WorldWideScience

Sample records for initial site-wide groundwater

  1. Pickering Nuclear site wide groundwater monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWilde, J.; Chin-Cheong, D.; Lledo, C.; Wootton, R.; Belanger, D.; Hansen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) is continuing its efforts to understand the chemical and physical characteristics of the groundwater flow systems beneath the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). To this end, OPG constructed a site-wide Groundwater Monitoring System (GMS) at the PNGS to provide support to other ongoing environmental investigations and to provide a means to monitor current and future groundwater environmental issues. This paper will present the results of this work, including the development of a state-of-the-art data management system for storage and retrieval of environmental data for the site, which has applications for other power generation facilities. (author)

  2. Uncertainty Analysis Framework - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Rogers, Phillip M.

    2001-11-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of the predictions being made with a site-wide groundwater flow and transport model at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. In FY 2000, the focus of the initiative was on the characterization of major uncertainties in the current conceptual model that would affect model predictions. The long-term goals of the initiative are the development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology in future assessments and analyses using the site-wide model. This report focuses on the development and implementation of an uncertainty analysis framework.

  3. Transient Inverse Calibration of the Site-Wide Groundwater Flow Model (ACM-2): FY03 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Cole, C R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Nichols, William E.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Thorne, Paul D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Xie, YuLong

    2003-01-01

    DOE and PNNL are working to strengthen the technical defensibility of the groundwater flow and transport model at the Hanford Site and to incorporate uncertainty into the model. One aspect of the initiative is developing and using a three-dimensional transient inverse model to estimate the hydraulic conductivities, specific yields, and other parameters using data from Hanford since 1943. The focus of the alternative conceptual model (ACM-2) inverse modeling initiative documented in this report was to address limitations identified in the ACM-1 model, complete the facies-based approach for representing the hydraulic conductivity distribution in the Hanford and middle Ringold Formations, develop the approach and implementation methodology for generating multiple ACMs based on geostatistical data analysis, and develop an approach for inverse modeling of these stochastic ACMs. The primary modifications to ACM-2 transient inverse model include facies-based zonation of Units 1 (Hanford ) and 5 (middle Ringold); an improved approach for handling run-on recharge from upland areas based on watershed modeling results; an improved approach for representing artificial discharges from site operations; and minor changes to the geologic conceptual model. ACM-2 is the first attempt to fully incorporate the facies-based approach to represent the hydrogeologic structure. Further refinement and additional improvements to overall model fit will be realized during future inverse simulations of groundwater flow and transport. In addition, preliminary work was completed on an approach and implementation for generating an inverse modeling of stochastic ACMs. These techniques were applied to assess the uncertainty in the facies-based zonation of the Hanford formation and the geological structure of Ringold mud units. The geostatistical analysis used a preliminary interpretation of the facies-based zonation that was not consistent with that used in ACM-2. Although the overall objective of

  4. Transient Inverse Calibration of Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts from 1943 to 1996-Alternative Conceptual Model Considering Interaction with Uppermost Basalt Confined Aquifer; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, Vince R; Cole, Charles R; Bergeron, Marcel P; Thorne, Paul D; Wurstner, Signe K

    2001-01-01

    The baseline three-dimensional transient inverse model for the estimation of site-wide scale flow parameters, including their uncertainties, using data on the transient behavior of the unconfined aquifer system over the entire historical period of Hanford operations, has been modified to account for the effects of basalt intercommunication between the Hanford unconfined aquifer and the underlying upper basalt confined aquifer. Both the baseline and alternative conceptual models (ACM-1) considered only the groundwater flow component and corresponding observational data in the 3-Dl transient inverse calibration efforts. Subsequent efforts will examine both groundwater flow and transport. Comparisons of goodness of fit measures and parameter estimation results for the ACM-1 transient inverse calibrated model with those from previous site-wide groundwater modeling efforts illustrate that the new 3-D transient inverse model approach will strengthen the technical defensibility of the final model(s) and provide the ability to incorporate uncertainty in predictions related to both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty

  5. An initial examination of tungsten geochemistry along groundwater flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, H. B.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected along groundwater flow paths from the Upper Floridan (Florida), Carrizo Sand (Texas), and the Aquia (Maryland) aquifers and analyzed for tungsten (W) concentrations by high- resolution inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry. At each well head, groundwater samples were also analyzed for pH, specific conductance, temperature, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (Eh), dissolved iron speciation, and dissolved sulfide [S(-II)] concentrations. Sediment samples from the Carrizo Sand and Aquia aquifers were also collected and subjected to sequential extractions to provide additional insights into the solid-phase speciation of W in these aquifers. Tungsten concentrations varied along the groundwater flow paths chiefly in response to changing pH, and to a lesser extent, variations in the redox conditions. For groundwater from the Carrizo Sand aquifer, W ranges between 3.64 and 1297 pmol/kg, exhibiting the lowest values proximal to the recharge zone. Tungsten concentrations progressively increase along the flow path, reaching 1297 pmol/kg in the sulfidic groundwaters located approximately 60 km downgradient from the recharge area. Tungsten is strongly correlated with S(-II) concentrations and pH in Carrizo groundwaters (r = 0.95 and 0.78, respectively). Within the Aquia aquifer, however, W generally occurs at lower concentrations than the Carrizo (14 to 184 pmol/kg; mean = 80 pmol/kg), and shows no systematic trends along the flow path (e.g., r = 0.08 and 0.4 for W vs. S(-II) and pH, respectively). Our data are consistent with the increase in W concentrations in Carrizo groundwaters reflecting, in part, pH-related desorption, which has been shown to be substantial for pH greater than 8. Moreover, because of the broad similarities in the chemistry of W and Mo, which forms thiomolybdates in sulfidic waters, we suggest that thiotungstate complexes may form in sulfidic groundwaters, thus partially explaining the

  6. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  7. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  8. Initial studies of submarine groundwater discharge in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, A. M.; Moore, W. S.; Joung, D. J.; Box, H.; Ho, P.; Whitmore, L. M.; Gilbert, M.; Anderson, H.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a critical component of coastal ecosystems, affecting biogeochemistry and productivity. The SGD flux and effect on the ecosystem of the Mississippi (MS) Bight has not previously been studied. We have determined Ba, δ18O of water, and Ra-isotopes, together with nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen (DO) during multiple cruises from fall 2015 to summer 2016. Water isotope distributions (δ18O) show that, although the MS River Delta bounds the western side of the Bight, nonetheless, Mobile Bay and other local rivers are the Bight's dominant freshwater sources. But elevated dissolved Ba and Ra isotopes cannot be explained by river input. Spatially, SGD in the MS Bight occurs over a wide area, with hot spots near the barrier islands (e.g., Chandeleurs, Horn and Dauphin Islands) and the mouth of Mobile Bay, probably in association with old buried river channels, or dredged ship channels. Based on their high concentrations in saline groundwaters sampled on the barrier islands, the elevated Ba and Ra in MS Bight water are likely due to SGD. In subsurface waters, long-lived Ra isotopes were negatively correlated with DO during spring and summer 2016, suggesting direct discharge of DO-depleted groundwater and/or accumulation of SGD-derived Ra and microbial DO consumption under strongly stratified conditions. Our ongoing study suggests that seasonal variability in flushing, water stratification, and SGD input play important roles in biological production and bottom water hypoxia in the MS Bight.

  9. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  10. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori

    2015-04-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence on subsequent simulations. A key challenge in model initialization is that it requires spatially distributed information on model states, groundwater levels and soil moisture, even when such data are not routinely available. Here, the impact of uncertainty in initial condition was explored across a 208 km2 catchment in Denmark using the ParFlow.CLM model. The initialization impact was assessed under two meteorological conditions (wet vs dry) using five depth to water table and soil moisture distributions obtained from various equilibrium states (thermal, root zone, discharge, saturated and unsaturated zone equilibrium) during the model spin-up. Each of these equilibrium states correspond to varying computation times to achieve stability in a particular aspect of the system state. Results identified particular sensitivity in modelled recharge and stream flow to the different initializations, but reduced sensitivity in modelled energy fluxes. Analysis also suggests that to simulate a year that is wetter than the spin-up period, an initialization based on discharge equilibrium is adequate to capture the direction and magnitude of surface water–groundwater exchanges. For a drier or hydrologically similar year to the spin-up period, an initialization based on groundwater equilibrium is required. Variability of monthly subsurface storage changes and discharge bias at the scale of a hydrological event show that the initialization impacts do not diminish as the simulations progress, highlighting the importance of robust and accurate initialization in capturing surface water–groundwater dynamics.

  11. Threshold amounts of organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Thomas, Lashun K.; Bradley, Paul M.; Rectanus, Heather V.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer sediment and groundwater chemistry data from 15 Department of Defense facilities located throughout the United States were collected and analyzed with the goal of estimating the amount of natural organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems. Aquifer sediments were analyzed for hydroxylamine and NaOH-extractable organic carbon, yielding a probable underestimate of potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC). Aquifer sediments were also analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) using an elemental combustion analyzer, yielding a probable overestimate of bioavailable carbon. Concentrations of PBOC correlated linearly with TOC with a slope near one. However, concentrations of PBOC were consistently five to ten times lower than TOC. When mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed at each site were plotted versus PBOC, it showed that anoxic conditions were initiated at approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC. Similarly, the accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products relative to parent compounds increased at a PBOC concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) in sediments also increased at approximately 200 mg/kg, and bioassays showed that sediment CO2 production correlated positively with THAA. The results of this study provide an estimate for threshold amounts of bioavailable carbon present in aquifer sediments (approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC; approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg of TOC) needed to support reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems.

  12. Effects of Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Sources and Initial and Boundary Conditions on Spatiotemporal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. K.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and uncertainties in source/sink, and initial and boundary conditions in a groundwater flow model on the spatiotemporal variations of groundwater level, h(x,t), were investigated. Analytical solutions for the variance and covariance of h(x, t) in an unconfined aquifer described by a linearized Boussinesq equation with a white noise source/sink and a random transmissivity field were derived. It was found that in a typical aquifer the error in h(x,t) in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The duration during which the effect of the random initial condition is significant may last a few hundred days in most aquifers. The constant error in groundwater in later time is due to the combined effects of the uncertain source/sink and flux boundary: the closer to the flux boundary, the larger the error. The error caused by the uncertain head boundary is limited in a narrow zone near the boundary but it remains more or less constant over time. The effect of the heterogeneity is to increase the variation of groundwater level and the maximum effect occurs close to the constant head boundary because of the linear mean hydraulic gradient. The correlation of groundwater level decreases with temporal interval and spatial distance. In addition, the heterogeneity enhances the correlation of groundwater level, especially at larger time intervals and small spatial distances.

  13. Middlesex FUSRAP Site - A Path to Site-Wide Closure - 13416

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David M. [ECC, 110 Fieldcrest Ave, Ste 31, Edison, NJ, 08837 (United States); Edge, Helen [US Army Corps of Engineers - NYD, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY, 10278 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The road-map to obtaining closure of the Middlesex Sampling Plant FUSRAP site in Middlesex, New Jersey (NJ) has required a multi-faceted approach, following the CERCLA Process. Since 1998, the US ACE, ECC, and other contractors have completed much of the work required for regulatory acceptance of site closure with unrestricted use. To date, three buildings have been decontaminated, demolished, and disposed of. Two interim storage piles have been removed and disposed of, followed by the additional removal and disposal of over 87,000 tons of radiologically and chemically-impacted subsurface soils by the summer of 2008. The US ACE received a determination from the EPA for the soils Operable Unit, (OU)-1, in September 2010 that the remedial excavations were acceptable, and meet the criteria for unrestricted use as required by the 2004 Record of Decision (ROD) for OU-1. Following the completion of OU-1, the project delivery team performed additional field investigation of the final Operable Unit for Middlesex, OU-2, Groundwater. As of December 2012, the project delivery team has completed a Supplemental Remedial Investigation, which will be followed with a streamlined Feasibility Study, Proposed Plan, and ROD. Several years of historical groundwater data was available from previous investigations and the FUSRAP Environmental Surveillance Program. Historical data indicated sporadic detections of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), with no apparent trend or pattern indicating extent or source of the VOC impact. In 2008, the project delivery team initiated efforts to re-assess the Conceptual Site Model (CSM) for groundwater. The bedrock was re-evaluated as a leaky multi-unit aquifer, and a plan was developed for additional investigations for adequate bedrock characterization and delineation of groundwater contaminated primarily by CT, TCE, and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The

  14. Development and trial operation of a site-wide computerized material accounting system at Kurchatov Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Yevstropov, A.V. [Kurchatov Institute RRC, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Since August 1994 Kurchatov Institute in cooperation with several US Department of Energy Laboratories has been developing a site-wide computerized material accounting system for nuclear materials. In 1994 a prototype system was put into trial operation at two Kurchatov facilities. Evaluation of this prototype led to the development of a new computerized material accounting system named KI-MACS, which has been operational since 1996. This system is a site-wide local secure computer network with centralized database capable of dealing with strictly confidential data and performing near-real time accountancy. It utilizes a Microsoft Windows NT operating system with SQL Server and Visual Basic, and has a `star`-like network architecture. KI-MACS is capable of dealing with materials in itemized and bulk form, and can perform statistical evaluations of measurements and material balance. KI-MACS is fully integrated with bar code equipment, electronic scales, gamma-ray spectrometers and an Active Well Coincidence Counter, thus providing almost on-line evaluation and utilization of results of measurements, item identification and accounting. At present KI-MACS is being used in Physical Inventory Taking at the Kurchatov Central Storage Facility, and by the end of 1997 will be installed at twelve Kurchatov nuclear facilities.

  15. Development and trial operation of a site-wide computerized material accounting system at Kurchatov Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Yevstropov, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Since August 1994 Kurchatov Institute in cooperation with several US Department of Energy Laboratories has been developing a site-wide computerized material accounting system for nuclear materials. In 1994 a prototype system was put into trial operation at two Kurchatov facilities. Evaluation of this prototype led to the development of a new computerized material accounting system named KI-MACS, which has been operational since 1996. This system is a site-wide local secure computer network with centralized database capable of dealing with strictly confidential data and performing near-real time accountancy. It utilizes a Microsoft Windows NT operating system with SQL Server and Visual Basic, and has a 'star'-like network architecture. KI-MACS is capable of dealing with materials in itemized and bulk form, and can perform statistical evaluations of measurements and material balance. KI-MACS is fully integrated with bar code equipment, electronic scales, gamma-ray spectrometers and an Active Well Coincidence Counter, thus providing almost on-line evaluation and utilization of results of measurements, item identification and accounting. At present KI-MACS is being used in Physical Inventory Taking at the Kurchatov Central Storage Facility, and by the end of 1997 will be installed at twelve Kurchatov nuclear facilities

  16. An initial research on solute migration model coupled with adsorption of surface complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Tianwei; Chen Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    The influence of solution chemical action in groundwater on solute migration has attracted increasing public attention, especially adsorption action occurring on surface of solid phase and liquid phase, which has play a great role in solute migration. There are various interpretations on adsorption mechanism, in which surface complexion is one of successful hypothesis. This paper first establishes a geochemical model based on surface complexion and then coupled it with traditional advection-dispersion model to constitute a solute migration model, which can deal with surface complexion action. The simulated results fit very well with those obtained by the precursors, as compared with a published famous example, which indicates that the model set up by this paper is successful. (authors)

  17. Revision of Fontes & Garnier's model for the initial 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon used in groundwater dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang-Feng; Plummer, Niel

    2013-01-01

    The widely applied model for groundwater dating using 14C proposed by Fontes and Garnier (F&G) (Fontes and Garnier, 1979) estimates the initial 14C content in waters from carbonate-rock aquifers affected by isotopic exchange. Usually, the model of F&G is applied in one of two ways: (1) using a single 13C fractionation factor of gaseous CO2 with respect to a solid carbonate mineral, εg/s, regardless of whether the carbon isotopic exchange is controlled by soil CO2 in the unsaturated zone, or by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone; or (2) using different fractionation factors if the exchange process is dominated by soil CO2 gas as opposed to solid carbonate mineral (typically calcite). An analysis of the F&G model shows an inadequate conceptualization, resulting in underestimation of the initial 14C values (14C0) for groundwater systems that have undergone isotopic exchange. The degree to which the 14C0 is underestimated increases with the extent of isotopic exchange. Examples show that in extreme cases, the error in calculated adjusted initial 14C values can be more than 20% modern carbon (pmc). A model is derived that revises the mass balance method of F&G by using a modified model conceptualization. The derivation yields a “global” model both for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 in the unsaturated zone, and for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone. However, the revised model requires different parameters for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 as opposed to exchange dominated by solid carbonate minerals. The revised model for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 is shown to be identical to the model of Mook (Mook, 1976). For groundwater systems where exchange occurs both in the unsaturated zone and saturated zone, the revised model can still be used; however, 14C0 will be slightly underestimated. Finally, in carbonate systems undergoing complex geochemical reactions, such as oxidation of

  18. Impacts of model initialization on an integrated surface water - groundwater model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated hydrologic models characterize catchment responses by coupling the subsurface flow with land surface processes. One of the major areas of uncertainty in such models is the specification of the initial condition and its influence

  19. Applicability of the Linear Sorption Isotherm Model to Represent Contaminant Transport Processes in Site Wide Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.; LAST, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of flux of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater under varying geologic, hydrologic, and chemical conditions is key to making technically credible and sound decisions regarding soil site characterization and remediation, single-shell tank retrieval, and waste site closures (DOE 2000). One of the principal needs identified in the science and technology roadmap (DOE 2000) is the need to improve the conceptual and numerical models that describe the location of contaminants today, and to provide the basis for forecasting future movement of contaminants on both site-specific and site-wide scales. The State of Knowledge (DOE 1999) and Preliminary Concepts documents describe the importance of geochemical processes on the transport of contaminants through the Vadose Zone. These processes have been identified in the international list of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) (NEA 2000) and included in the list of FEPS currently being developed for Hanford Site assessments (Soler et al. 2001). The current vision for Hanford site-wide cumulative risk assessments as performed using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) is to represent contaminant adsorption using the linear isotherm (empirical distribution coefficient, K d ) sorption model. Integration Project Expert Panel (PEP) comments indicate that work is required to adequately justify the applicability of the linear sorption model, and to identify and defend the range of K d values that are adopted for assessments. The work plans developed for the Science and Technology (S and T) efforts, SAC, and the Core Projects must answer directly the question of ''Is there a scientific basis for the application of the linear sorption isotherm model to the complex wastes of the Hanford Site?'' This paper is intended to address these issues. The reason that well documented justification is required for using the linear sorption (K d ) model is that this approach is strictly empirical and is often

  20. Evaluation of groundwater levels in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, Colorado, 1953-2012, and design of initial well networks for monitoring groundwater levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The South Platte River and underlying alluvial aquifer form an important hydrologic resource in northeastern Colorado that provides water to population centers along the Front Range and to agricultural communities across the rural plains. Water is regulated based on seniority of water rights and delivered using a network of administration structures that includes ditches, reservoirs, wells, impacted river sections, and engineered recharge areas. A recent addendum to Colorado water law enacted during 2002-2003 curtailed pumping from thousands of wells that lacked authorized augmentation plans. The restrictions in pumping were hypothesized to increase water storage in the aquifer, causing groundwater to rise near the land surface at some locations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Water Institute, completed an assessment of 60 years (yr) of historical groundwater-level records collected from 1953 to 2012 from 1,669 wells. Relations of "high" groundwater levels, defined as depth to water from 0 to 10 feet (ft) below land surface, were compared to precipitation, river discharge, and 36 geographic and administrative attributes to identify natural and human controls in areas with shallow groundwater.

  1. Comparison of tritium concentrations in rainwater, simulated infiltrating water, and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kato, Norio; Kitaoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The tritium concentration in initial groundwater(i.e., freshly infiltrating rainwater) is necessary for groundwater dating. We collected simulated infiltrating water as the initial groundwater and examined its characteristics for tritium concentration. First, in Tokyo, the tritium concentration of simulated infiltrating water was compared with that of rainwater, atmospheric moisture, groundwater, spring water, and sap water. While rainwater, atmospheric moisture, and simulated infiltrating water remarkably changed month-to-month or with every rainfall event, groundwater and spring water were nearly constant throughout the year. Second, we collected the simulated infiltrating water monthly at four sampling sites widely dispersed across Japan(i.e., Sapporo, Niigata, Tokyo, and Matsuyama) from 2004 to 2010. Sapporo and Niigata showed high tritium concentrations as compared with the relatively low concentrations in Tokyo and Matsuyama. These results indicate that we can obtain annual maximum and minimum concentrations at each site, and that we can estimate the tritium concentration in initial groundwater at each site by using a mixing model composed of these maximum and minimum concentrations. (author)

  2. 76 FR 50212 - Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (DOE/EIS-0281-SA-04), DOE/NNSA... Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico for the Installation of a Petawatt..., New Mexico Final Supplement Analysis for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (2006 SNL/NM...

  3. A Site Wide Perspective on Uranium Geochemistry at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Christensen, J. N.; Davis, Jim A.; Dresel, P. Evan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kelly, S. D.; McKinley, James P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Um, Wooyong

    2007-10-26

    Uranium (U) is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford Site. Over 200,000 kg have been released to the vadose zone over the course of site operations, and a number of vadose zone and groundwater plumes containing the uranyl cation [UO22+, U(VI)] have been identified. U is recognized to be of moderate-to-high mobility, conditions dependent. The site is currently making decisions on several of these plumes with long-lasting implications, and others are soon to come. Uranium is one of nature’s most intriguing and chemically complex elements. The fate and transport of U(VI) has been studied over the long lifetime of the Hanford Site by various contractors, along with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Significant research has more recently been contributed by the national scientific community with support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science through its Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). This report represents a first attempt to integrate these findings into a cohesive view of the subsurface geochemistry of U at the Hanford Site. The objective is to inform all interested Hanford parties about the in-ground inventory of U and its geochemical behavior. This report also comments on the prospects for the development of a robust generic model to more accurately forecast future U(VI) migration at different Hanford waste sites, along with further research necessary to reach this goal.

  4. Site-Wide Integrated Water Monitoring - Defining and Implementing Sampling Objectives to Support Site Closure - 13060

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilborn, Bill; Knapp, Kathryn; Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) activity is responsible for assessing and evaluating the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and implementing a corrective action closure strategy. The UGTA strategy is based on a combination of characterization, modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls (i.e., monitored natural attenuation). The closure strategy verifies through appropriate monitoring activities that contaminants of concern do not exceed the SDWA at the regulatory boundary and that adequate institutional controls are established and administered to ensure protection of the public. Other programs conducted at the NNSS supporting the environmental mission include the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (RREMP), Waste Management, and the Infrastructure Program. Given the current programmatic and operational demands for various water-monitoring activities at the same locations, and the ever-increasing resource challenges, cooperative and collaborative approaches to conducting the work are necessary. For this reason, an integrated sampling plan is being developed by the UGTA activity to define sampling and analysis objectives, reduce duplication, eliminate unnecessary activities, and minimize costs. The sampling plan will ensure the right data sets are developed to support closure and efficient transition to long-term monitoring. The plan will include an integrated reporting mechanism for communicating results and integrating process improvements within the UGTA activity as well as between other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Programs. (authors)

  5. Calendar Year 2016 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractoroperated laboratory. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., manages and operates SNL/NM for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. Two types of groundwater surveillance monitoring are conducted at SNL/NM: (1) on a site-wide basis as part of the SNL/NM Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program’s Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) Groundwater Surveillance Task and (2) on a site-specific groundwater monitoring at LTS/Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations sites with ongoing groundwater investigations. This Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report summarizes data collected during groundwater monitoring events conducted at GMP locations and at the following SNL/NM sites through December 31, 2016: Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern (AOC); Chemical Waste Landfill; Mixed Waste Landfill; Technical Area-V Groundwater AOC; and the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater AOC. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  6. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  8. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  9. SWEIS Yearbook-2012 Comparison of 2012 Data to Projections of the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Hallie B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie Alys [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) operations data for Calendar Year (CY) 2012 mostly fell within the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) projections. Operation levels for one LANL facility exceeded the 2008 SWEIS capability projections—Radiochemistry Facility; however, none of the capability increases caused exceedances in radioactive air emissions, waste generation, or National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge. Several facilities exceeded the2008 SWEIS levels for waste generation quantities; however, all were one-time, non-routine events that do not reflect the day-to-day operations of the Laboratory. In addition, total site-wide waste generation quantities were below SWEIS projections for all waste types, reflecting the overall levels of operations at both the Key and Non-Key Facilities. Although gas and electricity consumption have remained within the 2008 SWEIS limits for utilities, water consumption exceeded the 2008 SWEIS projections by 27 million gallons in CY 2012.

  10. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. 3: Emphasis on site-wide issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, V.V.; Pshakin, G.M.; Belov, A.P.

    1997-07-01

    During 1997, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia are focusing increasingly on site-wide issues, though there is continued work at several major facilities: the Fast Critical Facility, the Technological Laboratory for Fuel Fabrication, and the (new and existing) Central Storage Facility. The collaborative work is being done with US Department of Energy National Laboratories. IPPE's emphasis on site-wide issues has resulted in the formation of a separate division for MPC and A. This new division reports directly to the IPPE Chief Engineer. It is a separate scientific and engineering operating division responsible for coordination and harmonization of MPC and A at IPPE, as well as for audit, assessment and inspection. By virtue of the organizational independence of this new division, IPPE has significantly strengthened the role of MPC and A. Two specific site-wide accomplishments are the consolidation of nuclear material from many buildings to a smaller number, and, as a major part of this strategy, the construction of a nuclear island surrounding the Fast Critical Facility and the new Central Storage Facility. Most of IPPE's weapons-grade nuclear materials will be concentrated within the nuclear island. The paper summarizes the following technical elements: computerized accounting, bar coding, weight measurements, gamma-ray measurements, tamper indicating devices, procedures for physical inventory taking and material balance closure, and video monitoring systems for storage and critical assembly areas

  11. Exploratory calculations concerning the influence of glaciation and permafrost on the groundwater flow system, and an initial study of permafrost influences at the Finnsjoen site - an SKB 91 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbom, B.; Boghammar, A.

    1991-12-01

    The present report describes some exploratory calculations concerning the potential groundwater flow during the recession phase of a future glaciation. The exercise forms part of the SKB 91 performance assessment project, and aims at qualitatively illustrating the prevailing hydrological phenomena under extreme glacier conditions, and at quantitatively indicating the order of magnitudes for the groundwater flows that can be expected during the withdrawal of an ice-sheet. The interest has been focussed on the deglaciation phase, since it can be expected that large amounts of water are available for infiltration at this time. Conditions assuming either intact or melted away permafrost were considered within the project. Apart from the exploratory calculations mentioned above, an initial attempt at modelling a permafrost situation at the Finnsjoen site was carried out. This part of the study did not include the presence of melting-water, but was focussed on the potential occurrence of permafrost and its impact on the groundwater flow as a potential barrier. These calculations are reported separately in an Appendix. Neither part of the project addressed the conceptual uncertainties like potential crustal downwarping, thermal buoyancy effects by the heat evolution from the repository, fracture zone conductivities being affected by the overburden from the ice-shelf, etc, etc. The project made use of the finite element code NAMMU for solving the equation system, while the program package HYPAC was used for pre- and postprocessing purposes. (au)

  12. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Hartman; LF Morasch; WD Webber

    2000-05-10

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 1999 on the US. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Measurements for site-wide maps were conducted in June in past years and are now measured in March to reflect conditions that are closer to average. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1998 and March 1999. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of carbon-14, strontium-90, technetium-99, and uranium also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Cesium-137 and plutonium exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in US Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for plutonium, strontium-90, tritium, and uranium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate and carbon tetrachloride are the most extensive chemical contaminants. Chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2dichloroethylene, cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; however, in most cases, they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during fiscal year 1999: 16 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 6 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. Another site, the 120-D-1 ponds

  13. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  14. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  15. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T N

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  16. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues

  17. Site-directed subsurface environmental initiative: Five year summary and plan for fundamental research in subsoils and in groundwater, FY 1989-FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The overall goal of this research initiative is to develop the necessary scientific basis for resolution of key technical obstacles to defining and remediating contamination at DOE and other waste sites. To accomplish this goal, the resouces of the national laboratories, universities, and DOE sites will be fully utilized to develop and demonstrate improved, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable techniques for predicting the behavior of contaminants and reducing their concentrations in ground water. This document is a preliminary plan to set general research directions for a program extending into the 1990s. The needs and milestones identified in this plan may change with additional guidance from DOE sites. Promising research opportunities will be identified as part of national laboratory submissions of preliminary proposals

  18. Assessment of groundwater management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the groundwater management and environmental monitoring programs at the Hanford reservation was initiated in 1973. A large number of recommendations made as a result of this review are summarized. The purpose of the Hanford Hydrology Program is to maintain a groundwater surveillance network to assess contamination of the natural water system. Potential groundwater contamination is primarily a function of waste management decisions. The review revealed that although the hydrology program would greatly benefit from additional improvements, it is adequate to predict levels of contaminants present in the groundwater system. Studies are presently underway to refine advanced mathematical models to use results of the hydrologic investigation in forecasting the response of the system to different long-term management decisions. No information was found which indicates that a hazard through the groundwater pathway presently exists as a result of waste operations at Hanford. (CH)

  19. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DB Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  20. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  1. Groundwater mapping program in Denmark - Exemplified by a 450 km2 area in Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Thomsen, Peter

    Due to an ambitious groundwater mapping programme in Denmark the consultancy company Ramboll has attained expertise and technologies for surveying, integrated water resources modelling and decision making systems. The groundwater mapping programme was initiated in 1998 when the Danish Government...

  2. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  3. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thulin, Barbara; Hahn, Hans Juergen

    2008-09-01

    probable because both Harpatocoida (Parastenocaris sp.) and Nematoda have been detected in the hyporheic zone in rivers and at shores of the Baltic. In addition, groundwater fauna has been reported from other formerly glaciated areas e.g. Northern Germany, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, North America and Siberia and Alpine regions. Glaciofluvial porous aquifers, especially eskers, and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, have proved to offer the greatest chances of successful surveys of groundwater fauna. In Sweden endemic species are not expected to be found, except in karstic aquifers in Gotland and Oeland and some parts of the Swedish Mountains. The upper layers of aquifers in crystalline bedrock have only been surveyed at very few sites. Based on community structures of groundwater fauna, reliable statements on the strength of the surface water impact and the vulnerability of the aquifer are possible. Contacts between different water bodies are displayed by groundwater fauna because groundwater fauna communities mainly reflect the intensity of surface water intrusion at a certain point when compared to hydrochemical data indicating the origin of the water. The information provided by the groundwater assemblages of an aquifer can be used for an ecologically based assessment of groundwater. Ecologically based assessment has provided initial data showing that groundwater fauna is a good marker of mixing between surface water and groundwater at certain depths. Ecologically based assessment has hitherto been used for extraction wells and quality management in drinking water abstraction (standards are still to be established). Groundwater fauna assessments have also proved to be useful in management of wetlands and regulation under nature protection law

  4. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Hahn, Hans Juergen [Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    probable because both Harpatocoida (Parastenocaris sp.) and Nematoda have been detected in the hyporheic zone in rivers and at shores of the Baltic. In addition, groundwater fauna has been reported from other formerly glaciated areas e.g. Northern Germany, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, North America and Siberia and Alpine regions. Glaciofluvial porous aquifers, especially eskers, and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, have proved to offer the greatest chances of successful surveys of groundwater fauna. In Sweden endemic species are not expected to be found, except in karstic aquifers in Gotland and Oeland and some parts of the Swedish Mountains. The upper layers of aquifers in crystalline bedrock have only been surveyed at very few sites. Based on community structures of groundwater fauna, reliable statements on the strength of the surface water impact and the vulnerability of the aquifer are possible. Contacts between different water bodies are displayed by groundwater fauna because groundwater fauna communities mainly reflect the intensity of surface water intrusion at a certain point when compared to hydrochemical data indicating the origin of the water. The information provided by the groundwater assemblages of an aquifer can be used for an ecologically based assessment of groundwater. Ecologically based assessment has provided initial data showing that groundwater fauna is a good marker of mixing between surface water and groundwater at certain depths. Ecologically based assessment has hitherto been used for extraction wells and quality management in drinking water abstraction (standards are still to be established). Groundwater fauna assessments have also proved to be useful in management of wetlands and regulation under nature protection law

  5. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  6. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  7. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  8. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Major groundwater development in North China has been a key factor in the huge economic growth and the achievement of self sufficiency in food production. Groundwater accounts for more than 70 percent of urban water supply and provides important source of irrigation water during dry period. This has however caused continuous groundwater level decline and many associated problems: hundreds of thousands of dry wells, dry river beds, land subsidence, seawater intrusion and groundwater quality deterioration. Groundwater levels in the shallow unconfined aquifers have fallen 10m up to 50m, at an average rate of 1m/year. In the deep confined aquifers groundwater levels have commonly fallen 30m up to 90m, at an average rate of 3 to 5m/year. Furthermore, elevated nitrate concentrations have been found in shallow groundwater in large scale. Pesticides have been detected in vulnerable aquifers. Urgent actions are necessary for aquifer recovery and mitigating groundwater pollution. Groundwater quantity and quality monitoring plays a very important role in formulating cost-effective groundwater protection strategies. In 2000 European Union initiated a Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) to protect all waters in Europe. The objective is to achieve good water and ecological status by 2015 cross all member states. The Directive requires monitoring surface and groundwater in all river basins. A guidance document for monitoring was developed and published in 2003. Groundwater monitoring programs are distinguished into groundwater level monitoring and groundwater quality monitoring. Groundwater quality monitoring is further divided into surveillance monitoring and operational monitoring. The monitoring guidance specifies key principles for the design and operation of monitoring networks. A Sino-Dutch cooperation project was developed to transfer European approach to groundwater monitoring in China. The project aims at building a China Groundwater Information Centre. Case studies

  9. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundertmark, Charles [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and University of Phoenix (United States); Hoopes, Jack [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (United States); Flowers, Len [Roy F. Weston Company (United States); Jackson, David G [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  10. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundertmark, Charles; Hoopes, Jack; Flowers, Len; Jackson, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  11. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  12. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  13. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  14. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  15. Groundwater Assessment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  16. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  17. Bikini Atoll groundwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work

  18. Isolation and identification of Trichoderma harzianum from groundwater: An effective biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshle, Shalini; Mahesh, S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of non-viable form of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from fluoride rich groundwater, was investigated as biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater. Biosorption experiments were carried out at laboratory scale for removal of fluoride from groundwater. Significant effect of operational parameters on fluoride biosorption using Trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent was evaluated by varying operational parameters such as: initial fluoride concentration (2-8 mgl(-1)), biosorbent dose (0.4-1.6g/100ml), groundwater pH (6-10), temperature (30-50 degrees C) and biosorption time (30-120 min). The fluoride adsorption isotherms were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Our result showed that fluoride biosorption, significantly increased with increase in groundwater pH, biosorbent dose, temperature and biosorption time, whereas increase in initial fluoride concentration reduced fluoride removal. The fluoride biosorption was rapid and maximum fluoride uptake was attained with 1.6g 100ml(-1) biosorbent within 60 min. Optimal pH 10 and temperature 50 degrees C gave maximum defluoridation efficiency. Freundlich isotherm fits well for defluoridation of groundwater using Trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent which indicated that biosorbent surface sites were heterogeneous in nature and fitted into heterogeneous site binding model.

  19. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health ampersand Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a 'capture zone' that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater

  20. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  1. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  2. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  3. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  4. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUNDWATER HYDROCHEMISTRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... It was concluded that water quality of the study area is unsuitable for irrigation ... Key words: Assessment, characterization, Groundwater quality, .... The in-situ measurement was ..... framework of the aquifer in and around East.

  6. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  7. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  8. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  9. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Integrated groundwater data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Peter; Brodaric, Boyan; Stenson, Matt; Booth, Nathaniel; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of a data manager is to ensure that data is safely stored, adequately described, discoverable and easily accessible. However, to keep pace with the evolution of groundwater studies in the last decade, the associated data and data management requirements have changed significantly. In particular, there is a growing recognition that management questions cannot be adequately answered by single discipline studies. This has led a push towards the paradigm of integrated modeling, where diverse parts of the hydrological cycle and its human connections are included. This chapter describes groundwater data management practices, and reviews the current state of the art with enterprise groundwater database management systems. It also includes discussion on commonly used data management models, detailing typical data management lifecycles. We discuss the growing use of web services and open standards such as GWML and WaterML2.0 to exchange groundwater information and knowledge, and the need for national data networks. We also discuss cross-jurisdictional interoperability issues, based on our experience sharing groundwater data across the US/Canadian border. Lastly, we present some future trends relating to groundwater data management.

  11. The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    water and groundwater allocation strategies for a river basin, given an arbitrary initial groundwater level in the aquifer. A simplified management problem with conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater under inflow and recharge uncertainty is presented. Because of head......Overexploitation of groundwater reserves is a major environmental problem around the world. In many river basins, groundwater and surface water are used conjunctively and joint optimization strategies are required. A hydroeconomic modeling approach is used to find cost-optimal sustainable surface...

  12. Developing A National Groundwater-Monitoring Network In Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N. J.; Cho, M. J.; Woo, N. C.

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1960's, the groundwater resources of Korea have been developed without a proper regulatory system for monitoring and preservation, resulting in significant source depletion, land subsidence, water contamination, and sea-water intrusion. With the activation of the "Groundwater Law" in June 1994, the government initiated a project to develop a groundwater-monitoring network to describe general groundwater quality, to define its long-term changes, and to identify major factors affecting changes in groundwater quality and yield. In selecting monitoring locations nationwide, criteria considered are 1) spatial distribution, 2) aquifer characteristics of hydrogeologic units, 3) local groundwater flow regime, 4) linkage with surface hydrology observations, 5) site accessibility, and 6) financial situations. A total of 310 sites in 78 small hydrologic basins were selected to compose the monitoring network. Installation of monitoring wells is scheduled to start in 1995 for 15 sites; the remainder are scheduled to be completed by 2001. At each site, a nest of monitoring wells was designed; shallow and deep groundwater will be monitored for water temperature, pH, EC, DO and TDS every month. Water-level fluctuations will also be measured by automatic recorders equipped with pressure transducers. As a next step, the government plans to develop a groundwater-database management system, which could be linked with surface hydrologic data.

  13. Post-Closure Evaluation of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site in Support of the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The post-closure performance of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and Area 5 RWMS are evaluated for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement using current performance assessment and composite analysis methods and models. Two alternatives with different future waste volumes and inventories are evaluated. The No Action Alternative evaluates the inventory disposed through fiscal year (FY) 2010 plus an additional 4.5E5 cubic meters (m3) (1.59E7 cubic feet (ft3)) of waste disposed at the Area 5 RWMS. The Expanded Operations Alternative evaluates the FY 2010 inventory plus an additional 1.42E6 m3 (5.03E7 ft3) of waste disposed at the Area 5 RWMS and 4.93E4 m3 (1.74E6 ft3) disposed at the Area 3 RWMS. Both the No Action and Expanded Operations Alternatives have a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' No significant difference between the two alternatives was found because the waste concentrations are similar. The performance assessment model assesses radiological risk for residents at the RWMS boundary where risk is more closely related to waste concentration than total waste inventory. Results for the composite analysis also indicate that the dose constraint and dose limit can be met for both alternatives.

  14. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  15. Belgrade waterworks groundwater source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, A.; Dasic, M.; Vukcevic, G.; Vasiljevic, Lj.; Nikolic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Paper deals with Belgrade Waterworks groundwater source, its characteristics, conception of protection programme, contaminations on source and with parameters of groundwater quality degradation. Groundwaters present natural heritage with their strategic and slow renewable natural resources attributes, and as such they require priority in protection. It is of greatest need that existing source is to be protected and used optimally for producing quality drinkable water. The concept of source protection programme should be based on regular water quality monitoring, identification of contaminators, defining areas of their influences on the source and their permanent control. However, in the last 10 years, but drastically in the last 3, because of the overall situation in the country, it is very characteristic downfall in volume of business, organisation and the level of supply of the technical equipment

  16. Basin F Subregional Groundwater Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazion, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The groundwater flow system at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is complex. To evaluate proposed remedial alternatives, interaction of the local groundwater flow system with the present contamination control systems must be understood...

  17. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  18. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  19. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  20. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  1. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  2. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  3. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  4. Controlling groundwater over abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The control of groundwater over abstraction is a vexing problem worldwide. Jordan is one of the countries facing severe water scarcity which has implemented a wide range of measures and policies over the past 20 years. While the gap between formal legal and policy frameworks and local practices on

  5. Groundwater quota versus tiered groundwater pricing : two cases of groundwater management in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Qu, Wei; Bluemling, B.; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in monitoring groundwater extraction cause groundwater regulations to fail worldwide. In two counties in north-west China local water authorities have installed smart card machines to monitor and regulate farmers’ groundwater use. Data from a household survey and in-depth interviews are

  6. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  7. Groundwater characterisation and modelling: problems, facts and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [INTERA KB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    For the last 10 years, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden has been the main test site for the development of suitable methods for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Major achievements have been made in the development of new groundwater sampling and modelling techniques. The natural condition of the groundwater is easily disturbed by drilling and sampling. The effects from borehole activities which may bias the real character of the groundwater have been identified. The development of new sampling techniques has improved the representativeness of the groundwater samples. In addition, methods to judge the representativeness better have been developed. For modelling of the Aespoe site, standard groundwater modelling codes based on thermodynamic laws have been applied. The many limitations of existing geochemical models used at the Aespoe site and the need to decode the complex groundwater information in terms of origin, mixing and reactions at site scale necessitated the development of a new modelling tool. This new modelling concept was named M3. In M3 modelling the assumption is that the groundwater chemistry is a result of mixing as well as water/rock reactions. The M3 model compares the groundwater compositions from a site. The similarities and differences of the groundwater compositions are used to quantify the contribution from mixing and reactions on the measured data. In order to construct a reliable model the major components, stable isotopes and tritium are used. Initially, the method quantifies the contribution from the flow system. Subsequently, contributions from reactions are calculated. The model differs from many other standard models which primarily use reactions rather than mixing to determine the groundwater evolution. The M3 code has been used for the following type of modelling: calculate the mixing portions at Aespoe, quantify the contribution from inorganic and organic reactions such as biogenic decomposition and sulphate

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New Mexico Administrative Code), 'Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,'specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  11. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Evaluation of the base case groundwater data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, P.F.; Apted, M.J. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-05-01

    The groundwater chemistry is one of important geological environment for performance assessment of high level radioactive disposal system. This report describes the results of geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Over 15,000 separate groundwater analyses have been collected of deep Japanese groundwaters for the purpose of evaluating the range of geochemical conditions for geological radioactive waste repositories in Japan. The significance to issues such as radioelement solubility limits, sorption, corrosion of overpack, behavior of compacted clay buffers, and many other factors involved in safety assessment. It is important therefore, that a small, but representative set of groundwater types be identified so that defensible models and data for generic repository performance assessment can be established. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to categorize representative deep groundwater types from this extensive data set. PCA is a multi-variate statistical analysis technique, similar to factor analysis or eigenvector analysis, designed to provide the best possible resolution of the variability within multi-variate data sets. PCA allows the graphical inspection of the most important similarities (clustering) and differences among samples, based on simultaneous consideration of all variables in the dataset, in a low dimensionality plot. It also allows the analyst to determine the reasons behind any pattern that is observed. In this study, PCA has been aided by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), in which statistical indices of similarity among multiple samples are used to distinguish distinct clusters of samples. HCA allows the natural, a priori, grouping of data into clusters showing similar attributes and is graphically represented in a dendrogram Pirouette is the multivariate statistical software package used to conduct the PCA and HCA for the Japanese groundwater dataset. An audit of the initial 15,000 sample dataset on the basis of

  12. Mass transport by groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; De Marsily, G.; Des Orres, P.E.; Lewi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The first analyses of the safety of radioactive waste disposal published in 1970s were mostly of a generic type using the models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These simply constructed models gave way to more sophisticated techniques in order to represent better the complexity and diversity of geological media. In this article, it is attempted to review the various concepts used to quantify radionuclide migration and the evolution of their incorporation into the models. First, it was examined how the type of discontinuity occurring in geological media affects the choice of a representative model. The principle of transport in the subsurface was reviewed, and the effect that coupled processes exert to groundwater flow and mass migration was discussed. The processes that act directly to cause groundwater flow were distinguished. The method of validating such models by comparing the results with the geochemical systems in nature was explained. (K.I.)

  13. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  14. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  15. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 CFR 60.113 (a). The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time

  16. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time, as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss (1) the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, (2) two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and (3) the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  18. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  19. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  20. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  1. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  2. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miodrag Jelic

    resistance (ρ); dielectric constant (ε); magnetic permeability (η); electrochemical activity ..... comprises grey sands of different particle size distribution ..... groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in. Bangladesh.

  3. Supplement Analysis for Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory -- Modification of Management Methods for Transuranic Waste Characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) adequately addresses the environmental effects of a waste management proposal for installing and operating modular units for the characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste1 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA)-54, Area G, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9 (c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an EIS when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns or there are circumstances or information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 1021.314(c) of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) regulations for NEPA implementation stating that ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis.'' This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the waste management program evaluated in the SWEIS with those of a proposal that would change the approach of a portion of this management program. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the proposed action and activities described in the previous SWEIS analysis. DOE proposes to expedite the shipment of legacy TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Cerro Grande Fire in 2000 and events of September 11, 2001, have focused attention on the potential risk to the public and the credible security hazard posed by the amount of plutonium stored above ground at LANL and the increased necessity to safeguard our nation's nuclear waste. The safest place for defense-generated TRU waste has been determined to be DOE

  4. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional groundwater flow system. Groundwater flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex groundwater flow systems. Groundwater flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional groundwater flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and ET are the dominant natural groundwater discharge processes. Groundwater also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Groundwater flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey 3D finitedifference modular groundwater flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 meters (m) on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins simulated by constant-head boundaries. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient mode

  5. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  6. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  7. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  8. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  9. Groundwater protection management program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program's significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1

  10. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  11. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  12. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  13. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    provided by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system. Ground-water flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex ground-water flow systems. Ground-water flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional ground-water flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and evapotranspiration (ET) are the dominant natural ground-water discharge processes. Ground water also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Ground-water flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, a 3D finite-difference modular ground-water flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 m on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins, also simulated by drains. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient model gener

  14. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan

  15. Groundwater migration of radionuclides at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malensek, A.J.; Wehmann, A.A.; Elwyn, A.J.; Moss, K.J.; Kesich, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The simple Single Resident Well (SRW) Model has been used to calculate groundwater movement since Fermilab's inception. A new Concentration Model is proposed which is more realistic and takes advantage of computer modeling that has been developed for the siting of landfills. Site geologic and hydrologic data were given to a consultant who made the migration calculations from an initial concentration that was based upon the existing knowledge of the radioactivity leached out of the soil. The various components of the new Model are discussed, and numerical examples are given and compared with DOE/EPA limits

  16. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  17. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  18. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  19. Geospatial database of estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Adriana; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Department of the Interior’s WaterSMART (Sustain and Manage America’s Resources for Tomorrow) initiative, compiled published estimates of groundwater discharge to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin as a geospatial database. For the purpose of this report, groundwater discharge to streams is the baseflow portion of streamflow that includes contributions of groundwater from various flow paths. Reported estimates of groundwater discharge were assigned as attributes to stream reaches derived from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset. A total of 235 estimates of groundwater discharge to streams were compiled and included in the dataset. Feature class attributes of the geospatial database include groundwater discharge (acre-feet per year), method of estimation, citation abbreviation, defined reach, and 8-digit hydrologic unit code(s). Baseflow index (BFI) estimates of groundwater discharge were calculated using an existing streamflow characteristics dataset and were included as an attribute in the geospatial database. A comparison of the BFI estimates to the compiled estimates of groundwater discharge found that the BFI estimates were greater than the reported groundwater discharge estimates.

  20. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  1. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1987-07-01

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  2. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  3. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  4. Deep groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.; Axelsen, K.; Fredlund, F.

    1987-06-01

    Starting in 1977 and up till now a number of places in Sweden have been investigated in order to collect the necessary geological, hydrogeological and chemical data needed for safety analyses of repositories in deep bedrock systems. Only crystalline rock is considered and in many cases this has been gneisses of sedimentary origin but granites and gabbros are also represented. Core drilled holes have been made at nine sites. Up to 15 holes may be core drilled at one site, the deepest down to 1000 m. In addition to this a number of boreholes are percussion drilled at each site to depths of about 100 m. When possible drilling water is taken from percussion drilled holes. The first objective is to survey the hydraulic conditions. Core drilled boreholes and sections selected for sampling of deep groundwater are summarized. (orig./HP)

  5. Global scale groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  6. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  7. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE X-701B GROUNDWATER REMEDY, PORTSMOUTH, OHIO: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Costanza, J.; Rossabi, J.; Early, T.; Skubal, K.; Magnuson, C.

    2008-12-15

    recommended, the team should identify the type of injection and target soil horizon for these injections; (2) Consider the feasibility of declaring Technical Impracticability and proceeding with the RCRA Cap for the X-701B; and (3) Provide a summary of other cost-effective technologies that could be implemented (especially for the lower Gallia). The Independent Technical Review team focused its evaluation solely on the X-701B source zone and contaminant plume. It did not review current or planned remedial activities at other plumes, waste areas, or landfills at the Portsmouth site, nor did it attempt to integrate such activities into its recommendations for X-701B. However, the ultimate selection of a remedy for X-701B by site personnel and regulators should take into account potentially synergistic efforts at other waste areas. Assessment of remedial alternatives in the context of site-wide management practices may reveal opportunities for leveraging and savings that would not otherwise be identified. For example, the cost of source-zone excavation or construction of a permeable reactive barrier at X-701B might be substantially reduced if contaminated soil could be buried on site at an existing or planned landfill. This allowance would improve the feasibility and competitiveness of both remedies. A comprehensive examination of ongoing and future environmental activities across the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is necessary to optimize the selection and timing of X-701B remediation with respect to cleanup efficiency, safety, and economics. A selected group of technical experts attended the technical workshop at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant from November 18 through 21, 2008. During the first day of the workshop, both contractor and DOE site personnel briefed the workshop participants and took them on a tour of the X-701B site. The initial briefing was attended by representatives of Ohio EPA who participated in the discussions. On subsequent days, the team

  8. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  9. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  10. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  11. The maximum economic depth of groundwater abstraction for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Gleeson, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, groundwater has become increasingly important for agriculture. Irrigation accounts for 40% of the global food production and its importance is expected to grow further in the near future. Already, about 70% of the globally abstracted water is used for irrigation, and nearly half of that is pumped groundwater. In many irrigated areas where groundwater is the primary source of irrigation water, groundwater abstraction is larger than recharge and we see massive groundwater head decline in these areas. An important question then is: to what maximum depth can groundwater be pumped for it to be still economically recoverable? The objective of this study is therefore to create a global map of the maximum depth of economically recoverable groundwater when used for irrigation. The maximum economic depth is the maximum depth at which revenues are still larger than pumping costs or the maximum depth at which initial investments become too large compared to yearly revenues. To this end we set up a simple economic model where costs of well drilling and the energy costs of pumping, which are a function of well depth and static head depth respectively, are compared with the revenues obtained for the irrigated crops. Parameters for the cost sub-model are obtained from several US-based studies and applied to other countries based on GDP/capita as an index of labour costs. The revenue sub-model is based on gross irrigation water demand calculated with a global hydrological and water resources model, areal coverage of crop types from MIRCA2000 and FAO-based statistics on crop yield and market price. We applied our method to irrigated areas in the world overlying productive aquifers. Estimated maximum economic depths range between 50 and 500 m. Most important factors explaining the maximum economic depth are the dominant crop type in the area and whether or not initial investments in well infrastructure are limiting. In subsequent research, our estimates of

  12. Simulation of groundwater flows in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musy, A.

    1976-01-01

    Groundwater flow in unsaturated porous media is caused by a potential gradient where the total potential consists of the sum of a gravitational and a suction component. The partial differential equations which result from the general analysis of groundwater flow in unsaturated soil are solved by succesive approximations with the finite-element method. General boundary and initial conditions, linear or curvilinear shaped elements (isoparametric elements) and steady-state or transient flow can be introduced into the numerical computer program. The results of this mathematical model are compared with experimental data established in the laboratory with a physical groundwater model. This is a rectangular testing tank of dimension 3 x 1.5 x 0.15 m and contains a silty clay loam. The variation of the bulk density and the volumetric moisture of the soil as a function of time and space are measured by gamma absorption from a 137 Cs source with 300 mCi intensity

  13. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  14. Sorption of neptunium under oxidizing and reducing groundwater conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Sorption of neptunium was studied under aerobic, anoxic and reducing groundwater conditions using solutions with initial Np concentrations of 10 -14 to 10 -8 mol/l. Under aerobic conditions the sorption was the same for all concentrations. Under anoxic conditions the same proportion of neptunium (70-80%) was removed from the water. The neptunium sorbed on rock surfaces was of mixed oxidation states. Only Np(V) was found in waters. Under reducing groundwater conditions, nearly all the neptunium was removed from water. The sorbed neptunium was at first almost completely in the form of Np(IV). The submicrogram amounts of neptunium were partly oxidized with time, but Np(V) did not dissolve in reducing water. The holding oxidant character of the tonalite to Np(V) and, the holding reductant character of rocks to small amounts of Np(IV), was demonstrated under anaerobic and reducing groundwater conditions, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  16. Electrical Resistivity Technique for Groundwater Exploration in Quaternary Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziman, M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Fahmy, K. A.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Sabariah, M.; Ambak, K.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The water security for University Tun Hussein Onn (UTHM) campus was initiated to find alternative sources of water supply. This research began with finding the soil profiles using the geophysical electrical resistivity method across UTHM campus. The resistivity results were calibrated with previous borehole data as well as via groundwater drilling. The drilling work was discovered the groundwater aquifer characterized by the fractured fresh igneous rock at a depth between 43 meter and 55 meter. Further drilling was continued until 100 meter in depth. However, due to not encounter a new rock fractured zone causes the groundwater quantity did not improve even was drilled up to 100 meter depth. In the perspective of water resources, it showed a good potential for water resources for local usages at 104 m3 per day. In addition, the groundwater quality showed the water treatment was required to fulfil the criterion of the national drinking water standards. This study concluded that the first layer of fractured bedrock at UTHM was able to produce significant amounts of groundwater for local consumption usage.

  17. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... of water in the oxidized zone of the aquifer nearly halved, following implementation of action plans to reduce N leaching from agriculture. However, due to denitrification by pyrite oxidation in the aquifer, a plume of sulfate-rich water migrates through the aquifer as a legacy of the historical NO3...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...

  18. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  19. Analysis of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) chirality in groundwater: A tool for dating groundwater movement in agricultural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clifford P; McCarty, Gregory W; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Zabetakis, Kara; Torrents, Alba; Hapeman, Cathleen J

    2016-08-01

    To better address how much groundwater contributes to the loadings of pollutants from agriculture we developed a specific dating tool for groundwater residence times. This tool is based on metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid, which is a major soil metabolite of metolachlor. The chiral forms of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and the chiral forms of metolachlor were examined over a 6-year period in samples of groundwater and water from a groundwater-fed stream in a riparian buffer zone. This buffer zone bordered cropland receiving annual treatments with metolachlor. Racemic (rac) metolachlor was applied for two years in the neighboring field, and subsequently S-metolachlor was used which is enriched by 88% with the S-enantiomer. Chiral analyses of the samples showed an exponential increase in abundance of the S-enantiomeric forms for MESA as a function of time for both the first order riparian buffer stream (R(2)=0.80) and for groundwater within the riparian buffer (R(2)=0.96). However, the S-enrichment values for metolachlor were consistently high indicating different delivery mechanisms for MESA and metolachlor. A mean residence time of 3.8years was determined for depletion of the initially-applied rac-metolachlor. This approach could be useful in dating groundwater and determining the effectiveness of conservation measures. A mean residence time of 3.8years was calculated for groundwater feeding a first-order stream by plotting the timed-decay for the R-enantiomer of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  1. Groundwater sampling in uranium reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.

    1977-03-01

    The groundwater sampling program is based on the premise that ground water geochemistry reflects the chemical composition of, and geochemical processes active in the strata from which the sample is obtained. Pilot surveys have shown that wells are the best source of groundwater, although springs are sampled on occasion. The procedures followed in selecting a sampling site, the sampling itself, and the field measurements, as well as the site records made, are described

  2. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Groundwater Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  4. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  5. Is UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 relevant to governing the intimate land-use/groundwater linkage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    The close link between land use and groundwater has long been recognised, but not widely translated into integrated policy and management practices. Common understanding is needed to facilitate cross-sector dialogue on governance. The process of land-use planning advocated by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (UN-SDG) 15 for 2030, coupled with the launch of an independent global land-use monitoring initiative known as Land Matrix, appear to provide windows of opportunity for hydrogeologists to make specific proposals for the inclusion of groundwater protection needs in national land-use plans and the consideration of groundwater sustainability threats from major land deals and contracts. Ignoring the groundwater dimension in land-use management can result in high long-run costs for drinking-water supply and aquatic ecosystems. Thus, coordinated governance based on a coherent set of land-use sustainability criteria, aimed at enhancing both the food and groundwater harvest, is crucial for the future.

  6. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  7. Interpretation of environmental isotopic groundwater data. Arid and semi-arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyh, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Various hydrodynamic aspects are discussed in order to show their implication for the hydrogeological interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrochemical groundwater data. Special attention is drawn to radiocarbon and tritium studies carried out in arid and semi-arid zones. An exponential model has been utilized to determine the mean residence time of the long-term water from springs in karst and crystalline regions. Hydrogeological parameters such as the porosity can be checked by this result. In addition, the exponential model offers the possibility of determining the initial 14 C content of spring water, which is sensitively dependent on the soil of the recharge area. A base-flow model has been introduced to interpret the 14 C and 3 H data of groundwater samples from older karst regions. Differences between pumped and drawn samples exist with respect to the groundwater budget. Owing to pumping, the old base flow is accelerated and becomes enriched in pumped groundwater in comparison to the short-term water. Radiocarbon ages of groundwater in alluvium may be dubious because of isotope exchange with the CO 2 in the root zone along the river bank. Under confined conditions 14 C groundwater ages are diminished if the hydraulic head of the confined aquifer is lower than that of the shallow one. This is due to the radiocarbon downwards transport by convection of shallow groundwater. The same effect occurs, though much faster, if the groundwater table is depleted by groundwater withdrawal. The decrease of the radiocarbon groundwater ages in time can be used to determine the hydraulic transmissibility coefficient of the aquitarde. According to the practical and theoretic results obtained the hydrodynamic aspects require at least the same attention for the interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrochemical data of groundwater as do hydrochemical and isotope fractionation processes. (author)

  8. Toward developing more realistic groundwater models using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat Aboueshagh, H.; Tsai, F. T. C.; Bhatta, D.; Paudel, K.

    2017-12-01

    data from the USDACropScape. Groundwater level data obtained from the USGS were used to determine the model boundary and initial conditions. Recharge rates were approximated based on surficial lithology and rainfall data. The Chicot aquifer model will be used to understand groundwater availability in southwest Louisiana.

  9. Dissolved Organic Carbon 14C in Southern Nevada Groundwater and Implications for Groundwater Travel Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyall [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Thomas, James M [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) ages must be corrected for complex chemical and physical reactions and processes that change the amount of 14C in groundwater as it flows from recharge to downgradient areas. Because of these reactions, DIC 14C can produce unrealistically old ages and long groundwater travel times that may, or may not, agree with travel times estimated by other methods. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C ages are often younger than DIC 14C ages because there are few chemical reactions or physical processes that change the amount of DOC 14C in groundwater. However, there are several issues that create uncertainty in DOC 14C groundwater ages including limited knowledge of the initial (A0) DOC 14C in groundwater recharge and potential changes in DOC composition as water moves through an aquifer. This study examines these issues by quantifying A0 DOC 14C in recharge areas of southern Nevada groundwater flow systems and by evaluating changes in DOC composition as water flows from recharge areas to downgradient areas. The effect of these processes on DOC 14C groundwater ages is evaluated and DOC and DIC 14C ages are then compared along several southern Nevada groundwater flow paths. Twenty-seven groundwater samples were collected from springs and wells in southern Nevada in upgradient, midgradient, and downgradient locations. DOC 14C for upgradient samples ranged from 96 to 120 percent modern carbon (pmc) with an average of 106 pmc, verifying modern DOC 14C ages in recharge areas, which decreases uncertainty in DOC 14C A0 values, groundwater ages, and travel times. The HPLC spectra of groundwater along a flow path in the Spring Mountains show the same general pattern indicating that the DOC compound composition does not change along this flow path

  10. Headcut erosive regimes influenced by groundwater on disturbed agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, D L

    2011-02-01

    A series of simulated rainfall experiments, testing several soils and slope gradients in a 10 m x 0.8m laboratory flume, displayed close correlations between initial development of a water table at a 10 cm depth and highly erosive headcut formation. On some soils and gradients, highly erosive headcuts formed consistently and predictably within minutes or seconds of initial water table rise. However, headcuts alone were not good indicators of increased erosion. In most experiments some headcuts formed early, often when surface hydraulic parameter values reached established rill initiation thresholds, but resulted in little or no erosion increase. Later, at initial water table rise, other headcuts formed coincident with major erosion increase, often with surface hydraulic values then less than rill initiation thresholds. On the four soils tested, highly erosive headcuts never formed without groundwater development, except on steep 9 ° slopes. Common visual indicators such as headcut morphology and headcut advance rates were not effective means of determining either erosion or the existence of groundwater. Only local monitoring of subsurface moisture conditions with micro-standpipes and TDR aided in determining headcut processes and erosive regimes. Groundwater-influenced headcut formation was likely caused by increased soil pore-water pressures and decreased soil shear strengths in surface rainflow, not by sapping or seepage from the soil matrix. Highly erosive headcuts can thus form under common agricultural conditions where reductions in permeability, such as plow pans, exist near the surface--without the need for saturated soils. Headcut erosive regimes were also significantly influenced by soil type and slope gradient, with the greatest effects of groundwater on moderate slopes and fairly permeable soils. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  12. Suburban heat island effect in groundwater energy utilisation in Nordic climate - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Teppo

    2017-04-01

    We present the preliminary results from the initial thermogeological characterization of Finland's first-ever planned large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) facility. The site is located in the Asko area (Lahti), at a latitude of 60°59'N. In particular, emphasis is put on the results from an aquifer's pumping test performed in July / August 2016 to investigate the potential implication of suburban heat island (SUHI) effect to ATES system on the naturally cold groundwater area. The site has been under geological investigation since July 2015. At a regional scale, the groundwater's natural temperature is about 5.8- 6°C. However, preliminary measurements during the investigations revealed that local groundwater temperature ranged between 7.5 to 8.7 °C in Asko area. The highest temperature was observed underneath buildings, suggesting that higher-than-average temperature is most likely influenced due to anthropogenic heat flux into the ground. The pumping test was performed for 39 days, of which 28 days with groundwater withdrawal and 11 days of heads recovery. The pumped volumes range from 350 to 540 m3/d leading the total volume of 10400 m3 of groundwater. Groundwater temperatures were continuously measured from pumping test well and two observation piezometers during the entire test. The results indicated that aquifer's temperature remained nearly constant being between 7.4 to 7.9 °C during the test period. Heat pulses with temperature variation of 0.1 to 0.3 °C were observed in the pumping well and nearest monitoring well (19 meters from pumping well) during the pumping test and recovery phase. We estimate that the pulses were due to rapidly changed groundwater flowing conditions and pulse indicate "new groundwater" flow to the well. Overall, the preliminary test suggests that groundwater temperature are expected to remain elevated during the ATES system operation. Elevated temperature due the SUHI effect increases groundwater heating potential

  13. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  14. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  15. Laboratory scale stabilization of N-springs groundwater strontium-90 using phosphatic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Petersen, S.W.; Torne, E.G.; Vlcakova, J.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of phosphatic materials to sorb strontium-90 from soil and groundwater. This study was initiated to investigate the potential use of phosphatic materials as permeable geochemical barriers for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River create potential human food chain hazards; therefore, it is imperative to immobilize the contamination before it reaches the river. Phosphate materials have been proven by various researchers to be chemical compounds that combine with contaminant metals forming into insoluble metal-phosphate minerals. These minerals are stable and insoluble under normal soil conditions

  16. First and second quarters 1999 - TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization

  17. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  18. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  19. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  20. Groundwater response to heavy precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waring, C.; Bradd, J.; Hankin, S.

    2003-05-01

    An investigation of the groundwater response to heavy rainfall at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) is required under the conditions of Facility Licence F0001 for the ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor. Groundwater continuous hydrograph monitoring has been used for this purpose. Hydrograph data from four boreholes are presented showing the rainfall recorded during the same period for comparison. The drought conditions have provided only limited cases where groundwater responded to a rainfall event. The characteristic response was local, caused by saturated soil contributing water directly to the borehole and the falling head as the water was redistributed into he aquifer in a few hours. Hydrograph data from borehole near the head of a gully showed that groundwater flow from the plateau to the gully produced a peak a fe days after the rainfall event and that the water level returned to its original level after about 10 days. The hydrograph data are consistent with an imperfect multi-layer groundwater flow regime, developed from earlier seismic and geophysical data, with decreasing rate of flow in each layer due to decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth. The contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the thin permeable soil layer and the low permeable sandstone forms an effective barrier to vertical flow

  1. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  2. Removal of arsenate from groundwater by electrocoagulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Khan, Tabrez A; Asim, Mohd

    2012-06-01

    Arsenic, a toxic metalloid in drinking water, has become a major threat for human beings and other organisms. In the present work, attempts have been made to remove arsenate from the synthetic as well as natural water of Ballia district, India by electrocoagulation method. Efforts have also been made to optimize the various parameters such as initial arsenate concentration, pH, applied voltage, processing time, and working temperature. Electrocoagulation is a fast, inexpensive, selective, accurate, reproducible, and eco-friendly method for arsenate removal from groundwater. The present paper describes an electrocoagulation method for arsenate removal from groundwater using iron and zinc as anode and cathode, respectively. The maximum removal of arsenate was 98.8% at 2.0 mg L(-1), 7.0, 3.0 V, 10.0 min, and 30°C as arsenate concentration, pH, applied voltage, processing time, and working temperature, respectively. Relative standard deviation, coefficient of determination (r (2)), and confidence limits were varied from 1.50% to 1.59%, 0.9996% to 0.9998%, and 96.0% to 99.0%, respectively. The treated water was clear, colorless, and odorless without any secondary contamination. The developed and validated method was applied for arsenate removal of two samples of groundwater of Ballia district, U.P., India, having 0.563 to 0.805 mg L(-1), arsenate concentrations. The reported method is capable for the removal of arsenate completely (100% removal) from groundwater of Ballia district. There was no change in the groundwater quality after the removal of arsenate. The treated water was safe for drinking, bathing, and recreation purposes. Therefore, this method may be the choice of arsenate removal from natural groundwater.

  3. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  4. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs

  5. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  6. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  7. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  8. Geoelectrical mapping and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rainer

    Specific electrical resistivity of near-surface materials is mainly controlled by the groundwater content and thus reacts extremely sensitive to any change in the ion content. Geoelectric mapping is a well-established, simple, and inexpensive technique for observing areal distributions of apparent specific electrical resistivities. These are a composite result of the true resistivities in the underground, and with some additional information the mapping of apparent resistivities can help to delineate low-resistivity groundwater contaminations, typically observed downstream from sanitary landfills and other waste sites. The presence of other good conductors close to the surface, mainly clays, is a serious noise source and has to be sorted out by supporting observations of conductivities in wells and geoelectric depth soundings. The method may be used to monitor the extent of groundwater contamination at a specific time as well as the change of a contamination plume with time, by carrying out repeated measurements. Examples for both are presented.

  9. Hydrogeochemical analysis and quality evaluation of groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki,. Ebonyi State .... classify the chemistry of groundwater in hard rock, ... Occurrence, movement and storage of groundwater.

  10. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  11. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the ... contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from ...... tern and effective groundwater management; Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad.

  12. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  13. Planning for groundwater in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems that rely on groundwater as a water source have a natural and inherent resilience to climate change. Under natural conditions aquifers are stable water sources – in fact, ecosystems reliant on groundwater are literally the refuge...

  14. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...

  15. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  16. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  19. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  20. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  1. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  2. Simfuel dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.; Ollila, K.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwater at 25 deg C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend to congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release. Yttrium release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rates of dissolution of uranium has been observed

  3. SIMFUEL dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J; Sandino, A.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwaters at 25 degrees C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend of congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rate of dissolution of uranium has been observed. (au)

  4. State space modeling of groundwater fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendrecht, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in both urban and rural areas. It is therefore essential to monitor groundwater fluctuations. However, data that becomes available need to be analyzed further in order to extract specific information on the groundwater system. Until recently, simple linear time

  5. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  6. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  7. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is

  8. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is not being perceived as an important water resource and therefore has been given limited attention in South. Africa. This is reflected in general ... Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project to develop a Groundwater Management Framework that incorpo- rates all aspects of groundwater ...

  9. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  10. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    ground-water development have eliminated the natural sources of discharge, and pumping for agricultural and urban uses have become the primary source of discharge from the ground-water system. Infiltration of return flows from agricultural irrigation has become an important source of recharge to the aquifer system. The ground-water flow model of the basin was discretized horizontally into a grid of 43 rows and 60 columns of square cells 1 mile on a side, and vertically into three layers representing the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. Faults that were thought to act as horizontal-flow barriers were simulated in the model. The model was calibrated to simulate steady-state conditions, represented by 1915 water levels and transient-state conditions during 1915-95 using water-level and subsidence data. Initial estimates of the aquifer-system properties and stresses were obtained from a previously published numerical model of the Antelope Valley ground-water basin; estimates also were obtained from recently collected hydrologic data and from results of simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence models of the Edwards Air Force Base area. Some of these initial estimates were modified during model calibration. Ground-water pumpage for agriculture was estimated on the basis of irrigated crop acreage and crop consumptive-use data. Pumpage for public supply, which is metered, was compiled and entered into a database used for this study. Estimated annual pumpage peaked at 395,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 1952 and then declined because of declining agricultural production. Recharge from irrigation-return flows was estimated to be 30 percent of agricultural pumpage; the irrigation-return flows were simulated as recharge to the regional water table 10 years following application at land surface. The annual quantity of natural recharge initially was based on estimates from previous studies. During model calibration, natural recharge was reduced from the initial

  11. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  12. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  13. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  14. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    during the monitoring phase. When both CCC and monitoring values are available from one borehole section two values are used, one representing each of the sampling methods. When time series are measured in the monitoring sections, in most cases the sulphide values are higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with groundwater from the surrounding fractures. The routinely carried out removal of five borehole section water volumes prior to monitoring are in most cases inadequate to obtain representative samples from the bedrock fractures, i.e. without elevated sulphide due to contamination from the initial stagnant water from the borehole section. It is, however, assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' value. It is worth noting that the plug flow calculations have proven to be very useful in order to judge the water volumes needed to be pumped at each monitored section before obtaining a sample sufficiently representative of the fracture groundwater. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Forsmark are <= 0.013 mmol/L (approx0.4 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some deposition location in the repository the surrounding groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.12 mmol/L (approx4 mg/L). In order to estimate canister corrosion rates in the SR-Site during a full glacial cycle, it is recommended that the observed distribution of sulphide in groundwaters at Forsmark during the present temperate conditions should be used. Furthermore, it should be noted that the present sulphide concentrations have been sampled after a recent period of possible

  15. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    the monitoring phase. When both CCC and monitoring values are available from one borehole section two values are used, one representing each of the sampling methods. When time series are measured in the monitoring sections, in most cases the sulphide values are higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with groundwater from the surrounding fractures. The routinely carried out removal of five borehole section water volumes prior to monitoring are in most cases inadequate to obtain representative samples from the bedrock fractures, i.e. without elevated sulphide due to contamination from the initial stagnant water from the borehole section. It is, however, assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' value. It is worth noting that the plug flow calculations have proven to be very useful in order to judge the water volumes needed to be pumped at each monitored section before obtaining a sample sufficiently representative of the fracture groundwater. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Forsmark are ≤ 0.013 mmol/L (∼0.4 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some deposition location in the repository the surrounding groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.12 mmol/L (∼4 mg/L). In order to estimate canister corrosion rates in the SR-Site during a full glacial cycle, it is recommended that the observed distribution of sulphide in groundwaters at Forsmark during the present temperate conditions should be used. Furthermore, it should be noted that the present sulphide concentrations have been sampled after a recent period of possible intrusion of marine

  16. The UMTRA PEIS: A strategy for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, C.; Ulland, L.; Weston, R.F.; Metzler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) was initiated in 1992 for the uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) program. The PEIS kicked off the groundwater restoration phase of UMTRA, a project involving remediation of 24 sites in ten states and tribal lands contaminated with tailings from uranium mining and milling operations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed, in early 1992, that a PEIS was an appropriate strategy to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for this second, groundwater phase of the project. This decision recognized that although a parallel effort was being undertaken in preparing a PEIS for DOE's Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) program, characteristics and the maturity of the UMTRA project made it more appropriate to prepare a separate PEIS. The ER/WM PEIS is intended to examine environmental restoration and waste management issues from a very broad perspective. For UMTRA, with surface remediation completed or well under way at 18 of the 24 sites, a more focused programmatic approach for groundwater restoration is more effective than including the UMTRA project within the ER/WM environmental impact statements. A separate document allows a more focused and detailed analysis necessary to efficiently tier site-specific environmental assessments for groundwater restoration at each of the 24 UMTRA former processing sites

  17. Summary report on groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-07-01

    The preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal (in Finland) carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) during the period 1987 to 1992 yielded data on hydrogeochemistry from a total 337 water samples. The main objective of the groundwater chemistry studies was to characterize groundwaters at the investigation sites and, specifically, to create a concept for the mean residence times and evolution of groundwater by means of isotopic analyses. Moreover, the studies yielded input data for geochemical modelling and the performance assessment. Samples were taken from deep boreholes (with a depth of 500 to 1000 m), percussion-drilled boreholes (depth approx. 200 m), flushing-water wells (approx. 100 m) and multi-level pietzometers (approx. 100 m) used in the hydrological tests. The water used for drilling the deep boreholes was taken from local flushing-water wells, whose water was also analyzed in detail. The flushing water used in drilling was marked with two tracers, iodine and uranine, analyzed with two different methods. For reference purposes, samples were also taken from surficial and groundwaters over a large area surrounding the investigation site. Precipitation over a period of at least one year was collected at all the five investigation sites and the samples were analyzed in great detail, particularly with regard to isotopes. Similarly, snow profile samples representing precipitation during the entire winter was taken from each site at least once

  18. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in drinking water is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable because of the associated aesthetic and operational problems, namely: bad taste, colour, stains on laundry and plumbing fixtures, and aftergrowth in the

  19. Adsorptive iron removal from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some

  20. COVARIANCE CORRECTION FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... between zero and one, depending on location of the observation ..... [1] Alley W.M., Reilly T.E., Franke O.L., Sustainability of ground-water resources, U.S. ... Data assimilation: the ensemble Kalman filter, Springer, New York, ...

  1. Groundwater regulation and integrated planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe; Batelaan, Okke; Hunt, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of groundwater and the diversity of uses and environmental interactions call for emerging groundwater problems to be addressed through integrated management and planning approaches. Planning requires different levels of integration dealing with: the hydrologic cycle (the physical process) including the temporal dimension; river basins and aquifers (spatial integration); socioeconomic considerations at regional, national and international levels; and scientific knowledge. The great natural variation in groundwater conditions obviously affects planning needs and options as well as perceptions from highly localised to regionally-based approaches. The scale at which planning is done therefore needs to be carefully evaluated against available policy choices and options in each particular setting. A solid planning approach is based on River Basin Management Planning (RBMP), which covers: (1) objectives that management planning are designed to address; (2) the way various types of measures fit into the overall management planning; and (3) the criteria against which the success or failure of specific strategies or interventions can be evaluated (e.g. compliance with environmental quality standards). A management planning framework is to be conceived as a “living” or iterated document that can be updated, refined and if necessary changed as information and experience are gained. This chapter discusses these aspects, providing an insight into European Union (EU), United States and Australia groundwater planning practices.

  2. HYDROGEOPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF THE GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and hydrogeological data were used to delineate the subsurface sequence and map the aquifer units with a view to evaluating the groundwater prospect of the central part of Ogun State,. Southwestern Nigeria. Thirty Schlumberger VES with maximum current electrode spacing (AB) of ...

  3. Hydrogeological Investigation and Groundwater Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses groundwater quality and productivity in Haromaya watershed, eastern. Ethiopia. ... zones, quantity and quality of plant and animal life (Tamire H., 1981). Steep to very ... Present research work was proposed to conduct hydrogeological investigation and assess ...... Water Balance of Haromaya basin,.

  4. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1993-10-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code's scalability

  5. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  6. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  7. Isotope characteristics of groundwater in Beishan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the authors studied the origin, evolution and circulation of the groundwater in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository. The results indicate that both deep groundwater and shallow groundwater are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater in the site area is of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwater is mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater originates from regional precipitation at higher elevation, or might be derived from the precipitation during the geological period of lower temperature. It is also known from the study that the deep underground is a system of very low-permeability where the groundwater flow rates are very low. (author)

  8. Hydromorphology of the Unconfined Groundwater in the South of Klaten District (Data Before Earthquake Mei 27th 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are some characteristics and distributions of unconfined groundwater variation in the research area. Those are related to a system of water supply and consumptive use for drinking water. Variation of the groundwater characteristic depends on variation of morphology. Therefore, it is needed to delineate hydromorphology units of the regions as a base on groundwater resources management, especially for drinking water. The aims of the research are: (1 to study of the characteristic and distribution of unconfined groundwater variations base on landform units, (2 to study the factors that affect such variations, and (3 to establish the hydromorphology units of the regions for groundwater resources management, especially for drinking water. The method used in this research is landform approach and field survey. The sampling method is stratified sampling, based on landform as the analysis approach. Result of the research shows that there are some variations of groundwater characteristic at each landform. Landforms which have good groundwater characteristic are Hydromorphology Unit of Fluvio Volcanic Plain of Young Merapi (except Bayat region and Hydromorphology Unit of Volcanic Foot Plain of Young Merapi. At those units, there are good quality of groundwater, bicarbonate water (hydrochemical type I, having low electric conductivity, shallow of water table, low in fluctuation, and middle to fast class in aquifer permeability. Those units are the most potential unconfined groundwater resources management for drinking water. The units which have poor groundwater characteristic are Hidromorphology Unit in Bayat Region, including Undulating Alluvial Plain, Fluvio Volcanic Plain of Young Merapi, and Swamp Alluvial Plain. Generally, the groundwater quality is medium to poor, the hydrochemical type is Va (initiation process of connate water and type III (evaporate water, shallow up to medium of water table, and low to middle class of aquifer permeability

  9. Hanford Site Wide Transportation Safety Document [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCALL, D L

    2002-06-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to approve the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document (TSD) for onsite Transportation and Packaging (T&P) at Hanford. Hanford contractors, on behalf of DOE-RL, prepared and submitted the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document, DOE/RL-2001-0036, Revision 0, (DOE/RL 2001), dated October 4, 2001, which is referred to throughout this report as the TSD. In the context of the TSD, Hanford onsite shipments are the activities of moving hazardous materials, substances, and wastes between DOE facilities and over roadways where public access is controlled or restricted and includes intra-area and inter-area movements. The TSD sets forth requirements and standards for onsite shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials and wastes within the confines of the Hanford Site on roadways where public access is restricted by signs, barricades, fences, or other means including road closures and moving convoys controlled by Hanford Site security forces.

  10. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  11. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker

  12. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  13. An approach to quality classification of deep groundwaters in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Smellie, J.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-11-01

    In Sweden and Finland high quality groundwater samples are required in the site characterization programmes relating to safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) and TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a cooperative task to critically evaluate the quality of the earlier sampling programmes and to further develop the understanding of quality or representativeness of the groundwater samples. The major aim in this report has been, therefore, to make an attempt to classify groundwaters from site investigations in Sweden and Finland based on quality. Different classification systems have been tested and developed. These can be divided in two main groups; manual methods and computer-based mathematical methods. Manual, statistical, mixing ratio and scoring systems have all been used to illustrate the difficulty in judging groundwater quality. (28 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.)

  14. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon...... and 6 % of river input into the lagoon. This large-scale study was the motivation to conduct field investigation techniques in order to understand the dynamic processes in the near-shore environment. Field campaigns were conducted every two months in order to understand the seasonal groundwater...

  15. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  16. Practical problems of groundwater model ages for groundwater protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthess, G.; Muennich, K.O.; Sonntag, C.

    1976-01-01

    Water authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany have established a system of protection zones for the protection of groundwater supplies from pollution. One zone (Zone II) is defined by an outer boundary from which the groundwater needs 50 days to flow to the well. 50 days is the period accepted for the elimination of pathogenic germs. However, within Zone II carbon-14 measurements of water may give model ages of several thousand years, which may lead to some confusion in the legal and practical aspects of this scheme. These model ages may result from uncertainties in the chemical model, or from mixing of waters of different ages, either within the aquifer or during extraction at the well. The paper discusses scientific aspects of the establishment of protection zones. Two processes affecting the model age determinations are examined in detail. First, the mechanism of diffusion transport downwards through porous, but impermeable, aquicludes is examined for stable trace substances and radioactive isotopes. Secondly, examples are given of model ages resulting from mixtures of new and old waters. It is recommended that such model ages should not be reported as 'ages' since they may be misinterpreted in groundwater protection applications. (author)

  17. Work plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory groundwater program: Continuous groundwater collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The continuous collection of groundwater data is a basic and necessary part of Lockeheed Martin Energy Systems' ORNL Environmental Restoration Area-Wide Groundwater Program. Continuous groundwater data consist primarily of continually recorded groundwater levels, and in some instances, specific conductivity, pH, and/or temperature measurements. These data will be collected throughout the ORNL site. This Work Plan (WP) addresses technical objectives, equipment requirements, procedures, documentation requirements, and technical instructions for the acquisition of the continuous groundwater data. Intent of this WP is to provide an approved document that meets all the necessary requirements while retaining the flexibility necessary to effectively address ORNL's groundwater problems

  18. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  19. Groundwater use in Pakistan: opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater potential in the Indus Basin is mainly due to recharge from irrigation system, rivers and rainfall. Its quality and quantity varies spatially and temporally. However, the potential is linked with the surface water supplies. Irrigated agriculture is the major user of groundwater. Annual recharge to groundwater in the basin is estimated as 68 MAF. But 50 percent of the area has marginal to hazardous groundwater quality. Existing annual groundwater pumpage is estimated as 45 MAF (55 BCM). More than 13 MAF mainly of groundwater is lost as non-beneficial ET losses. Groundwater contributes 35 percent of total agricultural water requirements in the country. Annual cropping intensities have increased from 70% to 150% due to groundwater use. Increase in crop yield due to groundwater use has been observed 150-200. percent. Total investment on private tube wells has been made more than Rs.25.0 billion. In the areas where farmers are depending more on groundwater. mining of groundwater has been observed. Population pressure, inadequate supply of canal water and development of cheap local tub well technology have encouraged farmers to invest in the groundwater development. Deterioration of groundwater has also been observed due to excessive exploitation. The available information about the private tube wells is insufficient for different areas. Although during the past decade the growth of tube wells was tremendous but was not reflected accordingly in the statistics. Monitoring of groundwater quality is not done systematically and adequately. It is very difficult to manage a resource for which adequate information is not available. The present scenario of groundwater use is not sustainable and therefore certain measures are needed to be taken. It is recommended to. have a systematic monitoring of groundwater. For the sustainable use of groundwater, it is recommended to manage the demand of water i.e. grow more crops with less water. To achieve high productivity of

  20. Assessment and Monitoring of Nutrient Management in Irrigated Agriculture for Groundwater Quality Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Davis, R.; Smart, D. R.; Brown, P. H.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient fluxes to groundwater have been subject to regulatory assessment and control only in a limited number of countries, including those in the European Union, where the Water Framework Directive requires member countries to manage groundwater basis toward achieving "good status", and California, where irrigated lands will be subject to permitting, stringent nutrient monitoring requirements, and development of practices that are protective of groundwater. However, research activities to rigorously assess agricultural practices for their impact on groundwater have been limited and instead focused on surface water protection. For groundwater-related assessment of agricultural practices, a wide range of modeling tools has been employed: vulnerability studies, nitrogen mass balance assessments, crop-soil-system models, and various statistical tools. These tools are predominantly used to identify high risk regions, practices, or crops. Here we present the development of a field site for rigorous in-situ evaluation of water and nutrient management practices in an irrigated agricultural setting. Integrating groundwater monitoring into agricultural practice assessment requires large research plots (on the order of 10s to 100s of hectares) and multi-year research time-frames - much larger than typical agricultural field research plots. Almonds are among the most common crops in California with intensive use of nitrogen fertilizer and were selected for their high water quality improvement potential. Availability of an orchard site with relatively vulnerable groundwater conditions (sandy soils, water table depth less than 10 m) was also important in site selection. Initial results show that shallow groundwater concentrations are commensurate with nitrogen leaching estimates obtained by considering historical, long-term field nitrogen mass balance and groundwater dynamics.

  1. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in (natural) anaerobic groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.A.; Lee, M.-K.; Shamsudduha, M.; Dhakal, P.; Uddin, A.; Chowdury, M.T.; Ahmed, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Here new data from field bioremediation experiments and geochemical modeling are reported to illustrate the principal geochemical behavior of As in anaerobic groundwaters. In the field bioremediation experiments, groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh was amended with labile water-soluble organic C (molasses) and MgSO 4 to stimulate metabolism of indigenous SO 4 -reducing bacteria (SRB). In the USA, the groundwater was contaminated by Zn, Cd and SO 4 , and contained 1000 μg/L) under geochemical conditions consistent with bacterial Fe-reducing conditions. With time, groundwater became more reducing and biogenic SO 4 reduction began, and Cd and Zn were virtually completely removed due to precipitation of sphalerite (ZnS) and other metal sulfide mineral(s). Following precipitation of chalcophile elements Zn and Cd, the concentrations of Fe and As both began to decrease in groundwater, presumably due to formation of As-bearing FeS/FeS 2 . By the end of the six-month experiment, dissolved As had returned to below background levels. In the initial Bangladesh experiment, As decreased to virtually zero once biogenic SO 4 reduction commenced but increased to pre-experiment level once SO 4 reduction ended. In the ongoing experiment, both SO 4 and Fe(II) were amended to groundwater to evaluate if FeS/FeS 2 formation causes longer-lived As removal. Because As-bearing pyrite is the common product of SRB metabolism in Holocene alluvial aquifers in both the USA and Southeast Asia, it was endeavored to derive thermodynamic data for arsenian pyrite to better predict geochemical processes in naturally reducing groundwaters. Including the new data for arsenian pyrite into Geochemist's Workbench, its stability field completely dominates in reducing Eh-pH space and 'displaces' other As-sulfides (orpiment, realgar) that have been implied to be important in previous modeling exercises and reported in rare field conditions. In summary, when anaerobic bacterial metabolism

  2. Recharge Net Metering to Incentivize Sustainable Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. T.; Coburn, C.; Kiparsky, M.; Lockwood, B. S.; Bannister, M.; Camara, K.; Lozano, S.

    2016-12-01

    Stormwater runoff has often been viewed as a nuisance rather than a resource, but with passage of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (2014), many basins in California are taking a fresh look at options to enhance groundwater supplies with excess winter flows. In some basins, stormwater can be used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), routing surface water to enhance groundwater resources. As with many public infrastructure programs, financing for stormwater-MAR projects can be a challenge, and there is a need for incentives that will engage stakeholders and offset operation and maintenance costs. The Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA), in central costal California, recently launched California's first Recharge Net Metering (ReNeM) program. MAR projects that are part of the ReNeM program are intended to generate ≥100 ac-ft/yr of infiltration benefit during a normal water year. A team of university and Resource Conservation District partners will collaborate to identify and assess potential project sites, screening for hydrologic conditions, expected runoff, ease and cost of project construction, and ability to measure benefits to water supply and quality. The team will also collect data and samples to measure the performance of each operating project. Groundwater wells within the PVWMA's service area are metered, and agency customers pay an augmentation fee for each unit of groundwater pumped. ReNeM projects will earn rebates of augmentation fees based on the amount of water infiltrated, with rebates calculated using a formula that accounts for uncertainties in the fate of infiltrated water, and inefficiencies in recovery. The pilot ReNeM program seeks to contribute 1000 ac-ft/yr of infiltration benefit by the end of the initial five-year operating period. ReNeM offers incentives that are distinct from those derived from traditional groundwater banking, and thus offers the potential for an innovative addition to the portfolio of options for

  3. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan For The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2009-09-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12 LLC (hereafter referenced as B&W Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. B&W Y-12 is a new corporate name, assumed in January 2007, for the company formerly known as BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., hereafter referenced as BWXT. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A Environmental Protection Program (hereafter referenced as DOE O 450.1A), which emphasize a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility through implementation of groundwater surveillance monitoring. Additionally, this plan addresses the relevant and applicable GWPP elements and goals described in the DOE O 450.1A technical guidance documents issued in June 2004 (DOE 2004) and May 2005 (DOE 2005). This GWPP management plan is a 'living' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP

  4. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  5. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  6. PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.; Alvarez, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research

  7. PCR detection of groundwater bacteria associated with colloidal transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Perez, P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.; Alvarez, A.J.

    1996-02-29

    Colloidal transport may increase the amount of contaminant material than that which could be transported by water flow alone. The role of colloids in groundwater contaminant transport is complicated and may involve many different processes, including sorption of elements onto colloidal particles, coagulation/dissolution, adsorption onto solid surfaces, filtration, and migration. Bacteria are known to concentrate minerals and influence the transport of compounds in aqueous environments and may also serve as organic colloids, thereby influencing subsurface transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. The initial phase of the project consisted of assembling a list of bacteria capable of sequestering or facilitating mineral transport. The development and optimization of the PCR amplification assay for the detection of the organisms of interest, and the examination of regional groundwaters for those organisms, are presented for subsequent research.

  8. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budge, T. J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The groundwater facet of the revised CA is responsible for generating predicted contaminant concentration values over the entire analysis spatial and temporal domain. These estimates will be used as part of the groundwater pathway dose calculation facet to estimate dose for exposure scenarios. Based on the analysis of existing models and available information, the P2R Model was selected as the numerical simulator to provide these estimates over the 10,000-year temporal domain of the CA. The P2R Model will use inputs from initial plume distributions, updated for a start date of 1/1/2017, and inputs from the vadose zone facet, created by a tool under development as part of the ICF, to produce estimates of hydraulic head, transmissivity, and contaminant concentration over time. A recommendation of acquiring 12 computer processors and 2 TB of hard drive space is made to ensure that the work can be completed within the anticipated schedule of the revised CA.

  9. Evaluation of Background Mercury Concentrations in the SRS Groundwater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury analyses associated with the A-01 Outfall have highlighted the importance of developing an understanding of mercury in the Savannah River Site groundwater system and associated surface water streams. This activity is critical based upon the fact that the EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for this constituent is 0.012mg/L, a level that is well below conventional detection limits of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L. A first step in this process is obtained by utilizing the existing investment in groundwater mercury concentrations (20,242 records) maintained in the SRS geographical information management system (GIMS) database. Careful use of these data provides a technically defensible initial estimate for total recoverable mercury in background and contaminated SRS wells

  10. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  11. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  12. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  13. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto - complementary simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    2000-06-01

    This work comprises of the complementary simulations to the previous groundwater flow analysis at the Olkiluoto site. The objective is to study the effects of flow porosity, conceptual model for solute transport, fracture zones, land uplift and initial conditions on the results. The numerical simulations are carried out up to 10000 years into the future employing the same modelling approach and site-specific flow and transport model as in the previous work except for the differences in the case descriptions. The result quantities considered are the salinity and the driving force in the vicinity of the repository. The salinity field and the driving force are sensitive to the flow porosity and the conceptual model for solute transport. Ten-fold flow porosity and the dual-porosity approach retard the transport of solutes in the bedrock resulting in brackish groundwater conditions at the repository at 10000 years A.P. (in the previous work the groundwater in the repository turned into fresh). The higher driving forces can be attributed to the higher concentration gradients resulting from the opposite effects of the land uplift, which pushes fresh water deeper and deeper into the bedrock, and the higher flow porosity and the dual-porosity model, which retard the transport of solutes. The cases computed (unrealistically) without fracture zones and postglacial land uplift show that they both have effect on the results and can not be ignored in the coupled and transient groundwater flow analyses. The salinity field and the driving force are also sensitive to the initial salinity field especially at the beginning during the first 500 years A.P. The sensitivity will, however, diminish as soon as fresh water dilutes brackish and saline water and decreases the concentration gradients. Fresh water conditions result in also a steady state for the driving force in the repository area. (orig.)

  14. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  15. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das

    2013-01-01

    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  16. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, Bas; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Griffioen, Jasper; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-05-01

    , with Fe(II) oxidation taking place in the soil surrounding the ditch during summer and in the surface water during winter. The dynamics in Fe(II) oxidation did not affect the dissolved P concentrations. The dissolved P concentrations of the in-stream reservoirs water were an order of magnitude lower than observed in the groundwater and have no seasonal trend. Our data showed preferential binding of P during initial stage of the Fe(II) oxidation process, indicating the formation of Fe(III)-phosphate precipitates. The formation of Fe(III)-phosphates at the groundwater-surface water interface is an important geochemical mechanism in the transformation of dissolved phosphate to particulate phosphate and therefore a major control on the P retention in natural waters that drain anaerobic aquifers.

  17. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  18. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity.

  19. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  20. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Aquifer Characterization, Groundwater Potential, Electrical Resistivity, Lithologic Logs ... State Water Corporation currently cannot meet the daily water ... METHOD OF STUDY ... sections which were constrained with the available.

  1. Conservation planning as an adaptive strategy for climate change and groundwater depletion in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzman, Harris; Salem, Boshra; Gad, Mohamed; Adeel, Zafar; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2018-05-01

    In drylands, groundwater is often the sole source of freshwater for industrial, domestic and agricultural uses, while concurrently supporting ecosystems. Many dryland aquifers are becoming depleted due to over-pumping and a lack of natural recharge, resulting in loss of storage and future water supplies, water-level declines that reduce access to freshwater, water quality problems, and, in extreme cases, geologic hazards. Conservation is often proposed as a strategy for managing groundwater to reduce or reverse the depletion, although there is a need to better understand its potential effectiveness and benefits at the local scale. This study assesses the impact of water-conservation planning strategies on groundwater resources in the Wadi El Natrun (WEN) area of northern Egypt. WEN has been subjected to groundwater depletion and quality degradation since the 1990s, attributed to agricultural and industrial groundwater usage. Initiatives have been proposed to increase the sustainability of the groundwater resource in the study area, but they have yet to be evaluated. Simultaneously, there are also proposals to increase the extent of arable land and thus demand for freshwater. In this study, three water management scenarios are developed and assessed to the 2060s for their impact on groundwater resources using a hydrogeologic model. Results demonstrate that demand management implemented through an optimized irrigation and crop rotation strategy has the greatest potential to significantly reduce risk of groundwater depletion compared to the other two scenarios—"business as usual" and "30% water-use reduction"—that were evaluated.

  2. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  3. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  4. The impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In order to assess the impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow groundwater ... thermal transfer systems that use the ground water as a ... Abbreviations: GWHPs, Groundwater heat pumps; GHGs, ... Areas (Mm2).

  5. Groundwater Interim Measures Work Plan for the Former Chemical Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 2012 Groundwater IMWP, revised per EPA's approval, focuses on the installation of a groundwater containment system to mitigate groundwater migration from the former plant. A prior 2002 work plan is included in its entirety in Appendix B.

  6. Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: geoprasanna@gmail.com [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)

    2012-09-15

    Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

  7. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  8. Incorporating Social Determinants into a Groundwater Risk Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Allen, D. M.; Journeay, M.; Korteling, B.

    2009-12-01

    The remediation of polluted groundwater is often very costly, therefore water managers utilize various proactive measures, such as wellhead protection planning, to prevent contamination events. With limited available resources, it is essential to prioritize where these measures are introduced; systematic and integrated methodologies of assessing risk to groundwater can be utilized for this prioritization. To quantify the resistance of the physical system to pollution, Aquifer Vulnerability is commonly mapped for the area of interest. This information is useful for focusing monitoring efforts and identifying data gaps, but is a relative measure of contaminant risk. To more accurately assess the probability of contamination, an inventory of hazards can be integrated with intrinsic vulnerability of the physical system. This Threat indicator links land-use with chemicals and quantifies the risk based on the toxicity and environmental fate of these substances. Local knowledge of the quantity stored and likelihood of release can be utilized to further assess these threats. Both of these steps form part of an existing frameworks for assessing risk to groundwater. In this study, a groundwater risk framework is developed and tested in two study areas; Pender Island and the Lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Enhancements of a basic groundwater risk framework include not only incorporating points sources such as septic systems, landfills and fuel storage, but also various social determinants of risk. These social determinants include the Resistance of a community, which represents the planning and protection initiatives designed to safeguard the resource. These include items such as land-use planning that consider groundwater vulnerability and best management practices enforced by local governments. The ability to recover following an event is the Capacity of a community; indicators include the presence or absence of spill response plans, treatment systems or an

  9. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  10. Physiological and morphological responses of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica to altered groundwater availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Yu, B; Zhao, C; Nowak, Robert S; Zhao, Z; Sheng, Y; Li, J

    2013-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid areas are subject to frequent hydrological fluctuations induced through natural flow variation and water use by humans. Although many studies have focused on the success of Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. in its invaded ranges, its major competitor in its home range, Populus euphratica Oliv., historically has dominated riparian forests where both species occur naturally. Thus, identifying ecophysiological differences between T. ramosissima and its co-evolved competitor under varying hydrological conditions may help us understand how flow regimes affect dominance in its home range and promote invasion in new ranges. We examined ecophysiological responses of T. ramosissima and P. euphratica, which are both native to the Tarim River Basin, northwest China, to experimental alterations in groundwater. Seedlings of both species were grown in lysimeters, first under well-watered conditions and then exposed to different groundwater treatments: inundation, drought, and relatively shallow, moderate and deep groundwater. Under inundation, T. ramosissima showed little growth whereas P. euphratica died after ~45 days. Droughted seedlings of both species suffered from considerable water stress evidenced by slow growth, decreased total leaf area and specific leaf area, and decreased xylem water potential (ψ), maximum photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency. Both species had better ecophysiological performances under shallow and moderate groundwater conditions. When groundwater declined below rooting depth, seedlings of both species initially experienced decreased ψ, but ψ of T. ramosissima recovered late in the experiment whereas P. euphratica maintained decreased ψ. This ability of T. ramosissima to recover from water deficit might result from its rapid root elongation and subsequent ability to acquire groundwater, which in turn likely provides ecophysiological advantages over P. euphratica. Our results suggest that recent groundwater declines

  11. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in groundwater in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chihhao [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-C. [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [School of Forest and Resources Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chunhank@ntu.edu.tw

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in selected groundwater sites in Taiwan. The study employs the multimedia environment pollutant assessment system (MEPAS) model to calculate the specific non-cancer and cancer risks at an exposure level of 1 {mu}g/L of each VOC for a variety of exposure pathways. The results show that the highest specific non-cancer risk is associated with water ingestion of vinyl chloride (VC) and that the highest specific cancer risk is associated with indoor breathing of VC. The three most important exposure pathways for risk assessment for both non-cancer and cancer risks are identified as water ingestion, dermal absorption when showering, and indoor breathing. Excess tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and VC are detected in the groundwater aquifers of one dump site and one factory. However, the study suggests that the pollutants in the contaminated groundwater aquifers do not travel extensively with groundwater flow and that the resulting VOC concentrations are below detectable levels for most of the sampled drinking-water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the non-cancer and cancer risks resulting from use of the contaminated groundwater are found to be hundred times higher than the general risk guidance values. To ensure safe groundwater utilisation, remediation initiatives for soil and groundwater are required. Finally, the study suggests that the current criteria for VOCs in drinking water might not be capable of ensuring public safety when groundwater is used as the primary water supply; more stringent quality criteria for drinking water are proposed for selected VOCs.

  12. Groundwater flow modelling at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary site investigations for spent fuel disposal has been carried out at the Olkiluoto site, Finland. During the investigations high salt concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples deep in the bedrock. In this study, the groundwater flow is analyzed at Olkiluoto taking into account the effects of salinity. The transient simulations are performed by solving coupled and non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and solute transport. A site-specific simulation model for flow and transport is developed on the basis of the field investigations. The simulations are carried out for a period that started when the highest hills at Olkiluoto rose above sea level. The simulation period continues until the present day. The results of the coupled simulations were strongly dependent on the poorly known initial salinity distribution in the solution domain. The DP approximation together with the EC approximation proved to be a useful complementary approach when simulating solute transport in a fractured rock mass. The simulations also confirm the assumption that the realistic simulation of groundwater flow at Olkiluoto requires taking into account the effects of salinity

  13. Coordination of groundwater activities in the 100 N Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    The initiation of the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) in the 100 N Area will affect the groundwater monitoring networks of two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) units. The 1301-N and 325-N facilities are treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units that have been monitored under RCRA since 1987. In September 1994, the Washington State Department of Ecology issued an action memorandum, instructing the US Department of Energy (DOE) to take the action. The planned pump-and-treat system will preclude meeting the specific objectives of interim-status RCRA groundwater monitoring representative samples and detect adverse impacts of the TSD units on. However, under RCRA final-status requirements, which will be implemented in 1999, corrective action for groundwater contamination will probably be required. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared parity between RCRA corrective action and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action decisions. The 1301-N and 1325-N facilities are still in interim-status and therefore are not in the category of ''RCRA corrective action.'' However, DOE's position is that parity exists between RCRA and the ERA because RCRA corrective action will almost certainly be required in the future

  14. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.

  15. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  16. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  17. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  18. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, J. (Conterra, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Wallin, B. (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden)); Bruechert, V. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)); Molinero, J. (Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with

  19. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J.; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F.; Wallin, B.; Bruechert, V.; Molinero, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with the hydrotest

  20. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  1. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  2. Transboundary Groundwater Along the Canadian-American Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2009-05-01

    Canada does not have obvious problems as a consequence of the intensive use of surface water or groundwater. Canada mostly struggles to keep the quality of its waters, in the highest standards, and to overcome the knowledge gaps of its groundwater resources. In assessing water resources, it has become obvious that both surface and groundwater resources are equally important. Because of this shift, Canada is interested in transboundary groundwater issues, both between provinces and internationally. There is no competition in Canada for groundwater resources between provinces or internationally. When an aquifer extends beneath the border of two jurisdictions, conflict may arise when one jurisdiction depletes groundwater resources that affect the quantity and quality of water available to the other jurisdiction. The most important cases of transboundary aquifers within Canada are located in the Prairie Provinces, but no competition has been reported. The equitable and "reasonable" use of shared waters is the most essential principle considered when negotiating a groundwater apportionment method. Other factors considered are: the priority use, the sustainable yield of the aquifer, and the joint apportionment of surface water and groundwater Over 20 million Canadians live in watersheds that cross the Canada-US border (over 17 million of them in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed), and are therefore affected by American policies, or else affect American water quality. The International Joint Commission is one well-developed and valuable mechanism for coordinating policies between Canada and the United States. Other mechanisms include provisions under the North American Free Trade Agreement, supported by its environmental commission, which attempt to ensure that the Agreement's policies are consistent with environmental protection and conservation as well as strengthening the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. Policies affecting

  3. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  4. Comparison of a Conceptual Groundwater Model and Physically Based Groundwater Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zammit, C.; Griffiths, J.; Moore, C.; Woods, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource for human activities including agricultural practice and urban water demand. Hydrologic modelling is an important way to study groundwater recharge, movement and discharge, and its response to both human activity and climate change. To understand the groundwater hydrologic processes nationally in New Zealand, we have developed a conceptually based groundwater flow model, which is fully integrated into a national surface-water model (TopNet), and able to simulate groundwater recharge, movement, and interaction with surface water. To demonstrate the capability of this groundwater model (TopNet-GW), we applied the model to an irrigated area with water shortage and pollution problems in the upper Ruamahanga catchment in Great Wellington Region, New Zealand, and compared its performance with a physically-based groundwater model (MODFLOW). The comparison includes river flow at flow gauging sites, and interaction between groundwater and river. Results showed that the TopNet-GW produced similar flow and groundwater interaction patterns as the MODFLOW model, but took less computation time. This shows the conceptually-based groundwater model has the potential to simulate national groundwater process, and could be used as a surrogate for the more physically based model.

  5. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  6. Groundwater sustainability assessment in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work investigates the response of shallow, coastal unconfined aquifers to anticipated overdraft conditions and climate change effect using numerical simulation. The groundwater flow model MODFLOW and variable density groundwater model SEAWAT are used for this investigation. The transmissivity and ...

  7. Origin of hexavalent chromium in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazakis, N.; Kantiranis, N.; Kalaitzidou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium constitutes a serious deterioration factor for the groundwater quality of several regions around the world. High concentrations of this contaminant have been also reported in the groundwater of the Sarigkiol hydrological basin (near Kozani city, NW Greece). Specific interest w...

  8. STRATEGIC ISSUES GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION MANAGEMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Golovina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  9. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  10. Improving fresh groundwater supply - problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2001-01-01

    Many coastal regions in the world experience an intensive salt water intrusion in aquifers due to natural and anthropogenic causes. The salinisation of these groundwater systems can lead to a severe deterioration of the quality of existing fresh groundwater resources. In this paper, the

  11. Assessment and uncertainty analysis of groundwater risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fawen; Zhu, Jingzhao; Deng, Xiyuan; Zhao, Yong; Li, Shaofei

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater with relatively stable quantity and quality is commonly used by human being. However, as the over-mining of groundwater, problems such as groundwater funnel, land subsidence and salt water intrusion have emerged. In order to avoid further deterioration of hydrogeological problems in over-mining regions, it is necessary to conduct the assessment of groundwater risk. In this paper, risks of shallow and deep groundwater in the water intake area of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Tianjin, China, were evaluated. Firstly, two sets of four-level evaluation index system were constructed based on the different characteristics of shallow and deep groundwater. Secondly, based on the normalized factor values and the synthetic weights, the risk values of shallow and deep groundwater were calculated. Lastly, the uncertainty of groundwater risk assessment was analyzed by indicator kriging method. The results meet the decision maker's demand for risk information, and overcome previous risk assessment results expressed in the form of deterministic point estimations, which ignore the uncertainty of risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Local groundwater depression around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Local Groundwater Depression around a Repository. A two-dimensional flow analysis was made to study the effect on the groundwater table due to drainage of the storage tunnels during the construction resp. operation period. The net accretion to the phreatic surface was assumed evenly distributed in space and time. Numerical examples with equipotentials and consecutive positions of the phreatic surface are presented

  13. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for a mixed waste storage facility located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This facility has been used since 1973 for storage of mixed wastes, which contain both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans presented here represent revision and expansion of an effort in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 183-H Basins as part of the regulatory compliance effort being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interimstatus facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The program initially implemented for the 183-H Basins was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This effort, named the RCRA Compliance Ground-Water Monitoring Project for the 183-H Basins, was implemented. A supporting project involving ground-water flow modeling for the area surrounding the 183-H Basins was also initiated during 1985. Those efforts and the results obtained are described in subsequent chapters of this document. 26 refs., 55 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Implementation of a permeable reactive barrier for treatment of groundwater impacted by strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przepiora, A.; Bodine, D.; Dollar, P.; Smith, P.

    2014-01-01

    A funnel and gate permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system was constructed to treat strontium-90 (Sr- 90) in groundwater migrating from a legacy waste disposal area into an adjacent wetland. The PRB system was designed to contain and direct the Sr-90 impacted groundwater into treatment 'gates' containing zeolite using a low permeability 'funnel' sections constructed with soil-bentonite slurry. The constructed PRB met all dimension and permeability specifications. Initial performance monitoring results indicate that the PRB captured the Sr-90 impacted groundwater plume and the beta radiation values in groundwater emerging from the treatment gates ranged from 35 to 86 Becquerel's per litre (Bq/L), equivalent to a reduction by 88% to 99% from the influent values. Those initial performance results were influenced by residual impacts present in the aquifer material prior to PRB installation. It is anticipated that the clean-up target of 5 Bq/L will be achieved with time as treated groundwater emerging from the PRB flushes through the downgradient aquifer zone. (author)

  15. N-nitrosodimethylamine in effluents and groundwater. Interlaboratory study No. 91-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cussion, S

    1992-01-01

    Interlaboratory study 91-2 was initiated as part of an on-going program of laboratory performance management studies to assess the performance of participating laboratories for the analysis of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in spiked effluents and in groundwater. Thirteen government, industry and commercial laboratories agreed to participate in the study and results were received from 11 participants.

  16. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STrietelmeir, B.

    2000-01-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 microM perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system

  17. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick steel canister horizontally emplaced in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted sodium bentonite. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. Solubility limits and speciation of important actinides and the fission product technetium in the bentonite pore water are then calculated. The model is based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater and represents means of extrapolation from laboratory data to repository conditions. The modelled composition of the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite, as well as the various compositions resulting from the long-term extrapolation, are used to estimate radionuclide solubilities in the near-field of a deep repository. From the chemical point of view, calcium bentonite seems to be more stable than sodium bentonite in the presence of Swiss Reference Groundwater. Since the effect of calcium bentonite on the groundwater chemical composition will be considerably less marked than that of sodium bentonite, especially with respect to key parameters for the nuclide speciation like carbonate concentration and pH, the use of calcium bentonite instead of sodium bentonite will improve the reliability in the prediction of source terms for radionuclide transport in the geosphere. (author)

  18. Modelling interaction of deep groundwaters with bentonite and radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.

    1986-04-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick steel canister horizontally emplaced in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted sodium bentonite. This report describes a thermodynamic model which is used to estimate the chemical composition of the pore water in compacted sodium bentonite. Solubility limits and speciation of important actinides and the fission product technetium in the bentonite pore water are then calculated. The model is based on available experimental data on the interaction of sodium bentonite and groundwater and represents means of extrapolation from laboratory data to repository conditions. The basic reactions between sodium bentonite and groundwater are described by an ion-exchange model for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The model assumes equilibrium with calcite as long as sufficient carbonates remain in the bentonite, as well as quartz saturation. It is calculated that the pore water of compacted sodium bentonite saturated with Swiss Reference Groundwater will have a pH value of 9.7 and a free carbonate activity of 8x10 -4 M. The long-term situation is modelled by the assumption that the near-field of a deep repository behaves like a mixing tank. In this way, an attempt is made to account for the continuous water exchange between the near-field and the host rock. It is found that sodium bentonite will be slowly converted to calcium bentonite. This conversion is roughly estimated to be completed after 2 million years

  19. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  20. Geochemistry and the Understanding of Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Plummer, L. N.; Weissmann, G. S.; Stute, M.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical techniques and concepts have made major contributions to the understanding of groundwater systems. Advances continue to be made through (1) development of measurement and characterization techniques, (2) improvements in computer technology, networks and numerical modeling, (3) investigation of coupled geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and biologic processes, and (4) scaling of individual observations, processes or subsystem models into larger coherent model frameworks. Many applications benefit from progress in these areas, such as: (1) understanding paleoenvironments, in particular paleoclimate, through the use of groundwater archives, (2) assessing the sustainability (recharge and depletion) of groundwater resources, and (3) their vulnerability to contamination, (4) evaluating the capacity and consequences of subsurface waste isolation (e.g. geologic carbon sequestration, nuclear and chemical waste disposal), (5) assessing the potential for mitigation/transformation of anthropogenic contaminants in groundwater systems, and (6) understanding the effect of groundwater lag times in ecosystem-scale responses to natural events, land-use changes, human impacts, and remediation efforts. Obtaining “representative” groundwater samples is difficult and progress in obtaining “representative” samples, or interpreting them, requires new techniques in characterizing groundwater system heterogeneity. Better characterization and simulation of groundwater system heterogeneity (both physical and geochemical) is critical to interpreting the meaning of groundwater “ages”; to understanding and predicting groundwater flow, solute transport, and geochemical evolution; and to quantifying groundwater recharge and discharge processes. Research advances will also come from greater use and progress (1) in the application of environmental tracers to ground water dating and in the analysis of new geochemical tracers (e.g. compound specific isotopic analyses, noble gas

  1. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  2. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la

  3. Spatial Isotopic Characterization of Slovak Groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P. P.; Sivo, A.; Breier, R.; Richtarikova, M. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Zenisova, Z. [Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas Araguas, L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    Zitny ostrov (Rye Island) in the south west of Slovakia is the largest groundwater reservoir in Central Europe (about 10 Gm{sup 3}). Groundwater contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals and organic compounds from the Danube River and local industrial and agricultural activities has recently been of great concern. Geostatistical analysis of experimental isotope data has been carried out with the aim of better understanding groundwater dynamics. For this purpose, spatial variations in the distribution of water isotopes and radiocarbon in the groundwater of Zitny ostrov have been evaluated. Subsurface water profiles showed enriched {delta}{sup 18}O levels at around 20 m water depth, and depleted values below 30 m, which are similar to those observed in the Danube River. The core of the subsurface {sup 14}C profiles represents contemporary groundwater with {sup 14}C values above 80 pMc. (author)

  4. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DAEA cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species which absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the completed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (author)

  5. Preliminary studies of cobalt complexation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, P.; Shaw, P.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively non-invasive method has been used to separate complexed from free cobalt-60 in groundwater, using the weak cationic adsorption properties of Sephadex gels, and a mobile phase of natural groundwater. Results show the kinetics of Co complex formation in groundwater to be slow, and that the equilibrium position is affected by temperature, cobalt concentration and the ionic/organic strength of the groundwater. The addition of DEAE cellulose to the groundwater to remove humic material, also removed the majority of organic species with absorb UV at 254 nm, but 45% of the original total organic carbon remained, and the amount of complexed cobalt left in solution was only reduced to 76% of its former concentration. This suggests that the complexed Co species separated by the method described in this paper are a mixture of inorganic and organic compounds, and studies are therefore continuing to establish their exact nature. (orig.)

  6. Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Jason T; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Socoy Set, Genaro; Khodadoust, Amid P; Erdal, Serap

    2014-09-01

    In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site found to have a concentration above the 10 μg/L World Health Organization provisional guideline for arsenic in drinking water was Cerro Alto, where the average concentration was 47.5 μg/L. A health risk assessment based on the arsenic levels found in Cerro Alto showed an increase in noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents as a result of consuming groundwater as their primary drinking water source. Using data from the US Geological Survey and our global positioning system data of the sample locations, we found Cerro Alto to be the only site sampled within the tertiary volcanic rock layer, a known source of naturally occurring arsenic. Recommendations were made to reduce the levels of arsenic found in the community's drinking water so that the health risks can be managed.

  7. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation r

  8. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    as a result of broad contrasts between sediment permeabilities. Paths of differential flushing are also focused along the inverted zones, which follow stratigraphic and structural trends southeastward into North Carolina and northeastward beneath the chloride mound across the outer impact crater. Brine within the inner impact crater has probably remained unflushed. Regional movement of the saltwater-transition zone takes place over geologic time scales. Localized movement has been induced by groundwater withdrawal, mostly along shallow parts of the saltwater-transition zone. Short-term episodic withdrawals result in repeated cycles of upconing and downconing of saltwater, which are superimposed on longer-term lateral saltwater intrusion. Effective monitoring for saltwater intrusion needs to address multiple and complexly distributed areas of potential intrusion that vary over time. A broad belt of large groundwater fluoride concentrations underlies the city of Suffolk, and thins and tapers northward. Fluoride in groundwater probably originates by desorbtion from phosphatic sedimentary material. The high fluoride belt possibly was formed by initial adsorbtion of fluoride onto sediment oxyhydroxides, followed by desorbtion along the leading edge of the advancing saltwater-transition zone. Large groundwater iron and manganese concentrations are most common to the west along the Fall Zone, across part of the saltwater-transition zone and eastward, and within shallow groundwater far to the east. Iron and manganese initially produced by mineral dissolution along the Fall Zone are adsorbed eastward and with depth by clay and glauconite, and subsequently desorbed along the leading edge of the advancing saltwater-transition zone. Iron and manganese in shallow groundwater far to the east are produced by reaction of sediment organic matter with oxyhydroxides. Large groundwater nitrate and ammonium concentrations are mostly limited to shallow depths. Most nitrate a

  9. Shallow groundwater in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska—Conceptualization and simulation of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The Matanuska-Susitna Valley is in the Upper Cook Inlet Basin and is currently undergoing rapid population growth outside of municipal water and sewer service areas. In response to concerns about the effects of increasing water use on future groundwater availability, a study was initiated between the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. The goals of the study were (1) to compile existing data and collect new data to support hydrogeologic conceptualization of the study area, and (2) to develop a groundwater flow model to simulate flow dynamics important at the regional scale. The purpose of the groundwater flow model is to provide a scientific framework for analysis of regional-scale groundwater availability. To address the first study goal, subsurface lithologic data were compiled into a database and were used to construct a regional hydrogeologic framework model describing the extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. The hydrogeologic framework model synthesizes existing maps of surficial geology and conceptual geochronologies developed in the study area with the distribution of lithologies encountered in hundreds of boreholes. The geologic modeling package Geological Surveying and Investigation in Three Dimensions (GSI3D) was used to construct the hydrogeologic framework model. In addition to characterizing the hydrogeologic framework, major groundwater-budget components were quantified using several different techniques. A land-surface model known as the Deep Percolation Model was used to estimate in-place groundwater recharge across the study area. This model incorporates data on topography, soils, vegetation, and climate. Model-simulated surface runoff was consistent with observed streamflow at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. Groundwater withdrawals were estimated on the basis of records from major water suppliers during 2004-2010. Fluxes between groundwater and surface water were

  10. Microbial DNA; a possible tracer of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ayumi; Segawa, Takuya; Furuta, Tsuyumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Though chemical analysis of groundwater shows an averaged value of chemistry of the examined water which was blended by various water with different sources and routes in subsurface environment, microbial DNA analysis may suggest the place where they originated, which may give information of the source and transport routes of the water examined. A huge amount of groundwater is stored in lava layer with maximum depth of 300m in Mt. Fuji (3,776m asl ), the largest volcanic mountain in Japan. Although the density of prokaryotes was low in the examined groundwater of Mt. Fuji, thermophilic prokaryotes as Thermoanaerobacterales, Gaiellales and Thermoplasmatales were significantly detected. They are optimally adapted to the temperature higher than 40oC. This finding suggests that at least some of the source of the examined groundwater was subsurface environment with 600m deep or greater, based on a temperature gradient of 4oC/100m and temperature of spring water ranges from 10 to 15oC in the foot of Mt. Fuji. This depth is far below the lava layer. Thus, the groundwater is not simply originated from the lava layer. In addition to those findings, we observed a very fast response of groundwater just a couple of weeks after the heavy rainfall exceeding 2 or 300 mm/event in Mt. Fuji. The fast response was suggested by a sharp increase in bacterial abundance in spring water located at 700m in height in the west foot of Mt. Fuji, where the average recharge elevation of groundwater was estimated to be 1,500m - 1,700m (Kato et. al. EGU 2016). This increase was mainly provided by soil bacteria as Burkholderiales, which might be detached from soil by strengthened subsurface flow caused by heavy rainfall. This suggests that heavy rainfall promotes shallow subsurface flow contributing to the discharge in addition to the groundwater in the deep aquifer. Microbial DNA, thus could give information about the route of the examined groundwater, which was never elucidated by analysis of

  11. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in LILW Repository site:I. Groundwater flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Koung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyoung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Yeon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Based on the site characterization works in a low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository site, the numerical simulations for groundwater flow were carried out in order to understand the groundwater flow system of repository site. To accomplish the groundwater flow modeling in the repository site, the discrete fracture network (DFN) model was constructed using the characteristics of fracture zones and background fractures. At result, the total 10 different hydraulic conductivity(K) fields were obtained from DFN model stochastically and K distributions of constructed mesh were inputted into the 10 cases of groundwater flow simulations in FEFLOW. From the total 10 numerical simulation results, the simulated groundwater levels were strongly governed by topography and the groundwater fluxes were governed by locally existed high permeable fracture zones in repository depth. Especially, the groundwater table was predicted to have several tens meters below the groundwater table compared with the undisturbed condition around disposal silo after construction of underground facilities. After closure of disposal facilities, the groundwater level would be almost recovered within 1 year and have a tendency to keep a steady state of groundwater level in 2 year.

  12. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-01-01

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria

  14. Isotope and chemical tracers in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Stewart, M.K.; Morgenstern, U.; Trompetter, V.

    1999-01-01

    The course sessions cover: session 1, Fundamentals of stable and radioactive isotopes; session 2, Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrology: background, examples, sampling strategy; session 3, Catchment studies using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes: background - the hydrologic water balance, evapotranspiration - the lion's share, runoff generation - new water/old water fractions, groundwater recharge - the crumbs; session 4, Isotopes in catchment hydrology: survey of applications, future developments; session 5, Applications of tritium in hydrology: background and measurement, interpretation, examples; session 6, Case studies using mixing models: Hutt Valley groundwater system, an extended mixing model for simulating tracer transport in the unsaturated zone; session 7, Groundwater dating using CFC concentrations: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 8, Groundwater dating with carbon-14: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 9, NZ case studies: Tauranga warm springs, North Canterbury Plains groundwater; session 10, Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes: background and examples, biological applications of C-N-S isotopes; session 11, New developments in isotope hydrology: gas isotopes, compound specific applications, age dating of sediments etc; session 12, NZ case studies: North Canterbury Plains groundwater (continued), Waimea Plains groundwater. (author). refs., figs

  15. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in understanding river-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Philip; Therrien, René; Renard, Philippe; Simmons, Craig T.; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks

    2017-09-01

    River-groundwater interactions are at the core of a wide range of major contemporary challenges, including the provision of high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities, the loss of biodiversity in river ecosystems, or the management of environmental flow regimes. This paper reviews state of the art approaches in characterizing and modeling river and groundwater interactions. Our review covers a wide range of approaches, including remote sensing to characterize the streambed, emerging methods to measure exchange fluxes between rivers and groundwater, and developments in several disciplines relevant to the river-groundwater interface. We discuss approaches for automated calibration, and real-time modeling, which improve the simulation and understanding of river-groundwater interactions. Although the integration of these various approaches and disciplines is advancing, major research gaps remain to be filled to allow more complete and quantitative integration across disciplines. New possibilities for generating realistic distributions of streambed properties, in combination with more data and novel data types, have great potential to improve our understanding and predictive capabilities for river-groundwater systems, especially in combination with the integrated simulation of the river and groundwater flow as well as calibration methods. Understanding the implications of different data types and resolution, the development of highly instrumented field sites, ongoing model development, and the ultimate integration of models and data are important future research areas. These developments are required to expand our current understanding to do justice to the complexity of natural systems.

  17. Groundwater conditions in Utah, spring of 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Birken, Adam S.; Derrick, V. Noah; Fisher, Martel J.; Holt, Christopher M.; Downhour, Paul; Smith, Lincoln; Eacret, Robert J.; Gibson, Travis L.; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Whittier, Nickolas R.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2013-01-01

    This is the fiftieth in a series of annual reports that describe groundwater conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing groundwater conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, groundwater withdrawals from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of groundwater. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas that are important to a discussion of changing groundwater conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of groundwater development in the State for calendar year 2012. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is also available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water. usgs.gov/publications/GW2013.pdf. Groundwater conditions in Utah for calendar year 2011 are reported in Burden and others (2012) and available online at http://ut.water.usgs.gov/ publications/GW2012.pdf

  18. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  19. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO 3 - type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab

  20. Groundwater evolution of the granite area, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Bae, D.S.; Koh, Y.K.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The geochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in the Cretaceous granite of the Yeongcheon area has been investigated. The hydrochemistry of groundwater belongs to the Ca-HCO 3 type. The oxygen-18 and deuterium data are clustered along the meteoric water line, indicating that the groundwater is of meteoric water origin. Tritium data show that the groundwaters were mostly recharged before pre-thermonuclear period and have been mixed with younger surface water flowing rapidly along fractured zones. Based on the mass balance and reaction simulation approaches using both the hydrochemistry of groundwater and the secondary mineralogy of fracture-filling materials, the low-temperature hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the area has been modeled. The results of geochemical simulation show that the concentrations of Ca, Na and HCO 3 and pH of waters increase progressively owing to the dissolution of reactive minerals in flow paths. The concentrations of Mg and K first increase with the dissolution of reactant minerals, but later decrease when montmorillonite and illitic material are precipitated respectively. The continuous adding of reactive minerals, i. e. the progressively larger degrees of water/rock interaction, causes the formation of secondary minerals with the following sequence: hematite > gibbsite > kaolinite > montmorillonite > illitic material > microcline. The results of reaction simulation agree well with the observed water chemistry and secondary mineralogy, indicating the successful applicability of this simulation technique to delineate the complex hydrogeochemistry of bedrock groundwaters. (author)

  1. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  2. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1 added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM. Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In

  3. The evolution of redox conditions and groundwater geochemistry in recharge-discharge environments on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    1996-10-01

    Groundwater composition evolves along flow paths from recharge to discharge in response to interactions with bedrock and fracture-filling minerals, and dissolution of soluble (Cl-rich) salts in the rock matrix. The groundwater redox potential changes from oxidizing to reducing conditions due, initially, to rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by organics in the upper ∼100 m of bedrock and, subsequently, interaction with Fe (II)-containing minerals. Measured Eh values of groundwaters at depth in the granitic Lac du Bonnet batholith indicate that biotite and chlorite control groundwater redox potential. This is supported by other geochemical characteristics such as absence of CH 4 , H 2 S, H 2 , NO 3 , low concentrations of Fe (II), and abundance of SO 4 . Further evidence of evolution of redox conditions is given by variations in U concentration ranging from up to 1000 μg/L in dilute near-surface waters to <1 μg/L in some deep, saline groundwaters. Groundwaters at about 400 m depth in a recharge area on the Lac du Bonnet batholith contain significantly more U than groundwaters further along the flow path or near surface in discharge areas. Uranium concentration is found to be a useful and sensitive indicator of redox conditions. (author)

  4. Validation of groundwater modelling for DDT and petroleum hydrocarbons at Border Pump Station and Rainy Hollow, northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, M.; Bright, D.; Hartshorne, B.

    2001-01-01

    Border Station and Rainy Hollow are inactive booster pumping stations along the Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline in northern British Columbia. An emergency site cleanup was conducted in 1994 after canisters containing DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro phenyl)ethane] were discovered buried in a dump. A detailed site investigation showed that hydrocarbons and DDT were present in soil and groundwater. The major contaminants of concern were DDTs in surface soil, DDTs in subsurface soils and groundwater, and light hydrocarbons in subsurface soils and groundwater. Remedial action took place in the summer of 1997. The canisters, along with soils and other contaminated materials, were excavated and shipped off-site for disposal. A conceptual groundwater model was developed to predict future contaminant releases to the nearby Klehini River. A monitoring program was initiated to validate the groundwater model. From 1997 to 2000, the groundwater was sampled analyzed annually for DDT, metals and hydrocarbons. Results indicated a striking overall consistency in the concentrations of DDT and hydrocarbons in both groundwater and surface water samples, confirming the validity of the 1996 model predictions. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  6. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A M; Bonsor, H C; Dochartaigh, B É Ó; Taylor, R G

    2012-01-01

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km 3 (0.36–1.75 million km 3 ). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1–0.3 l s −1 ), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s −1 ) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level. (letter)

  7. Continuous Groundwater Monitoring Collocated at USGS Streamgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J. E.; Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeer, J.; Barlow, J.

    2012-12-01

    USGS Office of Groundwater funded a 2-year pilot study collocating groundwater wells for monitoring water level and temperature at several existing continuous streamgages in Montana and Wyoming, while U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded enhancement to streamgages in Mississippi. To increase spatial relevance with in a given watershed, study sites were selected where near-stream groundwater was in connection with an appreciable aquifer, and where logistics and cost of well installations were considered representative. After each well installation and surveying, groundwater level and temperature were easily either radio-transmitted or hardwired to existing data acquisition system located in streamgaging shelter. Since USGS field personnel regularly visit streamgages during routine streamflow measurements and streamgage maintenance, the close proximity of observation wells resulted in minimum extra time to verify electronically transmitted measurements. After field protocol was tuned, stream and nearby groundwater information were concurrently acquired at streamgages and transmitted to satellite from seven pilot-study sites extending over nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the central US from October 2009 until October 2011, for evaluating the scientific and engineering add-on value of the enhanced streamgage design. Examination of the four-parameter transmission from the seven pilot study groundwater gaging stations reveals an internally consistent, dynamic data suite of continuous groundwater elevation and temperature in tandem with ongoing stream stage and temperature data. Qualitatively, the graphical information provides appreciation of seasonal trends in stream exchanges with shallow groundwater, as well as thermal issues of concern for topics ranging from ice hazards to suitability of fish refusia, while quantitatively this information provides a means for estimating flux exchanges through the streambed via heat-based inverse-type groundwater modeling. In June

  8. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  9. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwater is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudo colloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC Mirage II project, in particular the complexation and colloids research area

  10. The economic value of groundwater in Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Kimberly; Wada, Christopher; Endo, Aiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Study region: Obama City has a population of 33,000 and is located in the central Wakasa district, in southwest Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Obama’s groundwater resources are supported by the Kitagawa (38 km2) and Miniamigawa (17 km2) river basins. Groundwater is used aboveground year round for commercial and domestic purposes and during winter months to melt snow. Submarine groundwater discharge along the coast supports a nearshore fishery in the region. Study focus: Results from a choice-bas...

  11. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  12. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabau, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  13. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  14. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    compared. The results have shown that using saline groundwater underneath the FSI as a resource for RO desalination process is beneficial in terms of fluxes: the flux reduction in the seawater desalination was 16% of the initial flux, while the flux reduction with the saline groundwater was only 9%. The SDI and total organic carbon were lower in saline groundwater than in seawater, which support the flux results. Therefore, using saline groundwater as feed water for desalination may be advantageous because of lower operational costs and reduced applied pressure needed and energy usage.

  15. Understanding socio-groundwater systems: framework, toolbox, and stakeholders’ efforts for analysis and monitoring groundwater resources

    OpenAIRE

    López Maldonado, Yolanda Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater, the predominant accessible reservoir of freshwater storage on Earth, plays an important role as a human-natural life sustaining resource. In recent decades there has been an increasing concern that human activities are placing too much pressure on the resource, affecting the health of the ecosystem. However, because groundwater it is out of sight, its monitoring on both global and local scales is challenging. In the field of groundwater monitoring, modelling tools have been devel...

  16. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  17. Utilization of granular activated carbon adsorber for nitrates removal from groundwater of the Cluj region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moşneag, Silvia C; Popescu, Violeta; Dinescu, Adrian; Borodi, George

    2013-01-01

    The level of nitrates from groundwater from Cluj County and other areas from Romania have increased values, exceeding or getting close to the allowed limit values, putting in danger human and animal heath. In this study we used granular activated carbon adsorbent (GAC) for nitrate (NO(-)3) removal for the production of drinking water from groundwater of the Cluj county. The influences of the contact time, nitrate initial concentration, and adsorbent concentration have been studied. We determined the equilibrium adsorption capacity of GAC, used for NO(-)3 removal and we applied the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for process characterization. We also determined: pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness. The GAC adsorbents have excellent capacities of removing nitrate from groundwater from Cluj County areas.

  18. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  19. Development and validation of GWHEAD, a three-dimensional groundwater head computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Root, R.W.; Routt, K.R.

    1980-03-01

    A computer code has been developed to solve the groundwater flow equation in three dimensions. The code has finite-difference approximations solved by the strongly implicit solution procedure. Input parameters to the code include hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, porosity, accretion (recharge), and initial hydralic head. These parameters may be input as varying spatially. The hydraulic conductivity may be input as isotropic or anisotropic. The boundaries either may permit flow across them or may be impermeable. The code has been used to model leaky confined groundwater conditions and spherical flow to a continuous point sink, both of which have exact analytical solutions. The results generated by the computer code compare well with those of the analytical solutions. The code was designed to be used to model groundwater flow beneath fuel reprocessing and waste storage areas at the Savannah River Plant

  20. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Geochemical investigation of groundwater in the Tono area, Japan. Chemical characteristics and groundwater evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical investigations form an important part of the R and D program at the Tono study site, central Japan. Detailed geological structure and groundwater chemistry have been studied to understand the geochemical environment in the sedimentary and crystalline rocks distributed in this area. The chemical evolution of the groundwater in the sedimentary rocks is characterized with the variation in Na + , Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - concentrations, and ion exchange and dissolution of calcite are dominant reactions in the evolution of groundwater. Geological investigation shows that a fracture system of crystalline rock can be classified into:intact zone, moderately fractured zone and intensely fractured zone, according to the frequency and the width of fractures and fractured zones. The groundwater in the intact and fractured zones of crystalline rock are characterized by Na + -Ca 2+ -HCO 3 - or Na + -HCO 3 - dominated water, and Na + -Ca 2+ -Fe 2+ -HCO 3 - dominated water. The chemical evolution of groundwater is, generally, controlled by water-rock interaction between plagioclase, iron minerals and groundwater. The groundwater at depth of G.L.-186m in the crystalline rock at the Tono area is characterized by the mixture between the oxidized surface water and the reduced groundwater. The investigation based on correlation between geological structures and groundwater chemistry can be applied to understand the geochemical environment in deep crystalline rock, and will support the development of a realistic hydrogeochemical model. (author)

  2. Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin, Bali Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Tirtomihardjo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.123Due to the complex structure of the aquifer systems and its hydrogeological units related with the space in which groundwater occurs, groundwater flows were calculated in three-dimensional method (3D Calculation. The geometrical descritization and iteration procedures were based on an integrated finite difference method. In this paper, all figures and graphs represent the results of the calibrated model. Hence, the model results were simulated by using the actual input data which were calibrated during the simulation runs. Groundwater flow simulation of the model area of the Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin (Denpasar-Tabanan GB comprises steady state run, transient runs using groundwater abstraction in the period of 1989 (Qabs-1989 and period of 2009 (Qabs-2009, and prognosis run as well. Simulation results show, in general, the differences of calculated groundwater heads and observed groundwater heads at steady and transient states (Qabs-1989 and Qabs-2009 are relatively small. So, the groundwater heads situation simulated by the prognosis run (scenario Qabs-2012 are considerably valid and can properly be used for controlling the plan of groundwater utilization in Denpasar-Tabanan GB.

  3. Development of the UMTRA Project Groundwater Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, C.; Ulland, L.; Metzler, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Groundwater Restoration Project. The initiation of the scoping process and preparation of the PEIS began when the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare the PEIS was published in the Federal Register on November 18, 1992. However, planning for the PEIS began well before the publication of the NOI, with various aspects of the PEIS, such as the initial formulation of the alternatives and the format of the scoping process, being developed early on. During this preliminary planning phase, it became clear that the preparation of this PEIS posed some significant challenges while at the same time provided for significant opportunities. This paper will briefly summarize the UMTRA Project, discuss the major sections in the PEIS, and describe the challenges and opportunities that developed during the preparation of the PEIS

  4. Rare Earth Element Concentrations and Fractionation Patterns Along Groundwater Flow Paths in Two Different Aquifer Types (i.e., Sand vs. Carbonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Tang, J.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifer (i.e., Carrizo Sand Aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan carbonate Aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentrations, fractionation, and speciation of rare earth elements (REE) along groundwater flow paths in each aquifer. Major solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also measured in these groundwaters. The Carrizo Sand aquifer was sampled in October 2002 and June 2003, whereas, to date, we have only sampled the Floridan once (i.e., June 2003). The data reveal no significant seasonal differences in major solute and REE concentrations for the Carrizo. In Carrizo sand aquifer, groundwaters from relatively shallow wells (i.e., less than 167 m) in the recharge zone are chiefly Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type waters. With flow down-gradient the groundwaters shift composition to the Na-HCO3 waters. pH and alkalinity initially decrease with flow away from the recharge zone before increasing again down-gradient. DOC is generally low (0.65 mg/L) along the flow path. REE concentrations are highest in groundwaters from the recharge zone (Nd 40.5 pmol/kg), and decrease substantially with flow down-gradient reaching relatively low and stable values (Nd 4.1-8.6 pmol/kg) roughly 10 km from the recharge zone. Generally, Carrizo groundwaters exhibit HREE-enriched shale-normalized patterns. The HREE enrichments are especially strong for waters from the recharge zone [(Yb/Nd)SN =1.7-5.6], whereas down-gradient (deep) groundwaters have flatter patterns [(Yb/Nd)SN =0.7-2.5]. All groundwaters have slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.09-0.14) and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* -0.85 - -0.07). In the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Ca, Mg, SO4, and Cl concentrations generally increase along groundwater flow path, whereas pH and alkalinity generally decrease. DOC is higher (0.64 - 2.29 mg/L) than in the Carrizo and initially increases along the flow path and then decreases down-gradient. LREE (Nd) concentrations generally

  5. An inter-comparison of similarity-based methods for organisation and classification of groundwater hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2018-04-01

    Classification and similarity based methods, which have recently received major attention in the field of surface water hydrology, namely through the PUB (prediction in ungauged basins) initiative, have not yet been applied to groundwater systems. However, it can be hypothesised, that the principle of "similar systems responding similarly to similar forcing" applies in subsurface hydrology as well. One fundamental prerequisite to test this hypothesis and eventually to apply the principle to make "predictions for ungauged groundwater systems" is efficient methods to quantify the similarity of groundwater system responses, i.e. groundwater hydrographs. In this study, a large, spatially extensive, as well as geologically and geomorphologically diverse dataset from Southern Germany and Western Austria was used, to test and compare a set of 32 grouping methods, which have previously only been used individually in local-scale studies. The resulting groupings are compared to a heuristic visual classification, which serves as a baseline. A performance ranking of these classification methods is carried out and differences in homogeneity of grouping results were shown, whereby selected groups were related to hydrogeological indices and geological descriptors. This exploratory empirical study shows that the choice of grouping method has a large impact on the object distribution within groups, as well as on the homogeneity of patterns captured in groups. The study provides a comprehensive overview of a large number of grouping methods, which can guide researchers when attempting similarity-based groundwater hydrograph classification.

  6. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  7. Cycling of oxyanion-forming trace elements in groundwaters from a freshwater deltaic marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeyan, Katherine; Breaux, Alexander; Kim, Jihyuk; Kolker, Alexander S.; Cable, Jaye E.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2018-05-01

    Pore waters and surface waters were collected from a freshwater system in southeastern Louisiana to investigate the geochemical cycling of oxyanion-forming trace elements (i.e., Mo, W, As, V). A small bayou (Bayou Fortier) receives input from a connecting lake (Lac des Allemands) and groundwater input at the head approximately 5 km directly south of the Mississippi River. Marsh groundwaters exchange with bayou surface water but are otherwise relatively isolated from outside hydrologic forcings, such as tides, storms, and effects from local navigation canals. Rather, redox processes in the marsh groundwaters appear to drive changes in trace element concentrations. Elevated dissolved S(-II) concentrations in marsh groundwaters suggest greater reducing conditions in the late fall and winter as compared to the spring and late summer. The data suggest that reducing conditions in marsh groundwaters initiate the dissolution of Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxide/hydroxide minerals, which releases adsorbed and/or co-precipitated trace elements into solution. Once in solution, the fate of these elements is determined by complexation with aqueous species and precipitation with iron sulfide minerals. The trace elements remain soluble in the presence of Fe(III)- and SO42-- reducing conditions, suggesting that either kinetic limitations or complexation with aqueous ligands obfuscates the correlation between V and Mo sequestration in sediments with reducing or euxinic conditions.

  8. Passive sampling and analyses of common dissolved fixed gases in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, Brian Patrick; Watson, David B.

    2008-01-01

    An in situ passive sampler and gas chromatographic protocol for analysis of the major and several minor fixed gases in groundwater was developed. A gas-tight syringe, mated to a short length of silicone tubing, was equilibrated with dissolved gases in groundwater by immersing in monitoring wells and was used to transport and to inject a 0.5 mL gas sample into a gas chromatograph. Using Ar carrier gas, a HaySep DB porous polymer phase, and sequential thermal conductivity and reductive gas detectors allowed good sensitivity for He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2O. Within 4 days of immersion in groundwater, samplers initially filled with either He or air attained the same and constant gas composition at an Oak Ridge, Tennessee, site heavily impacted by uranium, acidity, and nitrate. Between June 2006 and July 2007, 12 permanent groundwater wells were used to test the passive samplers in groundwater contaminated by a group of four closed radioactive wastewater seepage ponds; over a thousand passive gas samples from these wells averaged 56% CO2, 32.4% N2, 2.5% O2, 2.5% N2O, 0.20% CH4, 0.096% H2, and 0.023% CO with an average recovery of 95 14% of the injected gas volume

  9. Groundwater levels and dolomite - nuisance or necessity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, PJ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance and importance of groundwater level data in a karst environment, whilst acknowledged by geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists, is often not afforded the recognition it deserves. Within the ambit of a geotechnical site...

  10. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.

  11. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  12. Arsenic Speciation in Groundwater: Role of Thioanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of arsenic in groundwater environments is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Understanding arsenic speciation is important because chemical speciation impacts reactivity, bioavailability, toxicity, and transport and fate processes. In aerobic environments arsen...

  13. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    decision-making for groundwater management and protection. ... (1) Depth to water table; (2) Recharge (net); (3) Aquifer media; (4) Soil media; ... Methodology .... Petty, R 1987, 'DRASTIC: A standardized system for evaluating ground water.

  14. Groundwater resource-directed measures software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-21

    Jul 21, 2006 ... groundwater dependence) properties, grouped or typed to sim- plify the ... range of factors can be considered, including recharge, ground- water use ... Figure 2 shows the attribute data for the quaternary shape file. The user ...

  15. South-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  16. North-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  17. Groundwater sustainability assessment in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    draft conditions and climate change effect using numerical simulation. The groundwater flow model ...... '98 Conference at the International Ground Water Model- ing Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Harbaugh A W, Banta ...

  18. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  19. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Environment and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India. 3Groundwater ...... medium acts as a natural filter to percolating fluid and that its ... Atakpo E A 2013 Aquifer vulnerability investigation using.

  20. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  1. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  2. Effect of Groundwater Abstraction on Fen Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2011-01-01

    within a distance of 1.5 km to a planned well field. In the river valley the interaction between groundwater and surface water is strongly affected by low permeable sediments. These sediments reduce the direct discharge to the river and have a large impact on the functioning and presence of the rich fen......Quantifying the effects of groundwater abstraction on fen ecosystems located in discharge areas can be complicated. The water level in fens is close to the terrain surface most of the year and it is controlled by a relatively constant groundwater exfiltration. It is difficult to measure...... the exfiltration fluxes and thus water level data is typically used to evaluate if the ecosystem is affected. The paper presents collected data and analysis from a case study, where the hydrological effect of groundwater abstraction on rich fens and springs in a Danish river valley has been studied. The natural...

  3. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  4. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterization of the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POSTE7

    water for both human consumption and agriculture is. *Corresponding author. ..... groundwater of Dababa (Figure 2) shows that the highest conductivities are found in .... comes from the dissolution of CO2 by plants and micro- organisms that ...

  5. North-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  6. South-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  8. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  9. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Groundwater Recharge in a Sandstone Aquifer in a Semi-Arid Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, F.; Murray, S.; Abbey, D.; Martin, P.; Cherry, J.; Parker, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge estimates are required to constrain groundwater fluxes over a 11.5 km2 site, located on an upland ridge of southern California. The site is a decommissioned industrial research facility that features chemical contamination of the underlying sedimentary bedrock aquifer and recharge values are necessary to quantify the volumetric flow rate available to transport contaminants. As a first step to assess recharge, Manna et al. (2016) used to chloride mass balance method based on on-site measurements of bulk atmospheric chloride deposition comprised of dry fallout and precipitation, 1490 groundwater samples, and measurements of chloride in surface water runoff. However, this study only provided site-wide long-term average value and did not address spatial and temporal variability of recharge. To this purpose, a spatially distributed hydrological model was used to reflect the site-specific conditions and represent the transient nature of recharge, runoff, storage and evapotranspiration over a 20-year period in a catchment (2.16 km2) of the study area. The integrated model was developed using MIKESHE employing a 20 by 20 m finite difference grid and using on-site measured physical and hydrological input parameters. We found that recharge is highly variable across the study area, with values that span over three orders of magnitude. The main factors affecting recharge are land use and topography: lower recharge values were found in vegetated areas, whereas higher values were found in areas with exposed bedrock at the surface and along the main drainages of the catchment. Analyzing the seasonal variability of the water budget components, evapotranspiration is the dominant process throughout the year and recharge occurs episodically only during the winter season. These results are validated by the comparison of measured and simulated water levels and overland flow rates and are consistent with a previous study carried out at the site using the chloride

  11. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... is evaluated. At gas work sites, where cyanide is mainly present as iron cyanide complexes, the risk for effects on humans from exposure to cyanide compounds seems to be of minor relevance....

  12. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO's staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater)

  13. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  14. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  15. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  16. Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Alizadeh, Amin; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; R. Moftakhari, Hamed; Mirchi, Ali; Anjileli, Hassan; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to e...

  17. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  18. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  19. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  20. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  1. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  2. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  3. What Controls Submarine Groundwater Discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Cable, J. E.; Cherrier, J.; Roy, M.; Smith, C. G.; Dorsett, A.

    2008-05-01

    Numerous processes have been implicated in controlling submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal zones since Ghyben, Herzberg and Dupuit developed models of fresh water discharge from coastal aquifers at the turn of the 19th century. Multiple empirical and modeling techniques have also been applied to these environments to measure the flow. By the mid-1950's, Cooper had demonstrated that dispersion across the fresh water-salt water boundary required salt water entrained into fresh water flow be balanced by recharge of salt water across the sediment-water interface seaward of the outflow face. Percolation of water into the beach face from wind and tidal wave run up and changes in pressure at the sediment-water interface with fluctuating tides have now been recognized, and observed, as processes driving seawater into the sediments. Within the past few years, variations in water table levels and the 1:40 amplification from density difference in fresh water and seawater have been implicated to pump salt water seasonally across the sediment- water interface. Salt water driven by waves, tides and seasonal water table fluctuations is now recognized as a component of SGD when it flows back to overlying surface waters. None of these processes are sufficiently large to provide measured volumes of SGD in Indian River Lagoon, Florida, however, because minimal tides and waves exist, flat topography and transmissive aquifers minimize fluctuations of the water table, and little water is entrained across the salt water-fresh water boundary. Nonetheless, the saline fraction of SGD represents more than 99% of the volume of total SGD in the Indian River Lagoon. This volume of saline SGD can be driven by the abundance of burrowing organisms in the lagoon, which pump sufficient amounts of water through the sediment- water interface. These bioirrigating organisms are ubiquitous at all water depths in sandy sediment and thus may provide one of the major sources of SGD world wide

  4. Chronic groundwater decline: A multi-decadal analysis of groundwater trends under extreme climate cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Brocque, Andrew F.; Kath, Jarrod; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Chronic groundwater decline is a concern in many of the world's major agricultural areas. However, a general lack of accurate long-term in situ measurement of groundwater depth and analysis of trends prevents understanding of the dynamics of these systems at landscape scales. This is particularly worrying in the context of future climate uncertainties. This study examines long-term groundwater responses to climate variability in a major agricultural production landscape in southern Queensland, Australia. Based on records for 381 groundwater bores, we used a modified Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and Sen's slope estimator to determine groundwater trends across a 26-year period (1989-2015) and in distinct wet and dry climatic phases. Comparison of trends between climatic phases showed groundwater level recovery during wet phases was insufficient to offset the decline in groundwater level from the previous dry phase. Across the entire 26-year sampling period, groundwater bore levels (all bores) showed an overall significant declining trend (p 0.05). Spatially, both declining and rising bores were highly clustered. We conclude that over 1989-2015 there is a significant net decline in groundwater levels driven by a smaller subset of highly responsive bores in high irrigation areas within the catchment. Despite a number of targeted policy interventions, chronic groundwater decline remains evident in the catchment. We argue that this is likely to continue and to occur more widely under potential climate change and that policy makers, groundwater users and managers need to engage in planning to ensure the sustainability of this vital resource.

  5. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  6. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  7. Deep groundwater flow at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, H.; Vesterinen, M.; Tuokko, T.

    1993-01-01

    Further observations, measurements, and calculations aimed at determining the groundwater flow regimes and periodical variations in flow at deeper levels were carried out in the Lake Palmottu (a natural analogue study site for radioactive waste disposal in southwestern Finland) drainage basin. These water movements affect the migration of radionuclides from the Palmottu U-Th deposit. The deep water flow is essentially restricted to the bedrock fractures which developed under, and are still affected by, the stress state of the bedrock. Determination of the detailed variations was based on fracture-tectonic modelling of the 12 most significant underground water-flow channels that cross the surficial water of the Palmottu area. According to the direction of the hydraulic gradient the deep water flow is mostly outwards from the Palmottu catchment but in the westernmost section it is partly towards the centre. Estimation of the water flow through the U-Th deposit by the water-balance method is still only approximate and needs continued observation series and improved field measurements

  8. A global-scale two-layer transient groundwater model : Development and application to groundwater depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Inge E.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338038612; van Beek, Rens L.P.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14749799X; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils; Schmitz, Oliver|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314003975; Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314571477; Bierkens, Marc F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of freshwater to satisfy human water needs. Moreover, groundwater buffers variable precipitation rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of droughts and evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. In this study,

  9. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, H.N.; Hobbs, M.Y.; Frape, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ 37 Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  10. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H.N. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hobbs, M.Y. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), 22 St. Clair Avenue East, M4T 2S3 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ{sup 37}Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  11. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for agricultural and municipal uses in the Mississippi embayment. Arkansas ranks first in the Nation for rice and third for cotton production, with both crops dependent on groundwater as a major source of irrigation requirements. Multiple municipalities rely on the groundwater resources to provide water for industrial and public use, which includes the city of Memphis, Tennessee. The demand for the groundwater resource has resulted in groundwater availability issues in the Mississippi embayment including: (1) declining groundwater levels of 50 feet or more in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in parts of eastern Arkansas from agricultural pumping, (2) declining groundwater levels of over 360 feet over the last 90 years in the confined middle Claiborne aquifer in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana from municipal pumping, and (3) litigation between the State of Mississippi and a Memphis water utility over water rights in the middle Claiborne aquifer. To provide information to stakeholders addressing the groundwater-availability issues, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program supported a detailed assessment of groundwater availability through the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). This assessment included (1) an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time through the use of groundwater budgets, (2) development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends, and (3) application of statistical tools to evaluate the importance of individual observations within a groundwater-monitoring network. An estimated 12 million acre-feet per year (11 billion gallons per day) of groundwater was pumped in 2005 from aquifers in the Mississippi embayment. Irrigation constitutes the largest groundwater use, accounting for approximately 10 million acre-feet per year (9 billion gallons per day) in 2000 from the Mississippi

  12. Automating Groundwater Sampling At Hanford, The Next Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, C.W.; Conley, S.F.; Hildebrand, R.D.; Cunningham, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very 'people intensive.' Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or 'samplers.' These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  13. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  14. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  15. Groundwater Flow Model of the General Separations Area Using PORFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLACH, GREGORY

    2004-01-01

    The E Area PA (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000) includes a steady-state simulation of groundwater flow in the General Separations Area as a prerequisite for saturated zone contaminant transport analyses. The groundwater flow simulations are based on the FACT code (Hamm and Aleman2000). The FACT-based GSA model was selected during preparation of the original PA to take advantage of an existing model developed for environmental restoration applications at the SRS (Flach and Harris 1997, 1999; Flach 1999). The existing GSA/FACT model was then slightly modified for PA use, as described in the PA document. FACT is a finite-element code utilizing deformed brick elements. Material properties are defined at element centers, and state variables such as hydraulic head are located at element vertices. The PORFLOW code (Analytic and Computational Research, Inc. 2000) was selected for performing saturated zone transport simulations of source zone radionuclides and their progeny. PORFLOW utilizes control volume discretization and the nodal point integration method, with all properties and state variables being defined at the center of an interior grid cell. The groundwater flow calculation includes translating the Darcy velocity field computed by FACT into a form compatible for input to PORFLOW. The FACT velocity field is defined at element vertices, whereas PORFLOW requires flux across cell faces. For the present PA, PORFLOW cell face flux is computed in a two-step process. An initial face flux is computed from FACT as an average of the normal components of Darcy velocity at the four corners. The derived flux field approximately conserves mass, but not rigorously. Thus, the flux field is subsequently perturbed to force rigorous mass conservation on a cell-by-cell basis. The undocumented process used is non-unique and can introduce significant artifacts into the final flux field

  16. Factors controlling the population size of microbes in groundwater from AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Mills, K. [University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Rana, S.; Vaidyanathan, S. [Deep River Science Academy, Whiteshell Campus Summer 1997, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Microbial populations in groundwaters from AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) range from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} cells/mL. Based on the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate and phosphate content of these waters, populations of about 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL should be possible. Upon storage of groundwater samples, total cell counts generally increase and viable cell counts always increase. A study was undertaken to determine what controls the in situ microbial population size in groundwater and what causes this population to grow upon sampling. Fresh URL groundwater was filter-sterilized, inoculated with small quantities of the unaltered water and incubated in the absence and presence of added nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and glucose). Unfiltered groundwater and R2A growth medium inoculated with unaltered groundwater, were also incubated. Microbial changes over time were followed by total and viable (on R2A medium) cell counts. Results showed that in the absence of any nutrient addition, populations grew to between 5 x 10{sup 5} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL, regardless of the initial size of the population ({approx}10{sup 1} to 10{sup 4} cells/mL), suggesting that nutrients for growth were available in the unamended groundwater. It was hypothesized that the original groundwater population was in 'equilibrium' with the underground environment, which likely included a large population of sessile cells in biofilms on fracture surfaces. Sampling of the groundwater removed the large demand on nutrient supplies by the sessile population which subsequently allowed the planktonic population to grow to a new 'equilibrium' with the available nutrients in the sample bottles. Addition of single nutrients (C, N or P) did not increase cell numbers, suggesting that more than one nutrient is limiting growth. Glucose was used very efficiently aerobically in the presence of both added N and P, but somewhat less under anaerobic

  17. Nonlinear ecosystem services response to groundwater availability under climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater has been accelerating at regional to global scales. Besides serving domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, in situ groundwater is also a key control on biological, physical and chemical processes across the critical zone, all of which underpin supply of ecosystem services essential for humanity. While there is a rich history of research on groundwater effects on subsurface and surface processes, understanding interactions, nonlinearity and feedbacks between groundwater and ecosystem services remain limited, and almost absent in the ecosystem service literature. Moreover, how climate extremes may alter groundwater effects on services is underexplored. In this research, we used a process-based ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) to quantify groundwater effects on eight ecosystem services related to food, water and biogeochemical processes in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. We asked: (1) Which ecosystem services are more susceptible to shallow groundwater influences? (2) Do effects of groundwater on ecosystem services vary under contrasting climate conditions (i.e., dry, wet and average)? (3) Where on the landscape are groundwater effects on ecosystem services most pronounced? (4) How do groundwater effects depend on water table depth? Overall, groundwater significantly impacted all services studied, with the largest effects on food production, water quality and quantity, and flood regulation services. Climate also mediated groundwater effects with the strongest effects occurring under dry climatic conditions. There was substantial spatial heterogeneity in groundwater effects across the landscape that is driven in part by spatial variations in water table depth. Most ecosystem services responded nonlinearly to groundwater availability, with most apparent groundwater effects occurring when the water table is shallower than a critical depth of 2.5-m. Our findings provide compelling evidence that groundwater plays a vital

  18. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  19. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    revealed preference is the concept from economic consumer theory meaning that the observed consumption bundle chosen (e.g. the amounts of crop production, groundwater risk and everything else) is preferred to any other bundle possible (e.g. the bundle including more crop production and the concomitant increase in groundwater risk) given the constraints the consumer faces. This concept was initially applied at the level of an individual consumer, but it also applies by the same logic at the social level of analysis. Using the spatially explicit information provided by Landsat MRLI about land use on the surfaces recharging the aquifers, more efficient regulation can be devised to allow more production on the surface while protecting aquifers to the degree implied by this revealed preference analysis.

  20. Groundwater and surface-water interaction within the upper Smith River Watershed, Montana 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The 125-mile long Smith River, a tributary of the Missouri River, is highly valued as an agricultural resource and for its many recreational uses. During a drought starting in about 1999, streamflow was insufficient to meet all of the irrigation demands, much less maintain streamflow needed for boating and viable fish habitat. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Meagher County Conservation District, initiated a multi-year hydrologic investigation of the Smith River watershed. This investigation was designed to increase understanding of the water resources of the upper Smith River watershed and develop a detailed description of groundwater and surface-water interactions. A combination of methods, including miscellaneous and continuous groundwater-level, stream-stage, water-temperature, and streamflow monitoring was used to assess the hydrologic system and the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater and surface-water interactions. Collectively, data are in agreement and show: (1) the hydraulic connectedness of groundwater and surface water, (2) the presence of both losing and gaining stream reaches, (3) dynamic changes in direction and magnitude of water flow between the stream and groundwater with time, (4) the effects of local flood irrigation on groundwater levels and gradients in the watershed, and (5) evidence and timing of irrigation return flows to area streams. Groundwater flow within the alluvium and older (Tertiary) basin-fill sediments generally followed land-surface topography from the uplands to the axis of alluvial valleys of the Smith River and its tributaries. Groundwater levels were typically highest in the monitoring wells located within and adjacent to streams in late spring or early summer, likely affected by recharge from snowmelt and local precipitation, leakage from losing streams and canals, and recharge from local flood irrigation. The effects of flood irrigation resulted in increased hydraulic gradients

  1. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  2. Groundwater conditions in Utah, spring of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Birken, Adam S.; Gerner, Steven J.; Carricaburu, John P.; Derrick, V. Noah; Downhour, Paul; Smith, Lincoln; Eacret, Robert J.; Gibson, Travis L.; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Whittier, Nickolas R.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the fifty-first in a series of annual reports that describe groundwater conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing groundwater conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, groundwater withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of groundwater. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas that are important to a discussion of changing groundwater conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of groundwater development in the State for calendar year 2013. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is also available online at http://www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water. usgs.gov/publications/GW2014.pdf. Groundwater conditions in Utah for calendar year 2012 are reported in Burden and others (2013) and are available online at http://ut.water.usgs. gov/publications/GW2013.pdf

  3. Groundwater conditions in Utah, spring of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Holt, Christopher M.; Fisher, Martel J.; Downhour, Paul; Smith, Lincoln; Eacret, Robert J.; Gibson, Travis L.; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Whittier, Nickolas R.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the forty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe groundwater conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing groundwater conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, groundwater withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of groundwater. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas that are important to a discussion of changing groundwater conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of groundwater development in the State for calendar year 2011. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is also available online at http:// www.waterrights.utah.gov/techinfo/ and http://ut.water.usgs. gov/publications/GW2012.pdf. Groundwater conditions in Utah for calendar year 2010 are reported in Burden and others (2011) and available online at http://ut.water.usgs.gov/ publications/GW2011.pdf.

  4. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  5. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  6. Isotope study of groundwater in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the groundwater origin, evolution and circulation in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository are studied. The results indicate that both shallow groundwaters are and deep groundwaters in the site area are of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwaters are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwaters are originated from regional history period with lower temperature. Through the study we can also understand that the deep underground is a very low-permeability system where the groundwater flow-rates are very low. (author)

  7. Scientific Opportunity to Reduce Risk in Groundwater and Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Looney, Brian B.; Zachara, John M.; Liang, Liyuan; Lesmes, D.; Chamberlain, G. M.; Skubal, Karen L.; Adams, V.; Denham, Miles E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-08-25

    In this report, we start by examining previous efforts at linking science and DOE EM research with cleanup activities. Many of these efforts were initiated by creating science and technology roadmaps. A recurring feature of successfully implementing these roadmaps into EM applied research efforts and successful cleanup is the focus on integration. Such integration takes many forms, ranging from combining information generated by various scientific disciplines, to providing technical expertise to facilitate successful application of novel technology, to bringing the resources and creativity of many to address the common goal of moving EM cleanup forward. Successful projects identify and focus research efforts on addressing the problems and challenges that are causing “failure” in actual cleanup activities. In this way, basic and applied science resources are used strategically to address the particular unknowns that are barriers to cleanup. The brief descriptions of the Office of Science basic (Environmental Remediation Science Program [ERSP]) and EM’s applied (Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program) research programs in subsurface science provide context to the five “crosscutting” themes that have been developed in this strategic planning effort. To address these challenges and opportunities, a tiered systematic approach is proposed that leverages basic science investments with new applied research investments from the DOE Office of Engineering and Technology within the framework of the identified basic science and applied research crosscutting themes. These themes are evident in the initial portfolio of initiatives in the EM groundwater and soil cleanup multi-year program plan. As stated in a companion document for tank waste processing (Bredt et al. 2008), in addition to achieving its mission, DOE EM is experiencing a fundamental shift in philosophy from driving to closure to enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  9. Subsurface aeration of anaerobic groundwater : iron colloid formation and the nitrification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Iron, anaerobic groundwater, groundwater purification, heterogeneous oxidation, iron colloid formation, electron microscopy, nitrification In anaerobic groundwater iron and ammonium can be found in relatively high concentrations. These substances need to be removed when groundwater is used

  10. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  11. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  12. Management of water resources to control groundwater levels in the southern area of the western Nile delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sobeih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated with the objective of simulating and predicting the effect of future development on the groundwater flow and levels. This supports applications for future planning and wise management of water resources. The study area extends south of El Nubariya canal including Sadat City area and its vicinities in the western Nile delta region. A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW has been employed to simulate flow and get the budget of groundwater in the study area. The model showed that about 28,101,041 m3/day of surface water is infiltrated to groundwater dominantly from canals and excess irrigation water. About the same quantity (28,101,052 m3/day, is discharged from groundwater through production wells, open drains and through some reaches of canals. Three development scenarios were simulated to give predictions of the impact of future increasing recharge, construction of new canal and new open drains, and also increased pumping on the groundwater levels in the study area.

  13. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof; Follin, Sven

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report

  14. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  16. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  17. Horizontal insulating barriers as a way to protect groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha-Szot, Renata; Labus, Krzysztof; Falkowicz, Sławomir; Madetko, Norbert

    2018-06-01

    Trenchless Technology of Forming Horizontal Insulating Barriers (TFHB) can be considered a method of groundwater protection against inflow of pollutants. In TFHB technology, the working fluid (sodium silicate solution) and the gelling agent (CO2) are injected separately, using one tool, to different zones of the aquifer profile. Carbon dioxide injected into the saturation zone rises due to buoyancy forces and reaches the silicate which was injected at the water table level. This initiates the process of silicate gelation, resulting in the formation of an insulating barrier. For technological purposes, the gelation time must be controlled, and the resulting gel must have certain mechanical properties. In order to apply THFB in real conditions it was necessary to identify important technological and technical parameters, as well as to define interactions between the injected fluid and the aquifer rocks. Geochemical modelling (equilibrium, reaction path and reactive transport) was used to identify potential geochemical effects of the application of TFHB in sandy aquifers. Certain petrophysical parameters and mineralogical assemblages of aquifers were addressed, taking into account both low and strongly mineralized groundwater. The simulations revealed that TFHB does not have a negative impact on the chemistry of rock-water systems described in this work.

  18. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres

  19. Uranium in groundwater from Western Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvinder Singh; Nawal Kishore; Vandana Pulhani

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess uranium in groundwater and radiological and chemical risks associated with its ingestion in rural habitats in the vicinity of proposed nuclear power project in Western Haryana, India. Uranium concentration in the groundwater of the study area varied from 0.3 to 256.4 μg L -1 . Radiological risk calculated in the form of average life time dose was found 5.1 × 10 -2 mSv to the residents of the area from the ingestion of groundwater. The average cancer mortality and average cancer morbidity risk were calculated to be 4.9 × 10 -6 and 7.7 × 10 -6 respectively indicating the absence of carcinogenic risks. Chemical risk was in the range of 0.02-18.8 μg kg -1 day -1 . Hazard quotient for 72 % samples was greater than unity which indicates health risk due to chemical toxicity of uranium in groundwater. The results indicate that uranium concentrations in the groundwater of the study area are important due to chemical risk than radiological risk. (author)

  20. Recent Advances in the Area of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater related papers published in Water Resources Research in the last year range from experimental and modeling studies of pore scale flow and reactive transport to assessments of changes in water storage at the scale of regional aquifers enabled by satellite observations. Important societal needs motivating these studies include sustainability of groundwater resources of suitable quantity and quality for human use, protection of groundwater-dependent ecosystems in streams, wetlands, lakes and coastal areas, and assessment of the feasibility of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide and long-lived radioactive wastes. Eight general areas that generated ten or more papers within the period July 2016 to June 2017 are the following: aquifer heterogeneity (including geostatistical and inverse methods for parameter estimation), flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (including recharge to and evaporative losses from aquifers), multiphase flow and transport (including processes relevant to carbon sequestration), groundwater-surface water interactions (particularly hyporheic exchange), flow and transport in fractured media, novel remote sensing and geophysical techniques for aquifer characterization and assessment of groundwater dynamics, freshwater-saltwater interactions (particularly in coastal aquifers), and reactive solute transport. This presentation will highlight selected findings in each of these areas.

  1. Evaluating groundwater flow using passive electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, E.; Revil, A.; Singha, K.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate quantification of groundwater flow patterns, both in magnitude and direction, is a necessary component of evaluating any hydrologic system. Groundwater flow patterns are often determined using a dense network of wells or piezometers, which can be limited due to logistical or regulatory constraints. The self-potential (SP) method, a passive geophysical technique that relies on currents generated by water movement through porous materials, is a re-emerging alternative or addition to traditional piezometer networks. Naturally generated currents can be measured as voltage differences at the ground surface using only two electrodes, or a more complex electrode array. While the association between SP measurements and groundwater flow was observed as early as 1890s, the method has seen resurgence in hydrology since the governing equations were refined in the 1980s. The method can be used to analyze hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Here we present the results of multiple SP surveys collected a multiple scales (1 to 10s of meters). Here single SP grid surveys are used to evaluate flow patterns through artic hillslopes at a discrete point in time. Additionally, a coupled groundwater and electrical model is used to analyze multiple SP data sets to evaluate seasonal changes in groundwater flow through an alpine meadow.

  2. Groundwater movement through mudrocks - measurement and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Gostelow, T.P.

    1987-12-01

    The parameters which require measurement to determine the fluxes through mudrocks are groundwater head, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, tortuosity, groundwater chemistry, and the semi-permeable membrane properties of the mudrock. A series of measurements have been made at the Harwell Research Site to assess the occurrence and magnitude of the different fluxes across mudrocks. Head measurements have been made through perforations in the mudrocks, and the results broadly fit the previously conceived groundwater flow pattern. Measurement of the chemical potential of groundwaters is straightforward in the aquifers but more difficult in the mudrocks. If mudrocks do not behave as semi-permeable membranes then diffusion will be a more important solute transport process than advection. If mudrocks behave as ideal semi-permeable membranes the relative magnitude of advective and osmotic groundwater flows is largely dependent on the chemical potential gradient. If mudrocks behave as non-ideal semi-permeable membranes then the relative importance of the mechanisms is chiefly determined by the degree of ideality of the membrane. (author)

  3. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  4. The groundwater regime of the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.

    1983-12-01

    A regional hydrogeological assessment has been undertaken in the Harwell area utilizing currently available geological information and water level data. Since the dissolution and transport of any disposed waste would be controlled by the rate and direction of groundwater movement through a potential repository, a detailed knowledge of regional and local hydrogeology is essential. This study is based on the tenet that very slow groundwater movement, through a sequence of clay lithologies, is measurable at widely separated points within intervening high permeability systems. The analysis of available data from high permeability units within a regional groundwater flow-system provides a general flow model which takes into account inter-lithology water movement in general and vertical water movement across low permeability formations in particular. Groundwater contour maps have been constructed for the Chalk, Upper Greensand, Corallian and Great Oolite lithologies. These show that in the Cretaceous and Jurassic formations of the Harwell area, groundwater movement is predominantly in the horizontal direction with a smaller proportion of vertical flow taking place between adjacent formations. The potential for vertical movement, both upwards and downwards through intervening low permeability clay lithologies is evident. The results are discussed. (author)

  5. Recharge Area of Groundwater of Jakarta Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo; Abidin, Zainal; Alip; Djiono

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater inside the earth contained in a porous and permeable layers called aquifers. Depend on the hydrogeological structure, the aquifers may be composed of independent layers separated each other by impermeable boundaries. Such a condition may effect the location of recharge where water is able to infiltrate and goes to the aquifers. The objective of this research is to find out and to locate the recharge area of Jakarta basin by utilizing stable isotopes 2H and 18O . The work was done by collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples throughout Jabotabek area and precipitations from different altitudes. Since the stable isotopes composition of precipitation is subject to the altitude, the recharge area would be able to be identified by assessing the correlation of stable isotopes composition of precipitation and corresponding groundwater population. The data obtained from this study suggested that shallow groundwater is originated from local recharge while deep groundwater is recharged from the area having altitude of 125 -230 meters, it correspond to the area between Depok and Bogor

  6. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  7. Transuranic chemical species in groundwater. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Nelson, D.M.; Abel, K.H.

    1985-02-01

    For the past several years, staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been studying the mobility of actinides, primarily plutonium, in the groundwater of a low-level disposal site. This research has provided valuable insights into the behavior of plutonium in the groundwater. Based on the analytical data and geochemical modeling, it appears that the plutonium that enters the trench, primarily in the higher oxidation states, Pu(V,VI), is rapidly reduced as the water migrates through the highly reducing sediments of the trench and is removed from the water by adsorption of the reduced plutonium, Pu(III,IV), onto the sediments. The Pu(V,VI) also appears to be reduced in the groundwater, although not as rapidly as in the trench sediments, and removed by adsorption. Because of the redox reduction that occurs during the migration of the groundwater, the system is not at redox equilibrium. Based on the discrepancies between the calculated and analytically determined redox distribution and charge-form speciation, the thermodynamic data bases for plutonium appear either to be missing or to contain incorrect thermodynamic data for several aqueous plutonium species, including the carbonate and organic complexes of plutonium. Further research is required to determine the kinetics of plutonium oxidation/reduction reactions in natural groundwater systems and to determine thermodynamic data for carbonate and organic complexes of plutonium. 52 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  8. Earthquakes trigger the loss of groundwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Lombardo, Paola; Fiasca, Barbara; di Cioccio, Alessia; di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Petitta, Marco; di Carlo, Piero

    2014-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural events. The 6 April 2009, 6.3-Mw earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy) markedly altered the karstic Gran Sasso Aquifer (GSA) hydrogeology and geochemistry. The GSA groundwater invertebrate community is mainly comprised of small-bodied, colourless, blind microcrustaceans. We compared abiotic and biotic data from two pre-earthquake and one post-earthquake complete but non-contiguous hydrological years to investigate the effects of the 2009 earthquake on the dominant copepod component of the obligate groundwater fauna. Our results suggest that the massive earthquake-induced aquifer strain biotriggered a flushing of groundwater fauna, with a dramatic decrease in subterranean species abundance. Population turnover rates appeared to have crashed, no longer replenishing the long-standing communities from aquifer fractures, and the aquifer became almost totally deprived of animal life. Groundwater communities are notorious for their low resilience. Therefore, any major disturbance that negatively impacts survival or reproduction may lead to local extinction of species, most of them being the only survivors of phylogenetic lineages extinct at the Earth surface. Given the ecological key role played by the subterranean fauna as decomposers of organic matter and ``ecosystem engineers'', we urge more detailed, long-term studies on the effect of major disturbances to groundwater ecosystems.

  9. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  11. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A geochemical approach to determine sources and movement of saline groundwater in a coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Mendez, Gregory O; Futa, Kiyoto; Danskin, Wesley R

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical evaluation of the sources and movement of saline groundwater in coastal aquifers can aid in the initial mapping of the subsurface when geological information is unavailable. Chloride concentrations of groundwater in a coastal aquifer near San Diego, California, range from about 57 to 39,400 mg/L. On the basis of relative proportions of major-ions, the chemical composition is classified as Na-Ca-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, or Na-Ca-Cl type water. δ(2)H and δ(18)O values range from -47.7‰ to -12.8‰ and from -7.0‰ to -1.2‰, respectively. The isotopically depleted groundwater occurs in the deeper part of the coastal aquifer, and the isotopically enriched groundwater occurs in zones of sea water intrusion. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios range from about 0.7050 to 0.7090, and differ between shallower and deeper flow paths in the coastal aquifer. (3)H and (14)C analyses indicate that most of the groundwater was recharged many thousands of years ago. The analysis of multiple chemical and isotopic tracers indicates that the sources and movement of saline groundwater in the San Diego coastal aquifer are dominated by: (1) recharge of local precipitation in relatively shallow parts of the flow system; (2) regional flow of recharge of higher-elevation precipitation along deep flow paths that freshen a previously saline aquifer; and (3) intrusion of sea water that entered the aquifer primarily during premodern times. Two northwest-to-southeast trending sections show the spatial distribution of the different geochemical groups and suggest the subsurface in the coastal aquifer can be separated into two predominant hydrostratigraphic layers. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D A [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  14. In situ groundwater MOP-UP. Topical report, April 12, 1996--May 11, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Under this FETC-funded program, Biopraxis proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of using its new MOP-UP technology for in situ treatment of metal-contaminated groundwater. Instead of optimizing the technology to demonstrate the feasibility of its use at a single site, the final series of tests were designed to showcase the breadth and flexibility of the MOP-UP technology by demonstrating its capabilities in as many different groundwater environments as possible. Sites that were contaminated with metal pollutants of wide-spread concern to DOE were located; and MOP-UP reagents were screened for their ability to treat any or all of these metals--without any attempt to optimize the technology for use with the new target metals and/or for treating these metals under the diverse conditions found at the sites. Groundwater samples exhibiting a wide range of environments were generously provided by DoD, EPA, and private industry as well as DOE for use in these treatability tests. The tests showed that MOP-UP can readily remove all detectable traces of a wide variety of metals, such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr(VI), As, Ba, Zn, and Al, and take U into the low parts per trillions, in heavily polluted groundwater, with little or no effort needed to optimize the reagent formulation. The second goal of the program was to show that the in situ groundwater MOP-UP technology will either be more cost effective than conventional technologies while achieving the same degree of groundwater purification, or be at least as cost effective as conventional technologies while offering superior performance. MOP-UP far surpassed the goals established for this initial feasibility demonstration. This new technology promises to be extremely effective and very economical whether used in a permeable barrier for treating shallow plumes, or a direct injection or pump-and-treat configuration for treating deep-subsurface plumes of heavy metal, radionuclide, or mixed contamination.

  15. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, V. P. de

    2017-01-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ("2H) and Oxygen-18 ("1"8O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ"2H, δ"1"8O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ"1"8O values, an indicative of evaporation process. "2H and "1"8O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  16. Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: A case study in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Zona Citrícola is an important area for Mexico due to its citriculture activity. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to the Sierra Madre Oriental, this valley hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flows to supply drinking water to the adjacent metropolitan area of Monterrey. Recent studies examining the groundwater quality of the study area urge the mitigation of groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. Correlation was used to identify associations among various geochemical constituents. Factor analysis was applied to identify the water's chemical characteristics that were responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed in combination with a post-hoc analysis of variance to partition the water samples into hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed and constrained using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling the water's chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The primary reactions contributing to salinity were the following: (1) water-rock interactions, including the weathering of evaporitic rocks and dedolomitization; (2) dissolution of soil gas carbon dioxide; and (3) input from animal/human wastewater and manure in combination with by denitrification processes. Contributions from silicate weathering to salinity ranged from less important to insignificant. The findings suggest that it may not be cost-effective to regulate manure application to mitigate groundwater pollution.

  17. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, V. P. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear; Sobrinho, G.A.N.; Freitas, L.D.; Franklin, M.R., E-mail: mariza@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ({sup 2}H) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ{sup 18}O values, an indicative of evaporation process. {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  18. Spatial interpolation methods and geostatistics for mapping groundwater contamination in a coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Vetrimurugan; Brindha, K; Sithole, Bongani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-04-01

    Mapping groundwater contaminants and identifying the sources are the initial steps in pollution control and mitigation. Due to the availability of different mapping methods and the large number of emerging pollutants, these methods need to be used together in decision making. The present study aims to map the contaminated areas in Richards Bay, South Africa and compare the results of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation techniques. Statistical methods were also used for identifying contamination sources. Na-Cl groundwater type was dominant followed by Ca-Mg-Cl. Data analysis indicate that silicate weathering, ion exchange and fresh water-seawater mixing are the major geochemical processes controlling the presence of major ions in groundwater. Factor analysis also helped to confirm the results. Overlay analysis by OK and IDW gave different results. Areas where groundwater was unsuitable as a drinking source were 419 and 116 km 2 for OK and IDW, respectively. Such diverse results make decision making difficult, if only one method was to be used. Three highly contaminated zones within the study area were more accurately identified by OK. If large areas are identified as being contaminated such as by IDW in this study, the mitigation measures will be expensive. If these areas were underestimated, then even though management measures are taken, it will not be effective for a longer time. Use of multiple techniques like this study will help to avoid taking harsh decisions. Overall, the groundwater quality in this area was poor, and it is essential to identify alternate drinking water source or treat the groundwater before ingestion.

  19. Development of a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    1996-01-01

    Over 440 km 2 (170 mi 2 ) of groundwater beneath the Hanford Site are contaminated by hazardous and radioactive waste, out of which almost half is over state and federal drinking water standards. In addition to the complicated nature of these plumes, remediation is further obscured by limited application of available technologies and hydrogeologic information. This paper briefly describes the processes used by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) in developing a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy for Hanford and its outcome. As an initial approach to sitewide groundwater remediation, the strategy is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas (100 Area) adjacent to the Columbia River and contain the major plumes found in the Central Plateau region (200 Area). This approach was based mainly on the qualitative risk, stakeholder's and tribe's values, and available technical feasibility. The strategy emphasizes the use of existing treatment and extraction technology for the remediation of groundwater in combination with proposed and existing site infrastructure. This work is being performed in parallel with ongoing risk and other feasibility activities. Under this strategy, innovative technologies being developed are in the areas of dense nonaqueous phase liquid identification and recovery, and problems associated with strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium in the vadose zone and groundwater. The final remediation strategy alternatives remain a product of risk assessment, technical feasibility, site use scenario, and cost consideration. In order to develop a strategy for the final cleanup, several issues such as aquifer restoration, natural attenuation, potential contamination of groundwater from the tank farms and from the existing contamination source in the vadose zone must be looked in detail in conjuction with public and stakeholder's values

  20. Assessing the groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Lin, Zih-Ciao; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2014-05-01

    The flooded paddy fields can be considered as a major source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in this area. To respond to agricultural water shortage caused by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation is the substantial resolution. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was developed as a set of insights and practices used in growing irrigated rice. Based on the water-saving irrigation practice of SRI, impacts of the new methodology on the reducing of groundwater recharge were assessed in central Taiwan. The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge under different irrigation schemes. According to local climatic and environmental characteristics associated with SRI methodology, the change of infiltration rate was evaluated and compared with the traditional irrigation schemes, including continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that the average infiltration rate in the rice growing season decreased when applying the SRI methodology, and the total groundwater recharge amount of SRI with a 5-day irrigation interval reduced 12% and 9% compared with continuous irrigation (6cm constant ponding water depth) and rotational scheme (5-day irrigation interval with 6 cm initial ponding water depth), respectively. The results could be used as basis for planning long-term adaptive water resource management strategies to climate change in Central Taiwan. Keywords: SRI, Irrigation schemes, Groundwater recharge, Infiltration

  1. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. A. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  2. A groundwater mass flux model for screening the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, T.; Blanc, P.C. de; Connor, J. [Groundwater Services Inc, Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The potential for human exposure via volatilisation of groundwater contaminants into indoor air has been a focus of increasing concern in recent years. At a small number of sites, elevated indoor vapour concentrations have been measured within buildings overlying shallow groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, causing public concern over the potential for similar problems at other corrective action sites. In addition, use of the screening-levelmodel developed by Johnson and Ettinger (1991) for the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway has suggested that low microgram per litre (ug/L)-range concentrations of either chlorinated or non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds dissolved in groundwater could result in indoor vapour concentrations in excess of applicable risk-based exposure limits. As an alternative screening tool, this paper presents a groundwater mass flux model for evaluation of transport to indoor air. The mass flux model is intended to serve as a highly conservative screening tool that over-predicts groundwater-to-indoor-air mass flux, yet still provides sufficient sensitivity to identify sites for which the groundwater-to-indoor air exposure pathway is not a concern. (orig.)

  3. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  4. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  5. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

  6. Radon measurements of groundwater in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Cortes, A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon measurement has important applications in hydrogeological studies. Specifically, radon measurement is used to determine the fluctuations of the piezometric levels in groundwater and, in some cases, the path of the water, which is one of the key parameters for evaluating hydrogeological resources. Water from springs and deep wells in the Basin of Mexico and the valley of San Luis Potosi were sampled, measured and analyzed by previous authors. In this work, a method for measuring 222 Rn in groundwater by using a passive detector is presented and the results are compared with a similar experiment performed at the same time, using a dynamic method. The aim of the work is to develop a method for detecting, evaluating and measuring the 222 Rn in groundwater by using SSNTD technology. (author)

  7. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  8. Mobility of radioactive colloidal particles in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Long, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocolloids are a major factor in the rapid migration of radioactive waste in groundwater. For at least two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sites, researchers have shown that groundwater colloidal particles were responsible for the rapid transport of radioactive waste material in groundwater. On an international scale, a review of reported field observations, laboratory column studies, and carefully collected field samples provides compelling evidence that colloidal particles enhance both radioactive and toxic waste migration. The objective of this project is to understand and predict colloid-contaminant migration through fundamental mathematical models, water sampling, and laboratory experiments and use this information to develop an effective and scientifically based colloid immobilization strategy. The article focuses on solving the suspected radiocolloid transport problems at LANL's Mortandad Canyon site. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs

  9. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  10. groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from parts of the Wilberforce Island in Bayelsa State,. Southern Nigeria has ... chemical composition of groundwater or anthropogenic factors that ...... of pipelines in the Niger Delta.

  11. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  12. An analysis of the challenges for groundwater governance during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... were identified: (a) defining relevant metrics for baseline groundwater quality and ... of groundwater resources; (f) implementing a goal-based regulatory framework; ...

  13. hydrogeochemical appraisal of fluoride in groundwater of langtang

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIBAL

    GROUNDWATER OF LANGTANG AREA, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA ... trace elements and rare earth elements for the rock samples were determined by the XRF method and fluorine by the ... Fluorine is leached into the groundwater from the ...

  14. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the .... hydrochemical methods to assess the suitability of groundwater in .... levels and aid in the production of energy and pro- tein. ...... Alkali Soils; Agric Handbook 60.

  15. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2015-10-30

    ://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem http://www.bioline.org.br/ja. Litho-stratigraphic and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Groundwater System in Parts of. Benin Metropolis, Benin City Nigeria: The Key to Groundwater Sustainability.

  16. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater contamination decreases the amount of available groundwater ...... ture; Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Irrigation and Drainage, paper No. ... province); The 1st IWA Malaysia Young Water Profes- sionals Conference ...

  17. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area...... in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  18. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  19. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  20. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  1. Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water-groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Stisen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    is to minimize the impact of initialization while using the smallest spin-up time possible. In this study, multicriteria analysis was performed to assess the spin-up behavior of the ParFlow.CLM integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model over a 208 km

  2. Groundwater Energy Designer (GED); Groundwater Energy Designer (GED). Computergestuetztes Auslegungstool zur Waerme- und Kaeltenutzung von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppei, J.; Mayer, G.; Schwarz, R.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a computer-aided dimensioning tool (Groundwater Energy Designer, GED) for use in the calculation work involved in designing systems for the thermal use of groundwater. The interactive tool is designed to support those involved in the analysis of heating and cooling demands and the direct use of groundwater to help meet such needs. The program and its user interface in German and French are described in detail, as are the basic models and data used in the calculations. Simulation aspects and the verification of the software are also discussed. Results of tests made are presented and discussed.

  3. Groundwater levels for selected wells in Upper Kittitas County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasser, E.T.; Julich, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater levels for selected wells in Upper Kittitas County, Washington, are presented on an interactive, web-based map to document the spatial distribution of groundwater levels in the study area measured during spring 2011. Groundwater-level data and well information were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey using standard techniques and are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site-Inventory database.

  4. Tidal effects on groundwater contamination at Pekan, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Dalila Desa; Dominic, J.A.; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Faizun Khalid; Mod Omar Hassan; Kamaruzaman Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    The meeting of coastal ground water and the sea is a unique and dynamic hydro geologic boundary phenomenon that has fascinated groundwater engineers and scientists for the past century. The variation of seawater level resulting from tidal fluctuations is usually neglected in regional groundwater flow studies. In this study the effects of seawater tidal on groundwater are investigated using geophysical together with conventional method. Comparative result between these two methods shown how tidal fluctuations effects groundwater in study area. (author)

  5. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tahoe and Martis Basins and surrounding watersheds constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  8. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  12. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  13. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  14. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  15. Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konikow, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  17. Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konikow, L F [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  19. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  20. Reliability of groundwater supply from a coastal aquifer in the context of climate and socio-economic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Malte; Schöniger, Hans Matthias; Gelleszun, Marlene; Wolf, Jens; Schneider, Anke; Wiederhold, Helga; Meon, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Especially coastal areas are vulnerable in case of sea level rise and changing climate conditions. Therefore, the NAWAK study (design of sustainable adaptation strategies for infrastructures in water management under the conditions of climatic and demographic change) started in 2013. It is designed to assess impairments of groundwater availability for a coastal lowland aquifer system in North-West Germany (> 1.000 km2) in the context of climate and socio-economic changes. The research results are focused on the quantification of the groundwater availability for past and future scenarios. Impacts from both climatic and socio-economic changes on the water availability and water balance are assessed by means of hydrologic, hydrogeological and geophysical models and methods, which where developed and adapted by project partners. For the model area there are three fields of work to create the conditions for a density dependent calculation of changings in salt-freshwater budget with the numerical model d3f++ (distributed density-driven Flow). The first is the description of initial conditions in three dimensions, especially for the salt-freshwater boundary. That description is based on airborne electromagnetic data of the underground and a complex processing to identify the differences between salt and freshwater, without anthropogenic and geologic influences. A validation is possible by comparison with groundwater measurements and an online monitoring of specific conductivity. The second is the calculation and measurement of flow conditions to derive the boundary conditions and the groundwater recharge. The groundwater recharge was calculated by using the hydrologic model PANTA RHEI. It is a conceptual model with partly physic-based modules, especially for the soil water processes. The model was calibrated and validated by discharge measurements and groundwater levels. The third step is a detailed information about the spatial discretization and the reconstruction of

  1. Kalahari groundwaters: Their hydrogen, carbon and oxygen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazor, E.; Verhagen, B.T.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Robins, N.S.; Hutton, L.G.

    1974-01-01

    Tritium and 14 C measurements have revealed several cases of post-nuclear bomb-test rain recharge of local groundwaters, along with values indicating recharge over larger, yet hydrologically active, time scales. In general, recharge seems to follow rain distribution in being more intense in the northern rather than in the southern Kalahari. Initial δ 13 C values vary over a wide range and reveal some correlation to pH and chemical composition of the water. They cannot be used to correct for fossil carbon dilution in 14 C-age calculations. Radiocarbon-deduced ages range from recent to 30,000 years. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate recharge from direct rain infiltration. (author)

  2. Groundwater and Global Palaeoclimate Signals (G@GPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldorsen, Sylvi; Ploeg, van der Martine J.; Cendon, Dioni I.; Chen, Jianyao; Jemaa, Najiba Chkir Ben; Gurdak, Jason J.; Purtschert, Roland; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Vaikmae, Rein; Perez, Marcela; Zouari, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater sources supply fresh drinking water to almost half of the World's population and are a main source of water for irrigation across world. Characterization of groundwater resources, surface groundwater interactions and their link to the global water cycle and modern global change are

  3. Groundwater Vulnerability Map for South Africa | Musekiwa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability of groundwater is a relative, non-measurable and dimensionless property which is based on the concept that some land areas are more vulnerable to groundwater contamination than others. Maps showing groundwater vulnerability assist with the identification of areas more susceptible to contamination than ...

  4. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory tools in groundwater surveys. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... An analysis of the spatial variation of these parameters indicates that the EC and pH values of groundwater allow us to make deductions not only on the changes in the ...

  5. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  6. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater ... function of the interaction between groundwater and mineral grains of the ... groundwater quality is essential to understand the .... Lead. 0.05. 5. 0.08772. Cadmium. 0.01. 5. 0.08772. ∑wi = 57 ∑Wi = 1.000. *For each ...

  7. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  8. Norms in multilevel groundwater governance and sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater constitutes 98-99% of the world’s available freshwater resources. Humans abstract 200 times more groundwater than oil - using it heavily for domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes. Consequently, humans cause groundwater depletion and quality degradation in some

  9. Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater resources in Nigeria. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... of climate change induced groundwater impacts due to largely multi-scale local and regional heterogeneity, there is need to evaluate groundwater resources, quality and ...

  10. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  11. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  12. Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater use of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is a pre-requisite for improved human welfare; however, the costs associated with groundwater development are prohibitively high and poorly defined. This study identifies and disaggregates the costs of groundwater development in 11 Sub-Saharan African countries, while ...

  13. Geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid Yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the process controlling the water chemistry and to assess the ... for the deep groundwater and Na+-Cl- for the surface water bodies. ... Groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater indicate pH values (6.10 to 7.08) ...

  14. An intelligent instrument for measuring the dynamic parameters of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guoping

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent instrument was developed for measuring direction and velocity of the groundwater, permeability coefficient, hydraulic transmitting coefficient, static level, hydraulic gradient and flow direction of each layer. The instrument can be widely applied for detecting seepage of abutment and river bank, exploitation of groundwater, conservation of water and soil, water surging in mine, survey of groundwater resource and environment protection etc

  15. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and sensitivity to pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution caused by human activity is a serious environmental problem in cities. Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas vulnerable to pollution. The present study is a detailed investigation of the potential for groundwater contamination through ...

  16. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  17. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    above the terraces of Riederalp and Bettmeralp in or near steeply dipping fault zones striking parallel to the ridge, suggesting locally a near-surface groundwater table. Drying up of several of these springs (at lateral distances up to 4 km) after construction of the Riederhornstollen, as well as associated large tunnel water inflows, demonstrates large scale hydraulic connections along strike of these fault zones. The catchment areas of these springs have to be located close to the ridge crest, above the terraces of Riederalp and Bettmeralp, and extend over many kilometers. This fault system thus drains significant portions of the high-altitude recharge and induces a complex 3D groundwater flow field of the Aletsch area. Variations in glacial ice extent due to different climatic conditions during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods were studied by varying the boundary condition of the great Aletsch glacier. Results have to be interpreted with care, as the glacier pressure boundary conditions were modelled like a lake. Detailed investigations of these boundary conditions have been initialized by glacier drillings equipped with melt water pressure sensors. With the simplified boundary conditions applied to the glacier bed, elevated ice surfaces during the Little Ice Age stage only slightly influence the flow field and total hydraulic head conditions on the NW side of the ridge. On the other hand, the Egesen stadial causes a fundamental change of the groundwater devide with all flow lines, even from below the Aletsch glacier, oriented towards the Rhone valley.

  18. Groundwater reorganization in the Floridan aquifer following Holocene sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Sheila K.; Clark, Jordan F.; Bennett, Michael; Richardson, Emily; Stute, Martin

    2010-10-01

    Sea-level fluctuations, particularly those associated with glacial-interglacial cycles, can have profound impacts on the flow and circulation of coastal groundwater: the water found at present in many coastal aquifers may have been recharged during the last glacial period, when sea level was over 100m lower than present, and thus is not in equilibrium with present recharge conditions. Here we show that the geochemistry of the groundwater found in the Floridan Aquifer System in south Florida is best explained by a reorganization of groundwater flow following the sea-level rise at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 18,000 years ago. We find that the geochemistry of the fresh water found in the upper aquifers at present is consistent with recharge from meteoric water during the last glacial period. The lower aquifer, however, consists of post-sea-level-rise salt water that is most similar to that of the Straits of Florida, though with some dilution from the residual fresh water from the last glacial period circulation. We therefore suggest that during the last glacial period, the entire Floridan Aquifer System was recharged with meteoric waters. After sea level rose, the increased hydraulic head reduced the velocity of the groundwater flow. This velocity reduction trapped the fresh water in the upper aquifers and initiated saltwater circulation in the lower aquifer.

  19. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  20. Annual INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report for Group 5 - Snake River Plain Aquifer (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring activities conducted and presents the results of groundwater sampling and water-level measurements from October 2000 to September 2001. Groundwater samples were initially collected from 41 wells from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the Central Facilities Area and analyzed for iodine- 129, strontium-90, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, technetium-99, uranium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, neptunium-237, gamma spectrometry, and mercury. Samples from 41 wells were collected in April and May 2001. Additional sampling was conducted in August 2001 and included in two CFA production wells, the CFA point of compliance for the production wells, one well was previously sampled and five additional monitoring wells. Water-level measurements were taken from in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Central Facilities Area, and the area south of Central Facilities Area to evaluate groundwater flow directions. Water-level measurements indicated groundwater flow to the south-southwest from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

  1. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  3. Is nutrient contamination of groundwater causing eutrophication of groundwater-fed meadows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether nutrient contamination of groundwater under agricultural fields may cause nutrient-enrichment and subsequent eutrophication in discharge areas. Often, there is only circumstantial evidence to support this supposition (proximity of agricultural fields,

  4. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar

    2018-03-06

    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  5. Characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in Asian coastal megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Shimizu, Y.; Admajaya, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    For the sustainable use of groundwater resources for the future, it is important to conserve its quality as well as quantity. Especially in the developing megacities, land subsidence and groundwater pollution by several contaminants (e.g. nitrogen, trace metals and organic pollutants etc.) is one of a critical environmental problems, because of the intensive extraction of groundwater and huge amount of contaminant load derived from domestic wastewater as well as agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, the process of groundwater degradation, including depletion and contamination with urbanization, has not been examined well in the previous studies. In the present study, we aim to confirm the characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in coastal Asian megacities such as Osaka and Jakarta. In Osaka, groundwater was used as a water resource during the period of rapid population increase before 1970, and consequently groundwater resources have been degraded. Hydraulic potential of groundwater has been recovered after the regulation for abstraction. However, it is still below sea level in the deeper aquifer (>20 m) of some regions, and higher Cl-, NH4+-N and PO43-P concentrations were detected in these regions. The results also suggest that shallower aquifer (>10 m) is influenced by infiltration of sewage to groundwater. In the Jakarta metropolitan area, current hydraulic potential is below sea level in because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The distribution of Cl- and Mn concentration in groundwater suggests that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. It implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. On the other hands, NO3-N in groundwater is suggested to be attenuated by the processes of denitrification and dilution in the coastal area.

  6. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  7. Approaches to hazard-oriented groundwater management based on multivariate analysis of groundwater quality

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Rebecca Mary

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water extracted near rivers in alluvial aquifers is subject to potential microbial contamination due to rapidly infiltrating river water during high discharge events. The heterogeneity of river-groundwater interaction and hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer renders a complex pattern of groundwater quality. The quality of the extracted drinking water can be managed using decision support and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) systems, but the detection of po...

  8. Groundwater recharge and flow on Montserrat, West Indies: Insights from groundwater dating

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmings, Brioch; Gooddy, Daren; Whitaker, Fiona; George Darling, W.; Jasim, Alia; Gottsmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Study region Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean. Study focus Analysis of δ2H and δ18O isotopes, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) anthropogenic tracers in Montserrat groundwater provides insights into the age and provenance of the spring waters. New hydrological insights δ2H and δ18O analysis indicates uniform recharge elevations for groundwaters on Montserrat. CFC-11 and CFC-12 analysis reveals age differences between isotopically similar, high elevation springs and low eleva...

  9. Modeling groundwater age using tritium and groundwater mineralization processes - Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMAROSON, V.

    2007-01-01

    The tritium method in the lumped parameter approach was used for groundwater dating in the Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar. Tritium data were interpreted by the dispersion model. The modeling results, with P D values between 0.05 and 0.7, show that shallow groundwater age is ranging from 17 to 56 years. Different types of chemical composition were determined for these shallow ground waters, among others, Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-K-HCO 3 -NO 3 -SO 4 , Na-Cl, or Ca-Na-Mg-Cl. Likewise, deeper ground waters show various chemical type such as Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Mg-Na H CO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 -Cl-SO 4 , Ca-Mg-HCO 3 , Na-Ca-Mg-HCO 3 -SO 4 -Cl, Na-Cl-HCO 3 or Na-HCO 3 -Cl. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the NETPATH inverse geochemical modeling type was implemented. The modeling results show that silicate minerals dissolution , including olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxene is more important than calcite or dolomite dissolution, for both shallow and deeper groundwater . In the Southern part of the study area, while halite dissolution is likely to be the source of shallow groundwater chloride concentration rise, the mineral precipitation seems to be responsible for less chloride content in deeper groundwater. Besides, ion exchange contributes to the variations of major cations concentrations in groundwater. The major difference between shallow and deep groundwater mineralization process lies in the leaching of marine aerosols deposits by local precipitation, rapidly infiltrated through the sandy formation and giving marine chemical signature to shallow groundwater [fr

  10. Detailing new and emerging groundwater pollutants and their potential risk to groundwater environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya

    2014-01-01

    Many different sources and pathways into groundwater: wastewater, biosolids from water treatment and animal wastes are important Frequently detected groups of ECs include antimicrobials, lifestyle compounds, pharmaceuticals Although mostly detected in low ng/L concentrations in groundwater there are many examples of hot spots TPs can be found at concentrations higher than the parent and may be more mobile or polar, and more toxic ECs can be typical of source/landuse Some are re...

  11. Investigating a spatial approach to groundwater quantity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... balance' volumetric method. Using South Africa as a case study, the radius of influence methodology was shown to be scientifically practical, to provide plausible results, and to be permissible under the country's water laws. The approach also provides better indicators for institutions involved in groundwater management, ...

  12. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  13. Environmental isotopes investigation in groundwater of Challaghatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Radiogenic isotopes (3H and 14C) and stable isotope (18O) together with TDS, EC and salinity of water were used to ..... Tritium (3H). Relative dating of groundwater has been carried ... that falls to Earth has small amounts of tritium. During the.

  14. Virus and indicator relationships in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation examines indicator-virus relationships from 13 international studies of public groundwater systems. This presentation shows that the absence of classic indicators is a strong predictor of the absence of viral pathogens. However, indicators are often present in t...

  15. Groundwater sampling with well-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubacher, R.C.; Bailey, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that BP Oil Company and Engineering-Science (ES) conducted a groundwater investigation at a BP Oil Distribution facility in the coastal plain of south central Alabama. The predominant lithologies include unconsolidated Quaternary-aged gravels, sands, silts and clay. Wellpoints were used to determine the vertical and horizontal extent of volatile hydrocarbons in the water table aquifer. To determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration, the hollow-stem augers were advanced approximately 10 feet into the aquifer near a suspected source. The drill stem and bit were removed very slowly to prevent sand heaving. The well-point was again driven ahead of the augers and four volumes (18 liters) of groundwater were purged. A sample was collected and the headspace vapor was analyzed as before. Groundwater from a total of seven borings was analyzed using these techniques. Permanent monitoring wells were installed at four boring locations which had volatile concentrations less than 1 part per million. Later groundwater sampling and laboratory analysis confirmed the wells had been installed near or beyond both the horizontal and vertical plume boundaries

  16. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

  17. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics of groundwater quality from Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    immobilize a large fraction of such agricultural chemicals. It follows that many pesticides and herbicides break down slowly under aquifer conditions or transform into more toxic compounds. As a result, they persist over long time periods. Thus since groundwater pollution data are generally scarce, chemical analysis of water.

  19. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater aquifer using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrochemical data analysis revealed four sources of solutes. The processes responsible for their enrichment include: chemical weathering, leaching of the overlying sediments, domestic activities, climatic condition and the flow pattern of the aquifer. The factors have contributed to the changes of the groundwater chemistry ...

  20. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture ... Fracture networks have the potentiality to ... Regional scale groundwater development is important in ..... tory well sites, spatial distribution of hydrologi- ... in hard rocks: A case study from Sunnfjord, Western. Norway ...