other characteristics, such as hydration, which may affect the scattering in the opposite way. That makes estimation of AVD by FSC problematic. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between light scattering, cell hydration (assayed by buoyant density) and cell size by the Coulter technique. We used human lymphoid cells U937 exposed to staurosporine, etoposide or hypertonic stress as an apoptotic model. An initial increase in FSC was found to occur in apoptotic cells treated with staurosporine and hypertonic solutions; it is accompanied by cell dehydration and is absent in apoptosis caused by etoposide that is consistent with the lack of dehydration in this case. Thus, the effect of dehydration on the scattering signal outweighs the effect of reduction in cell size. The subsequent FSC decrease, which occurred in parallel to accumulation of annexin-positive cells, was similar in apoptosis caused by all three types of inducers. We conclude that an increase, but not a decrease in light scattering, indicates the initial cell volume decrease associated with apoptotic cell dehydration.

  9. Biological effects-based tools for monitoring impacted surface waters in the Great Lakes: a multiagency program in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Blazer, Vicki; Collette, Timothy W.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jorgensen, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Mazik, Pat M.; Miller, David H.; Perkins, Edward J.; Smith, Edwin T.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.

  10. The quantification of risk and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Croucamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in South Africa comprises 9.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP, but remains an underresearched industry, especially regarding the quantification of the risks prevailing in the social, political and economic environment in which the industry operates. Risk prediction, extrapolation forecasting is conducted largely in the context of a qualitative methodology. This article reflects on the quantification of social constructs as variables of risk in the tourism industry with reference to South Africa. The theory and methodology of quantification is briefly reviewed and the indicators of risk are conceptualized and operationalized. The identified indicators are scaled in indices for purposes of quantification. Risk assessments and the quantification of constructs rely heavily on the experience - often personal - of the researcher and this scholarly endeavour is, therefore, not inclusive of all possible identified indicators of risk. It is accepted that tourism in South Africa is an industry comprising of a large diversity of sectors, each with a different set of risk indicators and risk profiles. The emphasis of this article is thus on the methodology to be applied to a risk profile. A secondary endeavour is to provide for clarity about the conceptual and operational confines of risk in general, as well as how quantified risk relates to the tourism industry. The indices provided include both domesticand international risk indicators. The motivation for the article is to encourage a greater emphasis on quantitative research in our efforts to understand and manage a risk profile for the tourist industry.

  11. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  12. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  13. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  14. Development of the quantification procedures for in situ XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kump, P.; Necemer, M.; Rupnik, P.

    2005-01-01

    For in situ XRF applications, two excitation systems (radioisotope and tube excited) and an X ray spectrometer based on an Si-PIN detector were assembled and used. The radioisotope excitation system with an Am-241 source was assembled into a prototype of a compact XRF analyser PEDUZO-01, which is also applicable in field work. The existing quantification software QAES (quantitative analysis of environmental samples) was assessed to be adequate also in field work. This QAES software was also integrated into a new software attached to the developed XRF analyser PEDUZO-01, which includes spectrum acquisition, spectrum analysis and quantification and runs in the LABVIEW environment. In a process of assessment of the Si-PIN based X ray spectrometers and QAES quantification software in field work, a comparison was made with the results obtained by the standard Si(Li) based spectrometer. The results of this study prove that the use of this spectrometer is adequate for field work. This work was accepted for publication in X ray Spectrometry. Application of a simple sample preparation of solid samples was studied in view of the analytical results obtained. It has been established that under definite conditions the results are not very different from the ones obtained by the homogenized sample pressed into the pellet. The influence of particle size and mineralogical effects on quantitative results was studied. A simple sample preparation kit was proposed. Sample preparation for the analysis of water samples by precipitation with APDC and aerosol analysis using a dichotomous sampler were also adapted and used in the field work. An adequate sample preparation kit was proposed. (author)

  15. The role of PET quantification in cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr; Berman, Daniel S; Alexanderson, Erick; Germano, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has several clinical and research applications in cardiovascular imaging. Myocardial perfusion imaging with PET allows accurate global and regional measurements of myocardial perfusion, myocardial blood flow and function at stress and rest in one exam. Simultaneous assessment of function and perfusion by PET with quantitative software is currently the routine practice. Combination of ejection fraction reserve with perfusion information may improve the identification of severe disease. The myocardial viability can be estimated by quantitative comparison of fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and rest perfusion imaging. The myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve measurements are becoming routinely included in the clinical assessment due to enhanced dynamic imaging capabilities of the latest PET/CT scanners. Absolute flow measurements allow evaluation of the coronary microvascular dysfunction and provide additional prognostic and diagnostic information for coronary disease. Standard quantitative approaches to compute myocardial blood flow from kinetic PET data in automated and rapid fashion have been developed for 13 N-ammonia, 15 O-water and 82 Rb radiotracers. The agreement between software methods available for such analysis is excellent. Relative quantification of 82 Rb PET myocardial perfusion, based on comparisons to normal databases, demonstrates high performance for the detection of obstructive coronary disease. New tracers, such as 18 F-flurpiridaz may allow further improvements in the disease detection. Computerized analysis of perfusion at stress and rest reduces the variability of the assessment as compared to visual analysis. PET quantification can be enhanced by precise coregistration with CT angiography. In emerging clinical applications, the potential to identify vulnerable plaques by quantification of atherosclerotic plaque uptake of 18 FDG and 18 F-sodium fluoride tracers in carotids, aorta and coronary arteries

  16. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff; Weitere europaeische Initiativen und Regelungen im Strahlenschutz. Trinkwasserrichtlinie, maximal zulaessige Kontaminationswerte in Nahrungs- und Futtermitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundigl, Stefan [Europaeische Kommission, Generaldirektion Energie, Luxemburg (Luxembourg). Abt. D3 - Strahlenschutz, EUFO 4150

    2013-07-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  17. Rapid and fully automated Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Eminent environmental challenges such as remediation of contaminated sites, the establishment and maintenance of nuclear waste repositories, or the design of surface landfill covers all require accurate quantification of the soil water characteristic at low water contents. Furthermore, several...

  18. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  19. Quantification of margins and uncertainties: Alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon C.; Johnson, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy in conjunction with the national security laboratories (i.e., Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) initiated development of a process designated Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) for the use of risk assessment methodologies in the certification of the reliability and safety of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. A previous presentation, 'Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties: Conceptual and Computational Basis,' describes the basic ideas that underlie QMU and illustrates these ideas with two notional examples that employ probability for the representation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. The current presentation introduces and illustrates the use of interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory as alternatives to the use of probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in QMU-type analyses. The following topics are considered: the mathematical structure of alternative representations of uncertainty, alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving only epistemic uncertainty, and alternative representations of epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses involving a separation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Analyses involving interval analysis, possibility theory and evidence theory are illustrated with the same two notional examples used in the presentation indicated above to illustrate the use of probability to represent aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU analyses.

  20. An EPGPT-based approach for uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) has been widely used by many scientific disciplines to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. This manuscript employs recent developments in GPT theory, collectively referred to as Exact-to-Precision Generalized Perturbation Theory (EPGPT), to enable uncertainty quantification for computationally challenging models, e.g. nonlinear models associated with many input parameters and many output responses and with general non-Gaussian parameters distributions. The core difference between EPGPT and existing GPT is in the way the problem is formulated. GPT formulates an adjoint problem that is dependent on the response of interest. It tries to capture via the adjoint solution the relationship between the response of interest and the constraints on the state variations. EPGPT recasts the problem in terms of a smaller set of what is referred to as the 'active' responses which are solely dependent on the physics model and the boundary and initial conditions rather than on the responses of interest. The objective of this work is to apply an EPGPT methodology to propagate cross-sections variations in typical reactor design calculations. The goal is to illustrate its use and the associated impact for situations where the typical Gaussian assumption for parameters uncertainties is not valid and when nonlinear behavior must be considered. To allow this demonstration, exaggerated variations will be employed to stimulate nonlinear behavior in simple prototypical neutronics models. (authors)

  1. Measurement of the initial phase of ozone decomposition in water and wastewater by means of a continuous quench-flow system: application to disinfection and pharmaceutical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffle, Marc-Olivier; Schumacher, Jochen; Salhi, Elisabeth; Jekel, Martin; von Gunten, Urs

    2006-05-01

    Due to a lack of adequate experimental techniques, the kinetics of the first 20s of ozone decomposition in natural water and wastewater is still poorly understood. Introducing a continuous quench-flow system (CQFS), measurements starting 350 ms after ozone addition are presented for the first time. Very high HO. to O3 exposures ratios (Rct=integralHO.dt/integralO3dt) reveal that the first 20s of ozonation present oxidation conditions that are similar to ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOP). The oxidation of carbamazepine could be accurately modeled using O3 and HO. exposures measured with CQFS during wastewater ozonation. These results demonstrate the applicability of bench scale determined second-order rate constants for wastewater ozonation. Important degrees of pharmaceutical oxidation and microbial inactivation are predicted, indicating that a significant oxidation potential is available during wastewater ozonation, even when ozone is entirely decomposed in the first 20s.

  2. Terahertz identification and quantification of penicillamine enantiomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Chen Min; Xiao Tiqiao; Han Pengyu

    2013-01-01

    Identification and characterization of L-, D- and DL- penicillamine were demonstrated by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To understand the physical origins of the low frequency resonant modes, the density functional theory (DFT) was adopted for theoretical calculation. It was found that the collective THz frequency motions were decided by the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions. Moreover, the quantification of penicillamine enantiomers mixture was demonstrated by a THz spectra fitting method with a relative error of less than 3.5%. This technique can be a valuable tool for the discrimination and quantification of chiral drugs in pharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  3. Characterisation and optimisation of a sample preparation method for the detection and quantification of atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigast, M.; Mutzel, A.; Iinuma, Y.; Haferkorn, S.; Herrmann, H.

    2015-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and either emitted primarily from anthropogenic and biogenic sources or they are produced secondarily from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Despite a number of studies about the quantification of carbonyl compounds a comprehensive description of optimised methods is scarce for the quantification of atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds. The method optimisation was conducted for seven atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds including acrolein, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone and 2,3-butanedione. O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was used as derivatisation reagent and the formed oximes were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With the present method quantification can be carried out for each carbonyl compound originating from fog, cloud and rain or sampled from the gas- and particle phase in water. Detection limits between 0.01 and 0.17 μmol L-1 were found, depending on carbonyl compounds. Furthermore, best results were found for the derivatisation with a PFBHA concentration of 0.43 mg mL-1 for 24 h followed by a subsequent extraction with dichloromethane for 30 min at pH = 1. The optimised method was evaluated in the present study by the OH radical initiated oxidation of 3-methylbutanone in the aqueous phase. Methyl glyoxal and 2,3-butanedione were found to be oxidation products in the samples with a yield of 2% for methyl glyoxal and 14% for 2,3-butanedione after a reaction time of 5 h.

  4. Theoretical basis of quantification for layer of protection analysis (LOPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Shuai, Bing; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zuogang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • When there is an IPL and λ 0 ⩾ 1, λ(t) and λ 0 don’t have logarithm linear relation any more. • The equations of scenario frequency of the low and high demand mode are different. • As long as an initiating event contributes more than 50% to the overall frequency, maximum is better than summation. • There are shared IPLs of initial events, so maximum is better than summation. • The bigger dependence degree of initial event is, the better maximum method is. - Abstract: In order to guide the corrective application of LOPA, this paper tries to discuss the theoretical basis of quantification for LOPA by comparing the computing methods of event tree consequences. It also discusses the computing equations for scenario frequency of the high demand mode by taking the scenario frequency of an initial event with one independent layer of protection (IPL) as example. Based on the probability theory, the computing method for scenario frequency of multiple initial events is improved and the application principle of two methods, i.e. summation and maximum value are brought forth. Research results show that the scenario frequency of the low demand mode has a specific computing equation. But for the high demand mode, the IPLs should be analyzed one by one, and the computing equation should be selected according to the demand mode of an IPL. As long as a single initiating event contributes more than 50% to the overall frequency of a particular consequence or the accident scenario induced by each initial event has the shared IPL, maximum value method is appropriate; otherwise, summation method should be adopted.

  5. Benchmarking common quantification strategies for large-scale phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogrebe, Alexander; von Stechow, Louise; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible quantification remains challenging, especially for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we compare the most popular quantification techniques for global phosphoproteomics: label-free...

  6. Two-phase flows during draining of liquefied gases initially undersaturated. Validation by water and CFC11; Ecoulements diphasiques lors de la vidange de gaz liquifies initialement sous satures. Validation par l`eau et le CFC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, L.

    1996-12-11

    In petroleum industry, the safety studies require to estimate the two-phase flow during accidental draining of pressurized liquefied gas storages. Meanwhile the mass flow strongly depends of initial conditions. Then it is primordial to be able to reckon it in the case where it is the highest, that is to say when the fluid is initially undersaturated. An experimental installation has been carried out. The used fluids are water and CFC11. The experimental measures show that the thermodynamic conditions at the inlet of the pipe (P at +/- 15 mbar and T at +/- 0.15 degrees Celsius) are well controlled. The measured mass flows are compared to different models. The frictions in the monophase domain have been taken into account. It has been shown that the extensive H.E.M. model perfectly estimates the mass flow (as well as for water than for CFC11) for large deviations to saturation. In order to correctly predict the domain of weak variation to saturation, D.E.M. (out of equilibrium) models or H.R.M. (homogeneous model of relaxation) models have to be used. (O.M.) 50 refs.

  7. Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) imaging of multiple myeloma: initial clinical efficiency results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Miyuki; Tani, Chihiro; Sakoda, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Miho; Tanitame, Keizo; Date, Shuji; Akiyama, Yuji; Awai, Kazuo; Sakai, Akira; Asaoku, Hideki; Kajima, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetric and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) MRI to quantify tumour infiltration into the lumbar vertebrae in myeloma patients without visible focal lesions. The lumbar spine was examined with 3 T MRI in 24 patients with multiple myeloma and in 26 controls. The fat-signal fraction was calculated as the mean value from three vertebral bodies. A post hoc test was used to compare the fat-signal fraction in controls and patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), asymptomatic myeloma or symptomatic myeloma. Differences were considered significant at P 2 -microglobulin-to-albumin ratio were entered into the discriminant analysis. Fat-signal fractions were significantly lower in patients with symptomatic myelomas (43.9 ±19.7%, P 2 -microglobulin-to-albumin ratio facilitated discrimination of symptomatic myeloma from non-symptomatic myeloma in patients without focal bone lesions. circle A new magnetic resonance technique (IDEAL) offers new insights in multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  8. Reagent-Free Quantification of Aqueous Free Chlorine via Electrical Readout of Colorimetrically Functionalized Pencil Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Broomfield, Andrew D; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Kruse, Peter

    2017-06-21

    Colorimetric methods are commonly used to quantify free chlorine in drinking water. However, these methods are not suitable for reagent-free, continuous, and autonomous applications. Here, we demonstrate how functionalization of a pencil-drawn film with phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) can be used for quantitative electric readout of free chlorine concentrations. The functionalized film can be implemented in a simple fluidic device for continuous sensing of aqueous free chlorine concentrations. The sensor is selective to free chlorine and can undergo a reagent-free reset for further measurements. Our sensor is superior to electrochemical methods in that it does not require a reference electrode. It is capable of quantification of free chlorine in the range of 0.1-12 ppm with higher precision than colorimetric (absorptivity) methods. The interactions of PCAT with the pencil-drawn film upon exposure to hypochlorite were characterized spectroscopically. A previously reported detection mechanism relied on the measurement of a baseline shift to quantify free chlorine concentrations. The new method demonstrated here measures initial spike size upon exposure to free chlorine. It relies on a fast charge built up on the sensor film due to intermittent PCAT salt formation. It has the advantage of being significantly faster than the measurement of baseline shift, but it cannot be used to detect gradual changes in free chlorine concentration without the use of frequent reset pulses. The stability of PCAT was examined in the presence of free chlorine as a function of pH. While most ions commonly present in drinking water do not interfere with the free chlorine detection, other oxidants may contribute to the signal. Our sensor is easy to fabricate and robust, operates reagent-free, and has very low power requirements and is thus suitable for remote deployment.

  9. Quantification of Radicals Generated in a Sonicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Badmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH• is a powerful oxidant produced as a consequence of cavitation in water. It can react nonspecifically in breaking down persistent organic pollutants in water into their mineral form. It can also recombine to form hydrogen peroxide which is very useful in water treatment. In this study, terephthalic acid (TA and potassium iodide dosimetry were used to quantify and investigate the behaviour of the generated OH radical in a laboratory scale sonicator. The 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (HTA formed during terephthalic acid dosimetry was determined by optical fibre spectrometer. The production rate of HTA served as a means of evaluating and characterizing the OH• generated over given time in a sonicator. The influence of sonicator power intensity, solution pH and irradiation time upon OH• generation were investigated. Approximately 2.2 ´ 10-9 M s-1 of OH radical was generated during the sonication process. The rate of generation of the OH radicals was established to be independent of the concentration of the initial reactant. Thus, the rate of generation of OH• can be predicted by zero order kinetics in a sonicator.

  10. Imaging and Quantification of Extracellular Vesicles by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Romain; Tan, Sisareuth; Gounou, Céline; Brisson, Alain R

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles that are present in blood and other body fluids. EVs raise major interest for their diverse physiopathological roles and their potential biomedical applications. However, the characterization and quantification of EVs constitute major challenges, mainly due to their small size and the lack of methods adapted for their study. Electron microscopy has made significant contributions to the EV field since their initial discovery. Here, we describe the use of two transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for imaging and quantifying EVs. Cryo-TEM combined with receptor-specific gold labeling is applied to reveal the morphology, size, and phenotype of EVs, while their enumeration is achieved after high-speed sedimentation on EM grids.

  11. Quantification methodology for the French 900 MW PWR PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducamp, F.; Lanore, J.M.; Duchemin, B.; De Villeneuve, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    This paper develops some improvements brought to provide to the classical way of risk assessment. The calculation of the contribution to the risk of one peculiar sequence of an event tree is composed of four stages: creation of a fault tree for each system which appears in the event trees, in terms of component faults; simplification of these fault trees into smaller ones, in terms of macrocomponents; creation of one ''super-tree'' by regrouping the fault trees of down systems (systems which fail in the sequence) under an AND gate and calculation of minimal cut sets of this super-tree, taking into account the up systems (systems that do not fail in the sequence) and peculiarities related to the initiating event if needed; quantification of the minimal cut sets so obtained, taking into account the duration of the scenario depicted by the sequence and the possibilities of repair. Each of these steps is developed in this article

  12. High-Throughput Thermodynamic Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for ICME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Richard A.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-05-01

    One foundational component of the integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) and Materials Genome Initiative is the computational thermodynamics based on the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The CALPHAD method pioneered by Kaufman has enabled the development of thermodynamic, atomic mobility, and molar volume databases of individual phases in the full space of temperature, composition, and sometimes pressure for technologically important multicomponent engineering materials, along with sophisticated computational tools for using the databases. In this article, our recent efforts will be presented in terms of developing new computational tools for high-throughput modeling and uncertainty quantification based on high-throughput, first-principles calculations and the CALPHAD method along with their potential propagations to downstream ICME modeling and simulations.

  13. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R., E-mail: jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States); Baalousha, M., E-mail: mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    force and time) to insure full sample recovery. This TEM sampling method is key to the accurate quantification of NM number concentration, and therefore to improving our understanding of environmental fate, behavior, effects and dose of NMs. - Highlights: • Fully quantitative sampling method for analysis of NMs by TEM is presented • The method combines ultracentrifugation and TEM grid functionalization • Initial validation has been performed using AuNMs in pure and synthetic EA waters • The TEM sampling method enables direct measurement of NM number concentration • The TEM sampling method enables detection of NMs in complex natural samples.

  14. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.; Lead, J.R.; Baalousha, M.

    2015-01-01

    force and time) to insure full sample recovery. This TEM sampling method is key to the accurate quantification of NM number concentration, and therefore to improving our understanding of environmental fate, behavior, effects and dose of NMs. - Highlights: • Fully quantitative sampling method for analysis of NMs by TEM is presented • The method combines ultracentrifugation and TEM grid functionalization • Initial validation has been performed using AuNMs in pure and synthetic EA waters • The TEM sampling method enables direct measurement of NM number concentration • The TEM sampling method enables detection of NMs in complex natural samples

  15. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: afavalli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  16. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  17. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  18. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibrea, Francisco; Caballero, M. Victoria; Molera, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  19. Quantification of coating aging using impedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westing, E.P.M. van; Weijde, D.H. van der; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    This chapter shows the application results of a novel approach to quantify the ageing of organic coatings using impedance measurements. The ageing quantification is based on the typical impedance behaviour of barrier coatings in immersion. This immersion behaviour is used to determine the limiting

  20. Quantification analysis of CT for aphasic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shunzo; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hojo, Kei; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Hanazono, Toshihide; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi; Totsuka, Motokichi; Oosumi, Noboru.

    1987-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography, for 44 aphasic patients with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized matrices, composed of 10 slices with 3000 points (50 by 60). The relationships between the foci of the lesions and types of aphasia were investigated on the slices numbered 3, 4, 5, and 6 using a quantification theory, Type 3 (pattern analysis). Some types of regularities were observed on Slices 3, 4, 5, and 6. The group of patients with Broca's aphasia and the group with Wernicke's aphasia were generally separated on the 1st component and the 2nd component of the quantification theory, Type 3. On the other hand, the group with global aphasia existed between the group with Broca's aphasia and that with Wernicke's aphasia. The group of pat