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Sample records for inhibits food intake

  1. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed......Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate...... in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately...

  2. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalia S; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-12-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastric electrical stimulation optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng-Qing; Zhu, Hongbing; Lei, Yong; Yuan, Charlene; Starkebaum, Warren; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that that a method of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) optimized to inhibit gastric motility was effective in reducing food intake in dogs. Female dogs with a gastric cannula and gastric serosal electrodes were studied in three experiments: (1) to determine the best parameters and locations of GES in inhibiting gastric tone, slow waves, and contractions in dogs;( 2) to investigate the reproducibility of the inhibitory effects of GES; and (3) to study the effect of the GES method on food intake in dogs. (1) For GES to exert significant effects on gastric motility, a pulse width of ≥2 ms was required, and with other appropriate inhibitory parameters, GES was able to increase gastric volume by 190.4 %, reduce antral contractions by 39.7 %, and decrease the percentage of normal slow waves by 47.6 %. In addition, the inhibitory effect of GES was more potent with the stimulation electrodes placed along the lesser or greater curvature than placed in the middle, and more potent with the electrodes placed in the distal stomach than in the proximal stomach; (2) the inhibitory effects of GES on gastric motility were reproducible; (3) the GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility produced a 20 % reduction in food intakes in non-obese dogs. GES with appropriate parameters inhibits gastric motility, and the effects are reproducible. The GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for treating obesity.

  4. Prokineticin 2 Is a Hypothalamic Neuropeptide That Potently Inhibits Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, JV; Bataveljic, A; Patel, NA; Bewick, GA; Roy, D; Campbell, D; Greenwood, HC; Murphy, KG; Hameed, S; Jethwa, PH; Ebling, FJP; Vickers, SP; Cheetham, S; Ghatei, MA; Bloom, SR

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide expressed in central nervous system areas known to be involved in food intake. We therefore hypothesized that PK2 plays a role in energy homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the effect of nutritional status on hypothalamic PK2 expression and effects of PK2 on the regulation of food intake by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PK2 and anti-PK2 antibody. Subsequently, we investigated the potential mechanis...

  5. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-10-20

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.

  6. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived “hunger-peptide” ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11–2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1–2 h and 2–4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear. PMID:23804279

  7. Food restriction-induced changes in gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone-immunoreactive cells are associated with sexual motivation and food hoarding, but not sexual performance and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Klingerman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3 and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH of energetically-challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  8. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis.

  9. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  10. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

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    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Activation of endogenous arginine vasopressin neurons inhibit food intake: by using a novel transgenic rat line with DREADDs system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Haruki; Sonoda, Satomi; Ueno, Hiromichi; Motojima, Yasuhito; Saito, Reiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Nonaka, Yuki; Ueta, Yoichi

    2017-11-16

    Various studies contributed to discover novel mechanisms of central arginine vasopressin (AVP) system responsible for the behaviour albeit endogenous vasopressin activation. We established a novel transgenic rat line which expresses both human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (hM3Dq), of which ligand is clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), and mCherry fluorescence specifically in AVP neurons. The mCherry neurons that indicate the expression of the hM3Dq gene were observed in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), supraoptic (SON), and paraventricular nuclei (PVN). hM3Dq-mCherry fluorescence was localized mainly in the membrane of the neurons. The mCherry neurons were co-localized with AVP-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons, but not with oxytocin-LI neurons. The induction of Fos, which is the indicator for neuronal activity, was observed in approximately 90% of the AVP-LI neurons in the SON and PVN 90 min after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CNO. Plasma AVP was significantly increased and food intake, water intake, and urine volume were significantly attenuated after i.p. administration of CNO. Although the detailed mechanism has unveiled, we demonstrated, for the first time, that activation of endogenous AVP neurons decreased food intake. This novel transgenic rat line may provide a revolutionary insight into the neuronal mechanism regarding central AVP system responsible for various kind of behaviours.

  12. Food intake of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  13. Inhibition of P2Y6 Signaling in AgRP Neurons Reduces Food Intake and Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Obesity.

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    Steculorum, Sophie Marie; Timper, Katharina; Engström Ruud, Linda; Evers, Nadine; Paeger, Lars; Bremser, Stephan; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens Claus

    2017-02-14

    Uridine-diphosphate (UDP) and its receptor P2Y6 have recently been identified as regulators of AgRP neurons. UDP promotes feeding via activation of P2Y6 receptors on AgRP neurons, and hypothalamic UDP concentrations are increased in obesity. However, it remained unresolved whether inhibition of P2Y6 signaling pharmacologically, globally, or restricted to AgRP neurons can improve obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we demonstrate that central injection of UDP acutely promotes feeding in diet-induced obese mice and that acute pharmacological blocking of CNS P2Y6 receptors reduces food intake. Importantly, mice with AgRP-neuron-restricted inactivation of P2Y6 exhibit reduced food intake and fat mass as well as improved systemic insulin sensitivity with improved insulin action in liver. Our results reveal that P2Y6 signaling in AgRP neurons is involved in the onset of obesity-associated hyperphagia and systemic insulin resistance. Collectively, these experiments define P2Y6 as a potential target to pharmacologically restrict both feeding and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the

  15. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  16. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because

  17. The endocrinology of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes.

  18. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  19. Hippocampal leptin signaling reduces food intake and modulates food-related memory processing.

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    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Greenwald, Holly S; Fortin, Samantha M; Gianessi, Carol A; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2011-08-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has recently been linked with food intake control. Here we examine whether administration of the adiposity hormone leptin to the dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the hippocampus influences food intake and memory for food. Leptin (0.1 μg) delivered bilaterally to the ventral hippocampus suppressed food intake and body weight measured 24 h after administration; a higher dose (0.4 μg) was needed to suppress intake following dorsal hippocampal delivery. Leptin administration to the ventral but not dorsal hippocampus blocked the expression of a conditioned place preference for food and increased the latency to run for food in an operant runway paradigm. Additionally, ventral but not dorsal hippocampal leptin delivery suppressed memory consolidation for the spatial location of food, whereas hippocampal leptin delivery had no effect on memory consolidation in a non-spatial appetitive response paradigm. Collectively these findings indicate that ventral hippocampal leptin signaling contributes to the inhibition of food-related memories elicited by contextual stimuli. To conclude, the results support a role for hippocampal leptin signaling in the control of food intake and food-related memory processing.

  20. Quantification of food intake in Drosophila.

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    Richard Wong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of food dye intake. We used the method to demonstrate that (a female flies feed more frequently than males, (b flies feed more often when housed in larger groups and (c fly feeding varies at different times of the day. We also show that alterations in food intake are not induced by dietary restriction or by a null mutation of the fly insulin receptor substrate chico. In contrast, mutation of takeout increases food intake by increasing feeding frequency while mutation of ovo(D increases food intake by increasing the volume of food consumed per proboscis-extension. This approach provides a practical and reliable method for quantification of food intake in Drosophila under normal, undisturbed culture conditions.

  1. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

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    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  2. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food

  3. A specific dose of grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins to inhibit body weight gain limits food intake and increases energy expenditure in rats.

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    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Gual, Andreu; Pérez-Vendrell, Anna Maria; Blay, M Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that flavanols may have antiobesity effects; however, those effects clearly depend on the experimental conditions. In a previous study, we found that a single acute dose of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has satiating effects. We therefore hypothesise that satiating doses of GSPE could be used to reduce body weight gain, and our present objective was to define the most effective dose. We assayed two GSPE doses in aged male Wistar rats. First we performed a subchronic (8-day) treatment by intragastric administration, which was repeated after a washout period. We measured body weight, energy intake and faeces composition; we performed indirect calorimetry; and we analysed the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism to determine the target tissue for the GSPE. We observed that 0.5 g GSPE/kg BW significantly reduced food intake and thus the amount of energy absorbed. This dosage also increased lipid oxidation in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thus causing a higher total energy expenditure. These combined effects caused a decrease in body weight. Conversely, 1 g GSPE/kg BW, which also reduced energy absorption after the first treatment, had a rebound effect on body weight gain which resulted in a lower response to the proanthocyanidin extract. That is, after the second treatment, the GSPE did not reduce the energy absorbed or modify energy expenditure and body weight. GSPE at a dose of 0.5 g/kg can reduce body weight by limiting food intake and activating energy expenditure in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  4. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  6. Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity

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    Naish, Katherine R.; Harris, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake. PMID:22916284

  7. Food intake is influenced by sensory sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Naish

    Full Text Available Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile, and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Food intake was significantly higher for high-sensitivity compared to low-sensitivity individuals. Furthermore, individual scores of sensory sensitivity were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. These data could indicate that individuals who are more sensitive to the sensory properties of food have a heightened perception of palatability, which, in turn, leads to a greater food intake.

  8. Heparin Increases Food Intake through AgRP Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canjun Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the widely used anticoagulant drug heparin has been shown to have many other biological functions independent of its anticoagulant role, its effects on energy homeostasis are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that heparin level is negatively associated with nutritional states and that heparin treatment increases food intake and body weight gain. By using electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and chemogenetic approaches, we provide evidence that heparin increases food intake by stimulating AgRP neurons and increasing AgRP release. Our results support a model whereby heparin competes with insulin for insulin receptor binding on AgRP neurons, and by doing so it inhibits FoxO1 activity to promote AgRP release and feeding. Heparin may be a potential drug target for food intake regulation and body weight control.

  9. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, S. R.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Prescott, J.

    2017-01-01

    Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food...... Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake...... and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN...

  10. D1 and D2 antagonists reverse the effects of appetite suppressants on weight loss, food intake, locomotion, and rebalance spiking inhibition in the rat NAc shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B.; Perez, Claudia I.; Luna, Alvaro; Solorio, Jessica; Moreno, Mario G.; Elias, David; Simon, Sidney A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. To ameliorate this problem, one approach is the use of appetite suppressants. These compounds are frequently amphetamine congeners such as diethylpropion (DEP), phentermine (PHEN), and bupropion (BUP), whose effects are mediated through serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopaminergic pathways. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell receives dopaminergic inputs and is involved in feeding and motor activity. However, little is known about how appetite suppressants modulate its activity. Therefore, we characterized behavioral and neuronal NAc shell responses to short-term treatments of DEP, PHEN, and BUP. These compounds caused a transient decrease in weight and food intake while increasing locomotion, stereotypy, and insomnia. They evoked a large inhibitory imbalance in NAc shell spiking activity that correlated with the onset of locomotion and stereotypy. Analysis of the local field potentials (LFPs) showed that all three drugs modulated beta, theta, and delta oscillations. These oscillations do not reflect an aversive-malaise brain state, as ascertained from taste aversion experiments, but tracked both the initial decrease in weight and food intake and the subsequent tolerance to these drugs. Importantly, the appetite suppressant-induced weight loss and locomotion were markedly reduced by intragastric (and intra-NAc shell) infusions of dopamine antagonists SCH-23390 (D1 receptor) or raclopride (D2 receptor). Furthermore, both antagonists attenuated appetite suppressant-induced LFP oscillations and partially restored the imbalance in NAc shell activity. These data reveal that appetite suppressant-induced behavioral and neuronal activity recorded in the NAc shell depend, to various extents, on dopaminergic activation and thus point to an important role for D1/D2-like receptors (in the NAc shell) in the mechanism of action for these anorexic compounds. PMID:25972577

  11. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  12. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  13. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  14. Psychological Aspects of Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Holubová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is particularly aimed at people who console themselves with food to solve their problems. Psychosocial factors are the most common reasons for overweight and obesity, which are thought as the epidemic of the 21st century. Therefore this bachelor thesis is concentrating at the impact on food over the psyche and overeating, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Emotional eating is a close link between emotions and eating, and especially among women is it quite widespread. Therefo...

  15. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67 or neutral products (i.e. car insurance (n = 58. The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.

  16. Inhibition effect of food preservatives on endoproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimbekova, Elena N; Asanova, Anastasiya A; Deeva, Anna A; Kratasyuk, Valentina A

    2017-11-15

    The present manuscript proposes a novel approach to assess the impact of food additives on human metabolism by analysing their effect on biomarker enzyme activity. Alterations in the activity of pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsin and trypsin, which are affected by the most common food preservatives, sodium benzoate (E211), potassium sorbate (E202) and sorbic acid (E200), have been evaluated. The proteinase activity was analysed with a bioluminescent method using the light intensity decay constant. Our study revealed that the preservatives reduce proteinase activity by 50% (EC 50 ) at a much lower concentration than their acceptable daily intake (ADI). Thus, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid have an inhibition effect on chymotrypsin at concentrations 14 times lower and 70 times lower than their ADI and this increases with exposure time. Food preservative consumption impacts negatively on protein digestion, which is especially dangerous for patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  18. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men...

  19. The hippocampus and the regulation of human food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Francis, Heather M

    2017-10-01

    Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes. One potential consequence of hippocampal impairment could be a loosening of food intake regulation, leading in the longer-term to weight gain and its health-related impacts. Here we review known, suspected and newly hypothesized hippocampal-dependent functions involved in regulating human food intake: (a) declarative memory processes, and their use in explicitly evaluating when, what and how much to eat; (b) interoception, as it relates to hunger, fullness and thirst; (c) inhibitory processes, especially as applied to physiological state, place, and time, and their role in modulating memory retrieval; (d) craving and imagery for food; (e) perception of time and its role in preparing the body for food intake and estimating meal length; (f) trace conditioning and nutrient-related learning; and (g) inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response and stress-related eating. For each we present evidence for hippocampal involvement, describe the putative regulatory role, and the hypothesized effects of hippocampal impairment. We conclude that the hippocampus is intimately involved in regulating human food intake via multiple interconnected pathways, many of which are unstudied and understudied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...... normal serum values. As the serum level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is correlated to the degree of osteomalacia, all gastrectomized patients should have at least 10 micrograms vitamin D as a supplement once a day....

  2. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    Anandamide and the other N-acylethanolamines, e.g. oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), may be formed by several enzymatic pathways from their precursors, which are the N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids. The exact enzymatic pathways involved ...... OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  3. Fenofibrate reduces food intake via cholecystokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Park MK, Han Y, Kim MS, Seo E, Kang S, Park SY, Koh H, Kim DK, Lee HJ. Reduction of Food Intake by Fenofibrate is Associated with Cholecystokinin Release in Long-Evans Tokushima Rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;16(3:181-6.

  4. Food satisfaction: Integrating feelings before, during and after food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Hyldig, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' satisfaction is important for the food industry to ensure product success. Determinants to food satisfaction are multifactorial and a method approaching the multiple determinants would provide a detailed picture of determinant behind consumers' hedonic food appreciation. The aims...... of this study were (1) to develop a method that could give detailed information about sensory- and food satisfaction (2) to study differences in sensory satisfaction in a case study, and (3) to study the factors related to food satisfaction. Focus group interviews and a literature study provided an overview...... of factors with potential to affect food satisfaction. A total of four questionnaires, covering factors before-, during- and after intake as well as demographics, were developed to measure factors related to satisfaction. The questionnaires were utilised in a cross-over consumer study with 79 subjects...

  5. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  6. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  7. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  8. Role of the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus in Regulation of Food Intake (Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hamidi

    2017-05-01

    Based on the literature, the ARC is the part of brain where some neurotransmitters exert the most potent orexigenic or anorexigenic effects in mammals and birds. Food intake is inhibited by leptin, insulin, αMSH, and serotonin and activated by NP Y, Agrp, NO F/Q, and GABA. However, a few neurotransmitter such as ghrelin has a dual function, ghrelin stimulates feeding in mammals, although it attenuates food intake in birds.

  9. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression.

  10. Regulation of food intake : a focus on ghrelin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The number of people with (severe) overweight is increasing. More insight into the mechanism of food intake may help to develop foods for weight maintenance. There are indications that ghrelin is an important hunger signal. The role of ghrelin in the regulation of food intake was investigated in

  11. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  12. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim; Wolff, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken. (paper)

  13. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  14. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  15. Difficulty of food intake in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haketa, Tadasu; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Amemori, Yoko; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Shibuya, Toshihisa; Sato, Fumiaki; Yoshida, Nahoko

    2006-01-01

    Although patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) often report impaired eating, the features of food intake difficulty have rarely been estimated. This study compared subjective difficulty in 4 categories of food intake situations among 3 subgroups of TMD patients. A total of 511 TMD patients (402 women, 109 men, mean age 36.4 +/- 15.4, range 12 to 82) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into 3 TMD subgroups: myofascial pain (MFP), disc displacement with/without reduction (DD), and arthralgia or osteoarthritis (Arth). Patients' level of food intake difficulty was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for 4 categories of food intake situations: difficulty in putting food into mouth (PUT), difficulty in biting off foods (BIT), difficulty in grinding down foods (GRD), and overall difficulty in consuming a meal (OAL). Nearly all patients (98.6%) exhibited food intake difficulty in at least 1 category. In the category of PUT, the DD group exhibited significantly more difficulty than the MFP and Arth groups (P food intake ability. In particular, the DD group experienced more difficulty than the MFP group. Concerns about types of food and food intake behavior for each TMD subtype should be taken into account in the management of TMD patients.

  16. High Waste Contributes to Low Food Intake in Hospitalized Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Roosemalen, M.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.; Langius, J.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in hospital inpatients is high; many patients do not meet individual nutrition requirements while hospitalized. To better understand the reasons for inadequate nutrition intake, this study describes patient satisfaction, food provision, food

  17. CCK reduces the food intake mainly through CCK1R in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Tang, Ni; Qi, Jinwen; Wang, Shuyao; Hao, Jin; Wu, Yuanbing; Chen, Hu; Tian, Zhengzhi; Wang, Bin; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-09-29

    To explore the effect of CCK on food intake in Siberian sturgeon, cck cDNA sequence of 1005 bp was obtained, and cck mRNA possessed the highest expression in brain. The expressions of cck were significantly increased after feeding 1 and 3 h, while displaying significant decrease after fasting within 15 days in brain and duodenum. Re-feeding for 3 days induced cck level returned to basic level. Acute i.p. injection experiment showed 100 and 200 ng/g BW CCK8 inhibited the food intake in 0-1 h together with the cumulative food intake within 3 h. 7 days chronic i.p. injection of 100 and 200 ng/g BW CCK8, both daily food intake and cumulative food intake were significantly decreased. In addition, chronic i.p injection of CCK8 induced the expression of feeding related factors changes including cck, ucn3, cart, apelin, pyy and npy in respective organization. Moreover, as revealed by the results, Lorglumide, the CCK1R selective antagonist, effectively reversed the inhibitory effects of CCK8 on food intake and the levels of feeding related factors. On the other hand, LY 225910, the CCK2R selective antagonist, partially reversed these effects. These results indicate CCK is a satiety factor inhibits the feeding of Siberian sturgeon primarily through CCK1R.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  20. Habitual rapid food intake and ineffective esophageal motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kong-Ling; Chen, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Qian; Huizinga, Jan D; Vadakepeedika, Shawn; Zhao, Yu-Rong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) in relation to ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) and rapid food intake. METHODS: NCCP patients with a self-reported habit of fast eating underwent esophageal manometry for the diagnosis of IEM. Telephone interviews identified eating habits of additional IEM patients. Comparison of manometric features was done among IEM patients with and without the habit of rapid food intake and healthy controls. A case study investigated the effect of 6-mo gum chewing on restoration of esophageal motility in an IEM patient. The Valsalva maneuver was performed in IEM patients and healthy controls to assess the compliance of the esophagus in response to abdominal pressure increase. RESULTS: Although most patients diagnosed with NCCP do not exhibit IEM, remarkably, all 12 NCCP patients who were self-reporting fast eaters with a main complaint of chest pain (75.0%) had contraction amplitudes in the mid and distal esophagus that were significantly lower compared with healthy controls [(23.45 mmHg (95%CI: 14.06-32.85) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P eating IEM patients with a main complaint of sensation of obstruction (42.9%), the mid amplitude was smaller than in the controls [30.09 mmHg (95%CI: 19.48-40.70) vs 58.80 mmHg (95%CI: 42.56-75.04), P eating and normal-eating groups. One NCCP patient who self-reported fast eating and was subsequently diagnosed with IEM did not improve with proton-pump inhibition but restored swallow-induced contractions upon 6-mo gum-chewing. The Valsalva maneuver caused a markedly reduced pressure rise in the mid and proximal esophagus in the IEM patients. CONCLUSION: Habitual rapid food intake may lead to IEM. A prospective study is needed to validate this hypothesis. Gum-chewing might strengthen weakened esophageal muscles. PMID:23599655

  1. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are 'allowed' to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  2. Effect of food intake on 92 neurological biomarkers in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Björgell, Ola; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of food intake on 92 neurological biomarkers in plasma. Moreover, it investigated if any of the biomarkers were correlated with body mass index. Twenty-two healthy subjects (11 male and 11 female aged 25.9 ± 4.2 years) were investigated. A total of 92 biomarkers were measured before a standardized meal as well as 30 and 120 min afterward with the Proseek Multiplex Neurology I kit. The levels for 13 biomarkers decreased significantly ( p  food intake. The levels for four biomarkers remained significantly decreased ( p  food intake. One biomarker increased significantly ( p  food intake. The changes were between 1% and 12%, with an average difference of about 5%. Only one biomarker showed a difference over 10% due to food intake. The biggest difference was observed for Plexin-B3 120 min after food intake (12%). Of all the 92 neurological biomarkers, only one was correlated with BMI, Kynureninase r  = .46, p  food intake has a very modest effect on 92 different neurological biomarkers. Timing of blood sampling in relation to food intake, therefore, appears not to be a major concern. Only Kynureninase was correlated with BMI. Further studies are warranted in older healthy subjects and in patients with various neurological diseases to determine whether the findings are reproducible in such populations.

  3. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 24-hour dietary recall, dietary diversity score and frequency of food consumption tools were used to assess and quantify nutrient intake and adequacy of consumed diets in farming households. Tanzania food composition tables were used to compute estimates of the energy intake, macro and micronutrients consumed by ...

  4. Evaluation of a mobile application for estimation of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    MESCOLOTO, Samantha Bittencourt; CAIVANO, Simone; DOMENE, Semíramis Martins Álvares

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the use of the Nutrabem (São Paulo, Brasil) mobile application as a tool for measurement of food intake among university students. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40 undergraduate students at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista. Food intake data were estimated using the Nutrabem app and the 24-hour dietary recall. Intakes of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, and vitamin C were calculated. The ...

  5. Food intake in women two years or more after bariatric surgery meets adequate intake requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flávia Andréia; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

    2012-05-01

    Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served, eaten...

  7. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    , increases the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served...

  8. Hypothalamic eIF2α Signaling Regulates Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine Maurin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reversible phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α is a highly conserved signal implicated in the cellular adaptation to numerous stresses such as the one caused by amino acid limitation. In response to dietary amino acid deficiency, the brain-specific activation of the eIF2α kinase GCN2 leads to food intake inhibition. We report here that GCN2 is rapidly activated in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH after consumption of a leucine-deficient diet. Furthermore, knockdown of GCN2 in this particular area shows that MBH GCN2 activity controls the onset of the aversive response. Importantly, pharmacological experiments demonstrate that the sole phosphorylation of eIF2α in the MBH is sufficient to regulate food intake. eIF2α signaling being at the crossroad of stress pathways activated in several pathological states, our study indicates that hypothalamic eIF2α phosphorylation could play a critical role in the onset of anorexia associated with certain diseases.

  9. Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3

  10. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals.Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake.Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was...

  11. [Physiological and neurobiological elements of food intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, J

    2004-03-01

    Many methods and techniques have accumulated a considerable mass of data about the mechanisms which control food intake and energetic loss. After a presentation of the main experimental approaches in this respect, the most relevant signals sent by peripheral organs to the central nervous system are presented: Glucose, triglycerides; from adipocytes: Leptin; from pancreas: Insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, amylin, enterostatin; from digestive tract: Ghrelin, cholecystokinin, peptide Y Y 3-36. Then are considered, especially at the hypothalamic level, their interpretation by neurones whose transmitters are either neuropeptides such as: Neuropeptide Y, Agouti Related Peptide, Cocaine/Amphetamine Regulated Transcript, Melanin Concentrating Hormone, alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, orexins/hypocretins, octadecaneuropeptide, nociceptin/orphanin FQ, opioid peptides, Interleukin 1, galanin, urocortin 2, Neurotrophic ciliary factor, or monoamines such as: Glutamate, dopamine, Norepinephrine, serotonine, GABA, histamine, acetylcholine. In a last part are considered the likely relationships existing between feeding, pleasure and addiction, centered on dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. After this brief synopsis one should not be surprised that this so complex system which regulates feeding may be affected by various disorders; however one may be amazed by such a scarcity of drugs to influence it; in any case, many new pharmacological strategies can be expected in the future.

  12. Food choice and nutrient intake amongst homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprake, E F; Russell, J M; Barker, M E

    2014-06-01

    Homeless people in the UK and elsewhere have typically been found to consume a nutritionally inadequate diet. There is need for contemporary research to update our understanding within this field. The present study aimed to provide an insight into the nutrient intake and food choice of a sample of homeless adults. In this mixed-methods study, 24 homeless individuals accessing two charitable meal services in Sheffield, UK, participated in up to four 24-h dietary recalls between April and August 2012. Twelve individuals took part in a semi-structured interview focusing on food choice. Energy intake was significantly lower than the estimated average requirement. Median intakes of vitamin A, zinc, magnesium, potassium and selenium were significantly lower than reference nutrient intakes. Contributions of saturated fat and nonmilk extrinsic sugars to total energy intake were significantly higher, whereas dietary fibre was significantly lower, than population average intakes. Charitable meals made an important contribution to intakes of energy and most micronutrients. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts revealed three major themes: food aspirations; constraints over food choice; and food representing survival. The present study reveals risk of dietary inadequacies amongst homeless people alongside a lack of control over food choices. Charitable meal services are suggested as a vehicle for improving the dietary intake and nutritional health of homeless people. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Intraventricular Insulin Reduces Food Intake and Body Weight of Marmots During the Summer Feeding Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florant, G.L.; Singer, L.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Park, C.R.; Richardson, R.D.; Woods, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The study presented below describes experiments that investigate the ability of insulin to inhibit food intake in awake, active marmots during the summer season. Our results suggest that increasing intraventricular insulin concentration during the summer active feeding period will cause a decrease

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists suppress water intake independent of effects on food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by and released from the small intestine following ingestion of nutrients. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists applied peripherally or centrally decrease food intake and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects make the GLP-1 system an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In addition to these more frequently studied effects of GLP-1R stimulation, previous reports indicate that GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake. The present experiments were designed to provide greater temporal resolution and site specificity for the effect of GLP-1 and the long-acting GLP-1R agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, on unstimulated water intake when food was and was not available. All three GLP-1R ligands suppressed water intake after peripheral intraperitoneal administration, both in the presence of and the absence of food; however, the magnitude and time frame of water intake suppression varied by drug. GLP-1 had an immediate, but transient, hypodipsic effect when administered peripherally, whereas the water intake suppression by IP exendin-4 and liraglutide was much more persistent. Additionally, intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1R agonists suppressed water intake when food was absent, but the suppression of intake showed modest differences depending on whether the drug was administered to the lateral or fourth ventricle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GLP-1 receptor agonists affecting unstimulated, overnight intake in the absence of food, the first test for antidipsogenic effects of hindbrain application of GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the first test of a central effect (forebrain or hindbrain) of liraglutide on water intake. Overall, these results show that GLP-1R agonists have a hypodipsic effect that is independent of GLP-1R-mediated effects on food intake, and this occurs, in part, through central nervous system GLP-1R activation

  15. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  16. Analysis of multivariate extreme intakes of food chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, M J; van der Voet, H; Wood, J C; Marion, G R; van Klaveren, J D

    2006-07-01

    A recently published multivariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) model is applied to the estimation of population risks associated with dietary intake of pesticides. The objective is to quantify the acute risk of pesticide intake above a threshold and relate it to the consumption of specific primary food products. As an example daily intakes of a pesticide from three foods are considered. The method models and extrapolates simultaneous intakes of pesticide, and estimates probability of exceeding unobserved large intakes. Multivariate analysis was helpful in identifying whether the avoidance of certain food combinations would reduce the likelihood of exceeding a threshold. We argue that the presented method can be an important contribution to exposure assessment studies.

  17. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  18. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  19. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-13

    Mar 13, 2010 ... Original Research: Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers. 2010;23(3) ... intake were identified that provide health educators and policy makers with useful information for health promotion. ... malls were selected on the basis of a previous market research study.

  20. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women......BACKGROUND: In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland....... OBJECTIVES: To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data...

  1. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Strien, T.; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer García, Marta; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions?. We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a between subject design we experimentally tested the difference in food intake following a mood induction designed to induce joy or sadness (the joy vs. sad mood condition). The hi...

  2. Homeostasis Meets Motivation in the Battle to Control Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrario, Carrie R.; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Liu, Shuai; Nieh, Edward H.; Routh, Vanessa H.; Xu, Shengjin; O'Connor, Eoin C.

    2016-01-01

    Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence ...

  3. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  4. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, T; Cebolla, A; Etchemendy, E; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Ferrer-García, M; Botella, C; Baños, R

    2013-07-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a between subject design we experimentally tested the difference in food intake following a mood induction designed to induce joy or sadness (the joy vs. sad mood condition). The high and low emotional eaters did not differ in their food intake, but emotional eating significantly moderated the relationship between mood condition and food intake. Whereas low emotional eaters ate similar amounts after the sad and after the joy mood condition, high emotional eaters ate significantly more after the sad mood condition than after the joy mood condition. A further finding was that a similar moderator effect for emotional eating was found for intake of sweet food but not for intake of salty food. These findings would suggest that eating in response to negative and to positive emotions refer to two different constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wearable Food Intake Monitoring Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Vu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearable devices monitoring food intake through passive sensing is slowly emerging to complement self-reporting of users’ caloric intake and eating behaviors. Though the ultimate goal for the passive sensing of eating is to become a reliable gold standard in dietary assessment, it is currently showing promise as a means of validating self-report measures. Continuous food-intake monitoring allows for the validation and refusal of users’ reported data in order to obtain more reliable user information, resulting in more effective health intervention services. Recognizing the importance and strength of wearable sensors in food intake monitoring, there has been a variety of approaches proposed and studied in recent years. While existing technologies show promise, many challenges and opportunities discussed in this survey, still remain. This paper presents a meticulous review of the latest sensing platforms and data analytic approaches to solve the challenges of food-intake monitoring, ranging from ear-based chewing and swallowing detection systems that capture eating gestures to wearable cameras that identify food types and caloric content through image processing techniques. This paper focuses on the comparison of different technologies and approaches that relate to user comfort, body location, and applications for medical research. We identify and summarize the forthcoming opportunities and challenges in wearable food intake monitoring technologies.

  6. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children (s...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  7. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children (sen...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  8. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Gender-specific effects on food intake but no inhibition of age-related fat accretion in transgenic mice overexpressing human IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Petra; Schwarz, Franziska; Große, Birgit; Schindler, Nancy; Tuchscherer, Armin; Russo, Vincenzo C; Tschöp, Matthias H; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    IGFBP-2 affects growth and metabolism and is thought to impact on energy homeostasis and the accretion of body fat via its heparin binding domains (HBD). In order to assess the function of the HBD present in the linker domain (HBD1) we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human IGFBP-2 lacking the PKKLRP sequence and carrying a PNNLAP sequence instead. Transgenic mice expressed high amounts of human IGFBP-2, while endogenous IGFBP-2 or IGF-I serum concentrations were not affected. In both genders we performed a longitudinal analysis of growth and metabolism including at least 4 separate time points between the age of 10 and 52 weeks. Body composition was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Food intake was recorded by an automated online-monitoring. We describe negative effects of mutant human IGFBP-2 on body weight, longitudinal growth and lean body mass (p transgenic mice of both genders (p transgene expression significantly increased absolute mass of total body fat over all age groups (p Food intake was increased in female but decreased in male transgenic mice at an age of 11 weeks. Thus our study clearly provides gender- and time-specific effects of HBD1-deficient hIGFBP-2 (H1d-BP-2) on fat mass accretion and food intake. While our data are in principal agreement with current knowledge on the role of HB-domains for fat accretion we now may also speculate on a role of HBD1 for the control of eating behavior.

  10. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2018-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important...... role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted...

  11. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L.; Valentine, Elizabeth R.; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E.; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D.; Solis, Gregory M.; Williamson, James R.; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. PMID:25903497

  13. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  14. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    portions of pooled samples of the foodstuff. The results showed significant variation in heavy metal concentration among ... Urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods … 86 serve breakfast and lunch packages. In the ... portion of the food samples were homogenized, stored in pre-cleaned polythene containers and ...

  15. Nutritional status and food intake data on children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-15

    Feb 15, 2012 ... Keywords: nutritional status, food intake data, children, adolescents, residential care facilities. Nutritional ... Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and were analysed using the World Health Organization's AnthroPlus® version 1.0.2 statistical ...... Effects of fast-food consumption on.

  16. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-24

    Sep 24, 2009 ... In addition to gender,6 international researchers have also highlighted .... valid method that is more likely to give a true representative picture of the usual dietary intake of individuals over a ... preparation methods, a food portion photograph book (FPPB)21 was used. The food EI generated by the QFFQ was ...

  17. Food Intake Patterns Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Weis, Kristina E.; Schulz, Mandy; Tooze, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Markers of hemostasis and inflammation such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify food intake patterns influencing this pathway and evaluate their association with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort included 880 middle-aged adults initially free of diabetes. At the 5-year follow-up, 144 individuals had developed diabetes. Usual dietary intake was ascertained with a 114-item food frequency questionnaire. Using reduced rank regression, we identified a food pattern maximizing the explained variation in PAI-1 and fibrinogen. Subsequently, the food pattern–diabetes association was evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS—High intake of the food groups red meat, low-fiber bread and cereal, dried beans, fried potatoes, tomato vegetables, eggs, cheese, and cottage cheese and low intake of wine characterized the pattern, which was positively associated with both biomarkers. With increasing pattern score, the odds of diabetes increased significantly (Ptrend < 0.01). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio comparing extreme quartiles was 4.3 (95% CI 1.7–10.8). Adjustment for insulin sensitivity and secretion and other metabolic factors had little impact (4.9, 1.8–13.7). CONCLUSIONS—Our findings provide support for potential behavioral prevention strategies, as we identified a food intake pattern that was strongly related to PAI-1 and fibrinogen and independently predicted type 2 diabetes. PMID:19033409

  18. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  19. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  20. [Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, R; Schmidt-Faber, B; Heseker, H

    1998-12-01

    In nutritional epidemiological studies high consumption of fruits and vegetables was shown to be an important preventive measure to reduce the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, and cataracts. These effects cannot be explained completely and in a sufficient way by the intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C. Other carotenoids differing in their antioxidative and biological properties are also provided with fruits and vegetables in significant amounts. Because data for other carotenoids than beta-carotene are not considered in computerized German food database and food composition tables, representative carotenoid intake calculations for the German population are missing. Therefore a carotenoid database, containing alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin values for different fruits, vegetables, and other carotenoid-containing foods, was developed. With this database the carotenoid intake of the German population--stratified by sex and age--was evaluated on the basis of the German National Food Consumption Survey (NVS). The mean total carotenoid intake amounts to 5.33 mg/day. The average intake lutein was 1.91 mg/day, beta-carotene intake amounts to 1.81 mg/day, lycopene intake was 1.28 mg/day, alpha-carotene intake was 0.29 mg/day, and cryptoxanthin intake was 0.05 mg/day. Tomatoes and tomato products provide most of the lycopene. Green salads and vegetables are the most important contributors of lutein in Germany. Zeaxanthin is mainly consumed with maize but also with spinach and other vegetables like cabbage; alpha- and beta-carotene are mainly consumed with carrots. Peppers, oranges, and orange-juice are the most important cryptoxanthin sources.

  1. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  2. Identifying sources of reporting error using measured food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpler, W V; Kramer, M; Rhodes, D G; Moshfegh, A J; Paul, D R

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the magnitude and relative contribution of different sources of measurement errors present in the estimation of food intake via the 24-h recall technique. We applied variance decomposition methods to the difference between data obtained from the USDA's Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) 24-h recall technique and measured food intake (MFI) from a 16-week cafeteria-style feeding study. The average and the variance of biases, defined as the difference between AMPM and MFI, were analyzed by macronutrient content, subject and nine categories of foods. Twelve healthy, lean men (age, 39+/-9 year; weight, 79.9+/-8.3 kg; and BMI, 24.1+/-1.4 kg/m2). Mean food intakes for AMPM and MFI were not significantly different (no overall bias), but within-subject differences for energy (EI), protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were 14, 18, 23 and 15% of daily intake, respectively. Mass (incorrect portion size) and deletion (subject did not report foods eaten) errors were each responsible for about one-third of the total error. Vegetables constituted 8% of EI but represented >25% of the error across macronutrients, whereas grains that contributed 32% of EI contributed only 12% of the error across macronutrients. Although the major sources of reporting error were mass and deletion errors, individual subjects differed widely in the magnitude and types of errors they made.

  3. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a four-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained, using artificial neural networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. (paper)

  4. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  5. Heparanase affects food intake and regulates energy balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Karlsson-Lindahl

    Full Text Available Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a role in food intake behaviour and energy balance regulation by analysing body weight, body composition and food intake in genetically modified mice that either lack or overexpress heparanase. We also assessed food intake and body weight following acute central intracerebroventricular administration of heparanase; such treatment reduced food intake in wildtype mice, an effect that was abolished in mice lacking MC4R. By contrast, heparanase knockout mice on a high-fat diet showed increased food intake and maturity-onset obesity, with up to a 40% increase in body fat. Mice overexpressing heparanase displayed essentially the opposite phenotypes, with a reduced fat mass. These results implicate heparanase in energy balance control via the central melanocortin system. Our data indicate that heparanase acts as a negative modulator of AgRP signaling at MC4R, through cleavage of heparan sulfate chains presumably linked to syndecan-3.

  6. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrer, E

    1999-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation seems to provide an important stimulus for metabolic control of food intake, because various inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, methyl palmoxirate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulated feeding in rats and/or mice, in particular when fed a fat-enriched diet, and long-term intravascular infusion of lipids reduced voluntary food intake in various species, including humans. The feeding response to decreased fatty acid oxidation was due to a shortening of the intermeal interval with meal size remaining unaffected. Thus, energy derived from fatty acid oxidation seems to contribute to control of the duration of postmeal satiety and meal onset. Since inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose affects feeding pattern similarly, and spontaneous meals were shown to be preceded by a transient decline in blood glucose in rats and humans, a decrease in energy availability from glucose and fatty acid oxidation seems to be instrumental in eliciting eating. Since the feeding response of rats to inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was abolished by total abdominal vagotomy and pretreatment with capsaicin destroying non-myelinated afferents and attenuated by hepatic branch vagotomy, fatty acid oxidation in abdominal tissues, especially in the liver, apparently is signalled to the brain by vagal afferents to affect eating. Brain lesions and Fos immunohistochemistry were employed to identify pathways within the brain mediating eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation. According to these studies, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata represents the gate for central processing of vagally mediated afferent information related to fatty acid oxidation. The lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons seems to be a major relay for pertinent ascending input from the NTS. In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating

  7. Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Laster, L J; Summerfelt, A

    1989-10-01

    Although high-intensity sweeteners are widely used to decrease the energy density of foods, little is known about how this affects hunger and food intake. We have studied the effects of consumption of commercially available foods sweetened with either sucrose or aspartame on subjective appetite ratings and food intake. When normal-weight non-dieting males and females were given large portions of either a high- or low-calorie pudding or jello and instructed to eat as much as they liked, they ate similar weights of the different caloric versions of each food. Despite the resulting difference in caloric intake (up to 206 kcal), subjects showed only a non-significant trend towards caloric compensation when presented with a variety of foods 2 h later. Total caloric intake (preload plus test meal) did not differ between conditions. Ratings of hunger, desire to eat, the amount subjects wanted to eat, and the pleasantness of the taste of the eaten food were similarly decreased and fullness similarly increased by consumption of the different caloric versions of the foods. Awareness of the caloric content of the foods did not influence intake or appetite in that both informed and uniformed subjects responded similarly in the tests. Thus reduced calorie foods suppressed ratings of hunger for several hours after consumption, but were not associated with a significant reduction in total energy intake.

  8. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Homeostasis Meets Motivation in the Battle to Control Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Carrie R; Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Liu, Shuai; Nieh, Edward H; Routh, Vanessa H; Xu, Shengjin; O'Connor, Eoin C

    2016-11-09

    Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior. We review how signals of energy homeostasis interact with these regions to influence motivated behavioral output and present evidence that experience-dependent neural adaptations in key feeding circuits may represent cellular correlates of impaired food intake control. Future research into mechanisms that restore the balance of control between signals of homeostasis and motivated feeding behavior may inspire new treatment options for eating disorders and obesity. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611469-13$15.00/0.

  10. Do the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake involve release of amylin in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Bache, Michael; Knop, Filip K

    2010-01-01

    Amylin, cosecreted with insulin, has like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) been reported to inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce appetite and food intake. We investigated whether the effects of GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake are mediated directly or ...

  11. Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egecioglu, Emil; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Salomé, Nicolas; Skibicka, Karolina P; Haage, David; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersson, Daniel; Bjursell, Mikael; Perrissoud, Daniel; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2010-07-01

    We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally with a GHS-R1A antagonist both show suppressed intake of rewarding food in a free choice (chow/rewarding food) paradigm. Moreover, accumbal dopamine release induced by rewarding food was absent in GHS-R1A knockout mice. Acute bilateral intra-VTA administration of ghrelin increased 1-hour consumption of rewarding food but not standard chow. In comparison with sham rats, VTA-lesioned rats had normal intracerebroventricular ghrelin-induced chow intake, although both intake of and time spent exploring rewarding food was decreased. Finally, the ability of rewarding food to condition a place preference was suppressed by the GHS-R1A antagonist in rats. Our data support the hypothesis that central ghrelin signaling at the level of the VTA is important for the incentive value of rewarding food.

  12. Food for patients at nutritional risk: a model of food sensory quality to promote intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Janice; Holm, Lotte; Frøst, Michael Bom; Kondrup, Jens

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to investigate food sensory quality as experienced and perceived by patients at nutritional risk within the context of establishing a framework to develop foods to develop foods to promote intake. Patients at nutritional risk (NRS-2002; food intake ≤ 75% of requirements) were observed at meals in hospital (food choice, hunger/fullness/appetite scores). This was followed by a semi-structured interview based on the observations and focusing on food sensory perception and eating ability as related to food quality. Two weeks post-discharge, a 3-day food record was taken and interviews were repeated by phone. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analysed thematically. Patients (N = 22) from departments of gastrointestinal surgery, oncology, infectious medicine, cardiology, and hepatology were interviewed at meals (N = 65) in hospital (82%) and post-discharge (18%). Food sensory perception and eating ability dictated specific food sensory needs (i.e., appearance, aroma, taste, texture, temperature, and variety defining food sensory quality to promote intake) within the context of motivation to eat including: pleasure, comfort, and survival. Patients exhibited large inter- and intra-individual variability in their food sensory needs. The study generated a model for optimising food sensory quality and developing user-driven, innovative foods to promote intake in patients at nutritional risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of morbidity on food intake in rural Kenyan children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food intake was quantitatively assessed on two successive days each month. Food intake on days of illness was compared to food intake on days of wellness and during convalescence. Results: Significant decreases in mean daily energy intake were seen between days of wellness vs. days of severe illness. Above usual ...

  14. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  16. Preference or fat? Revisiting opioid effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A

    2010-07-14

    It is well established that opioid signaling in the central nervous system constitutes a powerful stimulus for food intake. The role of opioids in determining food preference, however, is less well defined. Opioids have been proposed to promote intake of preferred foods, or, alternatively, to preferentially increase consumption of fat. In the present manuscript, I comprehensively review results from previous studies investigating this issue. Data from these studies suggests a mechanism for opioid action that may reconcile the previously proposed hypotheses: opioid effects on food intake do appear to be largely specific for fat consumption, but individual animals' sensitivity to this effect may be dependent on baseline food preferences. In addition, I highlight the possibility that the selectivity of endogenous opioid effects may importantly differ from that of exogenous agonists in the degree to which baseline preferences, rather than macronutrient intake, are altered. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control

  18. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  19. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Understanding the Relationship Between Food Variety, Food Intake, and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Vadiveloo, Maya

    2018-03-01

    In accordance with US dietary guidance, incorporating variety into the diet can align with energy balance, though greater food variety in some categories may make energy balance more challenging. Thus, experimental and epidemiologic evidence is summarized on the relationship between food variety, food and energy intake, and energy balance. Lab-based, experimental research consistently demonstrates that greater variety within foods or sensory characteristics of food increases food and energy intake within an eating occasion. Epidemiologic evidence is less consistent, potentially driven by differing methodologies, particularly in defining and measuring food variety. Moreover, the effect of variety on energy balance appears to be moderated by food energy density. Integrating insights from experimental and epidemiologic research are essential for strengthening food variety guidance including developing evidence-based definitions of food variety, understanding moderators of the relationship, and developing practical guidance interpretable to consumers.

  1. Food intake measurements : their validity and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, Van W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis reports on the validity and the reproduciblity of methods assessing food consumption in groups of free-living Dutch adults consuming self-selected diets. The validity of a method, that is the demonstration that a method measures what it is intended to measure, can only be assessed by

  2. Fat food habitual intake and risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Tavares, Marcos Roberto

    2004-10-01

    This case-control study evaluated fat food habitual intake in the context of the Brazilian diet as a risk factor for oral cancer. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to 70 patients with oral carcinoma and an equal number of controls treated in the same hospital for acute non-neoplastic conditions. Participants were paired for age, gender and smoking status, and matched by frequency for the use of dental prostheses and length of smoking history. Conditional logistic regression for multivariate analysis indicated as risk factors the habitual intake of foods rich in animal and saturated fat: pork meat, soup, cheese, bacon and fried food. The multivariate model also indicated the protective effect of non-cooked butter or margarine, probably the most effective vehicle for vitamin A ingestion in the Brazilian diet. These findings suggest that there is a non-negligible scope for the prevention of oral cancer through the improvement of diet.

  3. [Assessment of food intake in rural area school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Albu, Adriana; Albu, M; Dănilă, Lorena; Foia, Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    Children food intake is influenced by family nutritional habits and economic status. According to the results of our survey, only 54.8% of the children have taken their breakfast, although all of them recognize the importance of this meal. 9.6% of the children are not using fresh fruits and vegetables in their diets, even if these are the main sources of vitamin C. Regarding the milk consumption, most of the children use this food item once (35.5%) or twice (19.4%) a day and only 16.1% occasionally. Although most of the children (93.5%) know that excessive salt intake represents a risk factor for their health, 87.1% have preferences for salted and spiced foods. Under the influence of advertising, certain changes in the nutritional habits have been noticed; instead of traditional snacks, children are more attracted to fast-food type snacks.

  4. Parental feeding practices to manage snack food intake: Associations with energy intake regulation in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Nadia; Kettler, Lisa; Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilson, Carlene

    2018-04-01

    Little attention has been directed to understanding the relationship between restriction and regulation of snack food intake in toddlers. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of parental restriction of toddlers' eating of snacks in the absence of hunger (EAH) and to examine the impact of three contextual factors; snack food access, frequency of snack food consumption, and attraction to snack food. 64 parents and toddlers (aged 22-36 months) took part in a protocol to measure EAH (defined as kJ of energy-dense snack foods consumed). Mean EAH was 199 kJ (SD = 299), with 43 children consuming at least some snacks. Restriction was measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire Restriction subscale. Snack food access was measured with Allow Access from the Toddler Snack Food Feeding Questionnaire (TSFFQ), snack food consumption was measured with a short snack food frequency questionnaire, and attraction to snack foods was measured with Child's Attraction from the TSFFQ. Moderated regression analyses tested interactions between Restriction and contextual factors in predicting EAH. EAH was associated with Restriction (r = 0.25, p = .05, 95% CI 0.004 - 0.47). There was an interaction between Restriction and accessibility of snack foods (R 2 change = 0.08, p = .025); restriction was associated with EAH only when access to snack foods in the home was, on average, higher. The effect of Restriction on EAH was not moderated by frequency of snack food consumption or Child's Attraction. These finding have practical relevance and reinforce the importance of the home food environment for managing young children's snack food intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meal Microstructure Characterization from Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Doulah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To avoid the pitfalls of self-reported dietary intake, wearable sensors can be used. Many food ingestion sensors offer the ability to automatically detect food intake using time resolutions that range from 23 ms to 8 min. There is no defined standard time resolution to accurately measure ingestive behavior or a meal microstructure. This paper aims to estimate the time resolution needed to accurately represent the microstructure of meals such as duration of eating episode, the duration of actual ingestion, and number of eating events. Twelve participants wore the automatic ingestion monitor (AIM and kept a standard diet diary to report their food intake in free-living conditions for 24 h. As a reference, participants were also asked to mark food intake with a push button sampled every 0.1 s. The duration of eating episodes, duration of ingestion, and number of eating events were computed from the food diary, AIM, and the push button resampled at different time resolutions (0.1–30s. ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the duration of eating episodes estimated from the diary differed significantly from that estimated by the AIM and the push button (p-value <0.001. There were no significant differences in the number of eating events for push button resolutions of 0.1, 1, and 5 s, but there were significant differences in resolutions of 10–30s (p-value <0.05. The results suggest that the desired time resolution of sensor-based food intake detection should be ≤5 s to accurately detect meal microstructure. Furthermore, the AIM provides more accurate measurement of the eating episode duration than the diet diary.

  6. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  7. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  8. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Cebolla, A.; Etchemendy, E.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, J.; Ferrer-Garcia, M.; Botella, C.; Banos, R.

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using

  9. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Cebolla, A.; Etchemendy, E.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, J.; Ferrer-Garcia, M.; Botella, C.; Baños, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using

  10. Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Dofková, Marcela; Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida; Dubuisson, Carine; Favret, Sandra; Havard, Sabrina; Trolle, Ellen; van’t Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe.

  11. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Maletínská, Lenka; Zicha, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 436, Nov 15 (2016), s. 78-92 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : obesity * sympathetic nervous system * food intake * blood pressure * orexigenic peptides * anorexigenic peptides Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  12. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Maletínská, L.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 436, Nov 15 (2016), s. 78-92 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : obesity * sympathetic nervous system * food intake * blood pressure * orexigenic peptides * anorexigenic peptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  13. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    help in weight management in the long run. Potato, a common starchy tuber in our environment is believed to contain substances that can help maintain and increases short‑term satiety. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [IB]) on food intake in male ...

  14. Hypothalamic inflammation and food intake regulation during chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Marks, D.L.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom in chronic illness. It contributes to malnutrition and strongly affects survival and quality of life. A common denominator of many chronic diseases is an elevated inflammatory status, which is considered to play a pivotal role in the failure of food-intake regulating

  15. Ceruletide decreases food intake in non-obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacher, G; Steinringer, H; Schmierer, G; Schneider, C; Winklehner, S

    1982-01-01

    Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in animals and in man. This study investigated whether the structurally related ceruletide reduces food intake in healthy non-obese man. Twelve females and 12 males participated, after an over-night fast, in each of two experiments. During the basal 40 min, saline was infused IV. Thereafter, the infusion was, in random double blind fashion, either continued with saline or switched to 60 or 120 ng/kg b. wt/hr ceruletide. Butter was melted in a pan and scrambled eggs with ham were prepared in front of the subjects, who were instructed to eat, together with bread and mallow tea, as much as they wanted. With 120 ng/kg/hr ceruletide, the subjects ate significantly less (16.8 percent) than with saline (3725 kJ +/- 489 SEM and 4340 kJ +/- 536, respectively; p less than 0.025). They also reported less hunger (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.005) and activation (p less than 0.01), and had longer reaction times (p less than 0.01) and a weaker psychomotor performance (p less than 0.025). 60 ng/kg/hr ceruletide decreased food intake only slightly (6.6%; 3089 kJ +/- 253 and 3292 kJ +/- 300 respectively) and no significant changes in the above measures occurred. In conclusion, ceruletide reduces food intake in man, thus resembling the effects of cholecystokinin.

  16. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  17. Ramadan fasting influences on food intake consumption, sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... may induce beneficial effects in blood lipid concentrations. Key words: Ramadan fasting, food intake consumption, sleep schedule, body weight, plasma parameters, healthy fasting volunteers. INTRODUCTION. Ramadan is the 9th month of the lunar calendar. During this month, Muslims particularly refrain ...

  18. Self-reported overeating and attributions for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether people's attributions for their eating behaviour differ according to whether they believe they have eaten more, less or about the same as they normally would. Participants were served a small or large portion of pasta for lunch. Afterwards, they were asked to compare how much they ate in the study to how much they normally eat for lunch, resulting in three intake-evaluation categories: 'ate less', 'ate about the same' or 'ate more'. How much participants ate; the extent to which they attributed their food intake to an internal cue (i.e. hunger) and an external cue (i.e. the amount of food served). Participants served a large portion ate more than those served a small portion, but the magnitude of the portion-size effect did not vary across intake-evaluation categories. Furthermore, although participants in all groups indicated that their hunger influenced how much they ate, only those in the 'ate more' group indicated that the amount of food available influenced how much they ate. People appear to be willing to explain their food intake in terms of an external cue only when they believe that they have eaten more than they normally would.

  19. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and

  20. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, Rahul; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and motivation: the lateral

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  2. Evaluation of a mobile application for estimation of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bittencourt MESCOLOTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the use of the Nutrabem (São Paulo, Brasil mobile application as a tool for measurement of food intake among university students. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 40 undergraduate students at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista. Food intake data were estimated using the Nutrabem app and the 24-hour dietary recall. Intakes of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, iron, and vitamin C were calculated. The intake of food groups and diet quality were evaluated by the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide. The agreement between the methods was assessed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Student' t-test. Results: Strong correlations were observed between energy (0.77, carbohydrates (0.82 and protein (0.83. The groups: poultry, fish, and eggs; beef and pork; refined grains and breads; and fruits and legumes showed strong correlations (between 0.76 and 0.85. There were moderate correlations (0.59 and 0.71 between the groups sugars and sweets; whole grains, tubers and roots, milk and dairy products, animal fats, and the Diet Quality Index associated with the Digital Food Guide scores. Vegetables and leafy greens, nuts, and vegetable oils showed weak correlations (0.31 and 0.43. Homogeneity assessment revealed similarity between the results obtained by both methods (p>0.05 . Conclusion: The Nutrabem app can be used as a tool to assess dietary intake among university students since it produces results similar to those obtained by the 24-hour dietary recall method.

  3. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Egecioglu, Emil; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Salome, Nicolas; Skibicka, Karolina P.; Haage, David; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersson, Daniel; Bjursell, Mikael; Perrissoud, Daniel; Engel, Jorgen A.; Dickson, Suzanne L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether ghrelin action at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key node in the mesolimbic reward system, is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of the consumption of rewarding/palatable food. Mice with a disrupted gene encoding the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) and rats treated peripherally with a GHS-R1A antagonist both show suppressed intake of rewarding food in a free choice (chow/rewarding food) paradigm. Moreover, accumbal dopamine release induce...

  5. Obesity, food intake and exercise: Relationship with ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiryaki-Sonmez Gul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a disorder of body composition, is defined by a relative or absolute excess of body fat. In general adult population, obesity has been associated with a diverse array of adverse health outcomes, including major causes of death such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, as well as functional impairment from problems such as osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide hormone which plays an important role in obesity. It is a powerful, endogenous orexigenic peptide and has a crucial function in appetite regulation, as well as short – and long-term energy homeostasis. In the presence of increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and high food consumption, the relationship between exercise, appetite, food intake and ghrelin levels has important implications. In this review, we discuss the effect of acute and chronic exercise performance on appetite, food intake and ghrelin and their relationships.

  6. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  7. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Chapman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture, an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series, and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden. Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms and low-calorie (grapes snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009. Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05. This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07. Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02. Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text with concurrent intake.

  8. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna Å; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.

  9. Food intake and nutritional status in stable hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, A; D'Alessandro, C; Valeri, A; Capitanini, A; Meola, M; Betti, G; Barsotti, G

    2010-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, multicenter, controlled study aiming to evaluate changes of actual dietary nutrient intake in 94 stable hemodialysis patients in respect to 52 normal subjects and guideline recommendations, and to assess the prevalence of signs of malnutrition. Energy and nutrients intake assessment was obtained by a three-day period food recall. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters of nutrition, bioelectric impedance vector analysis, and subjective global assessment (SGA) have been performed to assess nutritional status. SGA-B was scored in 5% of the patients. Body mass index patients, respectively. HD patients showed a lower energy and protein intake in respect to controls, but no difference occurred when normalized per ideal body weight (29.3 +/- 8.4 vs. 29.5 +/- 8.4 Kcal/Kg i.b.w./d and 1.08 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.32 Kcal/Kg i.b.w. /d, respectively). Age was the only parameter that inversely correlates with energy (r = -0.35, p protein intake (r = -0.34, p patients, abnormalities of nutritional parameters are less prevalent than expected by analysis of dietary food intake. Age is the best predictor of energy and protein intake in the dialysis patients who ate less than normal people, but no difference emerged when energy and protein intakes were normalized for body weight. These results recall the attention for individual dietetic counseling in HD patients, and also for a critical re-evaluation of their dietary protein and energy requirements.

  10. Food intake and the nutritional status of women undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabela Borges; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-06-01

    The objective behind this study was the analysis of food intake and the nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC) undergoing chemotherapy (CT). The quantitative dietary evaluation was performed in accordance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), whereas the qualitative evaluation was performed through the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R).From among the total number of patients (n = 20), 60% (n = 12) presented waist circumference, equal to or higher than 88cm. It was noted that 75% (n = 15) individuals were overweight. The average intake for calcium, copper, iron, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6 and zinc, were found to be below adequate intake levels, while the intake of vitamin C, phosphorus, manganese, sodium and thiamine were all found to be above DRIs recommendations. As for the analysis of the BHEI-R, 80% (n = 16) of the patients presented a "diet that needs modifications", while 20% (n = 4) presented a "healthy diet". Noted from these observations was the presence of a high overweight rate, a discrepancy in the intake of micronutrients and a diet that needed improvements. In this manner, the establishment and use of a nutritional intervention protocol are very important when it comes to the improvement of the diet in patients with BC and who are undergoing CT.

  11. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a

  12. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, total intake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Room service improves patient food intake and satisfaction with hospital food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Virtue, K; Adkins, A

    1998-07-01

    Cancer therapy causes side effects that interfere with oral intake. Frequently, patients undergoing such therapy suffer from anorexia, nausea, vomiting, food aversions, dysgeusia, and xerostomia, all which adversely affect oral intake. Adequate nutrition intake is an important part of therapy for the cancer patient, especially when that patient is a child. Children who are well nourished are better able to withstand infection and tolerate therapy. Parents and staff at our hospital have worked diligently to improve patient's oral intake with limited success. Hence, a multidisciplinary team was organized to develop a new approach to food services that would improve patients' oral intake. The team initiated patient "room service," and patients were allowed to call the kitchen when they were ready to eat. The system works much like room service in a hotel. After the introduction of room service, patients' caloric intake improved significantly (P = .008), and protein intake increased by 18%. Patient satisfaction with hospital food service also improved; excellent ratings increased by as much as 35%. We conclude that room service is a viable alternative to traditional food services in the pediatric oncology setting and may be useful in other patient populations, such as maternity and general pediatrics.

  14. Is maternal food security a predictor of food and drink intake among toddlers in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.

  15. Food intake monitoring: automated chew event detection in chewing sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the food intake behavior has the potential to provide insights into the development of obesity and eating disorders. As an elementary part of this analysis, chewing strokes have to be detected and counted. Our approach for food intake analysis is the evaluation of chewing sounds generated during the process of eating. These sounds were recorded by microphones applied to the outer ear canal of the user. Eight different algorithms for automated chew event detection were presented and evaluated on two datasets. The first dataset contained food intake sounds from the consumption of six types of food. The second dataset consisted of recordings of different environmental sounds. These datasets contained 68,094 chew events in around 18 h recording data. The results of the automated chew event detection were compared to manual annotations. Precision and recall over 80% were achieved by most of the algorithms. A simple noise reduction algorithm using spectral subtraction was implemented for signal enhancement. Its benefit on the chew event detection performance was evaluated. A reduction of the number of false detections by 28% on average was achieved by maintaining the detection performance. The system is able to be used for calculation of the chewing frequency in laboratory settings.

  16. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  18. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  19. The estimation of annual limit on intake for tritiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Tritium incorporation into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp which had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of tritium in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water tritium, tissue-bound tritium and DNA-bound tritium. In order to compare the tritium intake from food with that from water, 14 C-glucose was added to food and drinking water. The specific activity of tritium of tissues obtained was then corrected by the specific activity of 14 C in tissues in order to analyse the tritium incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound tritium after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound tritium was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from tritium incorporated through food was two-fold higher than through tritiated water, which was mainly due to the high incorporation of tritium into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water tritium alone would underestimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food. (author)

  20. Online dietary intake estimation: the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-06-09

    Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the "Food4Me" study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for "other

  1. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Graaf, C. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy

  3. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  4. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P; Crivellenti, L C; Nishimura, R Y; Sartorelli, D S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies conducted among pregnant women to test the accuracy of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for estimating food group intake were restricted to one specific trimester of pregnancy. The present study aimed to validate a FFQ for assessing the intake of food groups throughout pregnancy. In total, 75 adult pregnant Brazilian women were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by the FFQ (completed at the third trimester of pregnancy) and by three 24-h dietary recalls; one in each trimester of pregnancy. The food items were classified into 20 groups. Adequate deatenuatted Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.4) were observed for the intake of bread/cake, butter/margarine; milk/dairy products; soft drinks/artificial juices; coffee/tea; and pastries/sandwiches. The FFQ served poorly for estimating fruit and vegetable intake. A high percentage (>70%) of women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles for estimates of cookies/crackers, butter/margarine, milk/dairy products, fruit juices, soft drinks/artificial juices, coffee/tea, roots, rice, beans, meat/chicken/sausages, fried foods, fish, eggs, sweets/sugars, and pastries/sandwiches. Nevertheless, the agreement of joint classification between the dietary methods was mostly into adjacent quartiles, rather than in the same quartile, and low values of kappa were found. The data reported in the present study suggest that the FFQ might not be an appropriate dietary method for evaluating food group intake throughout pregnancy. The joint classification between methods by categories of intake of food groups was mostly into adjacent quartiles, which could lead to attenuated associations when investigating diet-disease relationships during pregnancy. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Laposky, Aaron D; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W

    2009-11-01

    Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.

  6. Effect of food intake on 92 biomarkers for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dencker, Magnus; G?rdinger, Ylva; Bj?rgell, Ola; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluates the effect of food intake on 92 biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods Twenty two healthy subjects (11 male and 11 female aged 25.9?4.2 years) were investigated. A total of 92 biomarkers were measured before a standardized meal as well as 30 and 120 minutes afterwards with the Proseek Multiplex CVD III kit. Results The levels for eight biomarkers decreased significantly (P

  7. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  8. Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in active dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; Finlayson, Graham; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100 kcal salad), hedonic (100 kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0 kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters' entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  10. Nutrient intake from food in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Susan L; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Cain, Usa; Lemcke, Nicole; Foley, Jennifer T; Peck, Robin; Clemons, Traci; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; James, S Jill; Courtney, Patty Manning; Molloy, Cynthia; Ng, Philip K

    2012-11-01

    The impact of abnormal feeding behaviors reported for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on their nutritional status is unknown. We compared nutrient intake from food consumed by children with and without ASD and examined nutrient deficiency and excess. Prospective 3-day food records and BMI for children (2-11 years) with ASD participating in the Autism Treatment Network (Arkansas, Cincinnati, Colorado, Pittsburgh, and Rochester) were compared with both the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and a matched subset based on age, gender, family income, and race/ethnicity (N = 252 analyzed food records). Children with ASD and matched controls consumed similar amounts of nutrients from food. Only children with ASD aged 4 to 8 years consumed significantly less energy, vitamins A and C, and the mineral Zn; and those 9 to 11 years consumed less phosphorous. A greater percentage of children with ASD met recommendations for vitamins K and E. Few children in either group met the recommended intakes for fiber, choline, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and potassium. Specific age groups consumed excessive amounts of sodium, folate, manganese, zinc, vitamin A (retinol), selenium, and copper. No differences were observed in nutritional sufficiency of children given restricted diets. Children aged 2 to 5 years with ASD had more overweight and obesity, and children 5 to 11 years had more underweight. Children with ASD, like other children in America, consume less than the recommended amounts of certain nutrients from food. Primary care for all children should include nutritional surveillance and attention to BMI.

  11. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7–17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  12. MANF regulates hypothalamic control of food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su; Yang, Huiming; Chang, Renbao; Yin, Peng; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weili; Huang, Shanshan; Gaertig, Marta A; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2017-09-18

    The hypothalamus has a vital role in controlling food intake and energy homeostasis; its activity is modulated by neuropeptides and endocrine factors. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a neurotrophic factor that is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neurons. Here we show that MANF is highly enriched in distinct nuclei of the mouse hypothalamus, and that MANF expression in the hypothalamus is upregulated in response to fasting. Increasing or decreasing hypothalamic MANF protein levels causes hyperphagia or hypophagia, respectively. Moreover, MANF triggers hypothalamic insulin resistance by enhancing the ER localization and activity of PIP4k2b, a kinase known to regulate insulin signaling. Our findings indicate that MANF influences food intake and body weight by modulating hypothalamic insulin signaling.MANF is a neurotrophic factor that is secreted but also mediates the unfolded protein response acting intracellularly. Here, the authors show that MANF expression in the brain is influenced by nutritional cues, and hypothalamic MANF influences food intake and systemic energy homeostasis.

  13. Social modelling of food intake. The role of familiarity of the dining partners and food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    In a social eating context, people tend to model the food intake of their dining companions. In general, people tend to eat more when their dining companion eats more and less when their eating companion eats less. In the present paper we investigate 1) whether familiarity of dining partners affects modelling and 2) whether modelling is affected by whether familiar partners consume the same versus different foods. In both studies, female dyads completed a task together whilst having access to high energy dense snack foods. Modelling was observed regardless of the familiarity of the dining partners and food types consumed. These findings confirm that social modelling of food intake is a robust phenomenon that occurs even among familiar dining partners and when partners are consuming different types of snack food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  15. [Early resumption of food intake after cesarean section in black African women: liquid versus solid food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumenou, E; Denakpo, J L; Assouto, P; Tchaou, B; Lokossou, T; Chobli, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of early resumption of solid versus liquid food intake after emergency cesarean section in black African women, in terms of gastrointestinal complications and maternal satisfaction. A total of 120 patients were randomly distributed into two groups of 60 each. In group L, liquid food intake in the form of sweetened citronella drink was allowed at will starting 6 six hours after the procedure but no solid food was allowed for 24 hours. In group S, normal solid food intake was resumed six hours after the procedure. The two study groups were not significantly different with regard to age, medical history, ASA class, obstetrical status, indications for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, mean procedural duration, and postoperative analgesia. Study variables included tolerance of food intake, gastro-intestinal complications, time necessary to resume full activity and patient satisfaction. Overall, 6% of patients reported complications involving nausea, vomiting and bloating. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Normal intestinal transit resumed earlier in group S but the difference was not significant. Auscultation of the abdomen at 16 hours after the procedure demonstrated presence of peristalsis in 59 patients in group S and 51 in group L (p = 0.008). The maternal satisfaction rate was 92% in group S and 43% in group L (p food in case of future cesarean. Early solid food intake after cesarean in black African women is as well tolerated as early liquid feeding. Resumption of solid food intake allows earlier rehabilitation and improves patient satisfaction.

  16. The proglucagon-derived peptide, glucagon-like peptide-2, is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.; Thulesen, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour......Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour...

  17. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhythm in food intake: The effects of the intake of others on young women’s food intake in micro-perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Larsen, J.K.; Herman, C.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies have already demonstrated that people adjust their food intake to that of their eating companions. Until now, these studies have mostly used a normative framework to explain why people eat more or less when their eating companions eat more or less. Another possibility,

  19. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.

  1. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  2. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods. PMID:22800810

  3. A systematic review of food composition tools used for determining dietary polyphenol intake in estimated intake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Guan, Vivienne; Kent, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Translating food intake data into phytochemical outcomes is a crucial step in investigating potential health benefits. The aim of this review was to examine the tools for determining dietary-derived polyphenol intakes for estimated intake studies. Published studies from 2004 to 2014 reporting polyphenol food composition information were sourced with 157 studies included. Six polyphenol subclasses were identified. One quarter of studies (n=39) reported total flavonoids intake with 27% reporting individual flavonoid compounds. Assessing multiple compounds was common with approximately 10% of studies assessing seven (n=13), six (n=12) and five (n=14) subclasses of polyphenol. There was no pattern between reported flavonoids compounds and subclass studied. Approximately 60% of studies relied on publicly accessible food composition data to estimate dietary polyphenols intake with 33% using two or more tools. This review highlights the importance of publicly accessible composition databases for estimating polyphenol intake and provides a reference for tools available globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Young Children's Food Neophobia Characteristics and Sensory Behaviors Are Related to Their Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L; Davies, Patricia L; Boles, Richard E; Gavin, William J; Bellows, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Food neophobia in children has been associated with poor dietary variety and nutrient intakes. Underlying characteristics that may predispose a child to neophobia have not been widely studied. We investigated the associations between children's food neophobia, sensory sensitivity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of typically developing preschoolers. Caregiver reports of children's food neophobia and sensory behaviors (SBs) as measured by the Food Neophobia Scale and the Sensory Profile, children's observed weight outcome [body mass index z score (BMIz)], and children's food intake as estimated from the Block Kids Food Screener were collected at baseline in the Colorado LEAP (Longitudinal Eating and Physical Activity Study) study of childhood obesity. Preschool-aged children (n = 249; 136 girls, 113 boys; aged 55.6 ± 4.7 mo; BMIz = 0.54 ± 1.14) and caregivers [n = 180; 57 Hispanic, 119 non-Hispanic white (NHW), 4 unknown] participated. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlations and multivariate hierarchical linear regression analyses. Lower scores for children's oral sensory characteristics (i.e., more atypical) were related to higher neophobia ratings (r = -0.53, P healthy dietary intake patterns for their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01937481. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Suppression of food intake by GI fatty acid infusions: roles of celiac vagal afferents and cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James E; Kelm, Gary R; Meller, Stephen T; Randich, Alan

    2004-08-01

    We have found that jejunal infusions of long-chain fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA), and gastric infusions of a fatty acid ethyl ester, ethyl oleate (EO), produce long-lasting suppression of total caloric intake. This effect is not seen in response to jejunal infusions of medium-chain fatty acids or medium- or long-chain triglycerides. Multiunit recordings have shown that intestinal infusions of LA or OA strongly activate celiac vagal afferents. Truncal vagotomy (TVX) and selective celiac-branch vagotomy (CVX) are equally effective in attenuating, but not eliminating, suppression of food intake by LA and EO. These outcomes suggest that intraintestinal fatty acids reduce intake by activation of vagal mechanisms, critically involving afferent fibers within the celiac branches, as well as unidentified nonvagal mechanisms. The role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in mediating the activation of celiac vagal afferents is suggested by studies showing that (1) inhibition of food intake by CCK-8 administration is attenuated after CVX but robust after celiac-spared vagotomy (CSV), (2) multiunit activity of celiac vagal afferents is increased by CCK-8 administration, and (3) activation of celiac fibers by intestinal LA infusion is severely attenuated by the CCK(A) antagonist lorglumide.

  6. Extent of error in estimating nutrient intakes from food tables versus laboratory estimates of cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi Ajit; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Individual cooked foods (104) and composite meals (92) were examined for agreement between nutritive value estimated by indirect analysis (E) (Indian National database of nutrient composition of raw foods, adjusted for observed moisture contents of cooked recipes), and by chemical analysis in our laboratory (M). The extent of error incurred in using food table values with moisture correction for estimating macro as well as micronutrients at food level and daily intake level was quantified. Food samples were analyzed for contents of iron, zinc, copper, beta-carotene, riboflavin, thiamine, ascorbic acid, folic acid and also for macronutrients, phytate and dietary fiber. Mean percent difference in energy content between E and M was 3.07+/-0.6%, that for protein was 5.3+/-2.0%, for fat was 2.6+/-1.8% and for carbohydrates was 5.1+/-0.9%. Mean percent difference in vitamin contents between E and M ranged from 32 (vitamin C) to 45.5% (beta-carotene content); and that for minerals between 5.6 (copper) to 19.8% (zinc). Percent E/M were computed for daily nutrient intakes of 264 apparently healthy adults. These were observed to be 108, 112, 127 and 97 for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates respectively. Percent E/M for their intakes of copper (102) and beta-carotene (114) were closer to 100 but these were very high in the case of zinc (186), iron (202), and vitamins C (170), thiamine (190), riboflavin (181) and folic acid (165). Estimates based on food composition table values with moisture correction show macronutrients for cooked foods to be within +/- 5% whereas at daily intake levels the error increased up to 27%. The lack of good agreement in the case of several micronutrients indicated that the use of Indian food tables for micronutrient intakes would be inappropriate.

  7. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  8. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  9. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  10. A possible link between BDNF and mTOR in control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food intake is intricately regulated by glucose, amino acids, hormones, neuropeptides, and trophic factors through a neural circuit in the hypothalamus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, regulates differentiation, maturation, and synaptic plasticity throughout life. Among its many roles, BDNF exerts an anorexigenic function in the brain. However, the intracellular signaling induced by BDNF to control food intake is not fully understood. One candidate for the molecule involved in transducing the anorexigenic activity of BDNF is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. mTOR senses extracellular amino acids, glucose, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, and regulates anabolic reactions response to these signals. Activated mTOR increases protein and lipid synthesis and inhibits protein degradation. In the hypothalamus, mTOR activation is thought to reduce food intake. Here we summarize recent findings regarding BDNF- and mTOR-mediated feeding control, and propose a link between these molecules in eating behavior.

  11. Nutrient intake of children (36 months) fed fermented foods in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The iron intake, calcium and riboflavin were generally low (<50%) across the communities. Fermented foods were the major sources of energy, niacin and thiamin intakes of the children in the eight communities. Fermented foods were poor sources of protein, iron, calcium, ascorbate and riboflavin intakes of the children.

  12. Effect of food intake on 92 neurological biomarkers in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Dencker, Magnus; Björgell, Ola; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluates the effect of food intake on 92 neurological biomarkers in plasma. Moreover, it investigated if any of the biomarkers were correlated with body mass index. Materials and Methods Twenty‐two healthy subjects (11 male and 11 female aged 25.9 ± 4.2 years) were investigated. A total of 92 biomarkers were measured before a standardized meal as well as 30 and 120 min afterward with the Proseek Multiplex Neurology I kit. Results The levels for 13 biomarkers dec...

  13. Immediate increase in food intake following exercise messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Wang, Wei; Leeper, Joshua

    2009-07-01

    Communications to stimulate weight loss include exercise-promotion messages that often produce unsatisfactory results due to compensatory behavioral and metabolic mechanisms triggered by physical activity. This research investigated potential automatic facilitation of eating immediately after exercise messages in the absence of actual exercise. Two controlled experiments demonstrated greater than control food intake following exposure to print messages typical of exercise campaigns as well as subliminal presentation of action words associated with exercise (e.g., "active"). These inadvertent effects may explain the limited efficacy of exercise-promotion programs for weight loss, particularly when systematic dietary guidelines are absent.

  14. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  15. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo; Camporesi, Enrico M.; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Though the hunger-reduction phenomenon reported during ketogenic diets is well-known, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain uncertain. Ketosis has been demonstrated to exert an anorexigenic effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) release while reducing orexigenic signals e.g., via ghrelin. However, ketone bodies (KB) seem to be able to increase food intake through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the release and production of adiponectin. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of our current knowledge of the effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on food control in an effort to unify the apparently contradictory data into a coherent picture. PMID:25698989

  16. Multiple neural systems controlling food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2002-06-01

    Discovery of the leptin receptor and its downstream peptidergic pathways has reconfirmed the crucial role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Strategically located in the midst of the mammalian neuraxis, the hypothalamus receives at least three distinct types of relevant information via direct or indirect neural connections as well as hormone receptors and substrate sensors bestowed on hypothalamic neurons. First, the medial and to a lesser extent the lateral hypothalamus receive a rich mix of information pertaining to the internal state of relative energy repletion/depletion. Second, specific hypothalamic nuclei receive information about the behavioral state, such as diurnal clock, physical activity-level, reproductive cycle, developmental stage, as well as imminent (e.g. fight and flight) and chronic (e.g. infection) stressors, that can potentially impact on short-term availability of fuels and long-term energy balance. Third, the hypothalamus, particularly its lateral aspects, receives information from areas in the forebrain involved in the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of sensory representations of the external food space and internal food experience, as well as from the executive forebrain involved in behavior selection and initiation. In addition, rich intrahypothalamic connections facilitate further distribution of incoming information to various hypothalamic nuclei. On the other hand, the hypothalamus has widespread neural projections to the same cortical areas it receives inputs, and many hypothalamic neurons are one synapse away from most endocrine systems and from both sympathetic and parasympathetic effector organs involved in the flux, storage, mobilization, and utilization of fuels. It is argued that processing within cortico-limbic areas and communication with hypothalamic areas are particularly important in human food intake control that is more and more guided by cognitive rather than metabolic aspects in

  17. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  18. Children's executive function and high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake: mediating effects of child-perceived adult fast food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Southern California elementary schools. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program. Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p effect through higher perceived frequency of parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.11, 0.25], p effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.10], p fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models' convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jennifer L; Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value.

  20. Slow food: sustained impact of harder foods on the reduction in energy intake over the course of the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Forde, Ciarán G; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Hard foods led to a ∼13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (Pfoods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (Pfoods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.

  1. Is Living near Healthier Food Stores Associated with Better Food Intake in Regional Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-08-07

    High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire. The suburbs' Food Environment Score (higher being healthier) was associated with higher consumption of fruit (χ² (40, 230) = 58.8, p = 0.04), and vegetables (χ² (40, 230) = 81.3, p = 0.03). The Food Environment Score identified a significant positive correlation with four of the diet scores: individual total diet score (r s = 0.30, p food score (r s = 0.15, p Food Environment Index, higher being unhealthier) showed a significant association with higher consumption of salty snacks (χ² (24, 230) = 43.9, p = 0.04). Food environments dominated by food outlets considered as 'healthier' were associated with healthier population food intakes, as indicated by a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water, as well as a lower consumption of junk food, salty snacks, and sugary drinks. This association suggests that healthier diet quality is associated with healthier food environments in regional Australia.

  2. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  3. Estimation of daily food usage factors for assessing radionuclide intakes in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.Y.; Nelson, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    We have statistically analyzed data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey to estimate the daily average food intakes by individuals in the general population and various subpopulations of the United States. These estimates are intended for use in assessing radionuclide intake by individuals through food consumption. We have also compared our results with those from other studies

  4. Identification of food intake patterns and associated factors in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify schoolchildren"s dietary patterns and investigate the demographic, social, and economic determinants of the differences found between patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,330 students aged 11 to 17 years attending the public schools of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The subjects' food intake data were collected by a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire comprising 97 food items. All information was collected during a single interview. The exposure variables were gender, age, and socioeconomic class, and the outcome variables were categorized food consumption pattern in "mixed pattern", "traditional pattern", and "healthy pattern". The data were treated by simple and multiple linear regression analyses and the dietary patterns determined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were female (56.9% and over 13 years old (79.2%. The "mixed pattern" was positively associated with females (β=0.181, p0.0001 and classes D, C, and B (β=-0.125, p<0.023. CONCLUSION: Three dietary patterns were identified among the adolescents, namely mixed, traditional, and healthy. Gender and socioeconomic class were associated with dietary patterns. Male teenagers and those in the lower socioeconomic classes had a healthier dietary pattern than their peers of higher socioeconomic classes and females.

  5. GTRAP3-18 regulates food intake and body weight by interacting with pro-opiomelanocortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Koji; Bhadhprasit, Wattanaporn; Watabe, Masahiko; Wang, Fan; Matsumura, Nobuko; Nakaki, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC. GTRAP3-18 -deficient mice showed hypophagia, lean bodies, and lower blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels with increased serum and brain α-MSH levels, leading to AMPK inhibition. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed significantly decreased blood glucose levels and areas under the curve in GTRAP3-18 -deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. An intracerebroventricular infusion of a selective melanocortin 4 receptor antagonist to GTRAP3-18 -deficient mice significantly increased their food intake and body weight. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study showed an interaction between GTRAP3-18 and POMC in vitro These findings suggest that activation of the melanocortin pathway by modulating GTRAP3-18/POMC interaction could be an alternative strategy for obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.-Aoyama, K., Bhadhprasit, W., Watabe, M., Wang, F., Matsumura, N., Nakaki, T. GTRAP3-18 regulates food intake and body weight by interacting with pro-opiomelanocortin. © FASEB.

  6. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children?s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, Dorus W. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Nanne K.; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fil...

  7. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaire...

  8. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  9. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888 was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  10. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  11. The association among chronotype, timing of food intake and food preferences depends on body mass status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, J S G; Cañavate, R; Hernández, C M; Cara-Salmerón, V; Morante, J J H

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with circadian preferences for the evening (wake up later and reach maximum activity in the afternoon) have distorted dietary habits and misregulated body weight. Therefore, the present study was conducted to analyse the possible relationships between 'morningness' or 'eveningness' (chronotype), dietary habits and the level of obesity. Among 400 participants, 171 subjects finished the follow-up period and were evaluated. Anthropometric, clinical and dietary parameters were analysed; the Horne-Östberg test was used to determine chronotype. A hypocaloric-behavioural intervention was performed in the overweight/obese subjects. In normal-weight subjects, the morningness group ingested most of their energy and nutrients at breakfast and lunch, whereas the eveningness group showed a higher intake at dinner, corresponding with their chronotypes. A significant interaction was revealed between chronotype and body mass index regarding the energy and nutrients consumed at dinner (Pfood intake was higher in the eveningness group, but in the overweight subjects the situation was inverse. In addition, the food preferences were related to the chronotype, as the morningness subjects showed a higher intake of fruit (Ptiming of food intake corresponded to the chronotype in the normal-weight subjects; however, the overweight/obese subjects showed intake patterns removed from their physiological rhythms. These findings may indicate a need to design specific diets based not only on the total energy expenditure but also on the chronotype, as an indicator of the biological rhythms.

  12. Accessibility of fast food outlets is associated with fast food intake. A study in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake...... among adults (+ 16 years) in the Capital Region of Denmark (N = 48,305). Accessibility of FFOs was measured both as proximity (distance to nearest FFO) and density (number of FFOs within a 1km network buffer around home). Odds of fast food intake ≥ 1/week increased significantly with increasing FFO...

  13. Food intake survey of kindergarten children in Korea: Part 2 increased dietary intake of tin possibly associated with canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Eul-Sang; Ko, Yang-Sook; Jung, Kweon; Kim, Jung-Hun; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Moon, Chan-Seok; Shimbo, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of tin (Sn) may be increased in some children in kindergartens in Korea. The present study was intended to examine this possibility and clarify the extent of the elevation. 24-hour food duplicate and spot urine samples were collected in 2003-2004 from 108 4-6-year-old children (boys and girls combined) in 4 kindergartens (1 in Seoul and 3 in Jeju Island), as reported in a previous publication. These samples were employed in the present analyses to examine tin levels in the diet (including beverages) (Sn-D). A portion of the samples were wet-ashed, and the liquid samples were analyzed for Sn by the ICP-MS method. For statistical evaluation, χ (2) method and Smirnov's test for extreme value were used. Sn-D in the 108 cases distributed as extremely biased, and could be divided into two groups, i.e., those with accounting for 90% of the cases), and those with >10 μg/day (for 10%). Sn-D in the former group was distributed quasi-normally with an AM (median) of 2.9 (2.5) μg/day. The maximum in the latter group was 3012 μg/day. No correlation was detected between Sn-D and Sn in urine (Sn-U). Comparison of the findings with published articles strongly suggested that the high Sn-D was due to consumption of foods (including beverages) preserved in tin-plated cans. No positive confirmation was however possible due to insufficient information on food records. About 10% of children surveyed had elevated Sn-D (up to 3 mg/day). It was quite possible that high Sn-D was associated with tin-canned food intake.

  14. Hypothalamic food intake regulation in a cancer-cachectic mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T.; van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Faber, Joyce; Argilès, Josep M.; Laviano, Alessandro; Müller, Michael; Witkamp, Renger F.; van Norren, Klaske

    2013-01-01

    Background Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an increased food intake subsequently to the loss of body weight. We hypothesise that in this model, appetite-regulating systems in the hypothalamus, which apparently fail in anorexia, are still able t...

  15. Urban Dietary Heavy Metal Intake from Protein Foods and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADI) and Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) to estimate risk of toxicity and to the US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and/or Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake (ESADDI) for a deficiency in intake. The average ...

  16. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Albert; Hirvonen, Tero; Mensink, Gert B M; Ocké, Marga C; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Stos, Katarzyna; Szponar, Lucjan; Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Fletcher, Reg; Wildemann, Tanja

    2009-11-12

    Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake level (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. To collect and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B(6), D and E was derived from nationally representative surveys in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Intake of high consumers, defined as the 95th percentile of each nutrient, was compared to the UL. For most nutrients, adults and children generally consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries with food supplements being responsible for the largest differences in total intakes. In the present study, for those countries with data on fortified foods, fortified foods do not significantly contribute to higher intakes for any nutrient. Total nutrient intake expressed as percentage of the UL is generally higher in children than in adults. The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods for estimating intakes of micronutrients from fortified foods and food supplements in future dietary surveys.

  17. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  18. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  19. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  20. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-06-24

    Expectations about a food's satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload's satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  1. Children's intake of fruit and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods is associated with fathers' intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laura; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Burrows, Tracy L; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2011-07-01

    Parental dietary intake, lifestyle behavior, and parenting style influence a child's weight status. Few studies have examined associations between parent-child dietary intake, or specific father-child associations. This cross-sectional study examined associations between father-child dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The study population consisted of overweight fathers with 50 father-child dyads included in the analysis; median (interquartile range) age of fathers was 39±8.0 years; body mass index was 32.7±5.3; and their primary school-aged children (n=50) (54% boys aged 8.5±3.0 years, body mass index z score 0.6±1.6) who had been targeted to participate in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids pilot trial in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia in 2008. Dietary intakes of fathers and children were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires, with mothers reporting their child's food intake. Descriptive statistics were reported and Spearman's rank order correlations used to test the strength of associations between father-child intakes. Fathers' median (interquartile range) daily fruit and vegetable intakes were 0.9 (1.5) and 2.2 (1.3) servings/day, respectively, whereas children consumed 2.1 (2.4) fruit and 2.9 (2.1) vegetable servings/day. Moderately-strong positive correlations were found between father-child fruit intakes (r=0.40, P0.05). Children's intakes of fruit and some energy-dense nutrient-poor foods but not vegetables were related to their father's intakes. The targeting of fathers should be tested in experimental studies as a potential strategy to improve child and family eating habits. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Online dietary intake estimation: reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire against a 4-day weighed food record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-08-11

    Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into "exact agreement plus adjacent" was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross

  3. Organic food consumption during pregnancy is associated with different consumer profiles, food patterns and intake: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2017-08-01

    To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels. Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types. Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food. Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.

  4. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  5. Impact of fatty acid food reformulations on intake of Dutch young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Millenaar, Inger L; Van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Westenbrink, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by estimating changes in median intake of TFA and SFA in Dutch young adults. This is a modelling study with food consumption data of young adults. Intakes were estimated before reformulation using food composition data of 2001 as a reference and while including most recent fatty acid composition of foods for task force food groups. Food composition of other foods and food consumption was assumed unchanged. Average TFA intake significantly decreased from 1.0 E% in the reference to 0.8 E% in the reformulation scenario. Pastry, cakes and biscuits, and snacks contributed most to the decrease of TFA. Estimated SFA intake did not change. When solid baking and spreading fats were additionally replaced with fluid ones, SFA intake decreases from 12.9 E% to 12.1 E%. Fatty acid reformulation in the task force food groups contributed to reductions in TFA intake. For further reductions in SFA intake a different food choice is primordial.

  6. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Adults: United States, 2007–2010 Recommend on ... percentage of calories consumed by adults comes from fast food? During 2007–2010, adults consumed an average 11. ...

  7. Comparison of nutrient intake in adolescents and adults with and without food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, K; Venter, C; MacKenzie, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B; Dean, T; Sommer, I

    2018-04-01

    Exclusion diets for the management of food allergy pose a risk of nutritional deficiencies and inadequate growth in children, yet less is known about their effect in adolescents and adults. The present study aimed to compare the dietary intake of adolescents and adults with food allergies with that of a control group. A food allergic and a control group were recruited from Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight in the UK. Participants were recruited from a food allergy charity, allergy clinics, a local school and university, and previous research studies. Macro and micronutrient intake data were obtained using a 4-day estimated food diary. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data was collected via a constructed questionnaire. This cross-sectional study included 81 adolescents (48 food allergic and 33 controls) aged 11-18 years and 70 adults aged 19-65 years (23 food allergic and 47 controls). Overall, 19 (22.8%) adolescents and 19 (27.1%) adults took dietary supplements, with no difference according to food allergic status. Adolescents with food allergy had higher intakes of niacin and selenium than adolescents without (P food allergies had higher intakes of folate and zinc than those without (P food allergic status. The dietary intake of food allergic participants was broadly similar and, in some cases, better than that of control participants. However, suboptimal intakes of several micronutrients were observed across all participants, suggesting poor food choices. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Estimated folate intakes: data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Crane, N T; Wilson, D B; Yetley, E A

    1999-08-01

    There is a critical need to estimate dietary folate intakes for nutrition monitoring and food safety evaluations, but available intake data are seriously limited by several factors. Our objective was to update 2 national food consumption surveys to reflect folate intakes as a result of the recently initiated food fortification program and to correct folate intakes for the apparently higher bioavailability of synthetic folic acid (SFA; ie, folate added to foods or from dietary supplements) than of naturally occurring folate so as to express intakes as dietary folate equivalents. It was not possible to chemically analyze foods, so adjustments were made to food-composition data by using information about food ingredients and characteristics. Total folate intakes were estimated for several sex and age groups by using the modified data coupled with dietary supplement use. Within the limitations of the data, our findings suggested that 67-95% of the population met or surpassed the new estimated average requirement, depending on the sex and age group and survey. Nonetheless, some subgroups had estimated intakes below these standards. Estimated SFA intakes suggested that approximately 15-25% of children aged 1-8 y, depending on the survey, had intakes above the newly established tolerable upper intake level. We estimated that 68-87% of females of childbearing age had SFA intakes below the recommended intake of 400 microgram/d, depending on the age group and survey. There is a need to explore ways to improve folate intakes in targeted subgroups, including females of childbearing age, while not putting other population groups at risk of excessive intakes.

  9. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  10. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zając

    2017-09-01

    The modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire is a reproducible tool that can be used for adolescents. Average intake in the analyzed group was lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake, but in contrast to other countries remains one of the highest intakes in a comparable age group. The main sources of dioxins exposition were fish (38%, and meat products.

  11. Oxytocin Acting in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Decreases Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herisson, F M; Waas, J R; Fredriksson, R; Schiöth, H B; Levine, A S; Olszewski, P K

    2016-04-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) promotes feeding termination in response to homeostatic challenges, such as excessive stomach distension, salt loading and toxicity. OT has also been proposed to affect feeding reward by decreasing the consumption of palatable carbohydrates and sweet tastants. Because the OT receptor (OTR) is expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), a site regulating diverse aspects of eating behaviour, we investigated whether OT acts there to affect appetite in rats. First, we examined whether direct AcbC and AcbSh OT injections affect hunger- and palatability-driven consumption. We found that only AcbC OT infusions decrease deprivation-induced chow intake and reduce the consumption of palatable sucrose and saccharin solutions in nondeprived animals. These effects were abolished by pretreatment with an OTR antagonist, L-368,899, injected in the same site. AcbC OT at an anorexigenic dose did not induce a conditioned taste aversion, which indicates that AcbC OT-driven anorexia is not caused by sickness/malaise. The appetite-specific effect of AcbC OT is supported by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of OTR mRNA in the AcbC, which revealed that food deprivation elevates OTR mRNA expression, whereas saccharin solution intake decreases OTR transcript levels. We also used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation and found that AcbC OT injection increases activation of the AcbC itself, as well as of two feeding-related sites: the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Finally, considering the fact that OT plays a significant role in social behaviour, we examined whether offering animals a meal in a social setting would modify their hypophagic response to AcbC OT injections. We found that a social context abolishes the anorexigenic effects of AcbC OT. We conclude that OT acting via the AcbC decreases food intake driven by hunger and reward in rats offered a meal in a nonsocial setting. © 2016

  12. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food groups and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma Patricia; López-Uriarte, Patricia Josefina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D

    2013-11-01

    Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) analyze average food and nutrient intake over extended periods to associate habitual dietary intake with health problems and chronic diseases. A tool of this nature applicable to both women and men is not presently available in Mexico. To validate a FFQ for adult men and women. The study was conducted on 97 participants, 61% were women. Two FFQs were administered (with a one-year interval) to measure reproducibility. To assess validity, the second FFQ was compared against dietary record (DR) covering nine days. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The de-attenuation of the ICC resulting from intraindividual variability was controlled. The validity analysis was complemented by comparing the classification ability of FFQ to that of DR through concordance between intake categories and Bland-Altman plots. Reproducibility: ICC values for food groups ranged 0.42-0.87; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.34 and 0.82. ICC values for food groups ranged 0.35-0.84; the range for energy and nutrients was between 0.36 and 0.77. Most subjects (56.7-76.3%) classified in the same or adjacent quintile for energy and nutrients using both methods. Extreme misclassification was <6.3% for all items. Bland-Altman plots reveal high concordance between FFQ and DR. FFQ produced sufficient levels of reproducibility and validity to determine average daily intake over one year. These results will enable the analysis of possible associations with chronic diseases and dietary diagnoses in adult populations of men and women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  14. Seasonal variation in the voluntary food intake of domesticated cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Serisier

    Full Text Available There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN. Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001, with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August, and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February, with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May and early autumn (e.g. September. A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats.

  15. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  16. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology Interventions to Manage Food Intake: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Gemming, Luke

    2017-09-23

    This review describes the state-of-the-art for dietary assessment using smartphone apps and digital technology and provides an update on the efficacy of technology-mediated interventions for dietary change. Technology has progressed from apps requiring entry of foods consumed, to digital imaging to provide food intake data. However, these methods rely on patients being active in data collection. The automated estimation of the volume and composition of every meal consumed globally is years away. The use of text messaging, apps, social media, and combinations of these for interventions is growing and proving effective for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effectiveness of text messaging for obesity management is improving and multicomponent interventions show promise. A stand-alone app is less likely to produce positive outcomes and social media is relatively unexplored. A concentrated effort will be needed to progress digital dietary assessment. Researcher-designed technology programs are producing positive outcomes for T2DM but further research is needed in the area of weight management.

  19. Analysis of food intake profile among women from the oasis of southeastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidi, Amina; El Bouhali, Bachir; Nasri, Issad; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of women and food intake is known to reflect a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on the food intake in women living in the southeastern oasis of Morocco by exploring their nutritional intake through 24-h dietary recall (n=387). Analysis of the relationship between food intake and the socioeconomic characteristics in women showed a positive correlation between daily vegetable, cereals, red and white meat intake and region of residence (peducation, family size and occupation influence the daily intake of food in this region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of food intake on pharmacokinetics of oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; Khanh, N. X.; Koopmans, R.; Binh, L. N.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each

  1. The lack of food intake data and the consequences thereof | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, South African researchers working in the fields of nutrition and dietetics collect food intake data as a first step towards determining the nutritional status of various populations. However, on publication, the majority of the results obtained from these studies are expressed in terms of nutrient intake, whereas food ...

  2. Food and Nutrient Intake of Pregnant Women of the out Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and Nutrient Intake of Pregnant Women of the out Patient Department of General Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. ... Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. GM Inah, M Iyam, E Mgban ... Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. The survey ...

  3. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  4. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  5. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a

  6. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Involved in Regulation of Body Weight, Food Intake and Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, A.B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Balkan, B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Body weight regulation is the result of food intake and energy expenditure. The central nervous system (CNS), and in particular, the hypothalamus, controls food intake as well as metabolism, the latter mainly by autonomic effects on the islet of Langerhans, hepatocytes and adipocytes. Body weight,

  7. Hypothalamic food intake regulation in a cancer-cachectic mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Dijk, van M.; Dijk, F.J.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Faber, J.; Argiles, J.M.; Laviano, A.; Müller, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an

  8. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  9. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  11. Package unit size and amount of food: do both influence intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Wing, Rena R

    2007-09-01

    Large portions increase intake and are hypothesized to contribute to the obesity epidemic. However, it is unclear if portion size affects intake through changes in the unit size of available food or the overall amount of food available for consumption. Thus, this study examined the independent effects of package unit size and amount of food on intake. It was hypothesized that both variables would influence intake. Non-obese (BMI or=3 times/wk) snack foods were randomly assigned to one of four groups crossing package unit size (small vs. large) and amount of food (small vs. large). Participants were given a box with 4 snack foods (potato chips, cheese crackers, cookies, and candy) packaged according to their assigned group to take home and eat over 3 days. Dependent variables were energy and gram intake of provided snack foods. An effect of amount of food was found (p < 0.01). A 100% increase in the amount of food provided produced an 81% increase in energy consumed from the snack foods [small amount, 21,037.6 +/- 10,852 kJ (5,028 +/- 2,596 kcal) vs. large amount, 11,640.7 +/- 4,914.1 kJ (2,782 +/- 1,174 kcal)]. No effect of package unit size was found. These results suggest that the amount of food available to eat strongly influences intake.

  12. Impact of food choice on sodium intake patterns from multiple NHANES surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; McFadden, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles. Results show that the calorie consumption of oils, beverages and water, fruit juices, fruits, lamb, fruit products, and sugars and sweets had no significant impact on individuals' sodium intake, while calorie consumption of tomatoes, fish, dark-green vegetables, and crackers contributes the most to sodium intake. The contribution to sodium intake of most food groups does not change significantly over time, with the exception of salad dressing whose contribution to sodium intake increased in four consecutive years when compared to that of 1999-2000. The sodium amount contributed by one calorie consumption (sodium density) of most food was above the daily recommendation level, 1.2 mg per calorie per day. Lowering individuals' sodium intake involves either guiding individuals to consume more fruit related products or decreasing the amount of sodium in most food groups at the production or food preparation stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Nina; Grize, Leticia; Ziesemer, Katrin; Kauf, Peter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Brombach, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background : Scientifically valid descriptions of dietary intake at population level are crucial for investigating diet effects on health and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are the most common dietary tools used in large epidemiological studies. Objective : To examine the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ to be used as dietary assessment tool in epidemiological studies. Design : Validity was evaluated by comparing the FFQ and a 4-day weighed food record (4-d FR) at nutrient and food group levels, Spearman's correlations, Bland-Altman analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used. Fifty-six participants completed a paper format FFQ and a 4-d FR within 4 weeks. Results : Corrected correlations between the two instruments ranged from 0.27 (carbohydrates) to 0.55 (protein), and at food group level from 0.09 (soup) to 0.92 (alcohol). Nine out of 25 food groups showed correlations > 0.5, indicating moderate validity. More than half the food groups were overestimated in the FFQ, especially vegetables (82.8%) and fruits (56.3%). Water, tea and coffee were underestimated (-14.0%). Conclusions : The FFQ showed moderate relative validity for protein and the food groups fruits, egg, meat, sausage, nuts, salty snacks and beverages. This study supports the use of the FFQ as an acceptable tool for assessing nutrition as a health determinant in large epidemiological studies.

  14. Correlation of nutritional status and food intake in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alvaro A C; Silva, Maria A T; Faintuch, Joel; Vidigal, Erica J; Costa, Rozilene A; Lyrio, Daniele C; Trindade, Celia R; Pitanga, Karoline K

    2005-06-01

    Patients in end-stage renal disease often suffer from poor appetite, various comorbidities, and dietary restrictions. Despite regular hemodialysis, nutritional imbalances are frequently reported. Aiming to correlate nutritional status with food ingestion, a prospective study was done in an outpatient group. Stable patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis for at least 3 months (n=44) were investigated by dietary recall and standard anthropometric, biochemical, and bioimpedance determinations, including subjective and objective global assessment. The mean age of the group was 47.0+/-16.9 years, and 63.6% were men. Body mass index was 22.2+/-3.9 kg/m2 (mean+/-SD), calorie intake was 1471+/-601 kcal/day (20.7+/-6.7 kcal/kg/day), and protein ingestion was 74.3+/-16.6 g protein/day (1.2 g/kg/day). Dietary and clinical findings were correlated with nutritional indices by linear regression analysis. Malnutrition estimated by subjective global assessment was very common (>90%), despite the fact that body mass index and serum albumin were within an acceptable range in the majority of the population. Objective global assessment yielded roughly comparable numerical findings, with 6.8% being well nourished, 61.4% at nutritional risk or lightly undernourished, 29.6% moderately malnourished, and 2.3% severely malnourished. Total calorie intake was devoid of associations, but protein, carbohydrate, and lipid input positively correlated with triceps skinfold (P=.02). Lipid ingestion was the only marker directly associated with arm circumference, and it correlated with body mass index, as well as with total body fat (bioimpedance analysis) (Pprotein or total energy; 3) Despite its shortcomings, dietary recall was useful in the assessment of hemodialysis patients.

  15. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects on food intake and blood lipids of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist treatment in lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Marianne F; Nielsen, Maria P; Richelsen, Bjørn; Pedersen, Steen B

    2008-11-01

    Endocannabinoids act through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and has both orexigenic and peripheral metabolic effects. It is not yet fully understood whether all the beneficial effects on the metabolic profile by CB1 antagonism are induced by the weight loss or also by direct peripheral effects. The present study was intended to further elucidate this question and to investigate whether tolerance development to the hypophagic effect could be attenuated by cyclic treatment. We performed an intervention study in 40 lean rats over 4 weeks. The rats were divided in four groups: a control group, two groups treated with the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant either continuously or cyclically, and one group pair fed with the continuous Rimonabant group to obtain the same body weight. During the first 6 days, food intake was less in the continuous Rimonabant group compared to the control group (P acids (nonesterified fatty acid, NEFA) were significantly reduced in both treated groups compared to the untreated groups, and levels of triglycerides showed the same tendency. Cyclic treatment with Rimonabant is able to inhibit tolerance development on food intake, which resulted in reduction in body weight. Rimonabant treatment is associated with reduced serum levels of glycerol, NEFA, and triglyceride which seem independent of body weight changes.

  17. Nutritional status and food intake in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariane Curado; dos Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte; Correia, Maria Isabel T D

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, therapy with corticosteroids, and reduced physical activity may increase the predisposition to accumulate body fat in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and food intake of patients with SLE. One hundred seventy women with SLE were evaluated consecutively in a cross-sectional study. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment and body mass index. Food intake was assessed by a 24-h recall and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), considering P nutritional status and food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns...

  19. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  20. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  1. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  2. The effect of attentional bias modification training on food intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evelyn; Treffiletti, Agatha; Bailey, Phoebe E; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-03-01

    This study modified food attentional biases via computerized attentional bias modification training and examined the effects on food intake. Overweight women were randomly allocated to (1) direct attention away from food ("attentional-training"), (2) direct attention at random to food or neutral ("placebo"), or (3) no training ("control"). Individuals then completed a taste test. Those in the attentional-training consumed on average 600 kJ less of total food compared to the placebo. Those in the attentional-training had a reduction in food attentional bias compared to the placebo group, when controlling for executive function. Attentional-training seems to reduce high-calorie intake in overweight women.

  3. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  4. The rate of food processing in the Oystercatcher : Food intake and energy expenditure constrained by a digestive bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M.

    1. Whether food intake is determined by the maximum rate at which animals can collect food, or by the rate at which this food can be processed, will strongly affect the organization of their behaviour. We investigated whether the digestive system imposes a constraint on (I) instantaneous rate of

  5. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  6. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-08-13

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 +/- 0.09 vs 1.45 +/- 0.09 and 1.42 +/- 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 +/- 0.05 vs 0.67 +/- 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  7. Food Intake of Kansans Over 80 Years of Age Attending Congregate Meal Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisha M. Weeden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113 were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed.

  8. Medial nucleus tractus solitarius oxytocin receptor signaling and food intake control: the role of gastrointestinal satiation signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhi Yi; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J

    2015-05-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) administration reduces food intake and its effects are mediated, in part, by hindbrain oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling. The neural substrate and mechanisms mediating the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain OT-R signaling are undefined. We examined the hypothesis that hindbrain OT-R-mediated feeding inhibition results from an interaction between medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) OT-R signaling and the processing of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals by neurons of the mNTS. Here, we demonstrated that mNTS or fourth ventricle (4V) microinjections of OT in rats reduced chow intake in a dose-dependent manner. To examine whether the intake suppressive effects of mNTS OT-R signaling is mediated by GI signal processing, rats were injected with OT to the 4V (1 μg) or mNTS (0.3 μg), followed by self-ingestion of a nutrient preload, where either treatment was designed to be without effect on chow intake. Results showed that the combination of mNTS OT-R signaling and GI signaling processing by preload ingestion reduced chow intake significantly and to a greater extent than either stimulus alone. Using enzyme immunoassay, endogenous OT content in mNTS-enriched dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in response to ingestion of nutrient preload was measured. Results revealed that preload ingestion significantly elevated endogenous DVC OT content. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that mNTS neurons are a site of action for hindbrain OT-R signaling in food intake control and that the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain mNTS OT-R signaling are mediated by interactions with GI satiation signal processing by mNTS neurons. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The association of dairy intake of children and adolescents with different food and nutrient intakes in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Singh-Povel, Cecile; Steijns, Jan; Beulens, Joline W J

    2016-01-09

    Dairy products are nutrient-rich foods that may contribute to adequate nutrient intakes. However, dairy intake might also be associated with other food sources that influence nutrient intakes. Therefore, we studied the association of dairy, milk and cheese intake with intake of foods and nutrients from (non)dairy sources. Dietary intake was assessed from 2007 to 2010 through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls in 1007 children (7-13 years) and 706 adolescents (14-18 years). Participants were divided into non-consumers of a particular dairy product and tertiles according to their dairy intake (lowest, medium and highest intake). P for trend was calculated by linear regression over the median intakes of non-consumers and the tertiles for dairy, milk and cheese. In children, higher dairy consumption was associated with higher intakes of fruits (54.8 g ± 22.3; p cereals (18.5 g ± 20.7; p = 0.01) and with lower consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (-281 g ± 101; p = 0.01): soft drinks (-159 g ± 28.2; p cheese consumption was associated with higher vegetable and non-alcoholic beverages consumption; and lower meat consumption (-7.8 g ± 4.8; p = 0.05) in children. Higher cheese consumption was also associated with higher intakes of saturated fat (8.5 g ± 0.9), trans-fatty acids (0.48 g ± 0.06), sodium (614 mg ± 59.3) and several vitamins and minerals . Higher milk and dairy consumption were associated with lower non-alcoholic beverages consumption, and higher cereal, fruit and vegetable consumption in children, which was also reflected in the nutrient intakes. These findings confirm that the consumption of milk and dairy products might be a marker for healthier eating habits.

  10. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the a...

  11. Inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase attenuates food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Garretson, John T; Hwang, Yousang; Cole, Philip A; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach in direct proportion to the time since the last meal and has therefore been called a 'hunger signal'. The octanoylation of ghrelin is critical for its orexigenic functions and is dependent upon ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) catalyzation. The GOAT inhibitor, GO-CoA-Tat, decreases the circulating concentrations of octanoylated ghrelin and attenuates weight gain on a high fat diet in mice. Unlike rats and mice, Siberian hamsters and humans do not increase food intake after food deprivation, but increase food hoarding after food deprivation. In Siberian hamsters, exogenous ghrelin increases ingestive behaviors similarly to 48-56 h food deprivation. Therefore, we tested the necessity of increased ghrelin in food-deprived Siberian hamsters to stimulate ingestive behaviors. To do so we used our simulated natural housing system that allows hamsters to forage for and hoard food. Animals were given an injection of GO-CoA-Tat (i.p., 11 μmol/kg) every 6h because that is the duration of its effective inhibition of octanoylated ghrelin concentrations during a 48 h food deprivation. We found that GO-CoA-Tat attenuated food foraging (0-1h), food intake (0-1 and 2-4h), and food hoarding (0-1h and 2 and 3 days) post-refeeding compared with saline treated animals. This suggests that increased octanoylated ghrelin concentrations play a role in the food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior. Therefore, ghrelin is a critical aspect of the multi-faceted mechanisms that stimulate ingestive behaviors, and might be a critical point for a successful clinical intervention scheme in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  13. Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Peyman; Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 -2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin's function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone's function.

  14. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurosecretory protein GL stimulates food intake, de novo lipogenesis, and onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ochi, Yuta; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Shiki; Bentley, George E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-11

    Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake. Neutralizing antibody administration decreased the size of lipid droplets in WAT. Npgl mRNA expression was upregulated by fasting and low insulin levels. Additionally, NPGL-producing cells were responsive to insulin. These results point to NPGL as a novel neuronal regulator that drives food intake and fat deposition through de novo lipogenesis and acts to maintain steady-state fat level in concert with insulin. Dysregulation of NPGL may be a root cause of obesity.

  16. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  17. A systematic investigation of the differential roles for ventral tegmentum serotonin 1- and 2-type receptors on food intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Clissold, Kara A; Lin, Peagan; Cain, Amanda E; Ciesinski, Alexa F; Hopkins, Thomas R; Ilesanmi, Adeolu O; Kelly, Erin A; Pierce-Messick, Zachary; Powell, Daniel S; Rosner, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) pathways are known to influence feeding and other ingestive behaviors. Although the ventral tegmentum is important for promoting the seeking and consumption of food and drugs of abuse, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this region on food intake have yet to be comprehensively examined. In these experiments, food restricted rats were given 2-h access to rat chow; separate groups of non-restricted animals had similar access to a sweetened fat diet. Feeding and locomotor activity were monitored following ventral tegmentum stimulation or blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors. 5-HT1A receptor stimulation transiently inhibited rearing behavior and chow intake in food-restricted rats, and had a biphasic effect on non-restricted rats offered the palatable diet. 5-HT1B receptor agonism transiently inhibited feeding in restricted animals, but did not affect intake of non-restricted rats. In contrast, 5-HT1B receptor antagonism decreased palatable feeding. Although stimulation of ventral tegmental 5-HT2B receptors with BW723C86 did not affect hunger-driven food intake, it significantly affected palatable feeding, with a trend for an increasing intake at 2.0µg/side but not at 5.0µg/side. Antagonism of the same receptor modestly but significantly inhibited feeding of the palatable diet at 5.0µg/side ketanserin. Neither stimulation nor blockade of 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors caused prolonged effects on intake or locomotion. These data suggest that serotonin's effects on feeding within the ventral tegmentum depend upon the specific receptor targeted, as well as whether intake is motivated by food restriction or the palatable nature of the offered diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditscheid, Bianka; Jahreis, Gerhard; Glei, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day). The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records. PMID:29393923

  19. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Ditscheid, Bianka; Jahreis, Gerhard; Glei, Michael

    2018-02-02

    Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day). The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  20. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  1. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  2. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect and evalu......Background: Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective: To collect...... and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries...

  3. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains.

  4. Neighbourhood food environment and dietary intakes in adolescents: sex and perceived family affluence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Lo, Wing-Sze; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-10-01

    To examine the effects of perceived availability of fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores on adolescent dietary intakes. Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected in 2006-7. Respondents reported the availability of fast-food shops, restaurants and convenience stores in the neighbourhood, and their intakes of fruit, vegetables, high-fat foods and junk food/soft drinks. For intakes of high-fat foods and junk food/ soft drinks, ≤ once a week was defined as low consumption and the rest moderate/high consumption. At least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit daily were defined as sufficient consumption. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each dietary intake in relation to the reported food shops. Potential effect modifications by socio-demographic factors were also examined. Perceived availability of fast-food shops and convenience stores were positively associated with moderate/high consumptions of high-fat foods (OR(fast) =1.10 and OR(con) =1.15) and junk food/soft drinks (OR(fast)=1.10 and OR(con) =1.10). Significant negative associations of the perceived availability of restaurants with intakes of vegetables and fruit were observed (OR(veg) =0.87 and OR(fruit) =0.83). The positive relationship between reporting fast-food shops with intake of junk food/soft drinks were observed only in boys and those with low perceived family affluence. The negative association of reporting restaurants with fruit consumption was found in those with low and middle perceived family affluence only. Perceived availability of neighbourhood fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores may have a negative impact on adolescent dietary intakes particularly for those from poorer families.

  5. Consumption of 'extra' foods by Australian children: types, quantities and contribution to energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, A M; Randall, D; Hector, D J; Gill, T P; Webb, K L

    2008-03-01

    To measure the types and quantities of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods consumed by Australian children and adolescents and their contribution to total energy and nutrient intakes. We used data from 3007 children, aged 2-18 years, who participated in the nationally representative 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Intake was determined by 24-h recall and 'extra' foods were defined using principles outlined in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and by applying cut points for maximum amounts of fat and sugar within each food category. All children (99.8%) consumed at least one 'extra' food and the most commonly consumed were margarine, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, cordials and sugar. 'Extra' foods contributed 41% of daily energy intake. Those foods contributing most to energy intake were fried potatoes (4.2%), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (3.3%), ice cream/ice confection (3.1%) and cordials (2.7%). Age and sex were important determinants of 'extra' food intake, with males and older children generally consuming more and different types of, 'extra' foods than females and younger children. 'Extra' foods contributed 19% protein, 47% total fat, 47% saturated fat, 54% sugar, and approximately 20-25% of selected micronutrients to the diet. Calcium and zinc intakes from core foods were below 70% of the recommended dietary intakes for adolescent girls. 'Extra' foods are over-consumed at two to four times the recommended limits and contribute excessively to the energy, fat and sugar intakes of Australian children, while providing relatively few micronutrients. This is of concern in terms of children's weight and nutrient status.

  6. Effects of daily snack food intake on food reinforcement depend on body mass index and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erika N; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2010-02-01

    The reinforcing value of food plays a role in food consumption. We have shown previously that daily intake of a high-energy-density (HED) snack food decreases food reinforcement and food liking in nonobese women but increases food reinforcement and decreases food liking in obese women. These previous studies were conducted with the use of only HED snack foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects generalize to low-energy-density (LED) foods. Participants (n = 53) had food reinforcement and food liking tested at baseline and then again after 2 wk of daily consumption of 60-g portions of an HED (n = 26) or an LED (n = 27) snack food. We observed a decrease in food reinforcement in women with a lower body mass index (BMI) and an increase in food reinforcement in women with a higher BMI after 14 d of consumption of an HED snack food. Food liking decreased in all women, regardless of BMI, after repeated consumption of HED foods. Conversely, all women, regardless of BMI, showed a decrease in food reinforcement after 14 d of LED snack food consumption. Women with a lower BMI who consumed LED snacks also showed a decrease in liking, but women with a higher BMI who consumed LED foods reported no change in liking. These findings suggest that changes in food reinforcement after daily snack food intake are influenced by both BMI and the energy density of the foods. In addition, changes in food reinforcement cannot be explained by changes in food liking.

  7. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific food intake patterns or changes in food intake patterns were related to future changes in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, with clinical and questionnaire examinations at baseline and two...... follow-up surveys, after 5 and 11 years. SUBJECTS: In all, 3785 men and women attended at baseline, of which 2436 aged 30-60 y attended all three examinations. MEASUREMENTS: A 26-item food frequency questionnaire, standardised measurements of height and weight and a lifestyle questionnaire. Food intake...... factor scores, changes in factor scores and subsequent BMI changes or obesity were found. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal study of a Danish population, food intake factors could not consistently predict changes in BMI or obesity development....

  8. The role of alginates in regulation of food intake and glycemia: a gastroenterological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D; Goff, H D; Anderson, G H

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of food intake through modulation of gastrointestinal responses to ingested foods is an ever-growing component of the therapeutic approaches targeting the obesity epidemic. Alginates, viscous and gel-forming soluble fibers isolated from the cell wall of brown seaweeds and some bacteria, are recently receiving considerable attention because of their potential role in satiation, satiety, and food intake regulation in the short term. Enhancement of gastric distension, delay of gastric emptying, and attenuation of postprandial glucose responses may constitute the basis of their physiological benefits. Offering physical, chemical, sensorial, and physiological advantages over other viscous and gel-forming fibers, alginates constitute promising functional food ingredients for the food industry. Therefore, the current review explores the role of alginates in food intake and glycemic regulation, their underlying modes of action and their potential in food applications.

  9. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged

  12. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  13. food and nutrient intake of pregnant women of the out patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS GRACE INAH

    shown to the women to improve estimation of portion size. The subjects were requested to recall their average daily food intake for breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper over the previous day for all food groups and amount eaten using the standard units mentioned above. If the consumed food was not in the list, then that kind ...

  14. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food/liquid intake/output. 549.64 Section 549.64 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...) Staff shall remove any commissary food items and private food supplies of the inmate while the inmate is...

  15. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  16. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: the ACCEPT - sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010-2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland.

  17. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  18. Insulin, cGMP, and TGF-beta signals regulate food intake and quiescence in C. elegans: a model for satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-jai; Kim, Jeongho; Raizen, David M; Avery, Leon

    2008-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases, the signaling pathways for appetite control and satiety are not clearly understood. Here we report C. elegans quiescence behavior, a cessation of food intake and movement that is possibly a result of satiety. C. elegans quiescence shares several characteristics of satiety in mammals. It is induced by high-quality food, it requires nutritional signals from the intestine, and it depends on prior feeding history: fasting enhances quiescence after refeeding. During refeeding after fasting, quiescence is evoked, causing gradual inhibition of food intake and movement, mimicking the behavioral sequence of satiety in mammals. Based on these similarities, we propose that quiescence results from satiety. This hypothesized satiety-induced quiescence is regulated by peptide signals such as insulin and TGF-beta. The EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase functions downstream of insulin and TGF-beta in sensory neurons including ASI to control quiescence in response to food intake.

  19. Accessibility of fast food outlets is associated with fast food intake. A study in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Toft, Ulla; Lykke, Maja; Glümer, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake among adults (+ 16 years) in the Capital Region of Denmark (N = 48,305). Accessibility of FFOs was measured both as proximity (distance to nearest FFO) and density (number of FFOs within a 1km network buffer around home). Odds of fast food intake ≥ 1/week increased significantly with increasing FFO density and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest FFO for distances ≤ 4km. For long distances (>4km), odds increased with increasing distance, although this applied only for car owners. Results suggest that Danish health promotion strategies need to consider the contribution of the built environment to unhealthy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary intake of tin in Japan, and the effects on intake of canned food and beverage consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, S; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Sakurai, K; Date, C; Nishimura, A; Nakatsuka, H; Saito, H; Arisawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2007-05-01

    The study reported herein was initiated to examine dietary tin intake (Sn-D) in Japan to elucidate the possible effects of consumption of canned food (including beverages) on Sn-D, and to compare the intake among regions and between the two sexes in reference to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake and intake in other countries. Urinary tin levels (Sn-U) were also studied. Duplicate diet samples (24 h) together with records of food intake were collected in 1999-2004 from 111 adult residents in four areas of Japan. After exclusion of incomplete samples, 95 valid samples were subjected to determination of tin by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion. Among the 95 cases, 37 women additionally provided urine samples. Distribution of Sn-D was markedly skewed. Median Sn-D was 5.6 microg day(-1) for total subjects, which was about one-tenth of the values previously reported for the Japanese population; the difference was most probably attributable to the difference in the methods of determination. Consumption of canned foods led to a substantial increase in Sn-D. Thus, the median Sn-D for canned food consumers of 35.7 microg day(-1), was eight-fold higher than the median Sn-D for non-consumers of 4.5 microg day(-1). Sn-U (as corrected for creatinine concentration) distributed log-normally with a geometric mean of 2.0 microg (g cr)(-1). No effect of canned food consumption was evident on Sn-U. When compared internationally, Sn-D for the Japanese population was substantially lower than Sn-D for populations in other industrialized countries.

  1. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  2. Supermarket discounts of low-energy density foods: effects on purchasing, food intake, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Ang, Ian Yi Han; Bernales-Korins, Maria; Hernandez, Dominica; Ochner, Christopher N; Ungredda, Tatiana; Miller, Rachel; Kolbe, Laura

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effects of a 50% discount on low-energy density (ED) fruits and vegetables (F&V), bottled water, and diet sodas on shoppers' purchasing, food intake, and body weight. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at two Manhattan supermarkets, in which a 4-week baseline period (no discounts) preceded an 8-week intervention period (50% discount), and a 4-week follow-up period (no discounts). Twenty-four hour dietary recall, as well as body weight and body composition measures were obtained every 4 weeks. Participants (n = 47, 33f; 14m) were overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) shoppers. Purchasing of F&V during intervention was greater in the discount group than in the control group (P weight change did not differ significantly between groups, although post hoc analysis indicated a change within the discount group (-1.1 kg, P = 0.006) but not within the control group. Discounts of low-ED F&V led to increased purchasing and intake of those foods. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Behrends RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how much food supplements contribute to the nutritional adequacy of energy and macronutrients in relation those recommended for athletes. Methods This was a cross sectional study was composed of 182 athletes from 19 sports (150 men and 32 women with a mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 23.8±7.5 years, 73.7±15.6kg, 1.7±0.1m, 24.2±4.0kg/m², respectively. The 24 hours dietary recall was applied to assess intake and the Multiple Source Method to evaluate usual intake. We used the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis for comparative analysis among the diets, gender and types of groups, and the comparison of two-proportion test to assess the diets Food and Food and Supplementation. Results Of the athletes studied, less than half used dietary supplements (39.0%. Energy intake was below the recommended (52.7% in Food diet, and 45.6% in Food and Supplementation diet. The mean total of carbohydrate inadequacy (g.kg-1.day-1 was high for athletes of both genders and between Food and Food and Supplementation diets. The protein intake was above the recommended levels in Food diet (23.1% and in Food and Supplementation diet (33.5%. The lipid intake was also above the recommended dietary levels in Food (47.3% and in Food and Supplementation diets (50.0%. Conclusion The use of supplements did not significantly reduce inadequacies of diet and the athletes’ intake of calories and carbohydrates was below the recommended for these groups. However, the protein intake was above the recommended levels for athletes.

  4. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Vidarsdottir, S.; Graaf, de C.; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P.; Viergever, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Grond, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    Oral glucose intake inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity more effectively than glucose infusion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E754-E758, 2007. First published June 12, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00231.2007. - We previously showed that hypothalamic neuronal activity, as measured by the blood

  6. Food consumption inhibits pain-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Peggy; Foo, H

    2009-07-01

    The function of the endogenous analgesia system under natural circumstances has been little explored. Our recent work shows that animals are significantly less responsive to noxious stimulation during slow wave sleep, micturition, and while eating than during quiet wake. The analgesia associated with eating is dependent on activity in the medullary raphe magnus, the final common brain stem region in endogenous analgesia pathways. Eating analgesia does not depend on energy-depletion due to food deprivation. Further, analgesia accompanies chow-eating even though chow has no sucrose, demonstrating that sucrose is not a necessary component of analgesia-evoking ingestates. Since raphe magnus modulates processing of innocuous as well as nociceptive information, the sensory suppression accompanying eating is likely a more general depression of the response to external stimulation. Such a phenomenon would serve animals well under natural conditions where energy-dense food is scarce but has counterproductive effects, possibly contributing to obesity, in modern human society where energy-dense food is readily available.

  7. Nonlinear time series analysis of food intake in the dab and the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J W; Ruohonen, K; Grove, D J; Hammerstein, A

    2007-04-21

    Evidence suggests that dab and rainbow trout are able to quickly adjust their food intake to an appropriate level when offered novel diets. In addition day-to-day and meal-to-meal food intake varies greatly and meal timing is plastic. Why this is the case is not clear: Food intake in fish is influenced by many factors, however the hierarchy and mechanisms by which these interact is not yet fully understood. A model of food intake may be helpful to understand these phenomena; to determine model type it is necessary to understand the qualitative nature of food intake. Food intake can be regarded as an autoregressive (AR) time series, as the amount of food eaten at time t will be influenced by previous meals, and this allows food intake to be considered using time series analyses. Here, time series data were analysed using nonlinear techniques to obtain qualitative information from which evidence for the hierarchy of mechanisms controlling food intake may be drawn. Time series were obtained for a group of dab and individuals and a group of rainbow trout for analysis. Surrogate data sets were generated to test several null hypotheses describing linear processes and all proved significantly different to the real data, suggesting nonlinear dynamics. Examination of topography and recurrence diagrams suggested that all series were deterministic and non-stationary. The point correlation dimension (PD2i) suggested low-dimensional dynamics. Our findings suggest therefore that any model of appetite should create output that is deterministic, non-stationary, low-dimensional and having nonlinear dynamics.

  8. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrike Trautvetter; Bianka Ditscheid; Gerhard Jahreis; Michael Glei

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified...

  9. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  10. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  11. Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. Design: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study...

  12. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  13. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  14. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the

  15. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    intake for persons living in LTC. Top determinants to address with intervention research included social interactions of residents at mealtime; self-feeding ability; the dining environment; the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of staff; adequate time to eat/availability of staff to provide assistance...... for the development and testing of interventions to improve food and fluid intake of older adults living in LTC....

  16. [A study on isoflavones intake from soy foods and perimenstrual symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Khil, Jin Mo

    2007-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationship between isoflavones intake from soy foods and perimenstrual symptoms among women. The research design was a cross sectional study. Subjects consisted of 245 women living in Korea, aged 19-49 years. The measurement tools were MDQ and FFQ. Frequently consumed soy isoflavones foods were rice with soybeans, soybean paste stew, and soy paste with tofu. The amounts of soy isoflavones foods consumed in order from highest to lowest were rice with soybeans, soybean paste stew, seasoned soybean sprouts, and soy paste with tofu. Subjects were divided into three groups by isoflavones intake levels; the small intake group, moderate intake group, and large intake group. There were significant differences in some menstrual symptoms, and postmenstrual symptoms by isoflavones intake levels. In general, the moderate isoflavones intake group showed lower scores in some menstrual symptoms and postmenstrual periods compared to the small and large intake groups. These results suggest some positive health effects of isoflavones from soy foods on perimenstrual symptoms. More accurate, objective measurement needs to be applied and more investigation of soy isoflavones effects on many aspects of women's health need to be done in a future study.

  17. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  18. Minireview: glucocorticoids--food intake, abdominal obesity, and wealthy nations in 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallman, Mary F.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Pecoraro, Norman C.; Gomez, Francisca; Houshyar, Hani; Akana, Susan F.

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a major effect on food intake that is underappreciated, although the effects of glucocorticoids on metabolism and abdominal obesity are quite well understood. Physiologically appropriate concentrations of naturally secreted corticosteroids (cortisol in humans, corticosterone in

  19. Active school transport and fast food intake: Are there racial and ethnic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, E V; Bécares, L; Sallis, J F; Sánchez, B N

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether active school transport was associated with fast food consumption, and to examine differences across racial/ethnic groups. Adolescent data (n=3194) from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed with logistic regression models to examine the association between active school transport (AST) and fast food intake across racial/ethnic groups. In the overall sample, AST during 1-2days in the past week was associated with greater likelihood of fast food intake (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.03-2.43), compared with zero days of AST, controlling for demographic and other factors. The association between AST and fast food intake differed significantly by race/ethnicity (pfast food intake (1-2days OR, 2.37, 95%CI: 1.05-5.35; 3-4days OR, 2.78, 95% CI: 1.04-7.43; 5days OR, 2.20, 95%CI: 1.23-3.93). Among White and Asian adolescents, there was a curvilinear pattern: relative to adolescents who reported zero days of AST, those who did AST 1-2days/week had greater likelihood of fast food intake, but AST of 3-4days and 5days/week was associated respectively, with higher and lower likelihood of fast food intake among both groups. AST appears to be a risk factor for fast food intake, and may expose some ethnic groups more than others to increased opportunity to purchase and consume fast food. Programs and policies to promote AST among adolescents should incorporate efforts to encourage healthy eating and discourage concentration of fast food outlets near schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are we aware of the external factors that influence our food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Herman, C Peter; Wansink, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This research examines the extent to which people accurately report some of the external influences on their food intake. In two studies, specific factors (the presence and behavior of others) were manipulated in order to influence the amount of food that individuals consumed. The main outcomes of interest were participants' spontaneously generated explanations for their food intake (Study 1; n = 122), and their ratings of the importance of several potential determinants of food intake (Study 2; n = 75). In Study 1, there was high concordance between the amounts eaten by members of a dyad, but very few participants indicated that they were influenced by their partner's behavior; they instead identified hunger and taste as the primary determinants of intake. Study 2 showed that participants' intake was strongly influenced by the behavior of others, but people rated taste and hunger as much more important influences on their intake. If external environmental factors influence people's food intake without their awareness or acknowledgment, then maintaining a healthy diet can be a challenge, with long-term consequences for health and well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The NAc is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from D1 NAc neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs non-running. The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control.

  2. Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Mediates Tail-Pinch Induced Food Intake in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M H; Bashir, Z; Li, X F; O'Byrne, K T

    2016-05-01

    Comfort eating during periods of stress is a common phenomenon observed in both animals and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced food intake remain elusive. The amygdala plays a central role in higher-order emotional processing and the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD), in particular, is involved in food intake. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is well recognised for mediating behavioural responses to stress. To explore the possible role of amygdala CRF receptor activation in stress-induced food intake, we evaluated whether a stressor such as tail-pinch, which reliably induces food intake, would fail to do so in animals bearing bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the MePD. Our results showed that ibotenic acid induced lesions of the MePD markedly reduced tail-pinch induced food intake in ovariectomised, 17β-oestradiol replaced rats. In addition, intra-MePD (right side only) administration of CRF (0.002 or 0.02 ng) via chronically implanted cannulae resulted in a dose-dependent increase in food intake, although higher doses of 0.2 and 2 ng CRF had less effect, producing a bell shaped curve. Furthermore, intra-MePD (bilateral) administration of the CRF receptor antagonist, astressin (0.3 μg per side) effectively blocked tail-pinch induced food intake. These data suggest that the MePD is involved in stress-induced food intake and that the amygdala CRF system may be a mediator of comfort eating. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Effect of food intake on the tissue distribution of gallium-67: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.L.; Szymendera, J.J.; Byrd, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Fasting affects the body retention and tissue distribution of Ga-67 in experimental animals. In Ga-67 experiments, therefore, a difference in food intake between treated and control animals might result in confusing side effects. We have observed this in irradiation studies. It is suggested that a fasting regimen should be imposed in any Ga-67 animal study where an alteration in food intake might be experienced in the treated group

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given......-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions....

  5. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess nutrient intake in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C A; Curran, S; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-04-01

    To date, there are no food frequency questionnaires that have been validated to assess nutrient intakes in pregnant women in Ireland. The present study aimed to assess the relative validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire was administered once during pregnancy between 12 and 34 weeks. Participants also completed a 3-day food diary during each trimester of pregnancy (reference method) and intakes from both the food frequency questionnaire and the mean of the 3-day food diaries were compared in a sample of 130 participants from the control arm of an intervention study. Energy-adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (riboflavin) to 0.59 (magnesium) and were all statistically significant (P food frequency questionnaire tended to report higher energy and nutrient intakes compared to the food diaries. On average, 74% of participants were classified into the same ± 1 quartile and 7% into opposing quartiles by the two methods. Overall, our food frequency questionnaire showed good relative validity. We conclude that a single administration of a food frequency questionnaire is a valid tool for ranking women in accordance with their nutrient intakes during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Food sources and correlates of sodium and potassium intakes in Flemish pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Vereecken, Carine; Van Oyen, Herman; Tilleman, Katrien; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dietary sources of Na and K intakes among Flemish pre-school children using multiple linear regression analyses. Three-day estimated diet records were used to assess dietary intakes. The contribution to Na and K intakes of fifty-seven food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake for all individuals. A random cluster sampling design at the level of schools, stratified by province and age, was used. A representative sample of 696 Flemish pre-school children aged 2·5-6·5 years was recruited. Mean Na intake was above and mean K intake was largely below the recommendation for children. Bread (22 %) and soup (13 %) were main contributors to Na intake followed by cold meat cuts and other meat products (12 % and 11 %, respectively). Sugared milk drinks, fried potatoes, milk and fruit juices were the main K sources (13 %, 12 %, 11 % and 11 %, respectively). Although Na and K intakes were positively correlated, several food categories showed Na:K intake ratio well above one (water, cheeses, soup, butter/margarine, fast foods and light beverages) whereas others presented a ratio well below one (oil & fat, fruits & juices, potatoes, vegetables and hot beverages). Flemish pre-school children had too high Na and too low K intakes. The finding that main dietary sources of Na and K are clearly different indicates the feasibility of simultaneously decreasing Na and increasing K intake among children.

  8. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  9. Reducing Food Insecurity and Improving Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Farmers' Market Incentive Program Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie-Roskos, Mateja; Durward, Carrie; Jeweks, Melanie; LeBlanc, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a farmers' market incentive pilot program had an impact on food security and fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake of participants. Participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program were eligible to receive a dollar-per-dollar match up to $10/wk in farmers' market incentives. The researchers used a pretest-posttest design to measure F&V intake and food security status of 54 adult participants before and after receiving farmers' market incentives. The 6-item Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire and US Household Food Security Survey Module were used to measure F&V intake and food security, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores of F&V intake. After receiving incentives, fewer individuals reported experiencing food insecurity-related behaviors. A significantly increased intake (P market incentive program was positively related to greater food security and intake of select vegetables among participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxygen consumption constrains food intake in fish fed diets varying in essential amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (pfood intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale.

  11. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  12. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the aspect of safe food, soybean paste received the highest evaluation score, as mush as a traditional food. The analysis of perception by sociodemographic variables showed that soybean curd, Dambuk, and soybean sprouts had higher perceptions as education level increased, and soy milk had higher perceptions in subjects with younger age and with employment. In the intake frequency, more than 50% of the subjects had soybean curd, soybean sprouts, and soybean paste more than once a week. The analysis for correlation between the intake frequency of soy foods and the degree of perception showed that taste and flavor had high correlation with the intake frequency of soy foods except soybean sprouts. The intake frequency of soybean paste, Dambuk, and soy milk had positive correlations to familiarity and that of soy milk had positive correlations to nutrition and health perception, and those of soybeam paste, soybean sprouts, and soy milk had positive correlations to safe food perception. From the above results, housewives in Korea had very high perceptions to nutritional quality and health promotion effect of soy foods and the degree of perception and accompanied intake frequency had significant differences by age, education level, and economic level among sociodemographic variables.

  13. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Holstein, Bjørn E; Krølner, Rikke

    2016-02-01

    We examined associations between fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet exposure. Information from the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children Study was linked to fast-food outlets in seventy-five school neighbourhoods. We used multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine associations between at least weekly fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet measures. Data represent 4642 adolescents (aged 11-15 years) in Denmark. Boys reporting two or more fast-food outlets had 34% higher odds consuming fast food at least weekly. We detected higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake among 15-year-old 9th graders (ORall=1.74; 95% CI 1.40, 2.18; ORboys=2.20; 95% CI 1.66, 2.91; ORgirls=1.41; 95% CI 1.03, 1.92), Danish speakers (ORall=2.32; 95% CI 1.68, 3.19; ORboys=2.58; 95% CI 1.69, 3.93; ORgirls=2.37; 95% CI 1.46, 3.84) and those travelling 15 min or less to school (ORall=1.21; 95% CI 1.00, 1.46; ORgirls=1.44; 95% CI 1.08, 1.93) compared with 11-year-old 5th graders, non-Danish speakers and those with longer travel times. Boys from middle- (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.00, 1.65) and girls from low-income families (OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.05, 2.04) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake compared with those from high-income backgrounds. Girls attending schools with canteens (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.00, 2.15) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake than girls at schools without canteens. The present study demonstrates that perceived food outlets may impact fast-food intake in boys while proximity impacts intake in girls. Public health planning could target food environments that emphasize a better understanding of how adolescents use local resources.

  14. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Speridião, Patricia da Graça Leite; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n = 11, median = 380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n = 10, median = 695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n = 10, median = 670 mL) (P 560 mL (n = 14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height.

  15. Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomy selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg......) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h I excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than...

  16. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  17. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-10

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  18. No efficacy of processed Fabuless (Olibra) in suppressing appetite or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Keenan, E; Kovacs, E M R; Wiseman, S A; Peters, H P F; Mela, D J; Rogers, P J

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of Fabuless (previously called Olibra and Reducal) as a food ingredient for food intake and appetite reduction, by assessing the effects of food processing on efficacy. In total, 24 healthy volunteers (16 female, 8 male; age: 18-43 years; body mass index: 18-37 kg/m(2)) took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Yoghurt-based meal replacement drinks (containing processed or unprocessed Fabuless, or a control fat) were followed by an ad libitum lunch and evening meal (dinner). Key outcome measures were energy intake and self-reported appetite ratings. Compared with control, only unprocessed Fabuless reduced subsequent energy intake, although only during dinner (P processed and unprocessed: 4.3, 3.9 and 4.2 MJ, respectively) and not during lunch (3.6, 3.7 and 3.6 MJ). Self-reported appetite scores did not differ between treatments. Although modest effects of unprocessed Fabuless were seen on food intake, but not on appetite, the ingredient was not robust to common food-manufacturing processes (thermal and shear processing). Claims on reduced food intake and appetite relating to this ingredient in food products are, therefore, only valid if functionality has been demonstrated after all relevant processing and storage steps.

  19. Chemical afferent vagal axotomy blocks re-intake after partial withdrawal of gastric food contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, María A; Molina, Filomena; Puerto, Amadeo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological process by which animals regulate meal size. An experimental procedure for its study is to examine food re-intake after partial withdrawal of gastric food contents. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the role of vagal afferents in food re-intake after perivagal administration of capsaicin, a neurotoxin that specifically damages weakly myelinated or unmyelinated vagal sensory axons. In experiment 1, capsaicin-treated animals initially consumed higher amounts of food in comparison to controls (in first 24 hours) but their excess intake was compensated for in subsequent daily satiation tests. However, capsaicin treatment impaired the common short-term re-intake behavior observed in control rats after partial removal of gastric food nutrients, and the lesioned animals consumed significantly less food than had been withdrawn after completion of the initial meal; moreover, in this deficit condition, no counteraction was observed in subsequent repeated tests. This behavioral disturbance cannot be attributed to an indirect effect of capsaicin on gastric emptying volume, because the stomach contents were similar in both groups (Experiment 2). These findings are discussed in terms of the critical role played by vagal afferents in rapid visceral adjustments related to short-term food intake, as also observed in other gastrointestinal regulatory behaviors that require immediate processing of visceral sensory information.

  20. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.

  1. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

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    Haruno Nishimuro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods.

  2. The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Raben, A; Blundell, J; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Energy intake at lunch and during the snacking period was similar after ingesting the two sugars, while it was 15% lower after ingesting D-tagatose than with sucrose at supper (P D-tagatose causing distension of the gut might have mediated the acute appetite-suppressing effect. The present paper also refers to data from a preceding study in which we observed an increased self-reported energy intake after ingestion of D-tagatose compared with sucrose which, in fact, suggests a relative hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose. However, self-reported food intake may be biased by selective under-reporting and this subsequent study with a more controlled assessment of food intake was therefore conducted. This present study did not support any hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose, but rather suggests that D-tagatose may contribute to a reduced energy intake.

  3. Evaluation of dietary habits and nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posea Mihaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims To document the nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese people, in order to change dietary habits for acquiring the normal weight. Material and methods We assessed the nutritional content of food intake (kilocalories, vitamins and minerals in a sample of 124 overweight and obese people and 33 subjects with normal weight. We also measured abdominal circumference, percent of body fat and resting metabolic rate. Results Overweight and obese patients, compared to normal weight, have a significant increased intake of vitamin A (p=0.002, vitamin B1 (p=0.037, vitamin B5 (p=0.047, vitamin C (p=0.029 and vitamin D (p=0.015, sodium (p=0.036, iron (p=0.032 and selenium (p=0.007. The percent of body fat in obese persons is increased (p=0.00001 and very close to abnormal in patients with no weight problems. An increased food intake, above the calculated resting metabolic rate, is associated with a slower metabolism and a rapid resting metabolic rate is often associated with food intake below resting metabolic rate (p=0.002. Conclusions All subjects had imbalanced intake of vitamins and minerals. The normal weight group didn’t achieve the dietary recommendations for vitamins and minerals and we found that these subjects had risk factors for cardiac diseases like increased abdominal circumference, body fat and sodium intake.

  4. Household food insufficiency is associated with dietary intake in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Song, Yoon Ju; Kim, Young; Choe, Jeongsook; Paik, Hee-Young

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of food insufficiency with dietary intake and eating and health behaviours. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from a secondary source, the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). The sample size consisted of 15 603 adults over 19 years of age (8898 households). Significant differences in socio-economic factors were observed according to food insufficiency level (Pfood-insufficient group, but we found no association with fat intake. Regarding micronutrients, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin niacin and vitamin C intakes were negatively associated with food insufficiency level (P trendfood groups, such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, vegetables and fruits, was significantly lower as food insufficiency level decreased after controlling for all possible variables; food group consumption also differed by sex. Overall eating and health behaviours were poorer in the mildly and severely food-insufficient groups, who received more food assistance but less nutritional education. Our results showed that dietary intake as well as eating and health behaviours are adversely associated with food insufficiency. These findings suggest that specific strategies to help food-insufficient individuals should be developed in order to improve their dietary quality and health status.

  5. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  6. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

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    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  7. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  9. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  10. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  11. PYY(3-36) reduces food intake and body weight and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of diet-induced obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    intraperitoneal injection of PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake in mice, but not in rats. We next investigated the effects of increasing doses (100, 300, and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps on food intake and body weight in DIO C57BL/6J mice. Whereas only...... the highest dose (1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) significantly reduced food intake over the first 3 days, body weight gain was dose dependently reduced, and on day 28 the group treated with 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1 PYY(3-36) weighed approximately 10% less than the vehicle-treated group. Mesenteric...

  12. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

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    Ane-Kersti Skaarup Knudsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives: To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design: Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women 50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland.

  13. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  14. Macronutrient intake and food sources in the very old: analysis of the Newcastle 85+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Nuno; Hill, Tom R; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario; Wrieden, Wendy L; Seal, Chris J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J

    2016-06-01

    Food and nutrient intake data are scarce in very old adults (85 years and older) - one of the fastest growing age segments of Western societies, including the UK. Our primary objective was to assess energy and macronutrient intakes and respective food sources in 793 85-year-olds (302 men and 491 women) living in North-East England and participating in the Newcastle 85+ cohort Study. Dietary information was collected using a repeated multiple-pass recall (2×24 h recalls). Energy, macronutrient and NSP intakes were estimated, and the contribution (%) of food groups to nutrient intake was calculated. The median energy intake was 6·65 (interquartile ranges (IQR) 5·49-8·16) MJ/d - 46·8 % was from carbohydrates, 36·8 % from fats and 15·7 % from proteins. NSP intake was 10·2 g/d (IQR 7·3-13·7). NSP intake was higher in non-institutionalised, more educated, from higher social class and more physically active 85-year-olds. Cereals and cereal products were the top contributors to intakes of energy and most macronutrients (carbohydrates, non-milk extrinsic sugars, NSP and fat), followed by meat and meat products. The median intakes of energy and NSP were much lower than the estimated average requirement for energy (9·6 MJ/d for men and 7·7 MJ/d for women) and the dietary reference value (DRV) for NSP (≥18 g/d). The median SFA intake was higher than the DRV (≤11 % of dietary energy). This study highlights the paucity of data on dietary intake and the uncertainties about DRV for this age group.

  15. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  16. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice

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    Kiss Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem (NTS, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH of the hypothalamus. Results In fasted C57BL/6 mice, the anorexigenic effect of CART(61-102 in the doses of 0.1 or 0.5 μg/mouse was significantly enhanced by low doses of CCK-8 of 0.4 or 4 μg/kg, while 1 mg/kg dose of CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the effect of CART(61-102 on food intake. After simultaneous administration of 0.1 μg/mouse CART(61-102 and of 4 μg/kg of CCK-8, the number of Fos-positive neurons in NTS, PVN, and DMH was significantly higher than after administration of each particular peptide. Besides, CART(61-102 and CCK-8 showed an additive effect on inhibition of the locomotor activity of mice in an open field test. Conclusion The synergistic and long-lasting effect of the CART peptide and CCK on food intake and their additive effect on Fos immunoreactivity in their common targets suggest a co-operative action of CART peptide and CCK which could be related to synergistic effect of leptin on CCK satiety.

  17. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  18. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  19. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  20. Reassessing wanting and liking in the study of mesolimbic influence on food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals such as rats and mice tend to overconsume calorie-dense foods, a phenomenon that likely contributes to obesity. One often-advanced explanation for why we preferentially consume sweet and fatty foods is that they are more “rewarding” than low-calorie foods. “Reward” has been subdivided into three interdependent psychological processes: hedonia (liking a food), reinforcement (formation of associations among stimuli, actions, and/or the food), and motivation (wanting the food). Research into these processes has focused on the mesolimbic system, which comprises both dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and neurons in their major projection target, the nucleus accumbens. The mesolimbic system and closely connected structures are commonly referred to as the brain’s “reward circuit.” Implicit in this title is the assumption that “rewarding” experiences are generally the result of activity in this circuit. In this review, I argue that food intake and the preference for calorie-dense foods can be explained without reference to subjective emotions. Furthermore, the contribution of mesolimbic dopamine to food intake and preference may not be a general one of promoting or coordinating behaviors that result in the most reward or caloric intake but may instead be limited to the facilitation of a specific form of neural computation that results in conditioned approach behavior. Studies on the neural mechanisms of caloric intake regulation must address how sensory information about calorie intake affects not just the mesolimbic system but also many other forms of computation that govern other types of food-seeking and food-oriented behaviors. PMID:27534877

  1. The characteristics of intaking Cs-137 and Sr-90 with food by Ozyorsk's inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronova, M.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of intaking of radioactive substances with into the human organism food is interest of specialists now. It was actually when man made radiation especially nuclear weapons tests and nuclear power systems incidents has increased the global radiation average. It's known that radionuclides containing in the food are basic source of additional exposure of people. Radionuclides can move in biological systems. (author)

  2. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  3. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food intake patterns associated with incident type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Weis, Kristina E; Schulz, Mandy; Tooze, Janet A

    2009-02-01

    Markers of hemostasis and inflammation such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify food intake patterns influencing this pathway and evaluate their association with incident diabetes. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort included 880 middle-aged adults initially free of diabetes. At the 5-year follow-up, 144 individuals had developed diabetes. Usual dietary intake was ascertained with a 114-item food frequency questionnaire. Using reduced rank regression, we identified a food pattern maximizing the explained variation in PAI-1 and fibrinogen. Subsequently, the food pattern-diabetes association was evaluated using logistic regression. High intake of the food groups red meat, low-fiber bread and cereal, dried beans, fried potatoes, tomato vegetables, eggs, cheese, and cottage cheese and low intake of wine characterized the pattern, which was positively associated with both biomarkers. With increasing pattern score, the odds of diabetes increased significantly (Ptrend < 0.01). After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio comparing extreme quartiles was 4.3 (95% CI 1.7-10.8). Adjustment for insulin sensitivity and secretion and other metabolic factors had little impact (4.9, 1.8-13.7). Our findings provide support for potential behavioral prevention strategies, as we identified a food intake pattern that was strongly related to PAI-1 and fibrinogen and independently predicted type 2 diabetes.

  5. Effects of nicotine on homeostatic and hedonic components of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojakovic, Andrea; Espinosa, Enma P; Farhad, Osman T; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2017-10-01

    Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides. The equilibrium between these two groups of peptides can be shifted by nicotine leading to decreased food intake and weight loss. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effect of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis and report on the changes that nicotine brings about in the level of these peptides and their receptors that may explain changes in food intake and body weight induced by nicotine. Furthermore, we review the effect of nicotine on the hedonic aspect of food intake. Finally, we discuss the involvement of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulatory action of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Taking control: Working memory training in overweight individuals increases self-regulation of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Dassen, Fania C M; Jansen, Anita

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) plays a critical role in cognitive control by shielding self-regulatory goals from distraction by desire-related thoughts and emotions. This study examined whether training WM increases self-regulation in overweight participants. It was hypothesized that WM training would decrease psychopathological eating-related thoughts, (over)consumption of food in response to emotions and external cues, food intake and body weight. Overweight participants (n = 50) performed 20-25 sessions of WM training or control/sham training. The dependent measures were self-reported eating-related psychopathology, self-reported emotional/external eating behavior, food intake during a bogus taste test, and body weight, assessed before training, immediately following training, and at one-month follow-up. Relative to control, WM training reduced psychopathological eating-related thoughts and emotional eating (but not external eating). These effects were still present at follow-up, one month later. Food intake and body weight did not show an overall effect of training, though WM training did reduce food intake among highly restrained participants. WM training effectively reduced eating-related thoughts, overeating in response to negative emotions, and food intake among participants with strong dietary restraint goals. Hence, these findings indicate that WM training may strengthen self-regulation by shielding dieting goals from distraction by unwanted eating-related thoughts and emotions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent. The objective was to investigate whether soy food intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk. We prospectively examined 68,412 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer and diabetes at enrollment. Usual soy food intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded the first year of observation to minimize lifestyle changes related to preclinical disease. During a mean follow-up of 6.4 y, 321 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, total soy food intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Each 5-g/d increment in intake of soy foods as assessed by dry weight [equivalent to approximately 1 oz (28.35 g) tofu/d] was associated with an 8% reduction in risk (95% CI: 3%, 14%). Women in the highest tertile of intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) compared with those in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.008). This inverse association was primarily confined to postmenopausal women. Similar results were also found for intakes of soy protein and isoflavones. This prospective study suggests that consumption of soy foods may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

  8. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  9. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet exposure. DESIGN: Information from the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children Study was linked to fast-food outlets in seventy-five school neighbourhoods. We used multivariate multilevel...... logistic regression analyses to examine associations between at least weekly fast-food intake and perceived and objective fast-food outlet measures. SUBJECTS: Data represent 4642 adolescents (aged 11-15 years) in Denmark. RESULTS: Boys reporting two or more fast-food outlets had 34 % higher odds consuming...... fast food at least weekly. We detected higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake among 15-year-old 9th graders (ORall=1·74; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·18; ORboys=2·20; 95 % CI 1·66, 2·91; ORgirls=1·41; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·92), Danish speakers (ORall=2·32; 95 % CI 1·68, 3·19; ORboys=2·58; 95 % CI 1·69, 3...

  10. Adolescents' non-core food intake: a description of what, where and with whom adolescents consume non-core foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpakari, Zoi; Haase, Anne M; Johnson, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about adolescents' non-core food intake in the UK and the eating context in which they consume non-core foods. The present study aimed to describe types of non-core foods consumed by British adolescents in total and across different eating contexts. A descriptive analysis, using cross-sectional data from food diaries. Non-core foods were classified based on cut-off points of fat and sugar from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Eating context was defined as 'where' and 'with whom' adolescents consumed each food. Percentages of non-core energy were calculated for each food group in total and across eating contexts. A combined ranking was then created to account for each food's contribution to non-core energy intake and its popularity of consumption (percentage of consumers). The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Adolescents across the UK aged 11-18 years (n 666). Non-core food comprised 39·5 % of total energy intake and was mostly 'Regular soft drinks', 'Crisps & savoury snacks', 'Chips & potato products', 'Chocolate' and 'Biscuits'. Adolescents ate 57·0 % and 51·3 % of non-core food at 'Eateries' or with 'Friends', compared with 33·2 % and 32·1 % at 'Home' or with 'Parents'. Persistent foods consumed across eating contexts were 'Regular soft drinks' and 'Chips & potato products'. Regular soft drinks contribute the most energy and are the most popular non-core food consumed by adolescents regardless of context, and represent a good target for interventions to reduce non-core food consumption.

  11. Illness anxiety and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: Cognitive-behavioral conceptualization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren A; Urbach, John R; Stewart, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Eating difficulties are commonly present in medical and psychiatric settings. Some eating problems are resultant from fears about food consumption and can be conceptualized as anxiety disorders conditioned by perception of feared outcomes associated with eating and maintained by avoidance. The authors present a case in which a female patient with limited food intake is successfully treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Illness anxiety disorder and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, both newly included in DSM-V, are applied in this case. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A Systematic Examination of Food Intake and Adaptation to the Food Environment by Refugees Settled in the United States1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Harris, Kisa; Khuri, Jacob; Anderson, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    The United States is the largest refugee resettlement country in the world. Refugees may face health-related challenges after resettlement in the United States, including higher rates of chronic diseases due to problems such as language barriers and difficulty adapting to new food environments. However, reported refugee diet challenges varied, and no systematic examination has been reported. This study examined refugee food intake pre- and postresettlement in the United States and differences in intake across various refugee groups. We systematically reviewed relevant studies that reported on refugee food intake and adaptation to the US food environment. We searched PubMed for literature published between January 1985 and April 2015, including cross-sectional and prospective studies. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted, and most studies were based on small convenience samples. In general, refugees increased meat and egg consumption after resettling in the United States. Changes in refugee intake of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products varied by socioeconomic status, food insecurity, past food deprivation experience, length of stay in the United States, region of origin, and age. South Asians were more likely to maintain traditional diets, and increased age was associated with more conservative and traditional diets. Despite the abundance of food in the United States, postresettlement refugees reported difficulty in finding familiar or healthy foods. More research with larger samples and follow-up data are needed to study how refugees adapt to the US food environment and what factors may influence their food- and health-related outcomes. The work could inform future interventions to promote healthy eating and living among refugees and help to reduce health disparities. PMID:28140324

  13. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  14. Protein Digestion-Derived Peptides and the Peripheral Regulation of Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Cudennec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut–brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled. This review provides a concise overview of the current data concerning the implication of food-derived peptides in the peripheral regulation of food intake with a focus on the gut hormones cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 regulation and the relationship with some aspects of glucose homeostasis.

  15. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (2005, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  16. Nutritional status and food intake data on children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine growth indicators and dietary intake patterns of children aged 4-18 years residing in residential care facilities in Durban. Method: Thirty-three girls and 110 boys, aged 5-18 years, in three different children's homes participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements ...

  17. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Several observational studies have investigated the relation of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinone intake with occurrence of chronic diseases. Most of these studies relied on food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to estimate the intake of phylloquinone and menaquinones. However, none of...

  18. Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mulè

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index, while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy.

  19. Food and nutrient intake of Irish community-dwelling elderly subjects: who is at nutritional risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, S E; Jeffery, I B; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; O'Toole, P W; O'Connor, E M; Fitzgerald, G F

    2014-01-01

    To assess the dietary intakes of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals, participating in the ELDERMET project. Cross-sectional study. Cork city and county region of southern Ireland. Two hundred and eight (94 males, 114 females) community-dwelling subjects aged 64-93 yrs. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric data were recorded. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). A high rate of overweight/obesity was observed in this population group. Consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods was excessive among this population group. Older elderly subjects (≥75 yrs) consumed significantly (Pdiet than males. A considerable proportion of subjects, particularly males, had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, folate, zinc and vitamin C. The data indicate that the diet of Irish community-dwelling elderly individuals is sub-optimal with respect to nutrient intake, and excessive in terms of fat intake, with implications for the health status of this population group. Reductions in dietary fat and increased low fat dairy food intakes are recommended for the prevention of diet-related disease in older persons. In addition, strategies to improve a number of sub-optimal micronutrient intakes need to be developed and implemented, particularly among elderly males.

  20. Characteristics of food group intake by household income in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Horikawa, Chika; Murayama, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between of food group intake and household income in a representative Japanese population. A total of 11,015 subjects (5,127 men and 5,888 women) aged 20 to 79 years, in 5,475 households who were part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 were analyzed. Dietary intake was recorded for one day in November for those aged one year and older, from 300 randomly selected survey districts. Household income per year was recorded in the questionnaire in three categories: low (=6 million yen). Multilevel regression modelling was applied to take into account the hierarchical data structure of subjects nested within households, and households nested within survey districts. Dichotomous variables divided at the median intake of each food group were used. In a model where sex, age, household size and population size of municipalities to which survey districts belonged were adjusted, the total energy intake was found to be highest in individuals from middle income households, and lowest for those from low income households. In models where a total energy intake was additionally adjusted, household members with low and middle incomes had a significantly higher intake of cereals, and a lower intake of potatoes and starches, pulses, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fish and shellfish, milk and seasonings and spices compared with those with high incomes. In conclusion, household members with lower incomes in Japan consumed more staple foods, but less vegetable, fruit and fish.

  1. Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elisabete; Costa, Andreia; Araújo, Joana; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003-2004 school year, including adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in the schools of Porto, Portugal. Time spent watching TV was collected by self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Included in the analysis were 1436 adolescents. Spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was significantly associated with higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and with lower intake of magnesium, in both sexes. Additionally, in girls, spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was associated with lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fiber, total vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. In boys, higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol was found among those spending more time watching TV. We found that television viewing is associated with higher consumption of foods containing more fats and sugars and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consequently, adolescents who watched more television had a higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and a lower intake of minerals and vitamins. This dietary behavior among adolescents may have long-term health implications, not only limited to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Flock size and habitat-dependent food and energy intake of foraging Goldfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Erich

    1986-12-01

    During the breeding season Goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis L.) feed on milky ripe seeds of about 20 food plants. Individual Goldfinches joining a flock reduce the time spent vigilant with increasing flock size. Therefore birds feeding in flocks get an increased intake of kernels per time unit. This was measured for five different food plants (Dactylis glomerata (Gramineae), Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), Senecio vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon pratensis (Compositae)). In large-sized flocks, birds fed up to 2.3 times more kernels, than when feeding solitarily. In addition, visibility in the vegetation leads to a further increase of kernel intake. Thus feeding under good conditions as in recently mown areas, can raise kernel intake to the seven fold per time unit as compared to solitary feeding. The maximum ingestion rate of kernels was 98 per min which implies a head up-and-down movement every 0.6 s. The calculated energy intake of birds per time unit is lowest in Senecio and highest in Tragopogon. Thus the birds, when feeding on Tragopogon in larger flocks, can gain an energy intake 16 times higher than that reached when feeding on Senecio, despite of a higher kernel intake rate. The energy intake individual Goldfinches gain at the particular plant species is markedly increased with flock sizes up to eight birds, with larger flocks the intake increases only slightly.

  3. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  4. Knowledge of Recommended Calorie Intake and Influence of Calories on Food Selection Among Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-03-01

    To examine knowledge of recommended daily calorie intake, use of calorie information, and sociodemographic correlates between knowledge and use. Population-based, random digit-dialed phone surveys. Canadian adults (n = 1,543) surveyed between October and December, 2012. Knowledge of recommended calorie intake and use of calorie information when purchasing food. Regression models, adjusting for sociodemographics and diet-related measures. Overall, 24% of participants correctly stated their recommended daily calorie intake; the majority (63%) underestimated it, whereas few (4%) overestimated it. Females, younger participants, those with a higher income and more education, and those who consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily were significantly more likely to state recommended intake correctly. Most respondents (82%) reported considering calories when selecting foods. Respondents considered calories more often if they were female, had a higher income and more education, perceived themselves to be overweight, were actively trying to control their weight, reported a healthier diet, or consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily. Although most Canadians reported using calorie information to guide their food choices, few knew their daily recommended calorie intake. To promote healthy weights, policy initiatives, including education regarding daily calorie intake and changes to the Nutrition Facts table, may help consumers make better choices about food. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan de Gavelle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring. The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: ‘Processed meat’, ‘Poultry’, ‘Pork’, ‘Traditional’, ‘Milk’, ‘Take-away’, ‘Beef’ and ‘Fish’. ‘Fish eaters’ and ‘Milk drinkers’ had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of ‘Pork’ and ‘Take-away eaters’ was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: ‘Meat eaters’ had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  6. Effects of food allergy on the dietary habits and intake of primary schools' Cypriot children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou, E; Christoforou, C; Andreou, E; Heraclides, A

    2017-07-01

    Aim. To determine whether food allergy affects overall dietary intake and food choices in Cypriot primary school children. Methods. As part of the first epidemiological study in Cyprus on food allergy in primary school children, two 24-hour recalls (one from a week and one from a weekend day) of twenty-eight food allergic children (21 girls) and thirty healthy children (20 girls) aged 6-11 years old, were analysed and compared regarding their macro- and micronutrient content, food choices and meal distribution. Results. Significant differences between the two subgroups of children were estimated regarding the total energy intake and macronutrients, where food allergic children were found to consume in lower quantities, as well as for calcium, niacin, fiber and vitamin E. Food allergic children were also found to avoid combining foods from the various food groups in their meals, and to prefer specific food products from each category, whereas they consumed higher amounts of sugar and fructose. Conclusion. Food allergy in Cypriot food allergic children impacts on both the quality and quantity of food choices, probably due to lack of nutritional education regarding proper elimination diet and alternative nutrient sources.

  7. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan J; Mahmut, Mehmet K; Yeomans, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors - gender and habitual processed-food intake - that may moderate these effects. Participants [ n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; M age = 19.7 ( SD = 2.9); M BMI = 22.4 ( SD = 3.1)] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se , but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  9. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9; MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  11. Apparent bioavailability of isoflavones after intake of liquid and solid soya foods

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Ashburn, Leslie A.; Kakazu, Kerry; Suzuki, Shana; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Halm, Brunhild M.

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavone (IFL) intake may provide numerous health benefits, but IFL bioavailability differences among soya foods remains uncertain. Urinary IFL excretion (UIE) was shown to provide a reliable surrogate for systemic IFL exposure and therefore can be used as a measure of ‘apparent bioavailability’ (AB). We investigated the AB of IFL in fourteen healthy adults, consuming two liquid and two solid soya foods in a crossover designed study. Volunteers consumed the foods with a self-selected breakf...

  12. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Zając; Agata Skop-Lewandowska; Jadwiga Helbin; Artur Potocki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A lot of has been heard about dioxins and dioxins-like compounds. These molecules are typically connected in public awareness with affairs. The main source of dioxins for humans is food (90% of typical exposition); thus, assessment of dioxins intake and monitoring of levels of dioxins in food remain an important issue. Objective The aim of the presented work was checking the reproducibility of the authors’ semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, focusing on prod...

  13. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  14. Voluntary food fortification in the United States: potential for excessive intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, J E; Dodd, K W; Kirkpatrick, S I; Tarasuk, V

    2013-06-01

    Historically, the voluntary addition of micronutrients to foods in the United States has been regarded as an important means to lessen problems of nutrient inadequacy. With expanding voluntary food fortification and widespread supplement use, it is important to understand how voluntary food fortification has an impact on the likelihood of excessive usual intakes. Our objective was to investigate whether individuals in the United States with greater frequency of exposure to micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods (vFF) are more likely to have usual intakes approaching or exceeding the respective tolerable upper intake levels (UL). The National Cancer Institute method was applied to data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the joint distribution of usual intake from both vFF and non-vFF sources for 12 nutrients and determine the probability of consuming these nutrients from vFF on a given day. For each nutrient, we estimated the distribution of usual intake from all food sources by quintile of probability of consuming vFF and compared the distributions with ULs. An increased probability of consuming zinc, retinol, folic acid, selenium and copper from vFF was associated with a greater risk of intakes above the UL among children. Among adults, increased probability of consuming calcium and iron from vFF was associated with a greater risk of intakes above the UL among some age/sex groups. The high nutrient exposures associated with vFF consumption in some population subgroups suggest a need for more careful weighing of the risks and benefits of uncontrolled food fortification.

  15. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrient intake and consumption of indigenous foods among college ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the habitual diet and the consumption of indigenous foods among college students in Limpopo province. Design. The sample consisted of 37 healthy student volunteers (18 males and 19 females) aged 23.3 ±2.38 years, with a body mass index of 22.7 ±2.32 kg/m2. A validated quantitative food ...

  17. Habituation as a Determinant of Human Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that animals and humans habituate on a variety of behavioral and physiological responses to repeated presentations of food cues, and habituation is related to amount of food consumed and cessation of eating. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of experimental paradigms used to study habituation, integrate a…

  18. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  19. Food intake and blood cholesterol levels of community-based adults with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Karen M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Methods Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information from a population nutrition survey, national guidelines for nutritional intakes (Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide and North American dietary guidelines (Dietary Reference Intakes was utilized to evaluate the quality of their food intake. Results Compared to the regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of grains (p p p p p p 5.2 and ≤ 6.2 mmol/L and 21% had hypercholesterolemia (> 6.2 mmol/L. Conclusions Much research has proposed multiple ways in which healthier diets may exert protective effects on mental health. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI, which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia.A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176, the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.235, and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416. Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204, sound volume level (beta = 0.187, ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177, and eating time (beta = 0.395.Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities.

  1. Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, G.; Bordes, I.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, de C.; Blundell, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying

  2. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France

    2009-12-01

    Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults.

  3. In vitro inhibition of phenolsulphotransferase by food and drink constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, C; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1987-07-15

    Several natural and synthetic food and drink constituents were tested in vitro for their inhibitory actions on phenolsulphotransferase P and M (PST P, PST M) and monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A, MAO B). Cyanidin 3-rutinoside, a simple anthocyanin, (+)-catechin, a flavanol, and carmoisine, a synthetic food colorant, were found to be particularly potent, reversible inhibitors of PST P. All inhibited this enzyme by 100% at a concentration of 5 microM and had an IC50 in the microM range. The effects of these compounds on PST M and MAO A and B were less pronounced. There was a considerable difference in the inhibitory ability of different purified anthocyanins but all were selective for PST P. Several other phenolic food colorants were also found to be specific inhibitors of PST P, though less potent in their actions. Tartrazine, a non-phenolic food colorant, had little effect. The phenolic extracts from two red wines were also found selectively to inhibit PST P in vitro, suggesting that it is within this fraction that these inhibitors are to be found. PST is an important enzyme involved in the inactivation of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous phenols. If such a degree of inhibition were to occur in vivo, potentially toxic concentrations of some phenolic substrates might result.

  4. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  5. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  6. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Sources in 1-Year-Old Infants in Finland: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena H. Hauta-alus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36% of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants’ diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%, was 5–6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E% was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants’ diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds.

  7. Consumption of 'extra' foods by Australian adults: types, quantities and contribution to energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, A M; Schindeler, S; Hector, D J; Gill, T P; Webb, K L

    2009-07-01

    To identify the types and quantities of 'extra' foods, or energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, consumed by Australian adults, and assess their contribution to total energy and nutrient intakes. We used 24-h recall data from 10 851 adults, aged 19 years and over, who participated in the nationally representative 1995 National Nutrition Survey. 'Extra' foods were defined using principles outlined in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and by applying cut points for maximum amounts of fat and sugar within each food category. 'Extra' foods contributed to 36% of daily energy intake with the highest contributors being fried potatoes (2.8%), margarine (2.6%), cakes and muffins (2.5%), beer (2.4%), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (2.4%), and meat pies (2.2%). Both age and sex were important determinants of 'extra' foods intake; younger adults were more likely to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks, fried potatoes, meat pies and savoury pastries, pizza, crisps, lollies and chocolate; whereas older adults were more likely to consume sweet and savoury biscuits, cakes and muffins, margarine and butter. In all age groups, 'extra' foods contributed more to energy intake for men than women. Overall, 'extra' foods contributed 16% protein, 41% total fat, 41% saturated fat, 47% sugar and approximately 20% of selected micronutrients to the diet. 'Extra' foods contribute excessively to the energy, fat and sugar intakes of Australian adults, while providing relatively few micronutrients. This is of concern for the increasing risk of overweight and chronic disease and poor micronutrient status.

  8. Food intake and nutritional status during EXEMSI. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milon, H; Decarli, B; Adine, A M; Kihm, E

    1996-01-01

    Modifications of food intake by astronauts during long-duration spaceflights have been observed. Various psychological stress factors, such as isolation, confinement, constrained community and boredom, are thought to play a role in this phenomenon. For this reason it was decided to include a nutritional investigation in the EXEMSI simulation study, in which four crew members (1 female and 3 males) were isolated and confined for 60 days in a space station-like environment. The Food and Nutritional Management System, developed for this experiment, provided on-line analysis of all available foods in terms of their nutrient content (macronutrients, water, minerals, vitamins). It permitted to keep an accurate record of the daily food intake of each crew member. The system has been shown to be a powerful tool for future missions, either simulations or actual spaceflights. It permits optimal management of food and eating on board, and offers the possibility of online analysis of the nutritional status of the crew. It can provide readily usable data for future analysis of nutritional variables in relation to other physiological and metabolic parameters. It could also supply a periodic feedback to the subject for the purpose of adjusting food intake. Eating and nutrition during the experiment were not a problem, but a pleasure, and therefore played an important role in its success. Confinement and isolation apparently had no effect on either the eating habits or the nutritional status of the crew members. The good food rather helped to decrease the potentially induced stress by providing daily periods of pleasure and of social activities. Detailed analysis of food intake showed erratic eating patterns, both before and during the experiment. However, the weekly averages of macro- and micronutrient intakes were in the normal range, except for vitamins B1 and B6 that were rather low and showed the need for supplements. Food appreciation was assessed by daily questionnaires

  9. The response in food intake and reproductive parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average daily feed intake (3.7 ± 0.2 kg) was unaffected by energy content as were all the reproductive parameters measured, including total eggs produced per female (45.6 ± 5.8), number of chicks hatched (21.3 ± 4.5), number of infertile eggs (11.6 ± 3.6), number of dead-in-shell eggs (7.5 ± 1.8) and egg weight (1406 ± 31 ...

  10. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake. Children aged 6–18 (n = 185 living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

  11. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Lu

    2012-06-30

    In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those "wet markets" of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children's nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants) on children's nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake). Children aged 6-18 (n = 185) living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children's four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children's nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China's food environment.

  12. Reproducibility and relative validity of food group intake in a food frequency questionnaire developed for Nepalese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Connell, Frederik A; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Shrestha, Pramita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2017-08-01

    We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to measure the dietary practices of adult Nepalese. The present study examined the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, 116 subjects completed two 115-item FFQ across a four-month interval. Six 24-h dietary recalls were collected (1 each month) to assess the validity of the FFQ. Seven major food groups and 23 subgroups were clustered from the FFQ based on macronutrient composition. Spearman correlation coefficients evaluating reproducibility for all food groups were greater than 0.5, with the exceptions of oil. The correlations varied from 0.41 (oil) to 0.81 (vegetables). All crude spearman coefficients for validity were greater than 0.5 except for dairy products, pizzas/pastas and sausage/burgers. The FFQ was found to be reliable and valid for ranking the intake of food groups for Nepalese dietary intake.

  13. Phytosterol Profiles of Common Foods and Estimated Natural Intake of Different Structures and Forms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengmeng; Huang, Weisu; Hu, Yinzhou; Zhang, Liangxiao; Shao, Yafang; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Ziyan; Mei, Xiaohong; Li, Tao; Wang, Donghui; Liang, Ying; Li, Jing; Huang, Yining; Zhang, Liuquan; Xu, Tao; Song, Huaxin; Zhong, Yongheng; Lu, Baiyi

    2018-03-21

    Phytosterols are well-known for their cholesterol-lowering effects, and the structures and forms of phytosterols affect their bioactivity. We aimed to illustrate the phytosterol profiles in common foods and estimate their natural intake in five geographical regions and among different age groups in China. In total, 12 phytosterols in free and esterified forms of 119 foods from five regions across China were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, the dietary intake of phytosterols was calculated combined with the dietary foods intake data of Chinese people. The total phytosterol content was highest in vegetable oils (150.4-1230.9 mg/100 g), followed by legumes (129.6-275.6 mg/100 g), nuts (18.9-255.2 mg/100 g), and cereals (11.9-93.8 mg/100 g). Vegetables and fruits contained lower contents of total phytosterols. Phytosterols were mainly esterified in most common foods except in nuts. The predominant phytosterols were β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, all of which belonged to plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols. Total phytosterol intake varied across different regions, ranging between 257.7 and 473.7 mg/standard-person (sp)/day, with the highest intake in Beijing, followed by Hangzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing, and Guangzhou. However, phytosterol proportion was similar across regions, with β-sitosterol accounting for 46.5-50.3% of the natural intake. Phytosterol intake was mainly constituted by plant sterols and 4-desmethylsterols in esterified form (61.9-74.6%). At the age of 2-70 years, phytosterol intake ranged from 154.3 mg/day to 348.0 mg/day in the national scale.

  14. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual?s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20?40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste percept...

  15. Ontogenetic changes in food intake and digestion rate of the herbivorous marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus, Bell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, M; Gall, B; Trillmich, F

    1993-06-01

    Young reptiles have higher relative energy demands than adults, but the proposed ontogenetic changes in diet to fulfil these demands were not found in the algae-eating Galápagos marine iguanas on Santa Fé. Feeding and digestion rates were investigated to analyse how young achieve higher energy intake. Daily food intake of free ranging marine iguana hatchlings (6-11 months old) was about one third that of adults, but relative intake (g dry mass · g -1 wet mass · day -1 ) was four times higher in the hatchlings. During feeding experiments, relative daily food intake of hatchling marine iguanas was approximately three times higher than that of adults (0.042 vs 0.013 g dry mass · g -0.8 wet mass · day -1 ), and mean gut passage time was two times shorter (5 vs 10 days). The hatchlings also maintained high body temperatures (36.7° C) even under relatively cool day-time air temperatures of 32° C. Apparent digestibility of algal food measured both during feeding trials and by Mn 2+ AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) for free-ranging iguanas was 70%, independent of body size and temperature. The red algae prevailing in the diet were high in protein (30% dry mass) and energy (12.1 kJ/g dry mass). Diving iguanas had higher rates of energy intake than intertidal foragers, but daily intake was less. Maintenance of high body temperature enabled hatchlings to achieve high digestion rates and, combined with high relative intake, thus achieve sufficient energy intake for rapid growth despite higher mass specific metabolic rates. Estimates of biomass of marine iguanas and their algal food are given for a section of coastline on Santa Fé.

  16. Nutrient intakes and food choices of infants and toddlers participating in WIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponza, Michael; Devaney, Barbara; Ziegler, Paula; Reidy, Kathleen; Squatrito, Cathie

    2004-01-01

    To examine the nutrient intakes, foods consumed, and feeding patterns of infants and toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Cross-sectional telephone survey, including 24-hour dietary recalls of infants' and toddlers' food and nutrient intakes, as reported by parents or other primary caregivers. National random sample of 3,022 children ages 4 to 24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study. Sample sizes by age were infants 4 to 6 months: 265 WIC participants, 597 nonparticipants; infants 7 to 11 months: 351 WIC participants, 808 nonparticipants; and toddlers 12 to 24 months: 205 WIC participants, 791 nonparticipants. We used Statistical Analysis Software (version 8.2) to examine the breastfeeding status, infant feeding patterns, and foods consumed; the personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation to estimate mean usual intake of food energy and of key nutrients targeted by the WIC program; and methods recommended by the Institute of Medicine to assess nutrient adequacy. Infants participating in WIC were less likely than nonparticipants to have ever been breastfed or to be currently breastfeeding, and they were more likely to be consuming formula. Mean usual nutrient intakes exceeded the adequate intake for WIC participants, and the percentage with inadequate nutrient intake was less than 1%. Reported mean energy intakes exceeded mean energy requirements, with the largest discrepancy observed for WIC participants. Sizeable proportions of WIC and non-WIC infants and toddlers did not consume fruits and vegetables on the recall day. WIC providers should focus nutrition education on appropriate infant and toddler feeding patterns, should continue to reinforce their message of the importance delaying the use of cow's milk until 1 year of age, and should stress the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  17. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to determine vitamin D intakes using the method of triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R R; Carson, E L; Mulhern, M S; Laird, E; Healy, M; Pourshahidi, L K

    2016-04-01

    Dietary sources of vitamin D (both natural and fortified) are increasingly contributing to consumers' vitamin D intake and status. Therefore, the present study aimed to validate a vitamin D food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual vitamin D intake. A total of 49 apparently healthy consenting adults (aged 18-64 years) from the local community were sampled at the end of winter. Dietary intakes were recorded using a 4-day weighed food record (4d-WFR) and a 17-item FFQ based on foods known to contribute to dietary vitamin D intake. Fasting vitamin D status was quantified by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method of triads was applied using these three measurements to determine the overall validity of the FFQ. Vitamin D intakes from 4d-WFR ranged between 0.42 and 31.65 μg day(-1), whereas intakes determined from the FFQ ranged from 1.03 to 36.08 μg day(-1). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ranged between 12.89 and 279.00 nmol L(-1). The mean (SD) difference between the FFQ and 4d-WFR was +1.62 ( 3.86). There were strong correlations between the vitamin D intake estimated by the FFQ and that from the 4d-WFR (r = 0.562) and also with serum 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.567). Vitamin D intake estimated from the 4d-WFR was also strongly correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations (r = 0.411). The overall validity coefficient calculated using the method of triads was high (0.881). The vitamin D FFQ has been validated for use in future studies aiming to assess habitual vitamin D intake. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the firs...

  19. Genetic Deletion of Rheb1 in the Brain Reduces Food Intake and Causes Hypoglycemia with Altered Peripheral Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wanchun; Jiang, Wanxiang; Luo, Liping; Bu, Jicheng; Pang, Dejiang; Wei, Jing; Du, Chongyangzi; Xia, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Yiyuan; Liu, Shuang; Mao, Qing; Chen, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for developing pharmacological interventions to manage eating behavior and obesity. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, is a master regul...

  20. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  1. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eMissbach

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36 and medium number (18 of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources.

  3. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pfood intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced Inhibition of Return to Food Images in Obese Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carters

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that obese individuals may be biased towards attending to food over non-food information, and this bias may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of obesity. The present study sought to extend our understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in this population by investigating whether obese individuals have difficulty in disengaging attention from food compared with non-food images, relative to normal-weight controls. To address this question, we measured inhibition of return (IOR in an attentional cueing task. The participants were 29 obese and 35 normal-weight satiated females without eating disorders. The obese group displayed less IOR to food images than the normal-weight group, while there was no difference in IOR between the groups for non-food images. This suggests that obese females have greater difficulty disengaging attention from food than normal-weight females. Our findings provide a new focus for studies investigating maintenance factors in obesity and are discussed in relation to a theory of incentive-sensitisation.

  5. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  6. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs: occurrence in food and dietary intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, A; Gallotti, S; Leblanc, J-C; Volatier, J-L

    2007-09-01

    PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination data in food products consumed in France collected from national monitoring programmes (2001-04) and representing analytical results for almost 800 individual food samples were combined with food consumption data from the French national dietary survey to estimate PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs dietary intakes, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs). The mean PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intakes were estimated as 1.8 and 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. day(-1), respectively, for adults (aged 15 years and over) and children (aged 3-14 years). The main contributors to total intake were fish and milk products for both children and adults (48 and 31% for adults and 34 and 43% for children, respectively). DL-PCBs constituted the largest contributor to contamination in most foodstuffs. A life-long intake estimate showed that a non-negligible part of the French population (between 20 and 28%) had an intake above the tolerable monthly intake for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of 70 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w. month(-1).

  7. Differential food intake and food choice by depression and body mass index levels following a mood manipulation in a buffet-style setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; King-Shepard, Quentin W; Cuifolo, Kayla N; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2016-05-01

    While eating in response to emotional cues is associated with intake of unhealthy foods, less is known about the extent to which obesity and depression may differentially influence food intake in a buffet-style setting where low- and high-calorie foods are available to choose from. Using a counterbalanced design, 154 participants were grouped by depression and obesity categories, then asked to read a series of vignettes that were sad (on 1 day) and neutral (on a different day), followed by a buffet to eat until full. Food intake (in grams and calories) and food choice (number of high- or low-calorie food options) were recorded. Results showed that participants who were obese and depressed had significantly greater energy intake following the sad versus happy vignette, largely due to increased intake of high-calorie foods. The results corroborate recent theories on emotional eating and extend the ecological validity of such effects in a buffet-style setting.

  8. Somatostatin Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote High-Calorie Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue, and the overconsumption of food is thought to be a major contributor. However, the regulatory neural circuits that regulate palatable food consumption remain unclear. Here, we report that somatostatin (SOM neurons and GABAergic (VGAT neurons in the basal forebrain (BF play specific roles in regulating feeding. Optogenetic stimulation of BF SOM neurons increased fat and sucrose intake within minutes and promoted anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of projections from BF SOM neurons to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA selectively resulted in fat intake. In addition, activation of BF VGAT neurons rapidly induced general food intake and gnawing behaviors. Whole-brain mapping of inputs and outputs showed that BF SOM neurons form bidirectional connections with several brain areas important in feeding and regulation of emotion. Collectively, these results suggest that BF SOM neurons play a selective role in hedonic feeding.

  9. Maternal milk intake by infant rats temporarily denied acces to other food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babický, A; Pavlík, L; Parízek, J; Bíbr, B; Kolár, J; Ostádalová, I

    1975-01-01

    The onset of the weaning period for infant rats was artificially postponed to the 24th day of life by denying the young access to solid food and/or water. Study of 85-Sr transfer in the maternal milk showed that the artificial shift in the initiation of weaning did not influence the time of its termination. The weaning period, defined as the time between the first intake of solid food and the last intake of maternal milk, was shortened to about 4 days in these young. We also found that the young did not compensate the lack of solid food by a higher maternal milk intake, but that they tried to do so by drinking more water.

  10. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  11. Obesity and the neurocognitive basis of food reward and the control of intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Hill, James O; Kelley, Michael; Khan, Naiman A

    2015-07-01

    With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examining the brain reward system and the evidence for its dysregulation in human obesity. We then consider the issue of how individuals are able to control their hedonic eating in the present obesogenic environment and compare 2 contrasting perspectives on the control of hedonic eating, specifically, enhanced control of intake via higher cognitive control and loss of control over intake as captured by the food addiction model. We conclude by considering what these perspectives offer in terms of directions for future research and for potential interventions to improve control over food intake at the population and the individual levels. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Hemodialysis duration impairs food intake and nutritional parameters in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Khedidja; Remaoun, Mustapha; Belleville, Jacques; Bouchenak, Malika

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis (HD) duration on food intake and nutritional markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty CKD patients received maintenance HD over a 9-year period. At the beginning of the study (T0) and at 3-year intervals (T1, T2, and T3) during the 9-year follow-up, a nutritional survey using the 24-h recall and record method was repeated for 4 days, and the blood samples were drawn. The results from T0 were used as references. Nutritional status was assessed through food intake, nutritional markers (urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and albumin), and anthropometric measurements (height, dry weight, and body mass index). HD duration was correlated with energy intake (r = -0.89, P protein intake (r = -0.50, P intakes were noted in patients at T1 (-8%), T2 (-38%), and T3 (-59%) with decreased fiber intakes. Lipid intake was diminished by 11, 17, and 25% in patients, respectively, at T1, T2, and T3. The consumption of milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and fat was reduced at T1, T2, and T3. In conclusion, long-term HD fails to correct undernutrition caused by CKD. Long-term dialysis complications could be reduced with preventive measures, including the use of biocompatible membranes and high-dose dialysis. Consequently, patients could experience a decreased prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition.

  13. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Rahul; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2014-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and motivation: the lateral hypothalamus (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Motivation for sucrose was assessed using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement in which the effort to obtain successive rewards increased incrementally. To disentangle the effects of NPY on motivation for palatable food from food consumption, free-feeding experiments were performed in which animals had ad libitum access to sucrose pellets. Infusion of NPY into either VTA or NAc increased the motivation to respond for sucrose, whereas infusion of NPY in either NAc or LH increased sucrose consumption. In addition, the effect of intra-VTA NPY on motivation for food was attenuated after pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Specific limbic substrates through which NPY influences consumption of and motivation for palatable food were identified by these data. The motivational effects of NPY are exerted through the VTA, its consummatory effects through the LH, and the NAc is involved in both. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Czeisler, Charles A; Keating, Leigh; Yee, Karen; Barger, Laura K; Garaulet, Marta; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour. Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition. Design: We enrolled 110 participants, aged 18-22 y, in a 30-d cross-sectional study to document sleep and circadian behaviors within their regular daily routines. We used a time-stamped-picture mobile phone application to record all food intake across 7 consecutive days during a participant's regular daily routines and assessed their body composition and timing of melatonin release during an in-laboratory assessment. Results: Nonlean individuals (high body fat) consumed most of their calories 1.1 h closer to melatonin onset, which heralds the beginning of the biological night, than did lean individuals (low body fat) (log-rank P = 0.009). In contrast, there were no differences between lean and nonlean individuals in the clock hour of food consumption ( P = 0.72). Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  15. Impact of ambient odors on food intake, saliva production and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Cristina; de Graaf, Cees; Laureati, Monica; Pagliarini, Ella; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ambient odor exposure on appetite, salivation and food intake. 32 normal-weight young women (age: 21.4±5.3year; BMI: 21.7±1.9kg/m 2 ) attended five test sessions in a non-satiated state. Each participant was exposed to ambient odors (chocolate, beef, melon and cucumber), in a detectable but mild concentration, and to a control condition (no-odor exposure). During each condition, at different time points, participants rated appetite for 15 food products, and saliva was collected. After approximately 30min, ad libitum intake was measured providing a food (chocolate rice, high-energy dense product) that was congruent with one of the odors they were exposed to. A significant odor effect on food intake (p=0.034) and salivation (p=0.017) was found. Exposure to odors signaling high-energy dense products increased food intake (243.97±22.84g) compared to control condition (206.94±24.93g; p=0.03). Consistently, salivation was increased significantly during chocolate and beef exposure (mean: 0.494±0.050g) compared to control condition (0.417±0.05g; p=0.006). Even though odor exposure did not induce specific appetite for congruent products (p=0.634), appetite scores were significantly higher during odor exposure (p<0.0001) compared to the no-odor control condition and increased significantly over time (p=0.010). Exposure to food odors seems to drive behavioral and physiological responses involved in eating behavior, specifically for odors and foods that are high in energy density. This could have implications for steering food intake and ultimately influencing the nutritional status of people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Krop, Emma M; Hetherington, Marion M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Miquel, Sophie; Postelnicu, Luminita; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2018-06-01

    Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically "chewing" and "lubrication", on "appetite" and "food intake". A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (-0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: -0.30, -0.11), and food intake (-0.28 effect size, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake.

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    Schülke, Oliver; Chalise, Mukesh K; Koenig, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Testing ecological or socioecological models in primatology often requires estimates of individual energy intake. It is a well established fact that the nutrient content (and hence the energy content) of primate food items is highly variable. The second variable in determining primate energy intake, i.e., the ingestion rate, has often been ignored, and few studies have attempted to estimate the relative importance of the two predictors. In the present study individual ingestion rates were measured in two ecologically very different populations of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) at Jodhpur, India, and Ramnagar, Nepal. Protein and soluble sugar concentrations in 50 and 100 food items. respectively, were measured using standardized methods. Variation in ingestion rates (gram of dry matter per minute) was markedly greater among food items than among langur individuals in both populations, but did not differ systematically among food item categories defined according to plant part and age. General linear models (GLMs) with ingestion rate, protein, and soluble sugar content explained 40-80% of the variation in energy intake rates (kJ/min). The relative importance of ingestion rates was either similar (Ramnagar) or much greater (Jodhpur) than the role of sugar and/or protein content in determining the energy intake rates of different items. These results may impact socioecological studies of variation in individual energy budgets, investigations of food choice in relation to chemical composition or sensory characteristics, and research into habitat preferences that measures habitat quality in terms of abundance of important food sources. We suggest a definition of food quality that includes not only the amount of valuable food contents (energy, vitamins, and minerals) and the digestibility of different foods, but also the rate at which the food can be harvested and processed. Such an extended definition seems necessary because time may constrain primates when

  19. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure.

  20. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

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    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  1. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Andretta, Aline; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Nehring, Jéssica; Dos Santos Paiva, Eduardo; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and the analyzed items were total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E) and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium). The software used was Avanutri Online(®). To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and pain threshold were used. 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group, there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Women with FM showed a lower qualitative and quantitative intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Central injection of a synthetic chicken partial leptin peptide does not affect food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wil; Yi, Jiaqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-24

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone in mammals that plays an important role in whole body energy balance via its inhibitory effects on food intake mediated through the hypothalamus. Chicken leptin has a low sequence homology to mammalian leptin and its role in appetite regulation is not reported; hence the objective of this study was to determine effects of central injection of chicken leptin on food and water intake and associated behaviors in chicks. Chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 0 (vehicle), 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 nmol of a synthetic chicken leptin partial peptide and food and water intake were monitored. There were no effects observed and a second experiment was conducted to evaluate food and water intake at higher doses; after injection of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 nmol leptin. Again, there were no effects on food or water intake. In the third experiment, behaviors were analyzed during the first 30 min post-injection of vehicle or 10 nmol leptin. At 5 min post-injection, vehicle-injected chicks spent more time sitting than leptin-injected chicks. A wide dose range was evaluated however, the absence of an effect on food intake or behavior suggests that the chicken leptin peptide that was tested does not mediate effects on appetite in the brain and that chicken leptin likely has a different physiological role in birds than in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study

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    Mitsumasa Umesawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Methods: Between 1988 and 1990, 15 732 men and 24 997 women aged 40–79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.67. The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16–2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.42, respectively. Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002. Conclusions: The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people.

  4. Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia

    2014-09-15

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes may be controlled by foods capable of modulating food intake and blood glucose. We investigated whether the addition of food sources of fiber or phaseolamin to shakes can control food intake and reduce postprandial glycemia. This was a randomized, single blind, crossover design study (food intake: n=22; glycemia: n=10). Five liquid meals presenting similar amounts of macronutrients (C - control shake, OB - oat bran shake, F - flaxseed shake, WB - white bean extract shake, and UB - unripe banana flour shake) were consumed in five non-consecutive days. Participants kept dietary records during the subsequent 24 hours. Blood glucose was measured at 0 (immediately before), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the ingestion of each shake and the incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) were calculated. Compared to C, there was a significant increase in fiber intake after the consumption of OB (+17.9g), F (+19.1g), and UB (+12.6g), and in fat after the consumption of OB (+25,4g). There was a non-significant reduction of daily energy intake in F compared to C (1524kJ; P=0.10). There was a 43% reduction in the iAUC (P=0.03) in response to UB consumption. Unripe banana flour reduced postprandial glycemic response of shakes almost by half. The effect of oat bran and flaxseed on food intake needs further investigation in long-term studies. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. VGF-derived peptide, TLQP-21, regulates food intake and body weight in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Preeti H; Warner, Amy; Nilaweera, Kanishka N; Brameld, John M; Keyte, John W; Carter, Wayne G; Bolton, Neil; Bruggraber, Michael; Morgan, Peter J; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P

    2007-08-01

    The Siberian hamster survives winter by decreasing food intake and catabolizing abdominal fat reserves, resulting in a sustained, profound loss of body weight. VGF gene expression is photoperiodically regulated in the hypothalamus with significantly higher expression in lean Siberian hamsters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VGF in regulating these seasonal cycles by determining the effects of a VGF-derived peptide (TLQP-21) on food intake and body weight. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TLQP-21 decreased food intake, and chronic treatment caused a sustained reduction in food intake and body weight and decreased abdominal fat depots. Behavioral analysis revealed that TLQP-21 reduced meal size but not the frequency of feeding bouts, suggesting a primary action on satiety. Hamsters treated with TLQP-21 lost a similar amount of weight as a pair-fed group in which food intake was matched to that of the TLQP-21-treated group. Central or peripheral treatment with TLQP-21 did not produce a significant effect on resting metabolic rate. We conclude that the primary action of TLQP-21 is to decrease food intake rather than increase energy expenditure. TLQP-21 treatment caused a decrease in UCP-1 mRNA in brown adipose tissue, but hypothalamic expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide genes remained unchanged after TLQP-21 treatment, although compensatory increases in NPY and AgRP mRNA were observed in the pair-fed hamsters. The effects of TLQP-21 administration are similar to those in hamsters in short days, suggesting that increased VGF activity may contribute to the hypophagia that underlies the seasonal catabolic state.

  6. Counting bones: environmental cues that decrease food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Payne, Collin R

    2007-02-01

    At an all-you-can eat buffet in a sports bar, it was tested whether people would eat less if they knew how much they had already eaten. 50 graduate students (34 women; M age = 24.1 yr.) were seated at 21 tables randomly assigned to be bussed (leftover wings removed) or unbussed (wings left on table). The 31 students at the bussed tables ate more than those at the unbussed tables (7 wings vs. 5.5 wings), with the effect being stronger for men than women. In distracting eating environments, environmental cues may provide an effective means of reducing consumption. Implications for controlling alcohol intake were also noted.

  7. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food are not Always of Advantage.

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    Simona Haasova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08 ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31. The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed.

  8. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

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    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p consumption of a premeal snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  9. Effect of (-)-trans-PAT, a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist, on intake of palatable food in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E; Crump, Erica M; Nguyen, Nancy; Robertson, Kimberly; Sun, Zhuming; Booth, Raymond G

    2008-11-01

    (1R,3S)-(-)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT) is a novel compound that has full-efficacy agonist activity at human 5-HT2C receptors and inverse agonist/antagonist activity at 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors. In the present paper we describe its effects on food intake in non-deprived C57BL/6 mice adapted to eating a palatable dessert meal each day. PAT showed a dose-related inhibition of food intake with a 50% inhibitory dose of 4.2 mg/kg. The dose-effect curve was similar to that obtained using WAY-161503. Abnormal behaviors were not observed by casual inspection following administration of PAT. The anorectic effect of PAT was additive with that of amphetamine. When PAT, or PAT+amphetamine, were injected 2 h before access to food, most of the anorectic activity had dissipated, indicating that PAT has a biologically effective period of about 1 h. Four daily injections of PAT were associated with some, but not complete loss of the initial anorectic effect; this differs from the rapid tolerance that has been reported to fenfluramine anorexia and suggests that different mechanism(s) are involved in the loss of anorexia.

  10. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intakes in New Zealand adolescents

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    Wong Jyh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size, 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9 ± 0.8 years completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1 ± 0.9 years completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70. The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%, but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%. The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the

  11. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Joanna; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Helbin, Jadwiga; Potocki, Artur

    2017-09-21

    A lot of has been heard about dioxins and dioxins-like compounds. These molecules are typically connected in public awareness with affairs. The main source of dioxins for humans is food (90% of typical exposition); thus, assessment of dioxins intake and monitoring of levels of dioxins in food remain an important issue. The aim of the presented work was checking the reproducibility of the authors' semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, focusing on products that may contain dioxins and related compounds among adolescents. The uptake of these compounds was also assessed using obtained data. For survey purposes, an album of food products from the questionnaire was constructed. A modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was constructed and distributed twice in a 2-week time span among 55, 15-year-old, students of secondary schools. The correlation coefficient for both declared frequencies and assessed amounts in the case of the majority of food items was above 0.70. The average assessed intake of dioxins and related compounds was 1.57pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, and 1.85 pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, during test and retest, respectively. The modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire is a reproducible tool that can be used for adolescents. Average intake in the analyzed group was lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake, but in contrast to other countries remains one of the highest intakes in a comparable age group. The main sources of dioxins exposition were fish (38%), and meat products.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male Wistar Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubobokun, Th; Aluko, Eo; Iyare, Ee; Anyaehie, Usb; Olatunbosun, Ed; Aizenabor, Gi

    2014-07-01

    Food intake is regulated by the complex interaction of psychological and physiological events associated with ingestion. Food that increases short-term satiety decreases the amount of energy ingested subsequently and thus could potentially help in weight management in the long run. Potato, a common starchy tuber in our environment is believed to contain substances that can help maintain and increases short-term satiety. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [IB]) on food intake in male Wistar rats. The sweet potato tubers were chopped into small pieces and homogenized in distilled water for 30 s. Homogenate was filtered through muslin cloth and then centrifuged at 120 rpm for 20 min. For use, the residue was evaporated to dryness. The dried extract was reconstituted in freshly prepared normal saline for administration to test animals. The 20 acclimatized male Wistar rats weighing 170-180 g were used for this study. The animals were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was fed with 0.3 ml of normal saline while Groups 2-4 were fed with IB extract. The results showed that in the extract-treated groups, the food intake was significantly reduced at P < 0.01 in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control group. Consumption of IB caused a reduction in food intake probably by reducing appetite and increasing satiety.

  14. The anterior medial temporal lobes: Their role in food intake and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine

    2016-12-01

    The anterior medial temporal lobes are one of the most studied parts of the brain. Classically, their two main structures - the amygdalae and the hippocampi - have been linked to key cognitive and affective functions, related in particular to learning and memory. Based on abundant evidence, we will argue for an alternative but complementary point of view: they may also play a major role in food intake and body weight regulation. First, an overview is given of early clinical evidence in this line of thought. Subsequently, empirical evidence is presented on how food intake, including in the extreme case of obesity, may relate to amygdalian and hippocampal functioning. The focus is on the amygdala's role in processing the relevance of food stimuli, cue-induced feeding, and stress-induced eating and on the hippocampus' involvement in the use of interoceptive signals of hunger and satiety, as well as memory and inhibitory processes related to food intake. Additionally, an elaboration takes place on possible reciprocal links between food intake, body weight, and amygdala and hippocampus functioning. Finally, issues that seemed particularly critical for future research in the field are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  16. What do prisoners eat? Nutrient intakes and food practices in a high-secure prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.

  17. Awareness of social influence on food intake. An analysis of two experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Field, Matt

    2015-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that the amount of food we consume can be influenced by the eating behaviour of other people. Some previous experimental studies reported that consumers are unaware of this influence on their behaviour. The present research tested whether people may be more aware of social influence on their eating than previously assumed. In two studies, participants (total n = 160) were exposed to information about the amount of snack food other people had been eating shortly before being served the same snack food and eating as much as they liked. After this, participants responded to questions regarding whether they thought their food intake had been socially influenced, and reported the reasons why they believed they had or had not been influenced. Of the 160 participants, 34% reported that they had been influenced, 10% were unsure and 56% reported they had not been influenced. Crucially, participants' reports of social influence appeared to be accurate; the food intake of participants reporting social influence was significantly affected by the amount of food other people had been eating, whereas the food intake of participants denying social influence was unaffected. Individuals may be more aware of the effect that social influence has on their eating behaviour than previously assumed. Further work is needed to identify the factors which determine whether people are susceptible to social influence on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  19. Assessment of Food Intake, Obesity, and Health Risk among the Homeless in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diane C; Gorman, Kathleen S; Miller, Robin J; Murphy, Leah; Sor, Sekboppa; Martins, Jonah C; Vecchiarelli, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the nutritional status, incidence of food insecurity, and health risk among the homeless population in Rhode Island. This correlational study utilized a convenience sample of 319 homeless adults from Rhode Island's largest service agency for the homeless. Information on use of services such as access to emergency foods, shelters, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was requested. Food security was measured by the six-item subset of the USDA Food Security Core Module. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, and waist circumference. A 24-hr dietary recall was collected to determine the food intake for a subset of participants who agreed to supply this information (n = 197). Average dietary recall data indicated insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit, dairy, and meats/beans. It also indicated excessive intake of fats. Of the 313 participants, 29.4% were overweight and 39% were obese. Over 94% of the participants were food insecure, with 64% of this subset experiencing hunger. Fifty-five percent of the participants were currently receiving SNAP benefits. The majority of the sample was found to be food insecure with hunger. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Self-Administered Nicotine Suppresses Body Weight Gain Independent of Food Intake in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Donny, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The action of nicotine to suppress body weight is often cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Despite the weight-suppressant effects of nicotine, smokers and nonsmokers report equal daily caloric intake. The weight-suppressive effects of nicotine in animal models of smoking are poorly understood. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration has authority to implement a policy markedly reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes; such a reduction could reduce smoking behavior, but have detrimental effects on body weight. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of self-administered nicotine on body weight and food intake in rats. Methods: In Experiment 1, rats with ad libitum access to chow responded for intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 µg/kg/infusion) or saline in daily 1-hour sessions; body weight and 24-hour food intake were measured. Experiment 2 tested the effects of subcutaneous injections of nicotine on food intake. In Experiment 3, rats were food restricted and self-administered nicotine across a range of doses (3.75–60 µg/kg/infusion) while body weight was measured. In Experiment 4, rats self-administered 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine before reduction to one of several doses (1.875–15 µg/kg/infusion) for 50 days. Results: Self-administered nicotine suppressed weight gain independent of food intake. In food restricted rats, self-administered nicotine dose-dependently suppressed body weight gain. In rats self-administering 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine, dose reduction increased body weight. Conclusions: Self-administered nicotine, even at low doses, suppressed body independent of food intake; this may have important implications for nicotine reduction policy. Implications: The results of the present studies demonstrate that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight independent of food intake in rats. Further, the present studies establish that self-administered nicotine suppresses

  1. Self-Administered Nicotine Suppresses Body Weight Gain Independent of Food Intake in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2016-09-01

    The action of nicotine to suppress body weight is often cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Despite the weight-suppressant effects of nicotine, smokers and nonsmokers report equal daily caloric intake. The weight-suppressive effects of nicotine in animal models of smoking are poorly understood. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration has authority to implement a policy markedly reducing nicotine levels in cigarettes; such a reduction could reduce smoking behavior, but have detrimental effects on body weight. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of self-administered nicotine on body weight and food intake in rats. In Experiment 1, rats with ad libitum access to chow responded for intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 µg/kg/infusion) or saline in daily 1-hour sessions; body weight and 24-hour food intake were measured. Experiment 2 tested the effects of subcutaneous injections of nicotine on food intake. In Experiment 3, rats were food restricted and self-administered nicotine across a range of doses (3.75-60 µg/kg/infusion) while body weight was measured. In Experiment 4, rats self-administered 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine before reduction to one of several doses (1.875-15 µg/kg/infusion) for 50 days. Self-administered nicotine suppressed weight gain independent of food intake. In food restricted rats, self-administered nicotine dose-dependently suppressed body weight gain. In rats self-administering 60 µg/kg/infusion nicotine, dose reduction increased body weight. Self-administered nicotine, even at low doses, suppressed body independent of food intake; this may have important implications for nicotine reduction policy. The results of the present studies demonstrate that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight independent of food intake in rats. Further, the present studies establish that self-administered nicotine suppresses body weight even at very low doses and that reduction of nicotine

  2. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. Setting. A cross-sectional study......, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of food insecurity measured as a degree of undernutrition and as dietary patterns differed considerably among the ethnic groups. The Maasai and Kamba in particular were exposed to food insecurity. Copyright © The Authors 2011....

  4. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  5. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feel-Ideal Difference index and Body Shape questions) and socio-economic status (SES) (household density and asset index) were also measured. Food EI in relation to estimated basal metabolic rate ratio that was less than 1.05 represented ...

  6. Ramadan fasting influences on food intake consumption, sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the changes in the lifestyle that accompanied Ramadan fasting. For this purpose, we followed the questionnaire programming meals, food consumption and sleep rhythm. We also followed changes in plasma biological parameters. The results show that daily energy consumption was not changed and ...

  7. Contribution of school lunchboxes to the daily food intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion. The results of the study indicated a high-fat diet low in fruits and vegetables. The majority of respondents consumed carbohydrate-based food items and their lunchbox contents did not meet the basic requirements of a balanced diet. Although increased dietary needs are seldom met in adolescents, overweight ...

  8. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for choosing fast food were time limitations (58.9%), convenience (58.2%) and taste (52.5%). The majority of the participants were concerned about their health (93.3%) and indicated a fear of becoming overweight (44.3%). Seventy-eight per cent of all the participants would have chosen a healthier option ...

  9. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  10. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  11. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived...

  12. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  13. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  14. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  15. Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%  calories from carbohydrates/100 + (0.70×%  calories from lipids/100 + (0.81×%  calories from proteins/100. The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5% ± 25.5 [10–90], correlated with their energy intake (1993 ± 597 kcal/d, , and food quotient (0.85 ± 0.02, , , which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (, . For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863 ± 503 versus others: 2382 ± 733 kcal/d, , and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories.

  16. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  17. Intestinal inflammation influences α-MSH reactive autoantibodies: relevance to food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquerel, Quentin; Sinno, Maria Hamze; Boukhettala, Nabile; Coëffier, Moïse; Terashi, Mutsumi; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies reacting with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, are involved in regulation of feeding. In this work we studied if intestinal inflammation (mucositis) may influence α-MSH autoantibodies production relevant to food intake and body weight. Mucositis and anorexia were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methotrexate (MTX, 2.5mg/kg/day, for three days, subcutaneously). Plasma levels of total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies were measured during and after MTX-induced mucositis and were compared with pair-fed and ad libitum-fed controls. Effects of intraperitoneal injections of rabbit anti-α-MSH IgG (3 or 10 μg/day/rat) on MTX-induced anorexia and on plasma α-MSH peptide concentration were separately studied. Here we show that in MTX rats, intestinal mucositis and anorexia were accompanied by decreased plasma levels of both total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies while refeeding was characterized by their elevated levels. In spite of similar food intake in MTX and pair-fed rats, recovery of body weight was delayed by at least 1 week in the MTX group. During refeeding and body weight deficit in MTX rats, α-MSH IgG autoantibody levels correlated negatively with food to water intake ratios. Injections of anti-α-MSH IgG induced a dose-dependent attenuation of food intake and body weight regain in MTX-treated rats accompanied by increased concentrations of α-MSH peptide which correlated positively with plasma levels of α-MSH autoantibodies. These data show that intestinal inflammation, independently from food restriction, affects general humoral immune response which may influence food intake and body weight control via modulation of α-MSH plasma concentration by α-MSH reactive autoantibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in increasing vitamin D intake in Irish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Áine; Browne, Fiona; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of fortified foods and nutritional supplements to intakes of vitamin D in young children. Our objective was to examine the intake, adequacy, risk of excessive intake and sources of dietary vitamin D. The nationally representative cross-sectional dietary survey of young children (aged 1-4 years) (n 500) was used to evaluate vitamin D intake and quantify the contribution of the base diet, fortified foods and nutritional supplements to total intake. Median (IQR) intakes of vitamin D were generally low in this young population, ranging from 2.0 (1.9) to 2.5 (4.9) µg/day. Ninety-three and 78 % of children had intakes below 10 and 5 µg/day, respectively. While vitamin D supplement users (17 %) had the highest intakes [6.7 (6.4) µg/day] (P Vitamin D-fortified foods, consumed by 77 % of children [2.2 (2.0) µg/day], made nutritionally significant contributions to intake [0.8 (1.6) µg/day], particularly in younger children [1.5 (4.6) µg/day]. Children who did not use nutritional supplements or fortified foods had significantly (P vitamin D than the other groups [1.0 (0.8) µg/day]. Our analyses show the importance of milk and yoghurt, meat and fortified ready-to-eat cereals as sources of vitamin D in this age group. The use of nutritional supplements or fortified foods at current levels does not represent a risk of intakes exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable upper intake level (UL) (50 µg/day), as intakes did not exceed or even approach the UL (P95: 22 % of UL). Intakes of vitamin D in preschool children in Ireland are generally low. Nutritional supplements and fortified foods make significant contributions to intakes of vitamin D, without risk of unacceptably high intakes. Though supplements are effective in raising intakes of vitamin D in users, uptake is low (17 %). Food fortification may represent a suitable public health approach to increasing vitamin D intakes. The national food

  19. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev): how to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Giulia; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin; Vergères, Guy; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Pedapati, Sri Harsha; Afman, Lydia A; Wishart, David S; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Lacueva, Cristina Andres; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Verhagen, Hans; Feskens, Edith J M; Dragsted, Lars O

    2018-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated. In order to cover the literature on BFIs in the most appropriate and consistent manner, there is a need for appropriate guidelines on this topic. These guidelines should build upon guidelines in related areas of science while targeting the special needs of biomarker methodology. This document provides a guideline for conducting an extensive literature search on BFIs, which will provide the basis to systematically validate BFIs. This procedure will help to prioritize future work on the identification of new potential biomarkers and on validating these as well as other biomarker candidates, thereby providing better tools for future studies in nutrition and health.