WorldWideScience

Sample records for inhibits food intake

  1. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    after the first dose. No effects were observed after seven days BID. In rats, the analog induced only a minor effect on food intake. NMU mRNA was detected in the enteric nervous system throughout the gut, whereas NMUR1 was confined to the lamina propria. NMUR2 was detected in the paraventricular (PVN...... the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18h post dosing) were addressed...

  2. Intracerebroventricular administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghourab, Samar; Beale, Kylie E; Semjonous, Nina M; Simpson, Katherine A; Martin, Niamh M; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-12-10

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid peptide expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. VIP and the VIP receptor VPAC(2)R are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. VIP has been shown to be involved in the regulation of energy balance in a number of non-mammalian vertebrates. We therefore examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of VIP on food intake, energy expenditure and activity in adult male Wistar rats. VIP administration caused a potent short lived decrease in food intake and an increase in activity and energy expenditure. The pathways potentially involved in the anorexigenic effects of VIP were investigated by measuring the release of neuropeptides involved in the regulation of food intake from hypothalamic explants treated with VIP. VIP significantly stimulated the release of the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH). These studies suggest that VIP may have an endogenous role in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis.

  3. Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Josua; Herzog, Brigitte; Camargo, Simone M R; Boyle, Christina N; Lutz, Thomas A; Verrey, François

    2013-11-15

    To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal to control food intake. Here, we show that food intake was most potently reduced by oral L-arginine (Arg), L-lysine (Lys) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) compared to all other 17 proteogenic amino acids in rats. These three amino acids induced neuronal activity in the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Surgical lesion of the area postrema abolished the anorectic response to Arg and Glu, whereas vagal afferent lesion prevented the response to Lys. These three amino acids also provoked gastric distension by differentially altering gastric secretion and/or emptying. Importantly, these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids' effect on food intake. Thus, Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. Overall, this study reveals novel amino acid-specific mechanisms for the control of food intake and of gastrointestinal function.

  4. Gastric electrical stimulation optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng-Qing; Zhu, Hongbing; Lei, Yong; Yuan, Charlene; Starkebaum, Warren; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that that a method of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) optimized to inhibit gastric motility was effective in reducing food intake in dogs. Female dogs with a gastric cannula and gastric serosal electrodes were studied in three experiments: (1) to determine the best parameters and locations of GES in inhibiting gastric tone, slow waves, and contractions in dogs;( 2) to investigate the reproducibility of the inhibitory effects of GES; and (3) to study the effect of the GES method on food intake in dogs. (1) For GES to exert significant effects on gastric motility, a pulse width of ≥2 ms was required, and with other appropriate inhibitory parameters, GES was able to increase gastric volume by 190.4 %, reduce antral contractions by 39.7 %, and decrease the percentage of normal slow waves by 47.6 %. In addition, the inhibitory effect of GES was more potent with the stimulation electrodes placed along the lesser or greater curvature than placed in the middle, and more potent with the electrodes placed in the distal stomach than in the proximal stomach; (2) the inhibitory effects of GES on gastric motility were reproducible; (3) the GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility produced a 20 % reduction in food intakes in non-obese dogs. GES with appropriate parameters inhibits gastric motility, and the effects are reproducible. The GES method optimized to inhibit gastric motility reduces food intake in healthy dogs and may have a therapeutic potential for treating obesity.

  5. Brain-derived mast cells could mediate histamine-induced inhibition of food intake in neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, S; Bungo, T; Ohgushi, A; Ando, R; Shimojo, M; Masuda, Y; Denbow, D M; Furuse, M

    2000-02-28

    In the present study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine on food intake of neonatal chicks was examined over 2 h. Histamine (100, 200 or 400 nmol, respectively) was injected in the lateral ventricle of 2-day-old chicks, and cumulative food intakes were measured. i.c.v. injection of histamine significantly inhibited food intake in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound 48/80, which causes degranulation of mast cells and release of histamine, or thioperamide, which is an antagonist of the histamine H3 autoreceptor and increases histamine release from histaminergic nerve terminals, was injected i.c.v. to clarify whether mast cell- or neuron-derived histamine in the central nervous system of chicks is essential to the feeding inhibition. Central administration of compound 48/80 inhibited food intake with a dose-dependent manner, but thioperamide had no effect on feeding. An inhibitor of mast cell degranulation, sodium cromoglycate, somewhat attenuated food intake inhibited by compound 48/80. These results suggest that brain-derived mast cells could be a major source of histamine in the inhibition of food intake of neonatal chicks.

  6. Inhibition of food intake in the rat following complete absorption of glucose delivered into the stomach, intestine or liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D A; Jarman, S P

    1976-07-01

    1. Solutions of glucose or other carbohydrates were administered during the dark or light period of the circadian cycle to rats which had been only briefly deprived of food. 2. food was restored to the animals at various times after administration of a glucose load by stomach tube. With delays between loading and access to food of up to 3 hr by night and 2 hr by day, subsequent food intake was less than intake after non-nutritive loads. 3. measurement of the glucose content of the gastrointestinal tract at various times after glucose loading showed that this depression of intake was still apparent even when the rat was offered food some time after complete absorption of the stomach load. 4. infusion of a glucose solution into the duodenum or the hepatic protal vein also inhibited subsequent food intake. 5. in all cases, the inhibition of food intake was expressed as a decrease in the size of the first meal after restoring access to food. 6. these results provide the first demonstration that the entry of normal amounts of carbohydrate into the body by the physiological route is followed by depression of food intake which lasts until after absorption is complete.

  7. Centrally administered urocortin 3 inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tanaka, Chie; Inui, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ucn3 on food intake was less potent than that of centrally administered CRF and Urocortin 1. ICV administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased the gastric emptying rate in a dose-dependent manner. Ucn3 decreased food intake in high-fat diet-fed obese mice as well as in lean mice. These results indicated that Ucn3 influences feeding behavior and gut motility, and may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of eating and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  8. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  9. Inhibition of hypothalamic MCT1 expression increases food intake and alters orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptide expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Cortés-Campos, Christian; Barahona, María José; Carril, Claudio; Ordenes, Patricio; Salgado, Magdiel; Oyarce, Karina; García-Robles, María de los Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is the main isoform expressed by tanycytes, which could facilitate lactate release to hypothalamic AN neurons. We hypothesize that MCT1 inhibition could alter the metabolic coupling between tanycytes and AN neurons, altering feeding behavior. To test this, we inhibited MCT1 expression using adenovirus-mediated transfection of a shRNA into the third ventricle, transducing ependymal wall cells and tanycytes. Neuropeptide expression and feeding behavior were measured in MCT1-inhibited animals after intracerebroventricular glucose administration following a fasting period. Results showed a loss in glucose regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and an abnormal expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides in response to fasting. This was accompanied by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain. Taken together, these results indicate that MCT1 expression in tanycytes plays a role in feeding behavior regulation. PMID:27677351

  10. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect. PMID:27775601

  11. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P intake by 26 ± 7% (P intake by 27 ± 5% (P intake by 18 ± 8% (P food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis.

  12. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  13. Metformin inhibits food intake and neuropeptide Y gene expression in the hypothalamus***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yale Duan; Rui Zhang; Min Zhang; Lijuan Sun; Suzhen Dong; Gang Wang; Jun Zhang; Zheng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Metformin may reduce food intake and body weight, but the anorexigenic effects of metformin are stil poorly understood. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single intracere-broventricular dose of metformin and compound C, in a broader attempt to investigate the regula-tory effects of metformin on food intake and to explore the possible mechanism. Results showed that central administration of metformin significantly reduced food intake and body weight gain, par-ticularly after 4 hours. A reduction of neuropeptide Y expression and induction of AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hypothalamus were also observed 4 hours after metformin administration, which could be reversed by compound C, a commonly-used antagonist of AMP-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, metformin also improved lipid metabolism by reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein. Our findings suggest that under normal physiological conditions, central regulation of appetite by metformin is related to a decrease in neuropeptide Y gene expres-sion, and that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase may simply be a response to the anorexigenic effect of metformin.

  14. Peptide YY3-36 and glucagon-like peptide-17-36 inhibit food intake additively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Nicola M; Small, Caroline J; Druce, Maralyn R; Park, Adrian J; Ellis, Sandra M; Semjonous, Nina M; Dakin, Catherine L; Filipsson, Karin; Wang, Fang; Kent, Aysha S; Frost, Gary S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2005-12-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide (GLP)-1 are cosecreted from intestinal L cells, and plasma levels of both hormones rise after a meal. Peripheral administration of PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36) inhibit food intake when administered alone. However, their combined effects on appetite are unknown. We studied the effects of peripheral coadministration of PYY(3-36) with GLP-1(7-36) in rodents and man. Whereas high-dose PYY(3-36) (100 nmol/kg) and high-dose GLP-1(7-36) (100 nmol/kg) inhibited feeding individually, their combination led to significantly greater feeding inhibition. Additive inhibition of feeding was also observed in the genetic obese models, ob/ob and db/db mice. At low doses of PYY(3-36) (1 nmol/kg) and GLP-1(7-36) (10 nmol/kg), which alone had no effect on food intake, coadministration led to significant reduction in food intake. To investigate potential mechanisms, c-fos immunoreactivity was quantified in the hypothalamus and brain stem. In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed after low-dose PYY(3-36) or GLP-1(7-36) individually, but there were significantly more fos-positive neurons after coadministration. In contrast, there was no evidence of additive fos-stimulation in the brain stem. Finally, we coadministered PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36) in man. Ten lean fasted volunteers received 120-min infusions of saline, GLP-1(7-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min), PYY(3-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min), and PYY(3-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min) + GLP-1(7-36) (0.4 pmol/kg.min) on four separate days. Energy intake from a buffet meal after combined PYY(3-36) + GLP-1(7-36) treatment was reduced by 27% and was significantly lower than that after either treatment alone. Thus, PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36), cosecreted after a meal, may inhibit food intake additively.

  15. Inhibition of hypothalamic Foxo1 expression reduced food intake in diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropelle, Eduardo R; Pauli, José R; Prada, Patrícia; Cintra, Dennys E; Rocha, Guilherme Z; Moraes, Juliana C; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Luz, Gabrielle; Pinho, Ricardo A; Carvalheira, José B C; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2009-05-15

    Insulin signalling in the hypothalamus plays a role in maintaining body weight. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 is an important mediator of insulin signalling in the hypothalamus. Foxo1 stimulates the transcription of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related protein through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway, but the role of hypothalamic Foxo1 in insulin resistance and obesity remains unclear. Here, we identify that a high-fat diet impaired insulin-induced hypothalamic Foxo1 phosphorylation and degradation, increasing the nuclear Foxo1 activity and hyperphagic response in rats. Thus, we investigated the effects of the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinfusion of Foxo1-antisense oligonucleotide (Foxo1-ASO) and evaluated the food consumption and weight gain in normal and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Three days of Foxo1-ASO microinfusion reduced the hypothalamic Foxo1 expression by about 85%. i.c.v. infusion of Foxo1-ASO reduced the cumulative food intake (21%), body weight change (28%), epididymal fat pad weight (22%) and fasting serum insulin levels (19%) and increased the insulin sensitivity (34%) in DIO but not in control animals. Collectively, these data showed that the Foxo1-ASO treatment blocked the orexigenic effects of Foxo1 and prevented the hyperphagic response in obese rats. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of Foxo1 may be used to prevent or treat obesity.

  16. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Peptides and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo; Aranzazu Perianes Cachero; Lilian Puebla Jiménez; Vicente eBarrios; Eduardo eArilla

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the r...

  18. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  19. Satiety factor oleoylethanolamide recruits the brain histaminergic system to inhibit food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provensi, Gustavo; Coccurello, Roberto; Umehara, Hayato; Munari, Leonardo; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Nosi, Daniele; Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Moles, Anna; Blandina, Patrizio; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2014-08-01

    Key factors driving eating behavior are hunger and satiety, which are controlled by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems and peripheral stimuli. The lipid-derived messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is released by enterocytes in response to fat intake and indirectly signals satiety to hypothalamic nuclei. Brain histamine is released during the appetitive phase to provide a high level of arousal in anticipation of feeding, and mediates satiety. However, despite the possible functional overlap of satiety signals, it is not known whether histamine participates in OEA-induced hypophagia. Using different experimental settings and diets, we report that the anorexiant effect of OEA is significantly attenuated in mice deficient in the histamine-synthesizing enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO) or acutely depleted of histamine via interocerebroventricular infusion of the HDC blocker α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH). α-FMH abolished OEA-induced early occurrence of satiety onset while increasing histamine release in the CNS with an H3 receptor antagonist-increased hypophagia. OEA augmented histamine release in the cortex of fasted mice within a time window compatible to its anorexic effects. OEA also increased c-Fos expression in the oxytocin neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of WT but not HDC-KO mice. The density of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in other brain regions that receive histaminergic innervation and participate in the expression of feeding behavior was comparable in OEA-treated WT and HDC-KO mice. Our results demonstrate that OEA requires the integrity of the brain histamine system to fully exert its hypophagic effect and that the oxytocin neuron-rich nuclei are the likely hypothalamic area where brain histamine influences the central effects of OEA.

  20. Childhood obesity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Yi; Qi, Sui-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is growing in China at present. Childhood obesity reflects complex interactions of genetic, environmental, social and behavioral factors. Foods, nutritional components, and food intake patterns may be associated with the increasing obesity rate in children. Articles about the relationship between childhood obesity and food intake were collected from the databases including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Foods and nutritional components such as calcium, dietary fiber are inversely related to obesity, whereas others such as vitamin B and sugar-sweeten beverages play a positive role in obesity development. The differences in food intake pattern also influence the risk of obesity. Food intake is an important factor influencing childhood obesity. One strategy to prevent childhood obesity is to take foods of moderate amount in a proper pattern.

  1. Pharmacological Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Reduces Food Intake and Sensitizes Leptin’s Anorectic Signaling Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su; Howard, Shannon; LoGrasso, Philip V.

    2017-01-01

    The role for c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in the control of feeding and energy balance is not well understood. Here, by use of novel and highly selective JNK inhibitors, we investigated the actions of JNK in the control of feeding and body weight homeostasis. In lean mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of SR-3306, a brain-penetrant and selective pan-JNK (JNK1/2/3) inhibitor, reduced food intake and body weight. Moreover, i.p. and i.c.v. administrations of SR11935, a brain-penetrant and JNK2/3 isoform-selective inhibitor, exerted similar anorectic effects as SR3306, which suggests JNK2 or JNK3 mediates aspect of the anorectic effect by pan-JNK inhibition. Furthermore, daily i.p. injection of SR3306 (7 days) prevented the increases in food intake and weight gain in lean mice upon high-fat diet feeding, and this injection paradigm reduced high-fat intake and obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In the DIO mice, JNK inhibition sensitized leptin’s anorectic effect, and enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 activation in the hypothalamus. The underlying mechanisms likely involve the downregulation of SOCS3 by JNK inhibition. Collectively, our data suggest that JNK activity promotes positive energy balance, and the therapeutic intervention inhibiting JNK activities represents a promising approach to ameliorate diet-induced obesity and leptin resistance. PMID:28165482

  2. A natural variant of obestatin, Q90L, inhibits ghrelin's action on food intake and GH secretion and targets NPY and GHRH neurons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Viltart, Odile; Yang, Seung-Kwon; Gardette, Robert; Videau, Catherine; Badoer, Emilio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL). While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677) may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each) in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59-77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH neurons. These data support

  3. A natural variant of obestatin, Q90L, inhibits ghrelin's action on food intake and GH secretion and targets NPY and GHRH neurons in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Hassouna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and obestatin are two gut-derived peptides originating from the same ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL. While ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake and inhibits γ-aminobutyric-acid synaptic transmission onto GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone neurons, obestatin blocks these effects. In Humans, GHRL gene polymorphisms have been associated with pathologies linked to an unbalanced energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that one polymorphism located in the obestatin sequence (Q to L substitution in position 90 of the ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide, rs4684677 may impact on the function of obestatin. In the present study, we tested the activity of native and Q90L obestatin to modulate ghrelin-induced food intake, GH secretion, cFos activity in GHRH and Neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons and γ-aminobutyric-acid activity onto GHRH neurons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Food intake, GH secretion and electrophysiological recordings were assessed in C57BL/6 mice. cFos activity was measured in NPY-Renilla-GFP and GHRH-eGFP mice. Mice received saline, ghrelin or ghrelin combined to native or Q90L obestatin (30 nmol each in the early light phase. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake and GH secretion varied considerably among individual mice with 59-77% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, ghrelin-induced food intake and GH secretion were reduced equally by native and Q90L obestatin. In contrast to in vivo observations, Q90L was slightly more efficient than native obestatin in inhibiting ghrelin-induced cFos activation within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. After ghrelin injection, 26% of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus expressed cFos protein and this number was significantly reduced by co-administration of Q90L obestatin. Q90L was also more potent that native obestatin in reducing ghrelin-induced inhibition of

  4. AgRP Neurons Can Increase Food Intake during Conditions of Appetite Suppression and Inhibit Anorexigenic Parabrachial Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Rachel A; Smith, Alison G; Jamnik, Adam A; Ryba, Anna R; Trutner, Zoe D; Carter, Matthew E

    2017-09-06

    To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine. Additionally, exogenous compounds, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), a salt that creates gastric discomfort, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial cell wall component that induces inflammation, exert appetite-suppressing effects and activate PBN CGRP neurons. The effects of increasing the homeostatic drive to eat on feeding behavior during appetite suppressing conditions are unknown. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation or optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons induces feeding to overcome the appetite suppressing effects of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. AgRP neuron photostimulation can also increase feeding during chemogenetic-mediated stimulation of PBN CGRP neurons. AgRP neuron stimulation reduces Fos expression in PBN CGRP neurons across all conditions. Finally, stimulation of projections from AgRP neurons to the PBN increases feeding following administration of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. These results demonstrate that AgRP neurons are sufficient to increase feeding during noninflammatory-based appetite suppression and to decrease activity in anorexigenic PBN CGRP neurons, thereby increasing food intake during homeostatic need.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The motivation to eat depends on the relative balance of activity in distinct brain regions that induce or suppress appetite. An abnormal amount of activity in

  5. Neuroendocrine control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Adrian J; Bloom, Stephen R

    2005-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and substantially increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular, respiratory problems, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis and sleep apnoea, as well as certain cancers. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, for individuals weight is regulated within a narrow range. This regulation depends on energy intake (in the form of food) and energy expenditure. Recently, there has been a remarkable increase in our understanding of the homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy homeostasis. There is increased understanding of the central regulation of appetite. In particular, this includes new knowledge about the hypothalamus and brainstem and their relation to food intake regulation. Peripheral hormones (notably adipostat factors and gut hormones) have now been found to be important in food intake regulation. Complex central circuitry controls food intake. Circulating hormones, in particular the gut hormones have unexpectedly been found to be very important in appetite control. The gut hormones are thus new and exciting targets for future obesity therapies.

  6. Nutrition knowledge and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, J; Parmenter, K; Waller, J

    2000-06-01

    In many studies, correlations between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour have failed to reach statistical significance, leading researchers to question the relevance of nutrition knowledge to food choice, and the value of nutrition education campaigns. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge and intake of fat, fruit and vegetables using a well-validated measure of nutrition knowledge. The study was a postal survey, using 1040 adult participants selected at random from General Practitioners' lists in England. Nutrition knowledge and food intake followed the expected demographic patterns. Knowledge was significantly associated with healthy eating, and the effect persisted after controlling for demographic variables. Logistic regression showed that respondents in the highest quintile for knowledge were almost 25 times more likely to meet current recommendations for fruit, vegetable and fat intake than those in the lowest quintile. Nutrition knowledge was shown to be a partial mediator of the socio-demographic variation in intake, especially for fruit and vegetables. This demonstrates the value of using more sophisticated statistical techniques to investigate associations between knowledge and food intake and indicates that knowledge is an important factor in explaining variations in food choice. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  7. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P.; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M.; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E.; Peterson, Jonathan M.; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A.; Townsend, Craig A.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2011-01-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:21490364

  8. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P; Aja, Susan; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E; Peterson, Jonathan M; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A; Townsend, Craig A; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2011-07-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

  9. Inhibition of P2Y6 Signaling in AgRP Neurons Reduces Food Intake and Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie Marie; Timper, Katharina; Engström Ruud, Linda; Evers, Nadine; Paeger, Lars; Bremser, Stephan; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens Claus

    2017-02-14

    Uridine-diphosphate (UDP) and its receptor P2Y6 have recently been identified as regulators of AgRP neurons. UDP promotes feeding via activation of P2Y6 receptors on AgRP neurons, and hypothalamic UDP concentrations are increased in obesity. However, it remained unresolved whether inhibition of P2Y6 signaling pharmacologically, globally, or restricted to AgRP neurons can improve obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions. Here, we demonstrate that central injection of UDP acutely promotes feeding in diet-induced obese mice and that acute pharmacological blocking of CNS P2Y6 receptors reduces food intake. Importantly, mice with AgRP-neuron-restricted inactivation of P2Y6 exhibit reduced food intake and fat mass as well as improved systemic insulin sensitivity with improved insulin action in liver. Our results reveal that P2Y6 signaling in AgRP neurons is involved in the onset of obesity-associated hyperphagia and systemic insulin resistance. Collectively, these experiments define P2Y6 as a potential target to pharmacologically restrict both feeding and systemic insulin resistance in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the t

  11. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-07-01

    Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRV(food), the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRV(prop)) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRV(prop) was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117.

  12. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  13. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.

  14. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  15. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  16. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance.

  17. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food

  18. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food

  19. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, S. R.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Prescott, J.

    2017-01-01

    Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food...... Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake...... and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN...

  20. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  2. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  3. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M.; Kim, T.; McCarley, R.W.; Basheer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake–state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep–wake regulation. Methods In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light–dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Results Across the 24-h light–dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (–93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (–44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. Conclusion The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep–wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight. PMID:23585726

  4. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  5. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    .01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium......Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men...

  6. Nesfatin-1 - More than a food intake regulatory peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 was discovered a decade ago and despite the fact that it represents just one of a multitude of food intake-inhibiting factors it received increasing attention. This led to a detailed characterization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1's physiological property to reduce food intake and also gave rise to an involvement in the long term regulation of body weight, especially under conditions of obesity. In addition, studies indicated the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in other homeostatic functions as well: glucose homeostasis, water intake, gastrointestinal functions, temperature regulation, cardiovascular functions, puberty onset and sleep. These pleiotropic actions underline the physiological relevance of this peptide. Recently, the involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety has been investigated giving rise to the speculation that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 represents a peptidergic link between eating and anxiety/depression disorders.

  7. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  8. Food intake and struvite crystalluria in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, W P; Bartos, K D

    1987-01-01

    Four adult, castrated, male ferrets were studied in two similar trials for effects of food intake on variables hypothesized to promote struvite (ammonium, magnesium, phosphate hexahydrate) crystal formation in urine. Struvite crystalluria occurred in three of the four ferrets. Urine pH (UpH) averaged 6.6 for these ferrets. UpH in the ferret without crystalluria was 6.0. By simple linear regression analysis, no relationship was found between the amount of food ingested and the urinary concentration and excretion of magnesium and phosphorous. However, urine osmolality and excretion of both protein and ammonium were correlated to food intake (P less than .05). Ways in which these effects could promote struvite crystal formation are discussed.

  9. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake.

  10. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  11. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...... children also gain most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households with the lowest...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...

  12. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...... children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...

  13. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  14. Food satisfaction: Integrating feelings before, during and after food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Hyldig, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' satisfaction is important for the food industry to ensure product success. Determinants to food satisfaction are multifactorial and a method approaching the multiple determinants would provide a detailed picture of determinant behind consumers' hedonic food appreciation. The aims...... of this study were (1) to develop a method that could give detailed information about sensory- and food satisfaction (2) to study differences in sensory satisfaction in a case study, and (3) to study the factors related to food satisfaction. Focus group interviews and a literature study provided an overview...... of factors with potential to affect food satisfaction. A total of four questionnaires, covering factors before-, during- and after intake as well as demographics, were developed to measure factors related to satisfaction. The questionnaires were utilised in a cross-over consumer study with 79 subjects...

  15. Hindbrain orexin 1 receptors influence palatable food intake, operant responding for food, and food-conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Kristen; Parise, Eric M; Lilly, Nicole; Williams, Diana L

    2014-01-01

    Brain orexin 1 receptors (OX1Rs) are involved in food-motivated behavior. Most research has focused on forebrain OX1R populations, but hindbrain OX1Rs affect feeding. We hypothesized that hindbrain OX1Rs affect the reward value of food. We examined the effects of hindbrain OX1R stimulation or blockade on motivation for food, palatable high-fat (HF) food intake, and food-conditioned place preference. Rats trained to lever press for sucrose on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule received fourth intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of vehicle, orexin-A (0.1-1 nmol), or the OX1R antagonist SB334867 (10-20 nmol) before operant test sessions. Effects of these treatments on HF food intake during daily 1-h tests were assessed with fourth icv and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) injections. We conditioned a place preference by pairing HF food with one side of a two-sided chamber and then examined the effect of 20 nmol fourth icv SB334867 on the expression of that preference. In ad lib fed rats on the PR schedule, fourth icv orexin-A significantly increased responding and breakpoint relative to the vehicle. In 24-h food-deprived rats, fourth icv SB334867 significantly decreased responding and breakpoint. Orexin-A delivered to the fourth ventricle (0.1 nmol) or NTS (0.01 nmol) increased HF diet intake. Fourth icv SB334867 did not affect HF food intake, but SB334867 delivered either fourth icv (20 nmol) or intra-NTS (5-10 nmol) suppressed chow intake. Expression of HF food-conditioned place preference was inhibited by fourth icv SB334867. Hindbrain OX1R activity affects food-motivated operant behavior and may play a role in responding to cues that predict palatable food.

  16. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  17. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  18. Measuring food intake in studies of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Lauren

    2002-12-01

    The problem of how to measure habitual food intake in studies of obesity remains an enigma in nutritional research. The existence of obesity-specific underreporting was rather controversial until the advent of the doubly labelled water technique gave credence to previously anecdotal evidence that such a bias does in fact exist. This paper reviews a number of issues relevant to interpreting dietary data in studies involving obesity. Topics covered include: participation biases, normative biases,importance of matching method to study, selective underreporting, and a brief discussion of the potential implications of generalised and selective underreporting in analytical epidemiology. It is concluded that selective underreporting of certain food types by obese individuals would produce consequences in analytical epidemiological studies that are both unpredictable and complex. Since it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that selective reporting error does occur, it is important to emphasise that correction for energy intake is not sufficient to eliminate the biases from this type of error. This is true both for obesity-related selective reporting errors and more universal types of selective underreporting, e.g. foods of low social desirability. Additional research is urgently required to examine the consequences of this type of error.

  19. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  20. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; Wijk, de, R.A; Westerterp-Plantenga, M; Graaf, de, C

    2008-01-01

    .... Objective: To investigate the effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake in real-life setting and to investigate whether a difference in ad libitum intake is related to eating rate and/or eating effort. Design...

  1. Neurobiology of food intake in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Meek, Thomas H; Schwartz, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Under normal conditions, food intake and energy expenditure are balanced by a homeostatic system that maintains stability of body fat content over time. However, this homeostatic system can be overridden by the activation of 'emergency response circuits' that mediate feeding responses to emergent or stressful stimuli. Inhibition of these circuits is therefore permissive for normal energy homeostasis to occur, and their chronic activation can cause profound, even life-threatening, changes in body fat mass. This Review highlights how the interplay between homeostatic and emergency feeding circuits influences the biologically defended level of body weight under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  2. Obesity, food intake and exercise: Relationship with ghrelin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez; Serife Vatansever; Burcin Olcucu; Brad Schoenfeld

    2015-01-01

    ... – and long-term energy homeostasis. In the presence of increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and high food consumption, the relationship between exercise, appetite, food intake and ghrelin levels has important implications. In this review, we discuss the effect of acute and chronic exercise performance on appetite, food intake and ghrelin and their relationships.

  3. Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side eff

  6. Food intake monitoring: an acoustical approach to automated food intake activity detection and classification of consumed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Wolff, Matthias; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Obesity and nutrition-related diseases are currently growing challenges for medicine. A precise and timesaving method for food intake monitoring is needed. For this purpose, an approach based on the classification of sounds produced during food intake is presented. Sounds are recorded non-invasively by miniature microphones in the outer ear canal. A database of 51 participants eating seven types of food and consuming one drink has been developed for algorithm development and model training. The database is labeled manually using a protocol with introductions for annotation. The annotation procedure is evaluated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The food intake activity is detected by the comparison of the signal energy of in-ear sounds to environmental sounds recorded by a reference microphone. Hidden Markov models are used for the recognition of single chew or swallowing events. Intake cycles are modeled as event sequences in finite-state grammars. Classification of consumed food is realized by a finite-state grammar decoder based on the Viterbi algorithm. We achieved a detection accuracy of 83% and a food classification accuracy of 79% on a test set of 10% of all records. Our approach faces the need of monitoring the time and occurrence of eating. With differentiation of consumed food, a first step toward the goal of meal weight estimation is taken.

  7. Vitamin Intake from Food Supplements in a German Cohort - Is there a Risk of Excessive Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Janina; Heinemann, Michaela; Bitterlich, Norman; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Food supplements, if not properly used, may lead to potentially harmful nutrient intake. The purpose of this survey was to examine vitamin intake from food supplements. Taking into account the intake from food, as obtained from the National Nutrition Survey, it was determined whether the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) were exceeded via supplements alone, or in combination with food. Data from 1070 supplement users (18-93 years) was available. The dietary and supplemental vitamin intakes of three groups were analyzed: average intake (50th percentile food+50th percentile supplements), middle-high intake (50th+95th) and high intake (95th+95th). Vitamin C (53%), vitamin E (45%) and B vitamins (37-45%) were consumed most frequently. Few subjects (n=7) reached or exceeded the ULs through supplements alone. The UL for vitamin A and folate was reached by a few men in the middle-high group, and by a few men and women in the high intake group. Otherwise, even in the high intake group, the recommended vitamin D intake of 20 µg/day (in case of insufficient endogenous synthesis) could not be achieved. The use of food supplements was not associated with excessive vitamin intake in this survey, except in a small number of cases. Vitamin A intake above the UL was the result of high dietary intake which also included the intake of β-carotene, rather than the result of overconsumption of food supplements. Diets mainly included folate from natural sources, which has no associated risk.

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consu

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, A.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, C. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, R.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Graaf, de Cees; Witkamp, R.F.; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or co

  12. Effects of injection of serotonin into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake and body weight in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G K; Kannan, N; Pal, Pravati

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted cannulae in three different dosages (1, 2 and 5 microg) and their effects on 24 h food and water intake, and body weight were recorded. The injection of serotonin hydrochloride resulted in a dose- dependent decrease in food intake attaining maximum of 27.3% at 5 microg dose, whereas water intake and body weight were decreased 12% and 4.3% respectively only at the highest does. Buspirone elicited a dose dependent inhibition of food and water intake and body weight (22.3%, 19.8% and 5.1% respectively), whereas ondensetron elicited an increase in food and water intake (37.8% and 36.3% respectively) without significantly altering bodyweight. It was concluded that serotonin hydrochloride injected into nucleus caudatus inhibits food and water intake significantly. These effects are mediated via 5-HT1A and 5HT3 receptors. The effect of injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonist is more pronounced on water intake. The effect of injections of 5HT3 receptor antagonist is also more pronounced on water intake.

  13. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Chik Wan Chak; Chee Kan; Shahar Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that...

  14. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  15. Food texture and food intake : the role of oral sensory exposure

    OpenAIRE

    N. Zijlstra

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: In view of the growing epidemic of obesity, it is important to investigate factors which influence food intake. Food texture has been shown to play a role in food intake regulation but underlying explaining mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effect of food texture on satiation (assessed as ad libitum food intake) and to investigate the mediating role of oral sensory exposure and gastro-intestinal physiology in this effect. Methods: We...

  16. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are ‘allowed’ to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a

  17. Setting a social norm regarding food intake in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    People use other's food intake as a social norm indicating how much they are ‘allowed’ to eat. Ample experimental research showed the impact of peer modeling on food intake in adolescents and adults, whereas few studies focused on young children. This study used an innovative design in a naturalisti

  18. Absence of clonidine-induced food intake in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, N L; Brne, T; Bolin, J; Schlemmer, R F

    1986-11-01

    Previous studies support an interaction between noradrenergic and opiate systems in the control of food intake. For example, in both rats and rabbits, food intake stimulated by the noradrenergic agent clonidine is reduced by opiate antagonists. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not clonidine stimulated the food intake of non-food-deprived hamsters, a species which appears to lack an opiate-sensitive feeding system. Hamsters fed a chow diet did not increase their food intake when injected with clonidine in doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/kg. Furthermore, the animals did not increase their intake of sunflower seeds, a preferred diet for hamsters.

  19. Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3

  20. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida [UNIFESP; Zimberg, Iona Zalcman [UNIFESP; Reis, Bruno Gomes dos [UNIFESP; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik,Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals.Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake.Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was...

  1. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  2. When, how much and what foods are eaten are related to total daily food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, John M

    2009-10-01

    Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat intake and morning protein intake associated with reduced daily protein intake. Since different types of foods contain differing proportions of macronutrients, the present study investigated the associations of different types of foods ingested at various times of day with total daily and macronutrient intakes. The intakes of 388 male and 621 female free-living individuals reported in 7 d diet diaries were reanalysed. The intakes of twenty-four different types of foods and seven different drinks occurring during the morning (04.00-10.29 hours), afternoon (10.30-16.59 hours) and evening (17.00-02.00 hours) were identified and related to overall daily intakes. Dairy foods, ice cream, beef, other meats, potatoes, pastry, nuts, chips and snacks, condiments, alcohol and soda were significantly associated with higher total intake over the day, while fruit, soup, breakfast cereal, pasta, pizza, water, coffee/tea and diet soda were either not associated or were associated with lower overall intake. Dietary energy density appeared to mediate the associations between particular foods and beverages and overall energy intake. This suggests that eating low-density foods in the morning and avoiding high-density foods at night might aid in reducing overall intake and may be useful in dietary interventions for overweight and obesity.

  3. Food intake rate and delivery strategy in aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In aquaculture, it is important to estimate in advance how much food cultured animals would take. The rate of food consumption by cultured animals to available food amount is defined as the food intake rate (FIR) in this paper. To some extents, FIR reflects the quality of food, the health of cultured animals and the delivery efficiency. In practice, it is difficult to estimate in advance the accurate quantity of food that cultured animal needs. Usually, food is provided more than the need by animals, causing excess food that may pollute water and environment. Our experiments in past years show that FIR at 80% is recommended.

  4. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  5. Food texture and food intake : the role of oral sensory exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: In view of the growing epidemic of obesity, it is important to investigate factors which influence food intake. Food texture has been shown to play a role in food intake regulation but underlying explaining mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this thesis was to determine the

  6. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Chik Wan Chak

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all nutrients investigated except for vitamin C and fluid were below the individual requirement for energy, protein and fluid, and the Malaysian Recommendation of Dietary Allowances (RDA for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and acid ascorbic. In general, subjects preferred vegetables, fruits and beans to red meat, milk and dairy products. There was a trend of women to have a higher percentage for food wastage. Females, diabetic patients, subjects who did not take snacks and subjects who were taking hospital food only, were more likely to consume an inadequate diet (p Conclusions Food service system in hospital should consider the food preferences among geriatric patients in order to improve the nutrient intake. In addition, the preparation of food most likely to be rejected such as meat, milk and dairy products need some improvements to increase the acceptance of these foods among geriatric patients. This is important because these foods are good sources of energy, protein and micronutrients that can promote recovery from disease or illness.

  7. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders that can cause such problems. Such physical disorders include food allergies, digestive tract disorders that impair food absorption (malabsorption—see Overview of Malabsorption ), and cancer. ...

  8. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.

    2006-01-01

    the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served, eaten...... and wasted was measured, and energy and protein intake calculated. Results: The quartile of patients with the lowest energy intake consumed on average 128 kJ per patient [(95% confidence interval (CI) 79-178 kJ] with the old system; with the new system they consumed 560 kJ per patient (95% CI 489-631 k......: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially. Keywords: hospital food; nutritional risk; undernutrition...

  9. Carnitine supplementation accelerates normalization of food intake depressed during TPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Meguid, M M; Renvyle, T; Yang, Z J; Beverly, J L

    1996-07-01

    When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3-4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3-4 days before food intake returns to previous level, which appears to be related to fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition. Carnitine plays a key role in the oxidation of fatty acids, and was demonstrated to reduce fat deposition in rats receiving TPN, by increasing beta oxidation. We therefore investigated whether rats receiving TPN supplemented with carnitine may prevent either the decrease or speed up the resumption or normalization of food intake, after TPN is stopped. Fourteen adult Fischer-344 rats had a central venous catheter inserted. After 10 recovery days, controls (n = 7) were infused with TPN providing 100% of rat's daily caloric intake for 3 consecutive days, followed by 4 more days of normal saline. The carnitine group (n = 7) received the same solution, but which provided 100 mg/kg/day carnitine. Daily food intake was measured and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Both parenteral solutions depressed food intake maximally by almost 90% by day 3. Carnitine accelerated the normalization of food intake by decreasing the lag period by 1 day. We conclude that the addition of carnitine enhanced the normalization of post-TPN food intake and argue that this may be on the basis of enhanced fatty acid oxidation, a substrate known to play a significant role in the anorexia induced by TPN.

  10. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  11. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  12. Using metabolomics to evaluate food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manach, Claudine; Brennan, Lorraine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    Improving dietary assessment is essential for modern nutritional epidemiology. This chapter discusses the potential of metabolomics for the identification of new biomarkers of intake and presents the first candidate biomarkers discovered using this approach. It then describes the challenges that ...

  13. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  14. Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Popkin, B M; Mroz, T A; Zhai, F

    1999-05-01

    The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy.

  15. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B

    2006-01-01

    , increases the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served......, eaten and wasted was measured, and energy and protein intake calculated. Results: The quartile of patients with the lowest energy intake consumed on average 128 kJ per patient [(95% confidence interval (CI) 79-178 kJ] with the old system; with the new system they consumed 560 kJ per patient (95% CI 489....... Conclusions: Reorganization of a hospital catering system can increase energy and protein intake and reduce waste substantially....

  16. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism.

  17. Nutrient intake and food restriction in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD.

  18. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Daniel D; Garfield, Alastair S; Marston, Oliver J; Shaw, Jill; Heisler, Lora K

    2010-11-01

    An inverse relationship between brain serotonin and food intake and body weight has been known for more than 30 years. Specifically, augmentation of brain serotonin inhibits food intake, while depletion of brain serotonin promotes hyperphagia and weight gain. Through the decades, serotonin receptors have been identified and their function in the serotonergic regulation of food intake clarified. Recent refined genetic studies now indicate that a primary mechanism through which serotonin influences appetite and body weight is via serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) influencing the activity of endogenous melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists at the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R). However, other mechanisms are also possible and the challenge of future research is to delineate them in the complete elucidation of the complex neurocircuitry underlying the serotonergic control of appetite and body weight.

  19. Plasma ghrelin concentrations, food intake, and anorexia in liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Giulio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Lucidi, Paola; Villanova, Nicola; Zoli, Marco; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2004-05-01

    Ghrelin is related to feeding behavior and nutrition in several physiological and pathological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the anorexia and the decreased food intake of advanced liver failure might be associated with hyperghrelinemia. Fasting ghrelin was measured in 43 cirrhotic patients, food intake was self-assessed using the Corli score and a 3-d dietary record (n = 25), and anorexia/hunger was tested by a Likert scale. Fifty healthy subjects, matched for age and body mass index, served as controls. Ghrelin levels were not systematically increased in cirrhosis (414 +/- 164 vs. 398 +/- 142 pmol/liter in controls) but increased with decreasing Corli score (P = 0.014) and along the scale of anorexia/hunger (P = 0.0001), which were both related to the 3-d dietary record (P = 0.009 and P 500 pmol/liter) was significantly associated with a low calorie intake [odds ratio (OR), 3.03 for any 100-calorie reduced intake; P = 0.015], a reduced Corli score (OR, 3.09; P = 0.031), and the anorexia score (OR, 3.37; P = 0.009), after adjustment for body mass index. The study confirms the previously observed relationship of fasting ghrelin with food intake in disease-associated malnutrition. In the presence of anorexia, hyperghrelinemia might indicate a compensatory mechanism trying to stimulate food intake, which is nonetheless ineffective in the physiological range.

  20. Research on Calcium Food Intake of Young Gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the calcium food intake of young gymnasts and the relationship among calcium nutrition, exercise and bone mineral status. 13 elite young gymnasts aged 11~12 with 3 to 7 years of training experience are chosen as subjects. At the same time, 14 young students at the same age are selected as control group. Dietary survey is made to investigate their calcium and protein intakes status. The calcium intakes of young gymnasts are 515.3±218.0 mg/d, which are only 51.5% of calcium reference intakes. The BMC, bone area and BMD of young gymnasts are all significantly lower than those of young students by 23, 14 and 11%, respectively (p<0.05. It concludes that the calcium intakes of young gymnasts are lower than Chinese calcium reference intakes. The BMC and BMD of young gymnasts are lower than those of young students at the same age. Perhaps it is related to their heavy training load, the high requirement of calcium and the long-term inadequate calcium intake. Therefore, we suggest that young gymnasts can appropriate to eat more calcium rich food (milk or dairy products to improve the calcium intakes and then to add BMC and BMD.

  1. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  2. Dietary Intake Contributions of Food and Beverages by Source and Food Security Status in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Colleen K; Clark, Jill E; Hooker, Neal H; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status. Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data. The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults. Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  4. Heparanase affects food intake and regulates energy balance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Karlsson-Lindahl

    Full Text Available Mutation of the melanocortin-receptor 4 (MC4R is the most frequent cause of severe obesity in humans. Binding of agouti-related peptide (AgRP to MC4R involves the co-receptor syndecan-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The proteoglycan can be structurally modified by the enzyme heparanase. Here we tested the hypothesis that heparanase plays a role in food intake behaviour and energy balance regulation by analysing body weight, body composition and food intake in genetically modified mice that either lack or overexpress heparanase. We also assessed food intake and body weight following acute central intracerebroventricular administration of heparanase; such treatment reduced food intake in wildtype mice, an effect that was abolished in mice lacking MC4R. By contrast, heparanase knockout mice on a high-fat diet showed increased food intake and maturity-onset obesity, with up to a 40% increase in body fat. Mice overexpressing heparanase displayed essentially the opposite phenotypes, with a reduced fat mass. These results implicate heparanase in energy balance control via the central melanocortin system. Our data indicate that heparanase acts as a negative modulator of AgRP signaling at MC4R, through cleavage of heparan sulfate chains presumably linked to syndecan-3.

  5. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  6. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size.

  7. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrer, E

    1999-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation seems to provide an important stimulus for metabolic control of food intake, because various inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, methyl palmoxirate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulated feeding in rats and/or mice, in particular when fed a fat-enriched diet, and long-term intravascular infusion of lipids reduced voluntary food intake in various species, including humans. The feeding response to decreased fatty acid oxidation was due to a shortening of the intermeal interval with meal size remaining unaffected. Thus, energy derived from fatty acid oxidation seems to contribute to control of the duration of postmeal satiety and meal onset. Since inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose affects feeding pattern similarly, and spontaneous meals were shown to be preceded by a transient decline in blood glucose in rats and humans, a decrease in energy availability from glucose and fatty acid oxidation seems to be instrumental in eliciting eating. Since the feeding response of rats to inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was abolished by total abdominal vagotomy and pretreatment with capsaicin destroying non-myelinated afferents and attenuated by hepatic branch vagotomy, fatty acid oxidation in abdominal tissues, especially in the liver, apparently is signalled to the brain by vagal afferents to affect eating. Brain lesions and Fos immunohistochemistry were employed to identify pathways within the brain mediating eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation. According to these studies, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata represents the gate for central processing of vagally mediated afferent information related to fatty acid oxidation. The lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons seems to be a major relay for pertinent ascending input from the NTS. In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating

  8. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  9. Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) determine the relationships between BMI and the frequency of food cravings for different categories of foods, 2) examine the associations between cravings for different types of foods and self-reported, habitual intake of these foods, and 3) assess how these relationships differ by BMI. Six hundred and forty-six participants (55.7% female; 66.4% White; mean age 29.5±9.1 years; mean BMI 27.3±5.5 kg/m(2)) completed a comprehensive assessment battery including the Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). There was a significant positive relationship between BMI and food cravings. There were significant positive associations of cravings for sweets, high fats, carbohydrates/starches, and fast-food fats on respective intake of these types of foods; however, there were no significant interactions between food cravings and BMI on the respective type of food intake. This study indicates significant positive relationships between specific categories of food cravings and habitual intake of those foods.

  10. Gender-specific effects on food intake but no inhibition of age-related fat accretion in transgenic mice overexpressing human IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Petra; Schwarz, Franziska; Große, Birgit; Schindler, Nancy; Tuchscherer, Armin; Russo, Vincenzo C; Tschöp, Matthias H; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    IGFBP-2 affects growth and metabolism and is thought to impact on energy homeostasis and the accretion of body fat via its heparin binding domains (HBD). In order to assess the function of the HBD present in the linker domain (HBD1) we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human IGFBP-2 lacking the PKKLRP sequence and carrying a PNNLAP sequence instead. Transgenic mice expressed high amounts of human IGFBP-2, while endogenous IGFBP-2 or IGF-I serum concentrations were not affected. In both genders we performed a longitudinal analysis of growth and metabolism including at least 4 separate time points between the age of 10 and 52 weeks. Body composition was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Food intake was recorded by an automated online-monitoring. We describe negative effects of mutant human IGFBP-2 on body weight, longitudinal growth and lean body mass (p transgenic mice of both genders (p transgene expression significantly increased absolute mass of total body fat over all age groups (p Food intake was increased in female but decreased in male transgenic mice at an age of 11 weeks. Thus our study clearly provides gender- and time-specific effects of HBD1-deficient hIGFBP-2 (H1d-BP-2) on fat mass accretion and food intake. While our data are in principal agreement with current knowledge on the role of HB-domains for fat accretion we now may also speculate on a role of HBD1 for the control of eating behavior.

  11. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management.

  12. Leptin depresses food intake in great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, L Fredrik; El Halawani, Mohammed; Silverin, Bengt

    2003-03-01

    Food availability for wild organisms typically varies both in time and space, requiring a mechanism that regulates the storage of excess energy and makes it possible to use stores during energy shortfall. Leptin, a protein hormone encoded by an obesity gene, has been suggested to be the signal mediator for this flux of energy. In a controlled laboratory experiment on caged great tits (Parus major) we evaluated the effect of leptin on food intake and behaviour. Experimental birds were given an intramuscular injection of 10 microg leptin dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), while the control birds were injected with PBS only at 09:00 h after a night's fasting. Within the first 20 min after injections we observed a significant difference in food intake between groups: control birds initially fed at higher rates compared to leptin treated birds. The cumulative food intake suggested that the effect of leptin disappeared after approximately 40-50 min post-injections. Similar results have previously been found in domesticated chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that leptin depresses food intake in wild birds.

  13. Urocortin 1 reduces food intake and ghrelin secretion via CRF(2) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Ohno, Shino; Ro, Shoki; Onouchi, Tsuneko; Ochiai, Mitsuko; Takabayashi, Hidehiko; Takayama, Kiyoshige; Harada, Yumi; Sadakane, Chiharu; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2011-07-01

    Although it is known that urocortin 1 (UCN) acts on both corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRF(1) and CRF(2)), the mechanisms underlying UCN-induced anorexia remain unclear. In contrast, ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, stimulates food intake. In the present study, we examined the effects of CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptor antagonists (CRF(1)a and CRF(2)a) on ghrelin secretion and synthesis, c-fos mRNA expression in the caudal brain stem, and food intake following intracerebroventricular administration of UCN. Eight-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used after 24-h food deprivation. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expressions of preproghrelin and c-fos were measured by real-time RT-PCR. The present study provided the following important insights into the mechanisms underlying the anorectic effects of UCN: 1) UCN increased acylated and des-acylated ghrelin levels in the gastric body and decreased their levels in the plasma; 2) UCN decreased preproghrelin mRNA levels in the gastric body; 3) UCN-induced reduction of plasma ghrelin and food intake were restored by CRF(2)a but not CRF(1)a; 4) UCN-induced increase of c-fos mRNA levels in the caudal brain stem containing the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was inhibited by CRF(2)a; and 5) UCN-induced reduction of food intake was restored by exogenous ghrelin and rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin secretion regulator. Thus, UCN increases neuronal activation in the caudal brain stem containing NTS via CRF(2) receptors, which may be related to UCN-induced inhibition of both ghrelin secretion and food intake.

  14. Food intake measurements: their validity and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis reports on the validity and the reproduciblity of methods assessing food consumption in groups of free-living Dutch adults consuming self-selected diets. The validity of a method, that is the demonstration that a method measures what it is intended to measure, can only be assessed by com

  15. Food intake measurements : their validity and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, Van W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis reports on the validity and the reproduciblity of methods assessing food consumption in groups of free-living Dutch adults consuming self-selected diets. The validity of a method, that is the demonstration that a method measures what it is intended to measure, can only be assessed by

  16. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on c

  17. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Strien, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on c

  18. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  19. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to coun

  20. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to

  1. Community Food Environment, Home Food Environment, and Fruit and Vegetable Intake of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Saelens, Brian E.; Harris, Sion Kim; Kerr, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Dori; Durant, Nefertiti; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents,…

  2. Household Food Consumption, Individual Caloric Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  3. Household Food Consumption, Individual Calories Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  4. Meal Microstructure Characterization from Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Doulah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To avoid the pitfalls of self-reported dietary intake, wearable sensors can be used. Many food ingestion sensors offer the ability to automatically detect food intake using time resolutions that range from 23 ms to 8 min. There is no defined standard time resolution to accurately measure ingestive behavior or a meal microstructure. This paper aims to estimate the time resolution needed to accurately represent the microstructure of meals such as duration of eating episode, the duration of actual ingestion, and number of eating events. Twelve participants wore the automatic ingestion monitor (AIM and kept a standard diet diary to report their food intake in free-living conditions for 24 h. As a reference, participants were also asked to mark food intake with a push button sampled every 0.1 s. The duration of eating episodes, duration of ingestion, and number of eating events were computed from the food diary, AIM, and the push button resampled at different time resolutions (0.1–30s. ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the duration of eating episodes estimated from the diary differed significantly from that estimated by the AIM and the push button (p-value <0.001. There were no significant differences in the number of eating events for push button resolutions of 0.1, 1, and 5 s, but there were significant differences in resolutions of 10–30s (p-value <0.05. The results suggest that the desired time resolution of sensor-based food intake detection should be ≤5 s to accurately detect meal microstructure. Furthermore, the AIM provides more accurate measurement of the eating episode duration than the diet diary.

  5. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and motivat

  6. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and

  7. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Kilkus, Jennifer M; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-h profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin, and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24 h during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared with normal sleep (P food intake and the development of obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Recent national French food and nutrient intake data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatier, J L; Verger, P

    1999-04-01

    In France, the first national dietary survey, called ASPCC, was done in 1993-1994. According to this survey, the mean fat intake in France is rather high, both for men (37.7%) and women (40%). Saturated fat intake is above 15% of energy. The intake of fruit and vegetables is particularly low for younger people and manual workers. Fruit intake is also lower for people from the north of the country. These data show the necessity of a targeted nutritional policy in France. Therefore, public health authorities are determining new dietary guidelines. The fact that people with unsatisfactory nutritional status are often not concerned with nutrition proves the importance of simple understandable food-based dietary guidelines.

  9. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women ... and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women...... in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...

  10. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A.M.; MacIntyre, Una E.; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented...

  11. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-24

    Sep 24, 2009 ... positive energy balance in the form of food energy intake (EI) that is higher than physical .... of Cape Town) was used to calculate Chi-squared test for trend of the adequate ..... sociodemographic factors, Tehran, Iran. Vascular ...

  12. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The results show clearly that the daily urban dietary intake of copper and zinc, from protein foods and .... Green vegetables sold in Dar-es-Salaam have been previously shown to be contaminated with ... in open spaces close to the roads and.

  13. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Cebolla, A.; Etchemendy, E.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, J.; Ferrer-Garcia, M.; Botella, C.; Banos, R.

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using

  14. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  15. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Cebolla, A.; Etchemendy, E.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, J.; Ferrer-Garcia, M.; Botella, C.; Banos, R.

    2013-01-01

    Do people with a high score on a scale for eating in response to negative emotions also show high food intake in response to positive emotions? We studied these effects in 60 female students that were preselected on the basis of extreme high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using

  16. Central administration of neuromedin U suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Sugahara, Kunio; Hasegawa, Shin

    2007-06-08

    The appetite-suppressive action of brain-gut peptides is similar in both chickens and mammals. In mammals, the brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) suppresses food intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. In chickens, central administration of CRF, oxytocin, or arginine-vasotocin (AVT, a nonmammalian equivalent of arginine-vasopressin) suppresses food intake. However, the anorexigenic action of NMU in chickens has not yet been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the central administration of NMU on food intake and hypothalamic mRNA levels of CRF, AVT and mesotocin (a nonmammalian equivalent of oxytocin) in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU in chicks significantly suppressed food intake and induced wing-flapping behavior. NMU also significantly upregulated mRNA expression of CRF and AVT, but did not influence mRNA expression of mesotocin in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that NMU functions as an appetite-suppressive peptide via CRF and AVT in the central nervous system in chicks.

  17. Hypothalamic inflammation and food intake regulation during chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Marks, D.L.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom in chronic illness. It contributes to malnutrition and strongly affects survival and quality of life. A common denominator of many chronic diseases is an elevated inflammatory status, which is considered to play a pivotal role in the failure of food-intake regulating sys

  18. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  20. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-02-26

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards.

  1. Obesity, food intake and exercise: Relationship with ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiryaki-Sonmez Gul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a disorder of body composition, is defined by a relative or absolute excess of body fat. In general adult population, obesity has been associated with a diverse array of adverse health outcomes, including major causes of death such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, as well as functional impairment from problems such as osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. Ghrelin is a newly discovered peptide hormone which plays an important role in obesity. It is a powerful, endogenous orexigenic peptide and has a crucial function in appetite regulation, as well as short – and long-term energy homeostasis. In the presence of increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and high food consumption, the relationship between exercise, appetite, food intake and ghrelin levels has important implications. In this review, we discuss the effect of acute and chronic exercise performance on appetite, food intake and ghrelin and their relationships.

  2. Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

  3. Kisspeptin and RFRP-3 differentially regulate food intake and metabolic neuropeptides in the female desert jerboa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Rajae; Laran-Chich, Marie-Pierre; Magoul, Rabia; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Jerboas are wild rodents exhibiting exceptional adaptation to their desert environment. Under harsh autumn conditions, they shut down reproduction, increase body weight and hibernate, while during spring they become sexually active even under negative energy-balance. We recently reported that these rhythms are associated with synchronized changes in genes expressing reproductive (Kiss1, Rfrp) and metabolic (Npy and Pomc) peptides, raising the hypothesis of coordinated seasonal regulation of both functions. Here we analyzed whether kisspeptin and RFRP-3 regulate food-intake in parallel to their established reproductive functions. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin inhibited food intake by 1.5-fold in fasted, but not ad-libitum fed, female jerboas captured in spring, an effect associated with an increase in Pomc and decrease in Rfrp mRNA levels. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 induced a 4-fold increase in food-intake in ad-libitum female jerboas, together with a decrease in Pomc and increase in Npy mRNA levels. This orexigenic effect of RFRP-3 was observed in both spring and autumn, whereas kisspeptin’s anorexigenic effect was only observed in spring. Altogether, this study reports opposite metabolic effects of kisspeptin and RFRP-3 in the female jerboa and strengthens our hypothesis of a coordinated, season-dependent, regulation of reproductive activity and food intake through interactions of these hypothalamic peptides. PMID:27805048

  4. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Chapman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture, an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series, and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden. Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms and low-calorie (grapes snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009. Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05. This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07. Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02. Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text with concurrent intake.

  5. Watching TV and food intake: the role of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Victor C; Thune, Hanna Å; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a 'Boring' TV condition (art lecture), an 'Engaging' TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+52% g, P = 0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control 'Text' condition (-35% g, P = 0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P = 0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta = 0.317, P = 0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.

  6. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a ph

  7. [Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Katarzyna; Januszko, Olga; Bylinowska, Justyna; Sicińska, Ewa; Pietruszka, Barbara; Kałuza, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12. Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland. More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users). It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with

  8. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  9. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  10. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  11. Histidine suppresses food intake through its conversion into neuronal histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Chiba, Seiichi; Tajima, Daisuke; Akehi, Yuko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2002-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuronal histamine has been shown to regulate feeding behavior and energy metabolism as a target of leptin action in the brain. The present study aimed to examine the involvement of L-histidine, a precursor of neuronal histamine, in the regulation of feeding behavior in rats. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of L-histidine at doses of 0.35 and 0.70 mmol/kg body weight significantly decreased the 24-hr cumulative food and water intakes compared to phosphate buffered saline injected controls (P intracerebroventricular infusion of histidine at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 micromol/rat (P histamine and attenuated the suppressive effect of histidine on food intake from 64.2% to 88.1% of the controls (P Administration of 0.35 mmol/kg histidine ip increased the concentration of hypothalamic neuronal histamine compared with the controls (P administration compared with the controls (P histamine in the hypothalamus.

  12. Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. Methods The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months. Results Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Conclusions Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.

  13. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  14. Effects of central histamine receptors blockade on GABA(A) agonist-induced food intake in broiler cockerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza, Zendehdel; Vahhab, Babapour; Hossein, Jonaidi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABA(A) agonist was evaluated. In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, chickens received famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. Finally in Experiment 3, the birds were injected with thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist and muscimol. Cumulative food intake was measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after injections. The results of this study indicated that effects of muscimol on food intake inhibited by pretreatment with chloropheneramine maleate (p histamine-GABA(A) receptor interaction on food intake in broiler cockerels.

  15. Impact of Perceived Healthiness of Food on Food Choices and Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle

    2016-03-01

    Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.

  16. The proglucagon-derived peptide, glucagon-like peptide-2, is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.; Thulesen, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour......Neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, overweight/obesity, hypothalamus, brainstem, food intake behaviour...

  17. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Food Intake in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela, Romualdi; Valentina, Immediata; Simona, De Cicco; Valeria, Tagliaferri; Antonio, Lanzone

    2017-01-01

    Several peripheral and central signals are involved in the sophisticated regulation of food intake. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are prone to consume a diet higher in saturated fat and foods with high glycemic index and show impaired appetite regulation and measures of satiety. As a consequence, obesity, mostly of the central type, is prevalent in the syndrome and worsens the endocrine and metabolic profile of the affected patients. This review article briefly analyzes the current knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the interplay between feeding behavior, obesity, and reproductive abnormalities in PCOS.

  18. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  19. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  20. Salty food intake and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugane, S; Tei, Y; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Sugano, K

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection, which is considered to play an etiologic role in atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, various parameters including diet and socioeconomic characteristics were compared between H. pylori-infected and non-infected men. In a cross-sectional study of 634 men aged 40 to 49 years selected randomly from five areas with different rates of gastric cancer mortality, 474 of 628 men evaluated were positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. After logistic regression analysis adjusted for area, the results showed a significant association between frequent intake of pickled vegetables and prevalence of H. pylori antibody (odds ratios against men who consume habits were not significantly associated with the prevalence of infection in this population. Although there are limitations in a cross-sectional study such as this, consumption of salty foods appears to increase the risk of H. pylori infection, which could be a marker of salty food intake or an intermediate risk factor in the etiologic sequence between salty food intake and gastric cancer.

  1. Intragastric pressure as a determinant of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, P; Verschueren, S; Tack, J

    2012-07-01

    Different studies indicated a correlation between intragastric pressure (IGP) and satiation. Our aim was to investigate this correlation while artificially increasing the IGP. In 12 fasted healthy volunteers an infusion catheter and a manometry probe were positioned intragastrically. Intragastric pressure was increased using a custom-made belt before or progressively during intragastric nutrient infusion. Nutrient drink (1.5 kcal mL(-1)) was intragastrically infused at 60 mL min(-1) . The subjects scored satiation using a 6-point Likert scale until maximum, when the infusion ended and the belt was released. Results are presented as mean ± S.E.M. and compared using a paired t-test. When the belt was tightened before the nutrient infusion, fasting IGP was significantly increased (13.6 ± 1.3 vs 9.6 ± 0.9 mmHg; P IGP increased with 0.43 ± 0.04 mmHg per minute while in control experiments this was 0.28 ± 0.05 mmHg per minute (P IGP vs control respectively (P IGP per se does not affect satiation but that a gradual IGP increase during food intake is associated with decreased food intake, indicating that gastric accommodation is an important determinant of food intake. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  3. Hypothalamic KLF4 mediates leptin's effects on food intake via AgRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Gallego, Rosalia; Gandara, Marina; Lear, Pamela; Lopez, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger-type transcription factor expressed in a range of tissues that plays multiple functions. We report that hypothalamic KLF4 represents a new transcription factor specifically modulating agouti-related protein (AgRP) expression in vivo. Hypothalamic KLF4 colocalizes with AgRP neurons and is modulated by nutritional status and leptin. Over-expression of KLF4 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) induces food intake and increases body weight through the specific stimulation of AgRP, as well as blunting leptin sensitivity in lean rats independent of forkhead box protein 01 (FoxO1). Down-regulation of KLF4 in the ARC inhibits fasting-induced food intake in both lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Silencing KLF4, however, does not, on its own, enhance peripheral leptin sensitivity in DIO rats. PMID:24944903

  4. Hypothalamic KLF4 mediates leptin's effects on food intake via AgRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Gallego, Rosalia; Gandara, Marina; Lear, Pamela; Lopez, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger-type transcription factor expressed in a range of tissues that plays multiple functions. We report that hypothalamic KLF4 represents a new transcription factor specifically modulating agouti-related protein (AgRP) expression in vivo. Hypothalamic KLF4 colocalizes with AgRP neurons and is modulated by nutritional status and leptin. Over-expression of KLF4 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) induces food intake and increases body weight through the specific stimulation of AgRP, as well as blunting leptin sensitivity in lean rats independent of forkhead box protein 01 (FoxO1). Down-regulation of KLF4 in the ARC inhibits fasting-induced food intake in both lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Silencing KLF4, however, does not, on its own, enhance peripheral leptin sensitivity in DIO rats.

  5. Young Children's Food Neophobia Characteristics and Sensory Behaviors Are Related to Their Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L; Davies, Patricia L; Boles, Richard E; Gavin, William J; Bellows, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Food neophobia in children has been associated with poor dietary variety and nutrient intakes. Underlying characteristics that may predispose a child to neophobia have not been widely studied. We investigated the associations between children's food neophobia, sensory sensitivity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of typically developing preschoolers. Caregiver reports of children's food neophobia and sensory behaviors (SBs) as measured by the Food Neophobia Scale and the Sensory Profile, children's observed weight outcome [body mass index z score (BMIz)], and children's food intake as estimated from the Block Kids Food Screener were collected at baseline in the Colorado LEAP (Longitudinal Eating and Physical Activity Study) study of childhood obesity. Preschool-aged children (n = 249; 136 girls, 113 boys; aged 55.6 ± 4.7 mo; BMIz = 0.54 ± 1.14) and caregivers [n = 180; 57 Hispanic, 119 non-Hispanic white (NHW), 4 unknown] participated. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlations and multivariate hierarchical linear regression analyses. Lower scores for children's oral sensory characteristics (i.e., more atypical) were related to higher neophobia ratings (r = -0.53, P neophobia was negatively associated with reported vegetable intake (r = -0.31, P = 0.001) and dietary variety (r = -0.22, P neophobia and SB scores by parent income and education or child sex. Neophobia was negatively associated with vegetable intake and dietary variety (P neophobia and sensory sensitivity may be important in understanding underlying issues related to limited food acceptance in typically developing young children and for helping caregivers facilitate healthy dietary intake patterns for their children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01937481. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Timing of food intake and obesity: a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies link energy regulation to the circadian clock at the behavioral, physiological and molecular levels, emphasizing that the timing of food intake itself may have a significant role in obesity. In this regards, there is emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. Unusual feeding time can produce a disruption of the circadian system which might produce unhealthy consequences in humans. In a longitudinal study, we recently showed that the timing of the main meal was predictive of weight loss during a 20-week dietary intervention and that this effect was independent from total 24-h caloric intake. The importance of caloric distribution across the day on weight loss therapy was supported by a recent 12-week experimental study showing that subjects assigned to high caloric intake during breakfast lost significantly more weight than those assigned to high caloric intake during the dinner. Furthermore, one of the most influential discoveries relevant for this area of research in the last years is the presence of an active circadian clock in different organs related to food intake. This is the case for stomach, intestine, pancreas or liver. New data also suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of adipose tissue functions. Thus, a specific temporal order in the daily patterns of adipose tissue genes appears to be crucial for adipose tissue to exclusively either accumulate fat or to mobilize fat at the proper time. Taking into account that feeding is the source of energy for adipose tissue, the time of feeding, particularly for high-energy content meals, may be decisive, and changes in this timing could have metabolic consequences for the development of obesity and for weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoperiod influences the central effects of ghrelin on food intake, GH and LH secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joanne L; Miller, David W; Findlay, Patricia A; Adam, Clare L

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating peptide, primarily secreted by the gut, that has reported actions within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to stimulate food intake, inhibit GnRH/LH secretion and stimulate GH secretion in monogastric species. Here, we examine responses to centrally administered ghrelin in a seasonal ruminant. Estradiol-implanted castrated male sheep with indwelling intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae were kept with unrestricted food for 16 weeks in long day photoperiod (LD, 16 h light/day) then 16 weeks in short days (SD, 8 h light/day). In week 16 of each photoperiod they were given a control (saline) i.c.v. injection on day 1 and ghrelin i.c.v. injection on day 2. Mean circulating endogenous plasma ghrelin concentrations showed no diurnal pattern and were similar between the photoperiods. Central ghrelin injection increased voluntary food intake 2-fold in the first hour after administration in LD but not in SD, decreased LH pulse frequency and amplitude in SD but not in LD, and stimulated GH release in both photoperiods, although there was a 1.5-fold larger response in LD. Therefore, central injection of ghrelin to sheep acutely stimulated food intake in LD, suppressed reproductive neuroendocrine output in SD, and stimulated GH secretion irrespective of photoperiod, although more pronounced in LD. These data indicate that photoperiod can influence hypothalamic appetite and reproductive neuroendocrine responses to ghrelin in seasonal species.

  8. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats.

  9. Brain regulation of food intake and appetite: molecules and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberger, C

    2005-10-01

    In the clinic, obesity and anorexia constitute prevalent problems whose manifestations are encountered in virtually every field of medicine. However, as the command centre for regulating food intake and energy metabolism is located in the brain, the basic neuroscientist sees in the same disorders malfunctions of a model network for how integration of diverse sensory inputs leads to a coordinated behavioural, endocrine and autonomic response. The two approaches are not mutually exclusive; rather, much can be gained by combining both perspectives to understand the pathophysiology of over- and underweight. The present review summarizes recent advances in this field including the characterization of peripheral metabolic signals to the brain such as leptin, insulin, peptide YY, ghrelin and lipid mediators as well as the vagus nerve; signalling of the metabolic sensors in the brainstem and hypothalamus via, e.g. neuropeptide Y and melanocortin peptides; integration and coordination of brain-mediated responses to nutritional challenges; the organization of food intake in simple model organisms; the mechanisms underlying food reward and processing of the sensory and metabolic properties of food in the cerebral cortex; and the development of the central metabolic system, as well as its pathological regulation in cancer and infections. Finally, recent findings on the genetics of human obesity are summarized, as well as the potential for novel treatments of body weight disorders.

  10. The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this non-systematic review of the literature is to highlight some of the neural systems and pathways that are affected by the various intake-promoting aspects of the modern food environment and explore potential modes of interaction between core systems such as hypothalamus and brainstem primarily receptive to internal signals of fuel availability and forebrain areas such as the cortex, amygdala and meso-corticolimbic dopamine system, primarily processing external signals. The modern lifestyle with its drastic changes in the way we eat and move puts pressure on the homoeostatic system responsible for the regulation of body weight, which has led to an increase in overweight and obesity. The power of food cues targeting susceptible emotions and cognitive brain functions, particularly of children and adolescents, is increasingly exploited by modern neuromarketing tools. Increased intake of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugar is not only adding more energy, but may also corrupt neural functions of brain systems involved in nutrient sensing as well as in hedonic, motivational and cognitive processing. It is concluded that only long-term prospective studies in human subjects and animal models with the capacity to demonstrate sustained over-eating and development of obesity are necessary to identify the critical environmental factors as well as the underlying neural systems involved. Insights from these studies and from modern neuromarketing research should be increasingly used to promote consumption of healthy foods.

  11. External eating mediates the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence from the eating domain shows a link between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. One possibility is an external eating style, which has been linked to both impulsivity and food intake. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of external eating in the relationship between impulsivity and food intake. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed measures of impulsivity and external eating, and took part in a laboratory taste test as a behavioural index of unhealthy snack food intake. It was found that attentional and motor impulsivity interacted in predicting sweet food intake, but only motor impulsivity predicted both external eating and sweet food intake. Furthermore, the relationship between motor impulsivity and food intake was mediated by external eating. These findings support the development of interventions aimed at targeting specific aspects of impulsivity in order to reduce unhealthy eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast-food intake and perceived and objective measures of the local fast-food environment in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    low-income families (OR=1·46; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·04) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake compared with those from high-income backgrounds. Girls attending schools with canteens (OR=1·47; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·15) had higher odds of at least weekly fast-food intake than girls at schools without...... canteens. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that perceived food outlets may impact fast-food intake in boys while proximity impacts intake in girls. Public health planning could target food environments that emphasize a better understanding of how adolescents use local resources....

  13. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Veronica; Speidel, Elizabeth R; Chapman, Clinton D; Dess, Nancy K

    2011-10-01

    The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2 h was higher in HiS than LoS rats. Sugar intake predicted startle during abstinence only among LoS rats. These results may suggest bingeing-proneness in HiS rats and withdrawal-proneness among LoS rats. However, intake escalation and somatic withdrawal did not differ between lines. Further study with selectively bred rats, with attention to definitions and measures, is warranted.

  14. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L.; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul J.M.; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Design: Weighed food records and

  15. A systematic review of food composition tools used for determining dietary polyphenol intake in estimated intake studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Guan, Vivienne; Kent, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Translating food intake data into phytochemical outcomes is a crucial step in investigating potential health benefits. The aim of this review was to examine the tools for determining dietary-derived polyphenol intakes for estimated intake studies. Published studies from 2004 to 2014 reporting polyphenol food composition information were sourced with 157 studies included. Six polyphenol subclasses were identified. One quarter of studies (n=39) reported total flavonoids intake with 27% reporting individual flavonoid compounds. Assessing multiple compounds was common with approximately 10% of studies assessing seven (n=13), six (n=12) and five (n=14) subclasses of polyphenol. There was no pattern between reported flavonoids compounds and subclass studied. Approximately 60% of studies relied on publicly accessible food composition data to estimate dietary polyphenols intake with 33% using two or more tools. This review highlights the importance of publicly accessible composition databases for estimating polyphenol intake and provides a reference for tools available globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  17. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; Boer, de W.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  18. Can current dietary exposure models handle aggregated intake from different foods? A simulation study for the case of two foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, W.; de Boer, W.J.; van der Voet, H.

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary exposure models provide estimates of long-term intake distributions using short-term food consumption survey data, by statistically modeling the aggregated intakes from different foods consumed on the same day for each participant of the survey. Food consumption behaviour in a popula

  19. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Background: To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy.Methods: Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food p...

  20. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    OpenAIRE

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were st...

  1. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista; Aline Andretta; Renata Costa de Miranda; Jéssica Nehring; Eduardo dos Santos Paiva; Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and ana...

  2. Nutrient Intake From Food in Children With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Cain, Usa; Lemcke, Nicole; Foley, Jennifer T.; Peck, Robin; Clemons, Traci; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; James, S. Jill; Courtney, Patty Manning; Molloy, Cynthia; Ng, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The impact of abnormal feeding behaviors reported for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on their nutritional status is unknown. We compared nutrient intake from food consumed by children with and without ASD and examined nutrient deficiency and excess. METHODS Prospective 3-day food records and BMI for children (2–11 years) with ASD participating in the Autism Treatment Network (Arkansas, Cincinnati, Colorado, Pittsburgh, and Rochester) were compared with both the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and a matched subset based on age, gender, family income, and race/ethnicity (N = 252 analyzed food records). RESULTS Children with ASD and matched controls consumed similar amounts of nutrients from food. Only children with ASD aged 4 to 8 years consumed significantly less energy, vitamins A and C, and the mineral Zn; and those 9 to 11 years consumed less phosphorous. A greater percentage of children with ASD met recommendations for vitamins K and E. Few children in either group met the recommended intakes for fiber, choline, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and potassium. Specific age groups consumed excessive amounts of sodium, folate, manganese, zinc, vitamin A (retinol), selenium, and copper. No differences were observed in nutritional sufficiency of children given restricted diets. Children aged 2 to 5 years with ASD had more overweight and obesity, and children 5 to 11 years had more underweight. CONCLUSIONS Children with ASD, like other children in America, consume less than the recommended amounts of certain nutrients from food. Primary care for all children should include nutritional surveillance and attention to BMI. PMID:23118245

  3. A possible link between BDNF and mTOR in control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eTakei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food intake is intricately regulated by glucose, amino acids, hormones, neuropeptides, and trophic factors through a neural circuit in the hypothalamus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, the most prominent neurotrophic factor in the brain, regulates differentiation, maturation, and synaptic plasticity throughout life. Among its many roles, BDNF exerts an anorexigenic function in the brain. However, the intracellular signaling induced by BDNF to control food intake is not fully understood. One candidate for the molecule involved in transducing the anorexigenic activity of BDNF is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. mTOR senses extracellular amino acids, glucose, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, and regulates anabolic reactions response to these signals. Activated mTOR increases protein and lipid synthesis and inhibits protein degradation. In the hypothalamus, mTOR activation is thought to reduce food intake. Here we summarize recent findings regarding BDNF- and mTOR-mediated feeding control, and propose a link between these molecules in eating behavior.

  4. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  5. Neighbourhood food environments: are they associated with adolescent dietary intake, food purchases and weight status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Forsyth, Ann; Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie

    2010-11-01

    To examine neighbourhood food environments, adolescent nutrition and weight status. Cross-sectional, observational study. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan region, Minnesota, USA. A total of 349 adolescents were recruited to the study. Participants completed 24 h dietary recalls and had their weight and height measured. They also reported demographic information and other diet-related behaviours. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine the availability and proximity of food outlets, particularly those captured within the 800, 1600 and/or 3000 m network buffers around participants' homes and schools. Adjusting for gender, age and socio-economic status, adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with residential proximity to restaurants (including fast food), convenience stores, grocery stores and other retail facilities within the 800 and/or 1600 m residential buffers (P ≤ 0·01). BMI Z-score and percentage body fat were positively associated with the presence of a convenience store within a 1600 m buffer. Other individual-level factors, such as energy, fruit and vegetable intake, as well as convenience store and fast food purchasing, were not significantly associated with features of the residential neighbourhood food environment in adjusted models. In addition, school neighbourhood environments yielded few associations with adolescent outcomes. Many factors are likely to have an important role in influencing adolescent dietary intake and weight status. Interventions aimed at increasing neighbourhood access to healthy foods, as well as other approaches, are needed.

  6. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  7. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  8. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  9. Is Living near Healthier Food Stores Associated with Better Food Intake in Regional Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire. The suburbs’ Food Environment Score (higher being healthier) was associated with higher consumption of fruit (χ2 (40, 230) = 58.8, p = 0.04), and vegetables (χ2 (40, 230) = 81.3, p = 0.03). The Food Environment Score identified a significant positive correlation with four of the diet scores: individual total diet score (rs = 0.30, p food score (rs = 0.15, p Food Environment Index, higher being unhealthier) showed a significant association with higher consumption of salty snacks (χ2 (24, 230) = 43.9, p = 0.04). Food environments dominated by food outlets considered as ‘healthier’ were associated with healthier population food intakes, as indicated by a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water, as well as a lower consumption of junk food, salty snacks, and sugary drinks. This association suggests that healthier diet quality is associated with healthier food environments in regional Australia. PMID:28783099

  10. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O'Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01. Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01. Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01, due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health.

  11. Stereospecific reduction by narcotic antagonists of clonidine-induced food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, N L; Schlemmer, R F; Waller, D P

    1985-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of opiate antagonists on clonidine-induced feeding in rabbits. The change in food intake induced by clonidine was blocked by naltrexone. The active (-)-isomer of the antagonist 5,9 alpha-diethyl-2-(3-furylmethyl)-2'-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan had an effect similar to naltrexone. Similar doses of the (+)-isomer were inactive, except at the highest dose used in the study. The results suggest that opiate antagonists block feeding elicited by a specific noradrenoreceptor agonist and that this inhibition is due to a direct interaction with opiate systems.

  12. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...

  13. [Macronutrients, food intake and body weight; the role of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio

    2014-11-27

    "Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  15. Household food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women participating in federal food assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the association between food insecurity and dietary intake among Mexican-American women after controlling for sociocultural and economic factors including participation in federal food assistance programs. A cross-sectional design was used. Demographics, anthropometrics, accultur...

  16. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Dorus W. M. Gevers; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Vries, Nanne K de; Patricia Van Assema

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fil...

  17. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888 was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  18. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  19. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  20. A Brief Review on How Pregnancy and Sex Hormones Interfere with Taste and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Faas, Marijke M.; Melgert, Barbro N.; De Vos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Many physiological and behavioral changes take place during pregnancy, including changes in taste and an increase in food intake. These changes are necessary to ensure growth and development of a healthy fetus. Both hyperphagia and taste changes during pregnancy may be induced by sex hormones estrogen and progesterone that are increased during pregnancy. Indeed, it has been shown that estrogen decreases food intake, while progesterone increases food intake. This is for instance apparent from ...

  1. Calorie Anticipation Alters Food Intake After Low-Caloric but Not High-Caloric Preloads

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Chapman, Colin; Vogel, Heike; Hjorth, Olof; Zarei, Sanaz; Lundberg, Lina; Brooks, Samantha; Dickson, Suzanne; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. Design and Methods During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 1...

  2. Social models provide a norm of appropriate food intake for young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny R Vartanian

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that social models influence people's eating behavior by providing a norm of appropriate food intake, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In three experiments, female participants were exposed to a low-intake model, a high-intake model, or no model (control condition. Experiments 1 and 2 used a remote-confederate manipulation and were conducted in the context of a cookie taste test. Experiment 3 used a live confederate and was conducted in the context of a task during which participants were given incidental access to food. Participants also rated the extent to which their food intake was influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., hunger, taste, how much others ate. In all three experiments, participants in the low-intake conditions ate less than did participants in the high-intake conditions, and also reported a lower perceived norm of appropriate intake. Furthermore, perceived norms of appropriate intake mediated the effects of the social model on participants' food intake. Despite the observed effects of the social models, participants were much more likely to indicate that their food intake was influenced by taste and hunger than by the behavior of the social models. Thus, social models appear to influence food intake by providing a norm of appropriate eating behavior, but people may be unaware of the influence of a social model on their behavior.

  3. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  4. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel. PMID:28264428

  5. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mavra; Mandic, Iva; Lou, Wendy; Goodman, Len; Jacobs, Ira; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-02-27

    The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9) or a weighed food record (wFR) (n = 9), recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (-73 kcal/day for tablet app and -108 kcal/day for wFR) (p > 0.05). Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR) with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR) and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  6. Lipid oxidation in overweight men after exercise and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, Fabien; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie; Garrigue, Eric; Moro, Cédric; Crampes, François; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Berlan, Michel; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Harant, Isabelle; Rivière, Daniel; Brondel, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Fat oxidation (FO) is optimized during low- to moderate-intensity exercise in lean and obese subjects, whereas high-intensity exercise induces preferential FO during the recovery period. After food intake during the postexercise period, it is unknown if FO differs according to the intensity exercise in overweight subjects. Fat oxidation was thus evaluated in overweight men after low- and high-intensity exercise during the recovery period before and after food intake as well as during a control session. Ten healthy, sedentary, overweight men (age, 27.9 +/- 5.6 years; body mass index, 27.8 +/- 1.3 kg m(-2); maximal oxygen consumption, 37 +/- 3.9 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) exercised on a cycloergometer (energy expenditure = 300 kcal) at 35% (E35) or 70% (E70) maximal oxygen consumption or rested (Cont). The subjects were fed 30 minutes after the exercise with 300 kcal (1256 kJ) more energy in the exercise sessions than in the Cont session. Respiratory quotient and FO were calculated by indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were analyzed to measure plasma glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, and insulin. During exercise, mean respiratory quotient was lower (P < .05) and FO was higher (P < .01) in the E35 than in the E70 session (FO [in mg min(-1)]: E35 = 290 +/- 12, E70 = 256 +/- 38, and Cont = 131 +/- 7). Conversely, FO was higher in the E70 than in both the E35 session and the Cont session during the immediate recovery as well as during the postprandial recovery period (P = .005 for all; FO from the end of the exercise to the end of the session [in grams]: E70 = 45.7 +/- 8.9, E35 = 38.2 +/- 6.8, and Cont = 36.0 +/- 4.3). Blood parameters did not differ between the 3 sessions but changed according to the absorption of the nutrients. In overweight subjects, high-intensity exercise increased FO during the postexercise period even after food intake compared with the low-intensity exercise and the control session.

  7. Organic food consumption during pregnancy is associated with different consumer profiles, food patterns and intake: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel

    2017-08-01

    To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels. Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types. Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food. Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.

  8. Intraperitoneal injection of d-serine inhibits high-fat diet intake and preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Matsui, Sho; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2017-11-01

    d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs). Aversiveness of IP d-serine was analyzed in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. The effects on food intake were assessed by providing liquid meals with different fat contents. Finally, we measured brain d-serine and l-serine levels after d-serine administration. We found that IP-injected d-serine effectively inhibited the acquisition of a HFD preference, but failed to prevent expression of a previously learned HFD preference. IP-injected d-serine was not sufficient to condition taste aversion. The effect on HFD preference acquisition was associated with increases in d-serine levels in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. IP-injected d-serine most effectively inhibited the intake of liquid meals with high fat content. This effect was dose-dependent, but the responses varied significantly among male C57BL/6J mice. The differential responses to d-serine were consistent among multiple trials in each mouse. In summary, IP-injected d-serine inhibited HFD intake and the acquisition of an HFD preference. Individual mice with the same genetic background showed different sensitivities to d-serine; thus, d-serine sensitivity may be associated with unidentified traits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of 5-HT3 receptor on food intake in fed and fasted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjin Li

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice.Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, proopiomelanocortin (POMC and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron.Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem.

  10. 28 CFR 549.64 - Food/liquid intake/output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.64 Food/liquid intake/output. (a) Staff shall prepare and... on a hunger strike. An inmate may not make commissary food purchases while under hunger...

  11. Serotonin reciprocally regulates melanocortin neurons to modulate food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Lora K; Jobst, Erin E; Sutton, Gregory M; Zhou, Ligang; Borok, Erzsebet; Thornton-Jones, Zoe; Liu, Hong Yan; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Balthasar, Nina; Kishi, Toshiro; Lee, Charlotte E; Aschkenasi, Carl J; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Yu, Jia; Boss, Olivier; Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Clifton, Peter G; Lowell, Bradford B; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Horvath, Tamas; Butler, Andrew A; Elmquist, Joel K; Cowley, Michael A

    2006-07-20

    The neural pathways through which central serotonergic systems regulate food intake and body weight remain to be fully elucidated. We report that serotonin, via action at serotonin1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), modulates the endogenous release of both agonists and antagonists of the melanocortin receptors, which are a core component of the central circuitry controlling body weight homeostasis. We also show that serotonin-induced hypophagia requires downstream activation of melanocortin 4, but not melanocortin 3, receptors. These results identify a primary mechanism underlying the serotonergic regulation of energy balance and provide an example of a centrally derived signal that reciprocally regulates melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists in a similar manner to peripheral adiposity signals.

  12. [Folate and folic acid intake estimation and food enrichment requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Martínez, Ana Belén; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar; Bernal Cava, M José; Martínez Graciá, Carmen; Periago Castón, M Jesús

    2005-03-01

    The term "folate" is a generic way to name the different forms derived from folic acid, one of the B vitamins (specifically B9 vitamin). They are essential in the metabolism when they act as cofactors in the transfer reactions of one carbon. However, only plants and microorganisms are able to synthesize them de novo, in such a way that both animals and human beings have to intake them through their diet. Folic acid is widely spread in nature, mainly in vegetables, liver ans cereals. However, nowadays, the lack of folates in the diet is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world, and it has serious consequences on human health. There is evidence that even in developed countries folate intake is usually low; and even, is some cases, below optima levels. The authorities in several countries have adapted different norms related to folic acid, fortifying staple food such as dairy products or cereals, mandatory (U.S.A., Canada or Chile) or voluntary (most of the European countries).

  13. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  14. Comparing intake estimations based on food composition data with chemical analysis in Malian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Doets, Esmee L; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-06-01

    Food composition databases are essential for estimating nutrient intakes in food consumption surveys. The present study aimed to evaluate the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing intakes of energy and selected nutrients at population level. Weighed food records and duplicate portions of all foods consumed during one day were collected. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, available carbohydrates, dietary fibre, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamin A were assessed by: (i) estimating the nutrient intake from weighed food records based on an adjusted TACAM (a-TACAM); and (ii) chemical analysis of the duplicate portions. Agreement between the two methods was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman plots. Bamako, Mali. Apparently healthy non-pregnant, non-lactating women (n 36) aged 15-36 years. Correlation coefficients between estimated and analysed values ranged from 0·38 to 0·61. At population level, mean estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly for carbohydrates (203·0 v. 243·5 g/d), Fe (9·9 v. 22·8 mg/d) and vitamin A (356 v. 246 µg retinol activity equivalents). At individual level, all estimated and analysed nutrient intakes differed significantly; the differences tended to increase with higher intakes. The a-TACAM is sufficiently acceptable for measuring average intakes of macronutrients, Ca and Zn at population level in low-intake populations, but not for carbohydrate, vitamin A and Fe intakes, and nutrient densities.

  15. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  16. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Ulrich; Frølich, Wenche; Prieto, Rafel M; Grases, Felix

    2009-09-01

    The article gives an overview of phytic acid in food and of its significance for human nutrition. It summarises phytate sources in foods and discusses problems of phytic acid/phytate contents of food tables. Data on phytic acid intake are evaluated and daily phytic acid intake depending on food habits is assessed. Degradation of phytate during gastro-intestinal passage is summarised, the mechanism of phytate interacting with minerals and trace elements in the gastro-intestinal chyme described and the pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut presented. The present knowledge of phytate absorption is summarised and discussed. Effects of phytate on mineral and trace element bioavailability are reported and phytate degradation during processing and storage is described. Beneficial activities of dietary phytate such as its effects on calcification and kidney stone formation and on lowering blood glucose and lipids are reported. The antioxidative property of phytic acid and its potentional anticancerogenic activities are briefly surveyed. Development of the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates is described, problems of inositol phosphate determination and detection discussed and the need for standardisation of phytic acid analysis in foods argued.

  17. A Case Study of a Centenarian from the Aspects of Food Intake and Dietary Habits

    OpenAIRE

    盛岡, のぞみ; 長坂, 祐二; 山下, 稔哉; 金子, 宏明; 田中, マキ子; 林, 隆; 足立, 蓉子; 小川, 全夫

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the diet and nutrients of a centenarian man for a week. The results as analyzed on the bases of the intake of nutrition, the meal balance, the number of food items taken, the dietary pattern and the recipes are summarized below: 1) The intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates met the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2005. 2) The meal balance by The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top showed relatively low intakes of Grain dishes and Milk, and high intakes of Veg...

  18. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  19. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  20. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences: Findings from a sample of New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, S R; Rasmussen, M A; Prescott, J

    2017-09-01

    Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN scores, divided into tertiles. FN was a strong influence on both intake frequency and preferences in the majority of the intake/preference factor patterns. When significant associations with FN were established, both frequency of intake and preference was lower among high FN individuals. Notably, the effect of FN on food preferences was evident on many commonplace foods making up the diet, suggesting that high FN individuals like food overall less than do those with lower degrees of FN. Seasonal effects in food intake were demonstrated, but with smaller impact for higher levels of FN. While associations between FN varied according to all demographic variables, these relationships varied as a function of the intake/preference patterns. Overall, the results suggest that FN is an important barrier to dietary change and addressing diet-related health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  2. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  3. Associations Between Swedish Mothers' and 3- and 5-Year-Old Children's Food Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. M.; Heitmann, B. L.; Larsson, Christel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between mothers' and children's food intake. Design Cross-sectional study. Background variables collected through self-reports and from the register of the total population. Mothers recorded their own and their children's food intake in a diary during 2 4-day...

  4. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad libi

  5. Androgen (dihydrotestosterone) - mediated regulation of food intake and obesity in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Noriko; Vonderfecht, Steven; Chen, Shiuan

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how elevated androgen levels regulate food intake and obesity in females, we treated ovariectomized female mice with dihydrotestosterone (non-aromatazable androgen), measured food intake and body weight, and evaluated physiological changes in liver function, glucose tolerance, and leptin resistance.

  6. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomar

  7. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  8. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  9. Hypothalamic food intake regulation in a cancer-cachectic mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Dijk, van M.; Dijk, F.J.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Faber, J.; Argiles, J.M.; Laviano, A.; Müller, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Appetite is frequently affected in cancer patients leading to anorexia and consequently insufficient food intake. In this study, we report on hypothalamic gene expression profile of a cancer-cachectic mouse model with increased food intake. In this model, mice bearing C26 tumour have an i

  10. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Poor food and fluid intake and malnutrition are endemic among older adults in long-term care (LTC), yet feasible and sustainable interventions that target key determinants and improve person-centered outcomes remain elusive. Without a comprehensive study addressing a range of determinants...... for the development and testing of interventions to improve food and fluid intake of older adults living in LTC....

  11. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a coll

  12. Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Jordan; Fogel, Joshua; Van Voorhees, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, and substance use disorders) with a country's fish/seafood and sugar/sweetener supply quantity using the Spearman rank correlation. Data were compared for 17 countries across the world. Sugar and sweetener supply quantity was significantly and positively associated with anxiety disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), mood disorders (rho=0.75, p=0.001), impulse control disorders (rho=0.78, p=0.001), and substance use disorders (rho=0.68, p=0.007). Fish and seafood supply quantity had no significant association with any mental health disorders. Mental health disorders represent a significant health problem around the world. Public health measures aimed at improving the quality and availability of a nation's food supply could have a significant positive impact on mental health. Further randomized studies are needed to further validate the study findings. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, food intake regulation, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Martínez-Ezquerro, José Darío; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a fundamental role in development and plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). It is currently recognized as a major participant in the regulation of food intake. Multiple studies have shown that different regulators of appetite such as leptin, insulin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potentially exert anorexigenic effects through BDNF. Low circulating levels of BDNF are associated with a higher risk of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Strict food restriction reduces BDNF and may trigger binge-eating episodes and weight gain. The existence of mutations that cause haploinsufficiency of BDNF as well as some genetic variants, notably the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, are also associated with the development of obese phenotypes and hyperphagia. However, association of the Met allele with AN and BN, which have different phenotypic characteristics, shows clearly the existence of other relevant factors that regulate eating behavior. This may, in part, be explained by the epigenetic regulation of BDNF through mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Environmental factors, primarily during early development, are crucial to the establishment of these stable but reversible changes that alter the transcriptional expression and are transgenerationally heritable, with potential concomitant effects on the development of eating disorders and body weight control.

  14. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed.

  15. Melatonin effects on food intake and activity rhythms in two fish species with different activity patterns: Diurnal (goldfish) and nocturnal (tench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmeda, J F; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin has several known physiological functions, the main one being synchronization of daily and seasonal rhythms. In addition, melatonin has been reported to influence food intake and behavioral rhythms with varying results depending on the species. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intraperitoneal melatonin injection on food intake and locomotor activity in two different fish species: goldfish (diurnal) and tench (nocturnal), under different light regimes: constant light (LL) conditions or LD 12:12, with melatonin administration at mid-light (ML), mid-dark (MD), and after a 1-h light pulse at MD. In addition to these acute tests, in the case of goldfish we also investigated the effects of daily melatonin administration for 1 week. Our results indicated that acute melatonin administration significantly decreased goldfish food intake (16-52% inhibition, depending on the light regime) and locomotor activity (55-100%), with the chronic treatment inducing a similar total food intake inhibition that persisted for 7 days. In tench, a nocturnal fish species, acute melatonin administration at MD and ML reduced food intake (37% and 29%, respectively), while locomotor activity was not affected at MD and slightly increased at ML. Taken together, these results indicated that melatonin reduced food intake in both species, while its effects on locomotor activity depended on the time of administration (light or dark phase) and the activity patterns of the species.

  16. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  17. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  18. Modelling of food intake in Brazil and Germany: Examining the effects of self-construals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Kühnen, Ulrich; Hermans, Roel C J; Lippke, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The current research focused on the influence of informational eating norms on people's food intake, and examined whether this influence was moderated by participants' self-construal levels. In two experiments, a two (intake norm manipulation: low vs. high) by two (self-construal manipulation: interdependent versus independent) between-participant factorial design was used. The studies were conducted in Brazil (Experiment 1) and in Germany (Experiment 2) as participants' self-construal levels differ between these countries. In Experiment 1, results indicated that participants exposed to a high-intake norm ate more than participants exposed to a low-intake norm. However, self-construal was not found to moderate the influence of food intake norms on participants' intake. In Experiment 2, replicating the results of Experiment 1, exposure to a high-intake norm increased participants' food intake, but self-construals again did not moderate modelling effects on food intake. Although differences in individuals' self-construal were found between both countries, they did not affect the magnitude of modelling effects on eating. Our studies provide evidence for cross-cultural similarity in the extent to which Brazilian and German female young adults are vulnerable to modelling effects on food intake, independent on their self-construal.

  19. Does the histaminergic system mediate bombesin/GRP-induced suppression of food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Z; Banks, K

    1994-12-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian homologue, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), are potent satiety agents and have been implicated in the physiological regulation of food intake. The mechanism(s) of action of this effect remains unclear. There is a functional and anatomic overlap between histamine and BN in relationship to feeding, which led us to hypothesize that BN may mediate its satiety effects through activation of the histaminergic system. To assess this contention, we examined the effects of R-alpha-methylhistamine (alpha-MH) and Imetit, selective H3-receptor agonists that inhibit the release and synthesis of histamine, on BN- or cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiety. In this report we present the first evidence for the role of histamine H3 receptors in the mediation of BN-elicited satiety. During the first hour of the 4-h daily feeding session, BN reduced food intake by > 50% relative to the control condition; this suppression was blocked by prior treatment with the H3-receptor agonist, alpha-MH. This blockade of BN-induced satiety was dose related and selective to BN as alpha-MH failed to attenuate sulfated CCK-8-induced satiety. When alpha-MH was administered alone, it failed to significantly affect food intake. The specificity of this effect was further supported by the demonstration that another H3 agonist, Imetit, was also able to block the feeding-suppressant effects of BN. Furthermore, thioperamide, an H3-receptor antagonist, blocked these effects of Imetit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  1. Smart phones are useful for food intake and physical activity surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Erica M; Sirard, John R; Barden, Charles M; Moon, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter food intake and PA on a smart phone. In the follow-up report, all subjects were interested in using the tested program to compare food intake with PA to predict weight gain and loss.

  2. [Chromium content in foods and dietary intake estimation in the Northwest of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Ballesteros Vázquez, M N; Cabrera Pacheco, R M

    2001-03-01

    Chromium is an indispensable nutrient for the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. In this study the chromium content in the twenty main foods of the diet from Northwestern Mexico was determined, as well as the daily mean intake which was estimated based on the food intake basket of this region. Chromium content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the graphite furnace technique and previous digestion of foods in microwave oven. The chromium mean intake was estimated considering the chromium daily mean intake for person per day and the chromium content of the foods analyzed in this study. The range chromium content in the foods analyzed was between 0.0004 and 0.1641 microgram/g dry weight. White cheese showed the highest chromium content followed by pasta soup, wheat tortilla, bread and meat. The main foods chromium contributors in the diet were: wheat tortilla (20%), white cheese (11%), corn tortilla (11%), pasta soup (10%), milk (10%), meat (9%) and white bread (8%). The daily chromium intake was 30.43 +/- 1.6 micrograms/d. Chromium values obtained in the food analyzed are considered low. Moreover, chromium intake obtained from the diet is not enough to meet the safety and adequate daily chromium intake. Therefore, the population from the Northwestern Mexico has a suboptimal dietary chromium intake.

  3. The rate of food processing in the Oystercatcher : Food intake and energy expenditure constrained by a digestive bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Whether food intake is determined by the maximum rate at which animals can collect food, or by the rate at which this food can be processed, will strongly affect the organization of their behaviour. We investigated whether the digestive system imposes a constraint on (I) instantaneous rate of foo

  4. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshinari; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-12-09

    Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols' health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183-4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  5. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  6. Pattern of intake of food additives associated with hyperactivity in Irish children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A; Hearty, A; Nugent, A; McKevitt, A; Boylan, E; Flynn, A; Gibney, M J

    2010-04-01

    A double-blind randomized intervention study has previously shown that a significant relationship exists between the consumption of various mixes of seven target additives by children and the onset of hyperactive behaviour. The present study set out to ascertain the pattern of intake of two mixes (A and B) of these seven target additives in Irish children and teenagers using the Irish national food consumption databases for children (n = 594) and teenagers (n = 441) and the National Food Ingredient Database. The majority of additive-containing foods consumed by both the children and teenagers contained one of the target additives. No food consumed by either the children or teenagers contained all seven of the target food additives. For each additive intake, estimates for every individual were made assuming that the additive was present at the maximum legal permitted level in those foods identified as containing it. For both groups, mean intakes of the food additives among consumers only were far below the doses used in the previous study on hyperactivity. Intakes at the 97.5th percentile of all food colours fell below the doses used in Mix B, while intakes for four of the six food colours were also below the doses used in Mix A. However, in the case of the preservative sodium benzoate, it exceeded the previously used dose in both children and teenagers. No child or teenager achieved the overall intakes used in the study linking food additives with hyperactivity.

  7. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  8. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  9. Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan S. Naughton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR are a current research focus in the area of obesity due to the system’s role in food intake and glucose and lipid metabolism. Importantly, overweight and obese individuals often have higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG and an altered pattern of receptor expression. Consequently, this leads to an increase in orexigenic stimuli, changes in fatty acid synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose utilisation, with preferential energy storage in adipose tissue. As endocannabinoids are products of dietary fats, modification of dietary intake may modulate their levels, with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid based endocannabinoids being able to displace arachidonic acid from cell membranes, reducing AEA and 2-AG production. Similarly, oleoyl ethanolamide, a product of oleic acid, induces satiety, decreases circulating fatty acid concentrations, increases the capacity for β-oxidation, and is capable of inhibiting the action of AEA and 2-AG in adipose tissue. Thus, understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.

  10. Food Intake of Kansans Over 80 Years of Age Attending Congregate Meal Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisha M. Weeden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the United States continues to age, it has become increasingly more important to recognize the food intake and eating habits of older adults. The objective of this study was to describe the food group intake, factors predicting food group intake, and the food choices of community-dwelling Kansans, 80 years of age and older who participate in congregate meal programs. Participants completed a short questionnaire querying demographic information, current health status, and dietary supplement use. Participants (n = 113 were then followed up via telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls. Data were analyzed to determine adequacy of food group intake and mean intake. Regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting intake and frequency analysis established food typically consumed. Female participants were significantly more likely to consume more fruit servings than males. Intake was low for all five of the food groups, especially dairy. Chronic health conditions and dietary supplement use were consistently predictive factors of the amount of each food group consumed.

  11. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  12. Differential effects of central fructose and glucose on hypothalamic malonyl–CoA and food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seung Hun; Wolfgang, Michael; Tokutake, Yuka; Chohnan, Shigeru; Lane, M. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American diet, especially that of adolescents, contains highly palatable foods of high-energy content and large amounts of high-fructose sweeteners. These factors are believed to contribute to the obesity epidemic and insulin resistance. Previous investigations revealed that the central metabolism of glucose suppresses food intake mediated by the hypothalamic AMP-kinase/malonyl–CoA signaling system. Unlike glucose, centrally administered fructose increases food intake. Evidence presented ...

  13. Gene knockout of Acc2 has little effect on body weight, fat mass, or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David P; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B

    2010-04-20

    Deletion of acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (Acc2) reportedly causes leanness in the setting of hyperphagia. To determine the cellular basis for these effects, we generated a mouse model in which Acc2 can be selectively deleted by the action of Cre recombinase. Deletion of Acc2 from skeletal muscle, the predominant site of Acc2 expression, had no effect on body weight, food intake, or body composition. When Acc2 was inactivated in the germline, Acc2 knockout (Acc2KO) mice displayed no differences in body weight, food intake, body composition, or glucose homeostasis as compared to controls on chow or high fat diet. Total malonyl CoA content and fatty acid oxidation rates in skeletal muscle of Acc2KO mice were unchanged, suggesting metabolic compensation in response to the loss of Acc2. The limited impact of Acc2 deletion on energy balance raises the possibility that selective pharmacological inhibition of Acc2 for the treatment of obesity may be ineffective.

  14. Nutrient Sensing Systems in Fish: Impact on Food Intake Regulation and Energy Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence obtained in recent years in a few species, especially rainbow trout, supports the presence in fish of nutrient sensing mechanisms. Glucosensing capacity is present in central (hypothalamus and hindbrain) and peripheral [liver, Brockmann bodies (BB, main accumulation of pancreatic endocrine cells in several fish species), and intestine] locations whereas fatty acid sensors seem to be present in hypothalamus, liver and BB. Glucose and fatty acid sensing capacities relate to food intake regulation and metabolism in fish. Hypothalamus is as a signaling integratory center in a way that detection of increased levels of nutrients result in food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. Moreover, central nutrient sensing modulates functions in the periphery since they elicit changes in hepatic metabolism as well as in hormone secretion to counter-regulate changes in nutrient levels detected in the CNS. At peripheral level, the direct nutrient detection in liver has a crucial role in homeostatic control of glucose and fatty acid whereas in BB and intestine nutrient sensing is probably involved in regulation of hormone secretion from endocrine cells. PMID:28111540

  15. The impact of nutritional policy on socioeconomic disparity in the unhealthy food intake among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kirang; Park, Sun Min; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the trend in unhealthy food intake by socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine whether the government's nutritional policies affect socioeconomic disparity in the food intake among adolescents. Data were from the six independent cross-sectional survey data (2006-2011) of Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and included 445,287 subjects aged 12-18 years. The unhealthy food intake was assessed by food frequency intake and SEP was evaluated with the family affluence scale. We observed that unhealthy food intakes decreased through the years, showing the apparent decline when nutritional policies focusing on the restriction of unhealthy foods were implemented, and the trend was all same in the different SEP groups. The pattern of unhealthy food intakes by SEP has changed before and after implementation of the policies. The intakes of carbonated beverages, fast food, and confectioneries were higher in the higher SEP group before implementation of the policies but the difference was not shown after implementation of the policies. The intake of instant noodles was consistently higher in the lower SEP group. The risk of frequent consumption of unhealthy foods was generally more decreased through the years in the higher SEP group than the lower SEP group. In conclusion, this study found the positive effect of nutritional policy on unhealthy food intake among adolescents and the high SEP group appeared to undergo greater desirable changes in dietary behaviors after implementation of nutritional policies than the low SEP group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by Comparison with Biomarkers, Nutrient and Food Intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyncke, Krishna; Cruz Fernandez, Estefania; Fajó-Pascual, Marta

    2013-01-01

    in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes...... and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations...... with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo...

  17. Neurosecretory protein GL stimulates food intake, de novo lipogenesis, and onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ochi, Yuta; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Shiki; Bentley, George E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-11

    Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake. Neutralizing antibody administration decreased the size of lipid droplets in WAT. Npgl mRNA expression was upregulated by fasting and low insulin levels. Additionally, NPGL-producing cells were responsive to insulin. These results point to NPGL as a novel neuronal regulator that drives food intake and fat deposition through de novo lipogenesis and acts to maintain steady-state fat level in concert with insulin. Dysregulation of NPGL may be a root cause of obesity.

  18. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; García, Angela; Patterson, Angeles M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of preferences on food and nutritional intake in a group of adolescent high-level athletes, 22 male soccer players (14-16 years) were recruited. Individuals were asked to fill in a specific questionnaire including 15 food groups that had to be ranked according to their preferences. Three categories were established: "Like" (ranked 1-5), "Indifferent" (6-10), and "Dislike" (11-15). Dietary intake was assessed using the weighed food method (for nutrient intake) and a quantitative open-ended food frequency questionnaire (for the number of standard portions of each food group ingested daily). The main preferences were Meat, poultry and derivates (ranked 1-5 in 83% of individuals) and Pasta (58%), while Vegetables (ranked 11-15 in 82%) and Fish (64%) were the main dislikes. The most frequently consumed food groups were Fruits and fruit juices (3.9 portions/day), Bread (3.0), and Biscuits, confectionery and sweets (3.0). No statistical differences were found in food consumption between preference groups, and no relation was found between preferences and nutritional intake, except for those individuals who especially like Bread, which had statistically higher energy and carbohydrate intake. Food preferences and food and nutritional intake of adolescent high-level soccer players were, effectively, unrelated.

  19. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. PMID:28800115

  20. [Study on relationship between mother's animal sourced food intake during pregnancy and neonate birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Dang, S N; Mi, B B; Qu, P F; Zhang, L; Wang, H L; Bi, Y X; Zeng, L X; Li, Q; Yan, H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To explore the effect of maternal animal sourced food intake during pregnancy on neonate birth weight and provide scientific basis for guiding the reasonable diet intake in pregnant women and increasing neonate birth weight. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional project of"the prevalence and risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi province" , which were conducted in 30 counties in Shaanxi province from July to November in 2013. A stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select women who were pregnant between January 2010 and December 2013 for a random semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire survey to collect the data on the frequency and amount of food consumption on animal protein sources and the data of newborns. Children aged 0-1 years and their mothers were selected as the study subjects. The generalized linear model was used to analyze the relationship between the neonate birth weight and maternal animal sourced food intake during pregnancy, and by using neonate birth weight as dependent variable, food intake frequency as independent variable, three adjustment models were established for stratified analysis. Results: Totally 11 459 participants were involved in this study. The average birth weight of newborn was (3 279.9±454.6) g, the average weekly intake of animal sourced foods was4.00 times for egg, 1.50 times for meat, 3.00 times for dairy foods, 0.50 times for fish and 5.00 times for overall animal sourced foods in pregnant women. Without stratification, three models shown that meat and overall animal sourced food intake had effects on neonate birth weight. After adjustment for gestational weeks, maternal age, social and demographic factors and others, meat intake increased by 1 time a week, the increase of neonate birth weight was about 5.26 (95%CI: 1.32-9.20) g, and the overall animal food increased by 1 times a week, the average neonate birth weight increased by 3.24 (95%CI: 1.09-5.39) g. Stratified

  1. Neighbourhood food environment and dietary intakes in adolescents: sex and perceived family affluence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Lo, Wing-Sze; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-10-01

    To examine the effects of perceived availability of fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores on adolescent dietary intakes. Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected in 2006-7. Respondents reported the availability of fast-food shops, restaurants and convenience stores in the neighbourhood, and their intakes of fruit, vegetables, high-fat foods and junk food/soft drinks. For intakes of high-fat foods and junk food/ soft drinks, ≤ once a week was defined as low consumption and the rest moderate/high consumption. At least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit daily were defined as sufficient consumption. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each dietary intake in relation to the reported food shops. Potential effect modifications by socio-demographic factors were also examined. Perceived availability of fast-food shops and convenience stores were positively associated with moderate/high consumptions of high-fat foods (OR(fast) =1.10 and OR(con) =1.15) and junk food/soft drinks (OR(fast)=1.10 and OR(con) =1.10). Significant negative associations of the perceived availability of restaurants with intakes of vegetables and fruit were observed (OR(veg) =0.87 and OR(fruit) =0.83). The positive relationship between reporting fast-food shops with intake of junk food/soft drinks were observed only in boys and those with low perceived family affluence. The negative association of reporting restaurants with fruit consumption was found in those with low and middle perceived family affluence only. Perceived availability of neighbourhood fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores may have a negative impact on adolescent dietary intakes particularly for those from poorer families.

  2. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medial nucleus tractus solitarius oxytocin receptor signaling and food intake control: the role of gastrointestinal satiation signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhi Yi; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J

    2015-05-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) administration reduces food intake and its effects are mediated, in part, by hindbrain oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling. The neural substrate and mechanisms mediating the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain OT-R signaling are undefined. We examined the hypothesis that hindbrain OT-R-mediated feeding inhibition results from an interaction between medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) OT-R signaling and the processing of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals by neurons of the mNTS. Here, we demonstrated that mNTS or fourth ventricle (4V) microinjections of OT in rats reduced chow intake in a dose-dependent manner. To examine whether the intake suppressive effects of mNTS OT-R signaling is mediated by GI signal processing, rats were injected with OT to the 4V (1 μg) or mNTS (0.3 μg), followed by self-ingestion of a nutrient preload, where either treatment was designed to be without effect on chow intake. Results showed that the combination of mNTS OT-R signaling and GI signaling processing by preload ingestion reduced chow intake significantly and to a greater extent than either stimulus alone. Using enzyme immunoassay, endogenous OT content in mNTS-enriched dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in response to ingestion of nutrient preload was measured. Results revealed that preload ingestion significantly elevated endogenous DVC OT content. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that mNTS neurons are a site of action for hindbrain OT-R signaling in food intake control and that the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain mNTS OT-R signaling are mediated by interactions with GI satiation signal processing by mNTS neurons.

  4. Acute effects of acarbose on post-prandial glucose and triglycerides in type 2 diabetics following intake of different Malaysian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, H M; Yazid, T N; Ismail, F; Khalid, B A

    2000-03-01

    Acarbose inhibits intestinal alpha-glucosidases resulting in diminished and delayed postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH). Studies on effects of acarbose on postprandial lipaemia (PPL) have been inconclusive. Little is known about the effects of acarbose on PPH and PPL following intake of a polysaccharide diet. We studied 30 type 2 diabetic patients on dietary and/or oral hypoglycaemic agent(s). Thirty patients were recruited for food A (nasi lemak), 28 for food B (mee goreng) and 28 for food C (roti telur), which represent the typical diets of the three main races in Malaysia. Serial blood samples were taken at 15 min before and up to 240 min after each food intake, without acarbose. Subsequently, three doses of 50 mg acarbose were given orally and the same procedure was repeated the following day. There were significantly lower mean increments in plasma glucose levels after compared to before acarbose treatment 30, 45 and 60 min for food A and at 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min for food C, but no significant difference was noted for food B. There was a significantly lower mean fasting glucose level after compared with before acarbose treatment following intake of food A and C but not food B. Short-term treatment with acarbose caused significant diminished and delayed PPH response with food A and C but not with food B. Acarbose was more effective in reducing PPH response in polysaccharide foods with a higher and earlier postprandial glucose peak than in those with a lower and lagged peak. There were no significant differences in the mean fasting or postprandial triglyceride levels before and after acarbose treatment, following intake of all three foods for up to 4 hours. Depending on the food absorption pattern, overnight low dose treatment with acarbose leads to diminished fasting and peak plasma glucose levels, and delayed PPH but insignificant reduction in postprandial lipaemia in poorly controlled type 2 diabetics following intake of racially different Malaysian

  5. The role of alginates in regulation of food intake and glycemia: a gastroenterological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, D; Goff, H D; Anderson, G H

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of food intake through modulation of gastrointestinal responses to ingested foods is an ever-growing component of the therapeutic approaches targeting the obesity epidemic. Alginates, viscous and gel-forming soluble fibers isolated from the cell wall of brown seaweeds and some bacteria, are recently receiving considerable attention because of their potential role in satiation, satiety, and food intake regulation in the short term. Enhancement of gastric distension, delay of gastric emptying, and attenuation of postprandial glucose responses may constitute the basis of their physiological benefits. Offering physical, chemical, sensorial, and physiological advantages over other viscous and gel-forming fibers, alginates constitute promising functional food ingredients for the food industry. Therefore, the current review explores the role of alginates in food intake and glycemic regulation, their underlying modes of action and their potential in food applications.

  6. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey...... to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high...... adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns...

  7. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, N. L.; Møller, A.

    2002-01-01

    slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous...... of the distribution in cadmium intake amounts to 34% of PTWI, which is relatively high, and therefore calls for a more detailed future risk assessment. The intakes of lead and mercury were 11% of PTWI and, like the intake of nickel, did not cause any health concern in the adult population. The Danes ingest close...

  8. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake: Relationship between hypothalamic ATP concentrations, food intake, and body weight during sleep-wake and sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M; Kim, T; McCarley, R W; Basheer, R

    2011-06-01

    The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake-state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep-wake regulation. In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light-dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Across the 24-h light-dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (-93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (-44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep-wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight.

  9. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Verly Junior, Eliseu

    2014-06-02

    Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan.

  10. Estimation of selenium intake in Switzerland in relation to selected food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny-Burri, J; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2010-11-01

    The selenium concentration in foods was analysed in order to identify principal sources of this trace element in Switzerland. Selenium intake estimations based on three different approaches were carried out. From the relationship between intake and serum/plasma concentration, the selenium intake was estimated to 66 µg day(-1). The second approach based on measured food groups combined with consumption statistics; and the third approach consisted of duplicate meal samples. With the last two methods, over 75% of the serum/plasma based intake was confirmed. Swiss pasta made of North American durum wheat was the food with the highest contribution to the dietary intake, followed by meat. The strong decrease in imports of selenium-rich North American wheat of the last years was not reflected in the present intake estimations. It appears that this intake loss was compensated by a consumption increase of other foods. Compared with former intake estimations, selenium intake seems to be in Switzerland nearly constant for the last 25 years.

  11. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Meiselman, Herbert L; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N=112) were asked to watch a movie with a same-sex normal-weight confederate who was instructed to eat either nothing or a standardized amount of snack food (10 chocolate-coated peanuts). The study involved a 3 (movie clips: happy, neutral, and sad)×2 (peer's food intake: no intake versus a standardized intake) between-participants design. A significant interaction between the movie clip condition and intake condition was found (F(2,102)=3.30, P=.04, Cohen's f(2)=.20). Positive as well as negative emotions were found to lead to adjustment to the intake of a peer, as compared to that of children in the neutral movie condition. The findings suggest that children eat more mindlessly when watching an emotional movie and, therefore, respond more automatically to a peer's food intake, whereas children may be less susceptible to a peer's intake while watching a neutral movie. As young children are not in the position to choose their food consumption environment yet, parents and schools should provide consumption settings that limit eating in front of the television. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pwaste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  13. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van Strien, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N = 121, aged

  14. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues p

  15. Usual energy intake mediated the relationship between food reinforcement and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is correlated with overweight status and energy consumed, as those who find food more reinforcing are heavier and consume more energy. One hypothesis relating these variables is that food reinforcement is related to BMI through usual energy intake. ...

  16. Adult food intake patterns are related to adult and childhood socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

  17. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues p

  18. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  19. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children's food intake is influenced by a peer's intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the participants (N=223) were asked to solve a puzzle with a same-sex normal weight confederate who was instructed to either eat nothing, a small or large amount. In the second session (about two days later), the participants had to solve the puzzle alone while they could freely eat. The study involved a three (no, low, high confederate intake) by two (normal weight, overweight) between-participants design. An interaction effect in the first session suggested that overweight children might be triggered to (over)eat when a peer eats a high amount of snack food, whereas the food intake of normal weight children seemed to depend on whether the confederate did actually eat, regardless of the amount. The guideline set during the first session persisted over time and influenced food intake during the second session, while differences between normal- and overweight children became insignificant. Peers can set an example as to what food intake is appropriate which could affect long-term food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  1. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  2. Nutritional modelling: distributions of salt intake from processed foods in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M

    2009-09-01

    The salt content of processed foods is important because of the high intake of Na by most New Zealanders. A database of Na concentrations in fifty-eight processed foods was compiled from existing and new data and combined with 24 h diet recall data from two national nutrition surveys (5771 respondents) to derive salt intakes for seven population groups. Mean salt intakes from processed foods ranged from 6.9 g/d for young males aged 19-24 years to 3.5 g/d for children aged 5-6 years. A total of > or = 50 % of children aged 5-6 years, boys aged 11-14 years and young males aged 19-24 years had salt intakes that exceeded the upper limit for Na, calculated as salt (3.2-5.3 g/d), from processed foods only. Bread accounted for the greatest contribution to salt intake for each population group (35-43 % of total salt intake). Other foods that contributed 2 % or more and common across most age groups were sausage, meat pies, pizza, instant noodles and cheese. The Na concentrations of key foods have changed little over the 16-year period from 1987 to 2003 except for corned beef and whole milk that have decreased by 34 and 50 % respectively. Bread is an obvious target for salt reduction but the implication on iodine intake needs consideration as salt is used as a vehicle for iodine fortification of bread.

  3. A systematic investigation of the differential roles for ventral tegmentum serotonin 1- and 2-type receptors on food intake in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Clissold, Kara A; Lin, Peagan; Cain, Amanda E; Ciesinski, Alexa F; Hopkins, Thomas R; Ilesanmi, Adeolu O; Kelly, Erin A; Pierce-Messick, Zachary; Powell, Daniel S; Rosner, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) pathways are known to influence feeding and other ingestive behaviors. Although the ventral tegmentum is important for promoting the seeking and consumption of food and drugs of abuse, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this region on food intake have yet to be comprehensively examined. In these experiments, food restricted rats were given 2-h access to rat chow; separate groups of non-restricted animals had similar access to a sweetened fat diet. Feeding and locomotor activity were monitored following ventral tegmentum stimulation or blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors. 5-HT1A receptor stimulation transiently inhibited rearing behavior and chow intake in food-restricted rats, and had a biphasic effect on non-restricted rats offered the palatable diet. 5-HT1B receptor agonism transiently inhibited feeding in restricted animals, but did not affect intake of non-restricted rats. In contrast, 5-HT1B receptor antagonism decreased palatable feeding. Although stimulation of ventral tegmental 5-HT2B receptors with BW723C86 did not affect hunger-driven food intake, it significantly affected palatable feeding, with a trend for an increasing intake at 2.0µg/side but not at 5.0µg/side. Antagonism of the same receptor modestly but significantly inhibited feeding of the palatable diet at 5.0µg/side ketanserin. Neither stimulation nor blockade of 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors caused prolonged effects on intake or locomotion. These data suggest that serotonin's effects on feeding within the ventral tegmentum depend upon the specific receptor targeted, as well as whether intake is motivated by food restriction or the palatable nature of the offered diet.

  4. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving.

  5. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Food Intakes among Flemish Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ applied in a large region-wide survey among 2.5-6.5 year-old children for estimating food group intakes. Parents/guardians were used as a proxy. Estimated diet records (3d were used as reference method and reproducibility was measured by repeated FFQ administrations five weeks apart. In total 650 children were included in the validity analyses and 124 in the reproducibility analyses. Comparing median FFQ1 to FFQ2 intakes, almost all evaluated food groups showed median differences within a range of ± 15%. However, for median vegetables, fruit and cheese intake, FFQ1 was > 20% higher than FFQ2. For most foods a moderate correlation (0.5-0.7 was obtained between FFQ1 and FFQ2. For cheese, sugared drinks and fruit juice intakes correlations were even > 0.7. For median differences between the 3d EDR and the FFQ, six food groups (potatoes & grains; vegetables Fruit; cheese; meat, game, poultry and fish; and sugared drinks gave a difference > 20%. The largest corrected correlations (>0.6 were found for the intake of potatoes and grains, fruit, milk products, cheese, sugared drinks, and fruit juice, while the lowest correlations (<0.4 for bread and meat products. The proportion of subjects classified within one quartile (in the same/adjacent category by FFQ and EDR ranged from 67% (for meat products to 88% (for fruit juice. Extreme misclassification into the opposite quartiles was for all food groups < 10%. The results indicate that our newly developed FFQ gives reproducible estimates of food group intake. Overall, moderate levels of relative validity were observed for estimates of food group intake.

  6. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  7. Androgen (dihydrotestosterone)-mediated regulation of food intake and obesity in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Noriko; Vonderfecht, Steven; Chen, Shiuan

    2013-11-01

    To better understand how elevated androgen levels regulate food intake and obesity in females, we treated ovariectomized female mice with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (non-aromatazable androgen), measured food intake and body weight, and evaluated physiological changes in liver function, glucose tolerance, and leptin resistance. Ovariectomized mice were treated with DHT or placebo. Mice were then fed a high fat diet under free-feeding or pair-feeding conditions for 3 months. We found that when DHT-treated ovariectomized mice had free access to food (free-feeding), they had increased food intake and higher body weight compared with control animals. These mice also had a significantly greater accumulation of fat in the liver and exhibited increased fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and resistance to leptin. However, when these mice were placed on a restricted diet and fed the same caloric amounts as controls (pair-feeding), their body weight increased at the same rate as control animals. This suggests that androgen regulates food intake through altered leptin sensitivity, and this increase of food intake could significantly contribute to an obesity phenotype. In summary, we demonstrated a role for androgen in the regulation of food intake and weight gain in females using a mouse model. This model will be useful to further elucidate the role of elevated androgen in females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulatory peptides and control of food intake in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J

    2001-03-01

    The current view of the control of food intake involves a central feeding system in the hypothalamus receiving input from peripheral systems. The presence of food in the gut stimulates the release of several regulatory peptides that control gut motility and secretion. Some of these peptides also act as feedback satiety signals, responsible for termination of a meal. Among the regulatory peptides suggested as peripheral satiety signals are cholecystokinin and gastrin releasing peptide. A more long-term peripheral regulation of food intake has also been postulated and leptin has been suggested as a regulator of food intake. Several regulatory peptides mediate orexigenic or anorexigenic effects in the central feeding system. Neuropeptide Y and galanin both act centrally and stimulate the intake of food, while corticotropin releasing factor reduces food intake. At present, most information about the regulation of food intake is gained from mammalian studies and these findings are used as a base for a discussion on the current knowledge of how regulatory peptides control appetite in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  9. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p food expenditure (p food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.

  10. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Can...

  11. Influence of salty food preference on daily salt intake in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Kazuhiro; Okayama, Masanobu; Takeshima, Taro; Fujiwara, Shinji; Harada, Masanori; Murakami, Junichi; Eto, Masahiko; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A salt preference questionnaire may be a convenient and cost-effective method for predicting salt intake; however, the influence of salt preference on daily salt intake is unclear. This study aimed at revealing the effectiveness of the salt preference question in determining the daily salt intake in primary care outpatients. This cross-sectional study included 1,075 outpatients (men, n=436, 40.6%) at six primary care institutions in Japan. Primary outcomes included a salty food preference assessed by using one question and a daily salt intake, assessed using early morning second urine samples. Multivariate analyses determined the relationships between the salt intake and the two salt preference levels. The mean age was 67.6±14.6 years, and 594 (55.3%) preferred salty foods. The daily salt intake was 12.3±4.0 g per day and 11.4±3.7 g per day in the salt preference and nonsalt preference groups, respectively (Ppreferred salty foods consumed a significantly larger amount of salt per day than those who did not prefer salty foods (β coefficient, 0.621; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.146-1.095). There was no difference in the number of patients who consumed Preference for salty foods was positively associated with daily salt intake. However, daily salt intake was not always appropriate, even in the patients who did not prefer salty foods. Behavioral interventions for salt restriction after an assessment of daily salt intake are necessary for primary care patients, regardless of their preference for salty foods.

  12. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  13. Food chromium content, dietary chromium intake and related biological variables in French free-living elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roussel, Anne-Marie; Andriollo-Sanchez, Maud; Ferry, Monique; Bryden, Noella A; Anderson, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    .... We measured the food Cr content and daily Cr intake of freely chosen diets for 3 d in twelve French free-living elderly people and their Cr excretion and plasma hormonal related variables, leptin, insulin and cortisol...

  14. Food intakes in a group of breast-feeding and not breast-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Muratore, M C; Peltran, A; Cresi, F; Mostert, M; Oggero, R

    2000-01-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breast milk composition is still an open question. An important issue is whether mothers who are breast feeding modify, respect to before lactation, food intake to satisfy the increased requirements.

  15. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip...

  16. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  17. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the particip

  18. Social norms in food intake among normal weight and overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Anschütz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated whether children’s food intake is influenced by a peer’s intake directly and over time and whether this depends upon weight status. The study consisted of two sessions taking place at Dutch primary schools. During the first (social modeling) session, the

  19. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  20. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  1. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  2. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast mi

  3. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  4. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  5. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Auestad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  6. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-08

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries.

  7. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-05-08

    To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents' age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of energy for the population, followed by quick-service and full-service restaurants. All food purchase locations, including stores, restaurants and schools play an important role in stemming the obesity epidemic.

  9. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  10. Maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake: considering weight and demographic influences using structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Warschburger Petra; Kröller Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research concerning child's food intake have considered various influencing factors, for example parental feeding strategies, demographic and weight factors. At this time, however, there are few findings that explore these factors simultaneously. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test a structural equation model regarding the associations between maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake. Methods 556 mothers and their children between 1 and 10 years of ag...

  11. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Montazerifar; Mansour Karajibani; Ali Reza Dashipour

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionna...

  12. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    OpenAIRE

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneou...

  13. L-arginine promotes gut hormone release and reduces food intake in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamshah, A; McGavigan, A K; Spreckley, E; Kinsey-Jones, J S; Amin, A; Tough, I R; O'Hara, H C; Moolla, A; Banks, K; France, R; Hyberg, G; Norton, M; Cheong, W; Lehmann, A; Bloom, S R; Cox, H M; Murphy, K G

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the anorectic effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) in rodents. We investigated the effects of L-Arg on food intake, and the role of the anorectic gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), the G-protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) and the vagus nerve in mediating these effects in rodents. Oral gavage of L-Arg reduced food intake in rodents, and chronically reduced cumulative food intake in diet-induced obese mice. Lack of the GPRC6A in mice and subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation in rats did not influence these anorectic effects. L-Arg stimulated GLP-1 and PYY release in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacological blockade of GLP-1 and PYY receptors did not influence the anorectic effect of L-Arg. L-Arg-mediated PYY release modulated net ion transport across the gut mucosa. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of L-Arg suppressed food intake in rats. L-Arg reduced food intake and stimulated gut hormone release in rodents. The anorectic effect of L-Arg is unlikely to be mediated by GLP-1 and PYY, does not require GPRC6A signalling and is not mediated via the vagus. I.c.v. and i.p. administration of L-Arg suppressed food intake in rats, suggesting that L-Arg may act on the brain to influence food intake. Further work is required to determine the mechanisms by which L-Arg suppresses food intake and its utility in the treatment of obesity. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. L‐arginine promotes gut hormone release and reduces food intake in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamshah, A.; McGavigan, A. K.; Spreckley, E.; Kinsey‐Jones, J. S.; Amin, A.; Tough, I. R.; O'Hara, H. C.; Moolla, A.; Banks, K.; France, R.; Hyberg, G.; Norton, M.; Cheong, W.; Lehmann, A.; Bloom, S. R.; Cox, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate the anorectic effect of L‐arginine (L‐Arg) in rodents. Methods We investigated the effects of L‐Arg on food intake, and the role of the anorectic gut hormones glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) and peptide YY (PYY), the G‐protein‐coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) and the vagus nerve in mediating these effects in rodents. Results Oral gavage of L‐Arg reduced food intake in rodents, and chronically reduced cumulative food intake in diet‐induced obese mice. Lack of the GPRC6A in mice and subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation in rats did not influence these anorectic effects. L‐Arg stimulated GLP‐1 and PYY release in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacological blockade of GLP‐1 and PYY receptors did not influence the anorectic effect of L‐Arg. L‐Arg‐mediated PYY release modulated net ion transport across the gut mucosa. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of L‐Arg suppressed food intake in rats. Conclusions L‐Arg reduced food intake and stimulated gut hormone release in rodents. The anorectic effect of L‐Arg is unlikely to be mediated by GLP‐1 and PYY, does not require GPRC6A signalling and is not mediated via the vagus. I.c.v. and i.p. administration of L‐Arg suppressed food intake in rats, suggesting that L‐Arg may act on the brain to influence food intake. Further work is required to determine the mechanisms by which L‐Arg suppresses food intake and its utility in the treatment of obesity. PMID:26863991

  15. Differences in food intake of tumour-bearing cachectic mice are associated with hypothalamic serotonin signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T; Mark V Boekschoten; Argilès, Joseph M; van Dijk, Miriam; Busquets, Silvia; Penna, Fabio; Toledo, Miriam; Laviano, Alessandro; Witkamp, R F; van Norren, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balance during tumour growth. Here, we show that this impaired response of food-intake control is likely to be mediated by altered serotonin signalling and by failure in post-transcriptional neuropeptid...

  16. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  17. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches) or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs) modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effec...

  18. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status.

  19. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  20. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  1. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  2. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  3. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-12-01

    A nutritional survey based on twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in Kenya during a 2-week field study was carried out in order to determine the composition of their diet and make a comparison with macronutrient recommendations for athletes. Food samples were collected for analysis of macronutrient distribution and energy content from main meals and the macronutrient distribution and energy content of additional food intake were based on the information of a 24 h recall interview and estimated from food tables. The diet of the Kalenjin runners was very high in carbohydrate (71 % 8.7 g/kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total protein and most essential amino acid intake as well as carbohydrate intake even though it was based on a small range of food items.

  4. Cholecystokinin-33 acutely attenuates food foraging, hoarding and intake in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2010-04-01

    Neurochemicals that stimulate food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters are becoming more apparent, but we do not know if cessation of these behaviors is due to waning of excitatory stimuli and/or the advent of inhibitory factors. Cholecystokinin (CCK) may be such an inhibitory factor as it is the prototypic gastrointestinal satiety peptide and is physiologically important in decreasing food intake in several species including Siberian hamsters. Systemic injection of CCK-33 in laboratory rats decreases food intake, doing so to a greater extent than CCK-8. We found minimal effects of CCK-8 on food foraging and hoarding previously in Siberian hamsters, but have not tested CCK-33. Therefore, we asked: Does CCK-33 decrease normal levels or food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging, hoarding and intake? Hamsters were housed in a wheel running-based foraging system with simulated burrows to test the effects of peripheral injections of CCK-33 (13.2, 26.4, or 52.8 microg/kg body mass), with or without a preceding 56 h food deprivation. The highest dose of CCK-33 caused large baseline reductions in all three behaviors for the 1st hour post-injection compared with saline; in addition, the intermediate CCK-33 dose was sufficient to curtail food intake and foraging during the 1st hour. In food-deprived hamsters, we used a 52.8 microg/kg body mass dose of CCK-33 which decreased food intake, hoarding, and foraging almost completely compared with saline controls for 1h. Therefore, CCK-33 appears to be a potent inhibitor of food intake, hoarding, and foraging in Siberian hamsters.

  5. Soy food intake behavior by socio-demographic characteristics of Korean housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-June; Park, Ok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the soy food intake behaviors including perception and intake frequency of soybean foods by sociodemographic variables were analyzed in housewives. The perception of housewives for soy foods showed that soybean paste, soybean curd, and Dambuk were high in the descending order for nutritional quality and health promotion effect, and soybean paste received the highest score in taste and flavor. Soybean sprouts received the highest evaluation score in the economic aspect. In the aspect of safe food, soybean paste received the highest evaluation score, as mush as a traditional food. The analysis of perception by sociodemographic variables showed that soybean curd, Dambuk, and soybean sprouts had higher perceptions as education level increased, and soy milk had higher perceptions in subjects with younger age and with employment. In the intake frequency, more than 50% of the subjects had soybean curd, soybean sprouts, and soybean paste more than once a week. The analysis for correlation between the intake frequency of soy foods and the degree of perception showed that taste and flavor had high correlation with the intake frequency of soy foods except soybean sprouts. The intake frequency of soybean paste, Dambuk, and soy milk had positive correlations to familiarity and that of soy milk had positive correlations to nutrition and health perception, and those of soybeam paste, soybean sprouts, and soy milk had positive correlations to safe food perception. From the above results, housewives in Korea had very high perceptions to nutritional quality and health promotion effect of soy foods and the degree of perception and accompanied intake frequency had significant differences by age, education level, and economic level among sociodemographic variables.

  6. Reduced body mass, food intake, and testis size in response to short photoperiod in adult F344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Paul D

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although laboratory rats are often considered classic nonseasonal breeders, peripubertal rats of two inbred strains, F344 and BN, have both reproductive and nonreproductive responses to short photoperiods. Unmanipulated adult rats have not been reported to have robust responses to short photoperiod alone, although several treatments can induce photoperiodic responses in adults. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that unmanipulated F344 rats retain responses to short photoperiod as adults and that they have the necessary elements for an endogenous circannual rhythm of sensitivity to short photoperiod. Results Relative to rats kept in long photoperiods (L16:D8, adult F344 rats transferred at 4.5 months of age to short photoperiods (L8:D16 had significantly lower testis size, food intake, and body weight. In a second experiment, newly weaned F344 rats underwent an initial period of inhibition of reproductive maturation, lower food intake, and lower body weight in short photoperiod or intermediate photoperiod (L12:D12 relative to rats in long photoperiod. By 18 weeks of treatment, rats in the two inhibitory photoperiods no longer differed from long photoperiod controls. In short photoperiod, rats underwent a second period of slight reproductive inhibition between weeks 35 and 48, but there was an effect on body weight and slight inhibition of food intake only in an intermediate photoperiod. Conclusion Male F344 rats retain photoresponsiveness as adults, with less reproductive inhibition but equivalent nonreproductive responses. There was only weak evidence for an endogenous timer controlling a circannual cycle of sensitivity to short photoperiod.

  7. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nicholas T; Kemm, Matthew H; Moran, Timothy H

    2008-07-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by approximately 35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 microg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 microg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 microg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 microg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 microg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 microg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates.

  8. Food and macronutrient intake of male adolescent Kalenjin runners in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Van Hall, Gerrit; Hambraeus, Leif

    2002-01-01

    /kg body weight per d) and very low in fat (15 %). Intake of total protein (13 %; 1.6 g/kg body weight per d) was above the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU), while essential amino acid intake was estimated...... to be in the borderline-to-low range based on FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for children beans as the staple food (81 %). The diet of the Kalenjin runners met recommendations for endurance athletes for total...

  9. Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero

    2012-01-01

    High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Ef

  10. Sodium Intake, ACE Inhibition, and Progression to ESRD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Stefan; Perna, Annalisa; Postma, Maarten J.; Navis, Gerjan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ruggenenti, Piero

    2012-01-01

    High sodium intake limits the antihypertensive and antiproteinuric effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with CKD; however, whether dietary sodium also associates with progression to ESRD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the first and second Ramipril Ef

  11. Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. Design: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study...... dietary records and the correlation between these measures was 0.52 (P cross-check questions in the FFQ (for example the question 'How often did you get any kind of fish?') underestimated the intake. In contrast, the intake...

  12. Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomy selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg......) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h I excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than...

  13. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards.

  14. Role of addiction and stress neurobiology on food intake and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2017-05-04

    The US remains at the forefront of a global obesity epidemic with a significant negative impact on public health. While it is well known that a balance between energy intake and expenditure is homeostatically regulated to control weight, growing evidence points to multifactorial social, neurobehavioral and metabolic determinants of food intake that influence obesity risk. This review presents factors such as the ubiquitous presence of rewarding foods in the environment and increased salience of such foods that stimulate brain reward motivation and stress circuits to influence eating behaviors. These rewarding foods via conditioned and reinforcing effects stimulate not only metabolic, but also stress hormones, that, in turn, hijack the brain emotional (limbic) and motivational (striatal) pathways, to promote food craving and excessive food intake. Furthermore, the impact of high levels of stress and trauma and altered metabolic environment (e.g. higher weight, altered insulin sensitivity) on prefrontal cortical self-control processes that regulate emotional, motivational and visceral homeostatic mechanisms of food intake and obesity risk are also discussed. A heuristic framework is presented in which the interactive dynamic effects of neurobehavioral adaptations in metabolic, motivation and stress neurobiology may further support food craving, excessive food intake and weight gain in a complex feed-forward manner. Implications of such adaptations in brain addictive-motivational and stress pathways and their effects on excessive food intake and weight gain are discussed to highlight key questions that requires future research attention in order to better understand and address the growing obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruno Nishimuro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods.

  16. Evaluation of dietary habits and nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posea Mihaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims To document the nutritional content of food intake in overweight and obese people, in order to change dietary habits for acquiring the normal weight. Material and methods We assessed the nutritional content of food intake (kilocalories, vitamins and minerals in a sample of 124 overweight and obese people and 33 subjects with normal weight. We also measured abdominal circumference, percent of body fat and resting metabolic rate. Results Overweight and obese patients, compared to normal weight, have a significant increased intake of vitamin A (p=0.002, vitamin B1 (p=0.037, vitamin B5 (p=0.047, vitamin C (p=0.029 and vitamin D (p=0.015, sodium (p=0.036, iron (p=0.032 and selenium (p=0.007. The percent of body fat in obese persons is increased (p=0.00001 and very close to abnormal in patients with no weight problems. An increased food intake, above the calculated resting metabolic rate, is associated with a slower metabolism and a rapid resting metabolic rate is often associated with food intake below resting metabolic rate (p=0.002. Conclusions All subjects had imbalanced intake of vitamins and minerals. The normal weight group didn’t achieve the dietary recommendations for vitamins and minerals and we found that these subjects had risk factors for cardiac diseases like increased abdominal circumference, body fat and sodium intake.

  17. Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years living in Flanders (Belgium were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR (n 696. Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks, were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes. Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.

  18. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  19. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Cho, Mi Sook; Song, Won O

    2016-05-26

    Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA); dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  20. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  1. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The NAc is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from D1 NAc neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs non-running. The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control.

  2. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  3. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  4. Calorie anticipation alters food intake after low-caloric not high-caloric preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Cedernaes, J; Chapman, C D; Vogel, H; Hjorth, O C; Zarei, S; Lundberg, L S; Brooks, S J; Dickson, S L; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 180 kcal/300 g) or high caloric (HC: 530 kcal/300 g) and was provided with either consistent or inconsistent calorie information (i.e., stating the caloric content of the preload was low or high). Appetite ratings and hormone and glucose levels were measured at baseline (t = 0), after providing the calorie information about the preload (t = 20), after consumption of the preload (t = 40), and just before ad libitum intake (t = 60). Ad libitum intake was lower after HC preloads (as compared to LC preloads; P Intake after LC preloads was higher when provided with (consistent) LC information (467±254 kcal) as compared to (inconsistent) HC information (346±210 kcal), but intake after the HC preloads did not depend on the information provided (LC information: 290±178 kcal, HC information: 333±179 kcal; caloric load*information P = 0.03). Hormone levels did not respond in an anticipatory manner, and the post-prandial responses depended on actual calories consumed. These results suggest that both cognitive and physiological information determine food intake. When actual caloric intake was sufficient to produce physiological satiety, cognitive factors played no role; however, when physiological satiety was limited, cognitively induced satiety reduced intake to comparable levels. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Functionalities and input methods for recording food intake: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Miroslav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Increasing healthcare costs related to lifestyle-related chronic diseases require new solutions. Research on self-management tools is expanding and many new tools are emerging. Recording food intake is a key functionality in many of these tools. Nutrition monitoring is a relevant method to gain an overview of factors influencing health. However, keeping a food diary often constitutes a challenge for a patient, and developing a user-friendly and useful electronic food diary is not straightforward. To gain insight into the existing approaches to recording food intake, and to analyze current functionalities and input methods. We searched digital libraries, vendor markets and social networks focusing on nutrition. Selection criteria were publications written in English, and patient-oriented tools that offered recording of food intake or nutrition. The system properties that we searched for were types of data, types of terminal, target population, and types of reports and sharing functionalities. We summarized the properties based on their frequency in the reviewed sample. 31 publications met the selection criteria. The majority of the identified food recording systems (67%) facilitated entry of food type and the consumed quantity of food; 16% of the systems were able to record more than one type of data. The three most frequent target populations were people with obesity, diabetes and overweight. Mobile phones were used as terminals in 35% of the cases, personal computers (PCs) in 29%, and personal digital assistants in 23%. Only 10% supported both PCs and mobile phones. Data sharing was provided by 71% and reports by 51% of the systems. We searched for apps in Google Play and the Apple Store and tested 45 mobile applications that stored food intake data, of which 62% supported recording of types of food, 24% recording of carbohydrate intake and 15% recording of calorie intake. The majority of the mobile applications offered some kind of reports and data sharing

  6. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  8. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  9. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  10. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  11. Neuroendocrine mechanisms of change in food intake during pregnancy: a potential role for brain oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alison J; Johnstone, Louise E; Leng, Gareth

    2007-07-24

    During pregnancy body weight, and particularly adiposity, increase, due to hyperphagia rather than decreased energy metabolism. These physiological adaptations provide the growing fetus(es) with nutrition and prepare the mother for the metabolically-demanding lactation period following birth. Mechanisms underlying the hyperphagia are still poorly understood. Although the peripheral signals that drive appetite and satiety centers of the brain are increased in pregnancy, the brain may become insensitive to their effects. For example, leptin secretion increases but hypothalamic resistance to leptin actions develops. However, several adaptations in hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems may converge to increase ingestive behavior. Oxytocin is one of the anorectic hypothalamic neuropeptides. Oxytocin neurons, both centrally-projecting parvocellular oxytocin neurons and central dendritic release of oxytocin from magnocellular neurons, may play a key role in regulating energy intake. During feeding in non-pregnant rats, magnocellular oxytocin neurons, especially those in the supraoptic nucleus, become strongly activated indicating their imminent role in meal termination. However, in mid-pregnancy the excitability of these neurons is reduced, central dendritic oxytocin release is inhibited and patterns of oxytocin receptor binding in the brain alter. Our recent data suggest that lack of central oxytocin action may partly contribute to maternal hyperphagia. However, although opioid inhibition is a major factor in oxytocin neuron restraint during pregnancy and opioids enhance food intake, an increase in opioid orexigenic actions were not observed. While changes in several central input pathways to oxytocin neurons are likely to be involved, the high level of progesterone secretion during pregnancy is probably the ultimate trigger for the adaptations.

  12. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  13. Effects of aroma : texture congruency within dairy custard on satiation and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Weinbreck, F.; Burgering, M.J.; Wijk, de R.A.; Ponne, C.T.; Bult, J.H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation comprises numerous components from peripheral and central pathways, including sensory and cognitive elements. This study investigated if congruency in different aroma¿texture combinations within a dairy product influences satiation and food consumption in humans. Among seven

  14. Predictors of College-Student Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Differ by Housing Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabitur, Erica; Peterson, Karen E.; Rathz, Colleen; Matlen, Stacey; Kasper, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether college-student characteristics associate with food security and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and whether these associations differ in students in housing with and without food provision. Participants: 514 randomly-sampled students from a large, Midwestern, public university in 2012 and 2013 Methods: Ordered…

  15. Mallards Feed Longer to Maintain Intake Rate under Competition on a Natural Food Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the environ

  16. Food preference and intake in response to ambient odours in overweight and normal-weight females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, H.F.A.; He, W.; Wijk, de R.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In our food abundant environment, food cues play an important role in the regulation of energy intake. Odours can be considered as external cues that can signal energy content in the anticipatory phase of eating. This study aims to determine whether exposure to olfactory cues associated with energy

  17. Food intake and the risk of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Monma, Yasutake; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nagase, Satoru; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Numata, Takehiro; Toyoshima, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Sugawara, Junichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between food intake and endometrial cancer restricted to endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEA) using a case-control study in Japanese women. One hundred sixty-one cases and 380 controls who completed a questionnaire regarding demographic, lifestyle, and food frequency questionnaire were analyzed. Odds ratio (OR) between selected food intakes and EEA were calculated by logistic regression analysis. After adjustment putative confounding factors, the higher intakes of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-0.83], peanuts (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.27-0.86), fish (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.29-0.93), boiled egg (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.33-0.92), instant noodles (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.12-3.34), instant food items (OR = 2.21, CI = 1.31-3.74), and deep-fried foods (OR = 2.87, CI = 1.58-5.21) were associated with a risk for EEA. The inverse association with a risk of EEA was also seen in higher intakes (g/1000 kcal) for vegetables (0.45, CI = 0.25-0.81) and fish (0.53, CI = 0.30-0.94) as compare to lower intake. Higher intake of vegetables, peanuts, fish, and boiled egg was associated with a reduced risk for EEA, whereas instant noodles, instant food items, and deep-fried foods was associated with an increased risk for EAA as compared to lower levels of intake.

  18. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  19. Effect of day-night cycle on distribution of food intake and economic choice among imposed food opportunities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Dulce M; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2016-10-01

    We have shown previously that mice given access to four discrete feeding opportunities (FOs) per day show a characteristic sequence of sizes across ordinal FOs. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the relative contributions of external and internal factors on the sequencing of FO size. The external factors were the light:dark Zeitgeber and the cost of food, imposed via different fixed unit prices (FUP) in a closed operant economy, and the internal factors were signals relating to energy status including time since last food and weight loss. In the first experiment, mice were given 4 FOs spaced 4-h apart, but with the timing of the FOs relative to the Zeitgeber altered by a 4-h Zeitgeber advance or delay of the cycle. Food intake, and associated body weight, declined as price increased, but the temporal order of FO size was invariant within a Zeitgeber condition. The Zeitgeber advanced group showed clear evidence of a shift in meal sequence relating to the light:dark cycle. Thus, external factors seem to be a more important determinant of total intake and sequencing than internal factors. In the second experiment, mice were given the choice between continuous costly (CC) and intermittent inexpensive (II) food. II food was available for four-15min intervals every 4-h, and the timing of the 15min intervals was varied relative to the Zeitgeber cycle. In spite of a 20-fold difference in price between CC and II food, mice took approximately equal amounts from each, and all food intake took place during the dark phase. Mice consumed II food only if it was available during the dark phase. Food intake was strongly linked to the light:dark cycle, largely independent of food cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Dirksen, C; Nielsen, S; Kristiansen, V B; Toräng, S; Wewer Albrechtsen, N J; Rehfeld, J F; Hartmann, B; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J

    2016-11-01

    Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery through combined actions from GLP-1 and PYY. GLP-1 actions can be blocked using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Exendin 9-39 (Ex-9), whereas PYY actions can be inhibited by the administration of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor preventing the formation of PYY3-36. Appetite-regulating gut hormones and appetite ratings during a standard mixed-meal test and effects on subsequent ad libitum food intake were evaluated in two studies: in study 1, nine patients with type 2 diabetes were examined prospectively before and 3 months after RYGB with and without Ex-9. In study 2, 12 RYGB-operated patients were examined in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design on four experimental days with: (1) placebo, (2) Ex-9, (3) the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, to reduce formation of PYY3-36 and (4) Ex-9/sitagliptin combined. In study 1, food intake decreased by 35% following RYGB compared with before surgery. Before surgery, GLP-1 receptor blockage increased food intake but no effect was seen postoperatively, whereas PYY secretion was markedly increased. In study 2, combined GLP-1 receptor blockage and DPP-4 inhibitor mediated lowering of PYY3-36 increased food intake by ~20% in RYGB patients, whereas neither GLP-1 receptor blockage nor DPP-4 inhibition alone affected food intake, perhaps because of concomitant marked increases in the unblocked hormone. Blockade of actions from only one of the two L-cell hormones, GLP-1 and PYY3-36, resulted in concomitant increased secretion of the other, probably explaining the absent effect on food intake on these experimental days. Combined blockade of GLP-1 and PYY actions increased food intake after RYGB, supporting that these hormones have a role in

  1. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  2. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  3. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific food intake patterns or changes in food intake patterns were related to future changes in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, with clinical and questionnaire examinations at baseline and two...... follow-up surveys, after 5 and 11 years. SUBJECTS: In all, 3785 men and women attended at baseline, of which 2436 aged 30-60 y attended all three examinations. MEASUREMENTS: A 26-item food frequency questionnaire, standardised measurements of height and weight and a lifestyle questionnaire. Food intake......: For men, three factors labelled 'Green', 'Sweet' and 'Traditional', and for women, two factors labelled 'Green' and 'Sweet-Traditional' were identified. Scores on the 'Sweet' and 'Sweet-Traditional' factors were inversely associated with baseline BMI. For men, baseline 'Traditional' factor score and...

  4. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  5. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  6. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  7. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem (NTS, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH of the hypothalamus. Results In fasted C57BL/6 mice, the anorexigenic effect of CART(61-102 in the doses of 0.1 or 0.5 μg/mouse was significantly enhanced by low doses of CCK-8 of 0.4 or 4 μg/kg, while 1 mg/kg dose of CCK-A receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the effect of CART(61-102 on food intake. After simultaneous administration of 0.1 μg/mouse CART(61-102 and of 4 μg/kg of CCK-8, the number of Fos-positive neurons in NTS, PVN, and DMH was significantly higher than after administration of each particular peptide. Besides, CART(61-102 and CCK-8 showed an additive effect on inhibition of the locomotor activity of mice in an open field test. Conclusion The synergistic and long-lasting effect of the CART peptide and CCK on food intake and their additive effect on Fos immunoreactivity in their common targets suggest a co-operative action of CART peptide and CCK which could be related to synergistic effect of leptin on CCK satiety.

  8. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  10. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously.

  11. Estimated dietary phytoestrogen intake and major food sources among women during the year before pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens may be associated with a variety of different health outcomes, including outcomes related to reproductive health. Recently published data on phytoestrogen content of a wide range of foods provide an opportunity to improve estimation of dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods Using the recently published data, we estimated intake among a representative sample of 6,584 women of reproductive age from a multi-site, population-based case-control study, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS. The NBDPS uses a shortened version of the Willett food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary intake during the year before pregnancy. We estimated intake among NBDPS control mothers. Results Lignans contributed 65% of total phytoestrogen intake; isoflavones, 29%; and coumestrol, 5%. Top contributors to total phytoestrogen intake were vegetables (31% and fruit (29%; for isoflavones, dairy (33% and fruit (21%; for lignans, vegetables (40% and fruit (29%; and for coumestans, fruit (55% and dairy (18%. Hispanic women had higher phytoestrogen intake than non-Hispanic white or black women. Associations with maternal age and folic acid-containing supplements were more modest but indicated that older mothers and mothers taking supplements had higher intake. Conclusions The advantage of the approach used for the current analysis lies in its utilization of phytoestrogen values derived from a single laboratory that used state-of-the-art measurement techniques. The database we developed can be applied directly to other studies using food frequency questionnaires, especially the Willett questionnaire. The database, combined with consistent dietary intake assessment, provides an opportunity to improve our ability to understand potential associations of phytoestrogen intake with health outcomes.

  12. Food group intake patterns and nutrient intake vary across low-income Hispanic and African American preschool children in Atlanta: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvo Deborah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n = 291 were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings. Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24 ± 1.07 years and Hispanic children 2.84 ± 1.12 years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7 ± 51 vs. 96.9 ± 33, p  Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.

  13. Nutritional status and food intake data on children and adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-15

    Feb 15, 2012 ... appearance, are contributing factors to the poor eating habits of children .... years and 33.4% of the girls aged 9-13 years were at risk of being overweight. .... Iodine intake was recorded as 83.02% (4-8 years), 73.92% (9-13 years) and .... immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and.

  14. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  15. Food preference and intake in response to ambient odours in overweight and normal-weight females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoon, Harriët F A; He, Wei; de Wijk, René A; de Graaf, Cees; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2014-06-22

    In our food abundant environment, food cues play an important role in the regulation of energy intake. Odours can be considered as external cues that can signal energy content in the anticipatory phase of eating. This study aims to determine whether exposure to olfactory cues associated with energy dense foods leads to increased food intake and greater preference for energy-dense foods. In addition, we assessed whether BMI and hunger state modulated this effect. Twenty-five overweight (mean BMI: 31.3 kg/m(2), S.E.: 0.6) and 25 normal-weight (mean BMI: 21.9 kg/m(2), S.E.: 0.4) females, matched on age and restraint score, participated. In 6 separate sessions they were exposed to odours of three different categories (signalling non-food, high-energy food and low-energy food) in two motivational states (hungry and satiated). After 10 min of exposure food preference was assessed with a computerized two-item forced choice task and after 20 min a Bogus Taste Test was used to determine energy intake (kcal and g). In a hungry state, the participants ate more (ppreferred high-energy products significantly more often (pfood preference of overweight participants was less affected by their internal state (p=.068). Neither energy intake (kcal: p=.553; g: p=.683) nor food preference (p=.280) was influenced by ambient exposure to odours signalling different categories. Future studies need to explore whether food odours can indeed induce overeating. More insight is needed regarding the possible influence of context (e.g. short exposure duration, large variety of food) and personality traits (e.g. restraint, impulsive) on odour-induced overeating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.

  17. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9; MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  18. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pdiet-induced obese (DIO) rats, chronic ODT8-SST increased cumulative 2-week food intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  20. Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, G.; Bordes, I.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, de C.; Blundell, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying

  1. Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, G.; Bordes, I.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, de C.; Blundell, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susc

  2. Phoenixin-14 injected intracerebroventricularly but not intraperitoneally stimulates food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Martha; Prinz, Philip; Friedrich, Tiemo; Scharner, Sophie; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Phoenixin, a recently discovered 20-amino acid peptide was implicated in reproduction. However, the expression in food intake-regulatory nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract suggests an implication of phoenixin in food intake regulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of phoenixin-14, the shorter form of phoenixin, on food intake following intracerebroventricular (icv) and intraperitoneal (ip) injection in ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Phoenixin-14 injected icv (0.2, 1.7 or 15nmol/rat) during the light phase induced a dose-dependent increase of light phase food intake reaching significance at a minimum dose of 1.7 nmol/rat (+72%, pmeal size (+51%), meal duration (+157%), time spent in meals (+182%) and eating rate (+123%), while inter-meal intervals (-42%) and the satiety ratio (-64%) were decreased compared to vehicle (p0.05). The light phase icv phoenixin-14-induced increase of water intake did not reach statistical significance compared to vehicle (+136%, p>0.05). The increase of food intake following icv phoenixin-14 was not associated with a significant alteration of grooming behavior (0.4-fold, p=0.377) or locomotion (6-fold, p=0.066) compared to vehicle. When injected ip at higher doses (0.6, 5nmol/kg or 45nmol/kg body weight) during the light phase, phoenixin-14 did not affect food intake (p>0.05). In summary, phoenixin-14 exerts a centrally-mediated orexigenic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-04

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  4. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001. Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9% was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains, thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  5. Intracerebroventricular administration of novel glucagon-like peptide suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Glucagon-related peptides such as glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin suppress food intake in mammals and birds. Recently, novel glucagon-like peptide (GCGL) was identified from chicken brain, and a comparatively high mRNA expression level of GCGL was detected in the hypothalamus. A number of studies suggest that the hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake in mammals and birds. In the present study, we investigated whether GCGL is involved in the central regulation of food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of GCGL in chicks significantly suppressed food intake. Plasma glucose level was significantly decreased by GCGL, whereas plasma corticosterone level was not affected. Central administration of a corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, attenuated GCGL-suppressed food intake. It seems likely that CRF receptor is involved in the GCGL-induced anorexigenic pathway. All our findings suggest that GCGL functions as an anorexigenic peptide in the central nervous system of chicks.

  6. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  7. Food intake and blood cholesterol levels of community-based adults with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Karen M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Methods Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information from a population nutrition survey, national guidelines for nutritional intakes (Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide and North American dietary guidelines (Dietary Reference Intakes was utilized to evaluate the quality of their food intake. Results Compared to the regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of grains (p p p p p p 5.2 and ≤ 6.2 mmol/L and 21% had hypercholesterolemia (> 6.2 mmol/L. Conclusions Much research has proposed multiple ways in which healthier diets may exert protective effects on mental health. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

  8. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with food intake difficulties among residents with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chia-Hui; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Liu, Megan F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the prevalence of food intake difficulties and their associated factors among residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to identify the best cutoff point for the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI), which evaluates the prevalence of food intake difficulties and recognizes factors associated with eating behaviors in residents with dementia. Methods and findings A cross-sectional design was adopted. In total, 213 residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were recruited and participated in this study. The prevalence rate of food intake difficulties as measured by the Chinese Feeding Difficulty Index (Ch-FDI) was 44.6%. Factors associated with food intake difficulties during lunch were the duration of institutionalization (beta = 0.176), the level of activities of daily living-feeding (ADL-Q1) (beta = -0.235), and the length of the eating time (beta = 0.416). Associated factors during dinner were the illuminance level (beta = -0.204), sound volume level (beta = 0.187), ADL-Q1 (beta = -0.177), and eating time (beta = 0.395). Conclusions Food intake difficulties may potentially be associated with multiple factors including physical function and the dining environment according to the 45% prevalence rate among dementia residents in long-term care facilities. PMID:28225776

  10. Associations between maternal feeding style and food intake of children with a higher risk for overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of different feeding strategies on the child's food intake as well as the effect and influence socio-economic status and weight have on the use of feeding strategies. 219 mothers and their children between 3 and 6 years of age at risk for becoming overweight took part in this cross-sectional study. The participating mothers were recruited from inpatient-clinics and kindergartens with a lower socio-economic background. Besides demographic and weight data, which describe the child's risk for overweight, the mothers were asked for their use of feeding strategies and their child's food intake. Maternal feeding practices have an important impact (22.2-26.9% explained variance) on the child's food intake. There are three strategies (rewarding, child's control and pressure) which turned out to be significant predictors. Additionally, the child's weight, family income and educational level have an effect on the choice of feeding strategies and their impact on the child's food intake. The results are evidence of the influence of parental feeding practices on the child's food intake. Parent training in prevention and intervention of childhood obesity should include the discussion and modification of feeding practices.

  11. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  12. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  13. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake. Children aged 6–18 (n = 185 living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

  14. Reproducibility and relative validity of food group intake in a food frequency questionnaire developed for Nepalese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Archana; Koju, Rajendra Prasad; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Connell, Frederik A; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Shrestha, Pramita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2017-08-01

    We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to measure the dietary practices of adult Nepalese. The present study examined the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, 116 subjects completed two 115-item FFQ across a four-month interval. Six 24-h dietary recalls were collected (1 each month) to assess the validity of the FFQ. Seven major food groups and 23 subgroups were clustered from the FFQ based on macronutrient composition. Spearman correlation coefficients evaluating reproducibility for all food groups were greater than 0.5, with the exceptions of oil. The correlations varied from 0.41 (oil) to 0.81 (vegetables). All crude spearman coefficients for validity were greater than 0.5 except for dairy products, pizzas/pastas and sausage/burgers. The FFQ was found to be reliable and valid for ranking the intake of food groups for Nepalese dietary intake.

  15. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  16. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  17. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  18. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length...... needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  19. Mathematical modeling of the hormonal regulation of food intake and body weight : applications to caloric restriction and leptin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquier, Marine

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of food intake and energy expenditure usually limits important loss or gain of body weight. Hormones (leptin, ghrelin, insulin) and nutrients (glucose, triglycerides) are among the main regulators of food intake. Leptin is also involved in leptin resistance, often associated with obesity and characterized by a reduced efficacy to regulate food intake. Mathematical models describing the dynamics of body weight have been used to assist clinical weight loss interventions or to stu...

  20. Dietary intakes and food taboos of lactating women in a South Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, R; Pereira, S M

    1975-06-01

    The diets of women, studied at regular intervals in the first year of lactation, showed that food taboos adversely affected the daily intake of energy, protein and some nutrients in the first month. Despite the poor intakes, the women breastfed their babies successfully and the weight gained by the babies in the early months was satisfactory. Breast feeding continued until the next pregnancy. Most women believed lactation prevented conception.

  1. Development of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate habitual dietary intake in Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai Shino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ are used for epidemiological studies. Because of the wide variations in dietary habits within different populations, a FFQ must be developed to suit the specific group. To date, no FFQ has been developed for Japanese children. In this study, we developed a FFQ to assess the regular dietary intake of Japanese children. The FFQ included questions regarding both individual food items and mixed dishes. Methods Children (3-11 years of age, n = 621 were recruited as subjects. Their parents or guardians completed a weighed dietary record (WDR for each subject in one day. We defined FOOD to be not only as a single food item but also as a mixed dish. The dieticians conceptually grouped similar FOODs as FOOD types. We used a contribution analysis and a multiple regression analysis to select FOOD types. Results We obtained a total of 586 children's dietary data (297 boys and 289 girls. In addition, we obtained 1,043 FOODs. Dieticians grouped into similar FOODs, yielding 275 FOOD types. A total of 115 FOOD types were chosen using a contribution analysis and a multiple regression analysis, then we excluded overlapping items. FOOD types that were eaten by fewer than 15 subjects were excluded; 74 FOOD types remained. We also added liver-based dishes that provided a high amount of retinol. A total of 75 FOOD types were finally determined for the FFQ. The frequency response formats were classified into four type categories: seven, eight, nine and eleven, according to the general intake frequency of each FOOD type. Information on portion size was obtained from the photographs of each listed FOOD type in real scale size, which was the average amount of the children's portion sizes. Conclusions Using both a contribution analysis and a multiple regression analysis, we developed a 75-food item questionnaire from the study involving 586 children. The next step will involve the verification of FFQ reproducibility

  2. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  3. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S

    2012-08-20

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress.

  4. Perception of food consumed at home and dietary intake: A nationwide study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Horta, Paula Martins; Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Rocha, Thalita Fialho da; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2017-09-01

    Perception of food consumed is a key factor in acknowledging the need for behavioral change to improve diet quality. We analyzed family dietary intake according to the head of household's perception of satisfaction with food consumed by the family. Households (n = 13,351) that participated in the Brazilian Household Budget Survey and the National Dietary Survey were classified as satisfied or dissatisfied with the food consumed in the home. We compared the family dietary intake of the two groups considering their socio-demographic characteristics. Satisfied families (n = 4429) reported statistically higher intake (in grams/1000 kcal) of vegetables (47.3 vs 33.7), fruits (46.9 vs 21.4), sugar-sweetened beverages (118 vs 71.7), milk and dairy (57.9 vs 34.6), and ultra-processed products (18.6 vs 9.8); and lower intake of rice (86.2 vs 112), beans (91.7 vs 136), and meat (76.5 vs 84.0) when compared to dissatisfied families (n = 1717). Among satisfied families, in the youngest group we found lower consumption of fruits and higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed products when compared to the oldest group. Also among satisfied families, those in the highest per capita income group presented higher intake of fruits and lower intake of beans than those in the lowest income group. Satisfied families in the highest income group also consumed more fruits and less beans than dissatisfied families in the same income group. Socio-demographic characteristics may influence perception of satisfaction with food consumed and potentially influence the success of public health efforts to offer nutrition guidance for families satisfied with diets that may or may not be comprised of healthy food and beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Needs assessment for patients food intake monitoring among Indonesian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, D; Shahar, S; Abdul Manaf, Z; Susetyowati, S

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to provide a needs assessment related to the current practice of food intake monitoring for hospitalized adult patients among healthcare professionals and obtain feedback for the development of a new dietary assessment tool. Continuous effort has been made to identify patients at high risk of malnutrition, but monitoring and documentation of nutritional intake are relative less emphasized upon. A needs assessment through a cross-sectional study design was carried out at six hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was filled out by 111 respondents recruited from three different professions (nurses, dietitians and serving assistants) in the wards. Seventy per cent of the respondents perceived that the current dietary assessment tool used to record patients' food intake was simple; however, the disadvantage of this tool was its tedious process of computing nutritional values of food consumed. Furthermore, more than half respondents encountered problems in conducting food intake record of patients, primarily due to limited number of human resources, followed by time constraints and perception that such dietary assessment as not part of their job scope. This study has revealed important information in developing a simple, valid and reliable dietary assessment tool for monitoring food intake of hospitalized patients to be applied by interdisciplinary hospital professionals. Awareness of the important on monitoring nutrient intake of patients should be emphasized among healthcare professionals. The current dietary assessment tool requires modification due to lengthy time taken to complete the task and poor accuracy in intake estimation. Hospitals should provide protocols and guidelines of cooperation among interdisciplinary professionals, including nurses, which includes a simple dietary assessment tool to assist nutritional management of hospitalized patients. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P intake (P food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. Objective: We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status–metabolic health phenotypes. Methods: Men (n = 4855) aged ≥45 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status–metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. Results: MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P intake (P food intake in all models. Conclusion: Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. PMID:26423733

  8. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  9. The New Zealand Food Composition Database: A useful tool for assessing New Zealanders' nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Huffman, Lee; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    A country-specific food composition databases is useful for assessing nutrient intake reliably in national nutrition surveys, research studies and clinical practice. The New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCDB) programme seeks to maintain relevant and up-to-date food records that reflect the composition of foods commonly consumed in New Zealand following Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS) guidelines. Food composition data (FCD) of up to 87 core components for approximately 600 foods have been added to NZFCDB since 2010. These foods include those identified as providing key nutrients in a 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Nutrient data obtained by analysis of composite samples or are calculated from analytical data. Currently >2500 foods in 22 food groups are freely available in various NZFCDB output products on the website: www.foodcomposition.co.nz. NZFCDB is the main source of FCD for estimating nutrient intake in New Zealand nutrition surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France

    2009-12-01

    Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults.

  11. Mechanisms of intake induction of a low-nutritious food in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Catanese, Francisco; Didoné, Nilda; Distel, Roberto Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Intake induction refers to the phenomenon by which animals increase consumption of a less-valued meal when followed by a highly-preferred food relative to when followed by no food or by the same less-preferred food. In the Training phase of the present experiment, we assessed the induction effect in sheep using a within-subject design where learning could be tested while controlling for digestive state. Results showed that, once intake reached stability, subjects ate more low-nutritious food (oat hay) when followed than when preceded by a preferred food (soybean meal), supporting the learning hypothesis of induction. The objective of the second, Revaluation, phase of the experiment was to explore the associative mechanism of induction, for which we paired gastrointestinal malaise caused by lithium chloride intoxication with consumption of soybean meal or a control food (wheat bran). Despite subjects partially rejecting soybean meal relative to controls after the aversive conditioning protocol, oat hay consumption seemed unaffected by soybean meal devaluation. We conclude that intake induction in sheep may rely on changes in hedonic properties of the low-nutritious food based on its association with post-ingestive feedback from the preferred food (hedonic hypothesis), but not on an explicit anticipation of the latter (signalling hypothesis).

  12. 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses food intake through activation of hypothalamic histamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, T; Tamari, Y; Kang, M; Yoshimatsu, H

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate whether brain histamine contributes to delayed suppression of food intake after administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Food intake decreased significantly for 48 h after infusion of 2-DG into the rat third cerebroventricle. This delayed decrease in food intake was abolished by depletion of neuronal histamine by intraperitoneal pretreatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (160 mumol/rat), a suicide inhibitor of a histamine-synthesizing enzyme. Intracerebroventricular infusion of 24 mumol 2-DG accelerated turnover rate of hypothalamic histamine. These results indicate that the delayed feeding suppression by 2-DG is modulated through histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus. This histaminergic response may be related, at least in part, to homeostatic control of energy metabolism in the brain.

  13. Obesity and the Neurocognitive Basis of Food Reward and the Control of Intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Hill, James O; Kelley, Michael; Khan, Naiman A

    2015-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examining the brain reward system and the evidence for its dysregulation in human obesity. We then consider the issue of how individuals are able to control their hedonic eating in the present obesogenic environment and compare 2 contrasting perspectives on the control of hedonic eating, specifically, enhanced control of intake via higher cognitive control and loss of control over intake as captured by the food addiction model. We conclude by considering what these perspectives offer in terms of directions for future research and for potential interventions to improve control over food intake at the population and the individual levels. PMID:26178031

  14. Obesity and the neurocognitive basis of food reward and the control of intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Hill, James O; Kelley, Michael; Khan, Naiman A

    2015-07-01

    With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examining the brain reward system and the evidence for its dysregulation in human obesity. We then consider the issue of how individuals are able to control their hedonic eating in the present obesogenic environment and compare 2 contrasting perspectives on the control of hedonic eating, specifically, enhanced control of intake via higher cognitive control and loss of control over intake as captured by the food addiction model. We conclude by considering what these perspectives offer in terms of directions for future research and for potential interventions to improve control over food intake at the population and the individual levels. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...... of 38.6 (range: 18–68) years, volunteered to participate. Results. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5.8 to 8.6 MJ/d among women and from 7.2 to 10.5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55.7% and 74...

  16. Community and home gardens increase vegetable intake and food security of residents in San Jose, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Algert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As of 2013, 42 million American households were involved in growing their own food either at home or in a community garden plot. The purpose of this pilot study was to document the extent to which gardeners, particularly less affluent ones, increase their vegetable intake when eating from either home or community garden spaces. Eighty-five community gardeners and 50 home gardeners from San Jose, California, completed a survey providing information on demographic background, self-rated health, vegetable intake and the benefits of gardening. The gardeners surveyed were generally low income and came from a variety of ethnic and educational backgrounds. Participants in this study reported doubling their vegetable intake to a level that met the number of daily servings recommended by the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Growing food in community and home gardens can contribute to food security by helping provide access to fresh vegetables and increasing consumption of vegetables by gardeners and their families.

  17. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and have high energy density. Most studies of ... fiber decreases the energy density of food; some fibers such as guar gum .... Lab and Life Science San Diego, California, United States). .... Slavin J, Green H. Dietary fibre and satiety. Nutr Bull.

  18. The role of expectations in the effect of food cue exposure on intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Herman, C Peter; Hollitt, Sarah; Polivy, Janet; Prichard, Ivanka; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, participants were explicitly told to expect that they would be tasting and rating either grapes or chocolate-chip cookies. Participants subsequently completed an ostensible taste test, in which they tasted and rated either grapes or cookies, such that half were given the food that they had been led to expect and the other half were given the other food. Participants' restraint status (restrained versus unrestrained) was based on their scores on the Revised Restraint Scale (Herman & Polivy, 1980). A significant interaction between expected food and restraint status was found. When participants were led to expect that they would be tasting grapes, restrained and unrestrained eaters did not differ in their subsequent consumption (of either grapes or cookies). However, when participants were led to expect that they would be tasting cookies, restrained eaters ate significantly less (of both grapes and cookies) than did unrestrained eaters, even though craving ratings were similarly elevated for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. The findings are consistent with counteractive control theory in that restrained eaters who expected to eat a high caloric food may have been able to activate their dieting goal, thereby limiting their food intake. The findings further point to an important role for expectations in the understanding and regulation of food intake in restrained eaters.

  19. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Between 1988 and 1990, 15,732 men and 24,997 women aged 40-79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.67). The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥ 4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11-2.42, respectively). Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002). The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people.

  20. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Umesawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Methods: Between 1988 and 1990, 15 732 men and 24 997 women aged 40–79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.67. The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16–2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.42, respectively. Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002. Conclusions: The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people.

  1. Involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-induced suppression of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, T; Yamamoto, Y; Mobarakeh, J I; Yanai, K; Watanabe, T; Watanabe, T; Yamatodani, A

    1999-11-01

    The ob gene product leptin is secreted from white adipose tissue, and may regulate food intake by acting on the hypothalamus in the central nervous system. But the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. The central histaminergic system has been suggested to participate in the control of various physiological functions, particularly in feeding behavior, as it mediates anorectic signals like leptin. Thus, we hypothesized that the central histaminergic system is a target for leptin in its control of feeding. To prove this, we first examined the effect of i.p. administration of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, on leptin-induced suppression of food intake in normal C57BL strain mice. Leptin treatment (1.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake by 60% of that of control at 6 h and by 84% at 24 h compared with control. When mice were injected with FMH (100 mg/kg, i.p.) before being given leptin, leptin-induced suppression of food intake was abolished and there was no significant difference compared with that of control. Additionally, we further examined the effects of leptin on food intake in mutant mice lacking histamine H, receptors (H1R-KO mice). Leptin injection significantly reduced food intake by 56% of that of control at 6 h and by 79% at 24 h in wild-type mice (WT mice), but not in H1R-KO mice. This finding suggests that leptin affects the feeding behavior through activation of the central histaminergic system via histamine H1 receptors.

  2. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  3. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Andretta, Aline; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Nehring, Jéssica; Dos Santos Paiva, Eduardo; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and the analyzed items were total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E) and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium). The software used was Avanutri Online(®). To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and pain threshold were used. 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group, there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Women with FM showed a lower qualitative and quantitative intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  5. Video game playing increases food intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Visby, Trine; Nyby, Signe; Klingenberg, Lars; Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Tremblay, Angelo; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2011-06-01

    Video game playing has been linked to obesity in many observational studies. However, the influence of this sedentary activity on food intake is unknown. The objective was to examine the acute effects of sedentary video game play on various components of energy balance. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 22 healthy, normal-weight, male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 16.7 ± 1.1 y) completed two 1-h experimental conditions, namely video game play and rest in a sitting position, followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous food intake, energy expenditure, stress markers, appetite sensations, and profiles of appetite-related hormones. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, sympathetic tone, and mental workload were significantly higher during the video game play condition than during the resting condition (P libitum energy intake after video game play exceeded that measured after rest by 335 kJ (P food intake associated with video game play was observed without increased sensations of hunger and was not compensated for during the rest of the day. Finally, the profiles of glucose, insulin, cortisol, and ghrelin did not suggest an up-regulation of appetite during the video game play condition. A single session of video game play in healthy male adolescents is associated with an increased food intake, regardless of appetite sensations. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01013246.

  6. Oestradiol and genistein reduce food intake in male and female overweight cats after gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, N J; Backus, R C; Marks, S L; Klasing, K C

    2007-06-01

    To determine if exogenous oestradiol or the phyto-oestrogen genistein could reduce food intake in male and female cats fed ad libitum that had been allowed to accrue excessive bodyfat following neutering. Sixteen adult (eight female, eight male) cats were neutered and allowed to increase their bodyweight (BW) through feeding ad libitum of a complete and balanced dry diet. Oestradiol was injected subcutaneously for 5-day periods in incremental doses (0.25-4 microg per cat), then food intake was recorded, and vaginal cytological changes were observed in females. Similarly, genistein was administered orally for 5-day periods in incremental doses (5-100 mg/kg). In males and females, both oestradiol (pfood intake during treatment, and the minimum daily doses that produced a significant effect were 0.5 mug and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The minimum daily dose of oestradiol that produced a significant effect on food intake was not associated with changes in vaginal cytology over the 5-day treatment period. Gonadal oestradiol appeared to be a key modulator of food intake in both male and female cats, and replacement of oestrogen to neutered cats via oestradiol or an oestrogen surrogate such as genistein has potential for reducing the prevalence of obesity in neutered cats.

  7. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-11-01

    Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  8. Effects of indorenate on food intake: a comparison with fenfluramine and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Martínez, D N; Valencia Flores, M; López Cabrera, M; Villarreal, J E

    1995-01-01

    Indorenate (TR3369, 5-methoxytryptamine b-methylcarboxylate HCl) is a 5-HT1-like receptor agonist with hypotensive activity. Here, we describe that indorenate also decreases food intake (ED50 26.1 mg/kg) without an appreciable effect in water intake (the estimated ED50 for water was 589.8 mg/kg). The anorectic activity of indorenate was compared to the effects of amphetamine and other serotonin agonists; the effect of indorenate was smaller than those of the other compounds; however, the effect of indorenate was specific to food, whereas all the other drugs also produced significant decrements in water intake. The serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, methergoline and methysergide effectively prevented the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate and fenfluramine. Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, was ineffective in preventing the effect of indorenate although it prevented the anorectic effect of amphetamine. The present results suggest the participation of serotoninergic, but not dopaminergic mechanisms, in the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate.

  9. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  10. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure.

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  12. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food Are Not Always of Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasova, Simona; Elekes, Botond; Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd

    2016-01-01

    Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08) ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31). The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed.

  13. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food are not Always of Advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Haasova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08 ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31. The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed.

  14. Intake of food groups and idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2012-11-01

    Is there any association between the intake of different food groups and the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia? A high intake of processed meat and sweets was positively associated with a higher risk of asthenozoospermia, whereas a high intake of fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods was associated with a lower risk. A high intake of lipophilic foods like meat products or milk may be negatively associated with semen quality in humans, whereas some fruits or vegetables may maintain or improve semen quality. A case-control study including 72 asthenozoospermic men and 169 normozoospermic men all from infertile couples who underwent face-to-face private interviews, from January 2011 to December 2011. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluation of trends were calculated using logistic regression. The first tertile served as the reference category for regression analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of asthenozoospermia was significantly higher in the highest tertiles of processed meat (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.70-2.44) and sweets intake (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26). Conversely, being in the highest tertile of total fruits and vegetables, the intake of dark green vegetables, skim milk, poultry and sea food intake was associated with a lower risk of asthenozoospermia (P for trend = 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Recall bias, selection bias and measurement bias are inevitable in this kind of study and residual confounding due to omission or imprecise measurement of important covariates remains possible. Patients with asthenozoospermia should be advised to adhere to a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods while low in processed meat and sweets. This study was financially supported by the National Nutrition

  15. Parental food involvement predicts parent and child intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohly, Heather; Pealing, Juliet; Hayter, Arabella K M; Pettinger, Clare; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G; Rees, Gail

    2013-10-01

    In order to develop successful interventions to improve children's diets, the factors influencing food choice need to be understood. Parental food involvement - the level of importance of food in a person's life - may be one of many important factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether parental food involvement is associated with parents' and children's diet quality. As part of an intervention study, 394 parents with children aged between 18 months and 5 years were recruited from children's centres in Cornwall and Islington, UK. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, parents' diets, and attitudes towards food including food involvement. Children's diets were assessed using the multiple pass 24 h recall method. Parents reported low intakes of fruits and vegetables and high intakes of sugary items for themselves and their young children. Parental food involvement was strongly correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables (amount and diversity) for both parents and children. Correlations with consumption of sugary drinks and snacks/foods were not significant. These findings indicate that parental food involvement may influence consumption of fruits and vegetables, more so than sugary items. Further research is needed to investigate how parental food involvement could mediate dietary changes.

  16. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations.

  17. Food intake in three groups of cancer patients. A prospective study during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, K F; Gooskens, A C; Wedel, M; Bruning, P F

    1987-02-01

    The dietary intake of 105 adult Dutch Caucasian patients (28 women with endometrial or cervical cancer, 50 men with bladder or prostate cancer and 14 men and 13 women with malignant lymphoma) was studied for 19 weeks. Energy and nutrient intakes of all patients were assessed by a dietary history with cross-check over 2 months prior to treatment and by seven 48-h dietary records filled in just before, during and after cancer therapy. No differences were observed between the results obtained with the dietary history and the first 48-h diary. In females treated with abdominal irradiation the mean daily intake of fat, dietary fibre, iron and thiamin decreased during therapy. In men treated with radiotherapy the intake of vegetable protein, polysaccharides, dietary fibre and thiamin also decreased during treatment. This may be partly explained by the observation that many of these patients had spontaneously chosen a 'constipating diet' because of diarrhoea. As compared with the Dutch Recommended Dietary Allowance only the iron intake of the women gave rise to some concern. In our study we did not observe marked changes in dietary intake and nutritional status. In females who underwent irradiation therapy especially, the dietary intake increased after a period of intensive treatment. This demonstrates that food intake of these groups of cancer patients is not consistently reduced by chemotherapy or even abdominal radiotherapy.

  18. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  19. Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Lecossais, Christelle; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2016-12-01

    The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification. Cross-sectional study. AF intake was estimated using three 24 h dietary records. Associations between socio-economic factors and AF intake and interactions between socio-economic indicators were assessed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and energy intake. Analyses were performed separately for men and women, since gender interactions were found. France. Adults (n 92 036) participating in the NutriNet-Santé Study. Low educated persons had higher intake of red meat (+9-12 g/d), processed meat (+6-9 g/d) and poultry (for men, +7 g/d) than those with a higher education level. Percentage of fish consumers was lower in individuals of the lowest income class compared with those in higher classes. Manual workers had a higher intake of cream desserts (for men, +14 g/d) than managerial staff. Few significant interactions were found. In stratified analyses, persons with the highest income consumed more yoghurt than those who had lower income, only in low educated individuals. Socio-economic disparities in AF intake varied according to the socio-economic indicator, suggesting the specific influence of each indicator on AF intake. In particular, lower education was associated with higher intake of red and processed meats and cream desserts, and had an effect modification on the relationship between income and AF intake.

  20. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  1. Assessment of Food Intake, Obesity, and Health Risk among the Homeless in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diane C; Gorman, Kathleen S; Miller, Robin J; Murphy, Leah; Sor, Sekboppa; Martins, Jonah C; Vecchiarelli, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the nutritional status, incidence of food insecurity, and health risk among the homeless population in Rhode Island. This correlational study utilized a convenience sample of 319 homeless adults from Rhode Island's largest service agency for the homeless. Information on use of services such as access to emergency foods, shelters, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was requested. Food security was measured by the six-item subset of the USDA Food Security Core Module. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, and waist circumference. A 24-hr dietary recall was collected to determine the food intake for a subset of participants who agreed to supply this information (n = 197). Average dietary recall data indicated insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit, dairy, and meats/beans. It also indicated excessive intake of fats. Of the 313 participants, 29.4% were overweight and 39% were obese. Over 94% of the participants were food insecure, with 64% of this subset experiencing hunger. Fifty-five percent of the participants were currently receiving SNAP benefits. The majority of the sample was found to be food insecure with hunger. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  3. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  5. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, M-P; Mayrsohn, B; O'Keeffe, M; Kissileff, H R; Choudhury, A R; Laferrère, B

    2014-10-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a preload containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT preload (Study 2) was (mean±s.e.m.) 532±389 kcal vs 804±486 kcal after LCT (Ptriglycerides (P=0.014) and glucose (P=0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (PYY, P=0.017) and leptin (P=0.036) compared with LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY and insulin.

  6. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  7. Repetitive electric brain stimulation reduces food intake in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Kistenmacher, Alina; Herzog, Nina; Schwarz, Marianka; Schweiger, Ulrich; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2014-01-01

    ...)) from 20 to 25 were examined during 8 d of daily tDCS or a sham stimulation. After tDCS or sham stimulation on the first and the last day of both experimental conditions, participants consumed food ad libitum from a standardized test buffet...

  8. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. Objective: To

  9. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and vegetab

  10. Periconceptional intake of folic acid and food folate and risks of preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2011-12-01

    We investigated multiple sources of folate and folic acid to determine whether their periconceptional intakes were associated with preterm delivery. Studied were controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered September 1998 to December 2005. Telephone interviews were conducted with 5952 (68% of eligible) mothers. Women were queried about intake of vitamin supplements in the 12 weeks before conception through delivery. A version of the Nurse's Health Study food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food sources. Eight percent of infants ( N = 487) were preterm (folic acid before pregnancy, those who began any time during pregnancy had an ~20% lowered risk of preterm delivery. Lower dietary intakes showed a modest increased risk of preterm delivery: odds ratios were 1.44 (1.01 to 2.04) for lowest quartile intake of folate and 1.27 (0.95 to 1.69) for lowest quartile intake of folic acid compared with the highest. Findings suggest some evidence that folates influenced risks; however, an interpretation of results was also consistent with no association between intake of folates and preterm delivery.

  11. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. García-Rovés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  12. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  13. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (Pintake (all PFood and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  14. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  15. Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%  calories from carbohydrates/100 + (0.70×%  calories from lipids/100 + (0.81×%  calories from proteins/100. The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5% ± 25.5 [10–90], correlated with their energy intake (1993 ± 597 kcal/d, , and food quotient (0.85 ± 0.02, , , which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (, . For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863 ± 503 versus others: 2382 ± 733 kcal/d, , and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories.

  16. Intestinal inflammation influences α-MSH reactive autoantibodies: relevance to food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquerel, Quentin; Sinno, Maria Hamze; Boukhettala, Nabile; Coëffier, Moïse; Terashi, Mutsumi; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies reacting with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, are involved in regulation of feeding. In this work we studied if intestinal inflammation (mucositis) may influence α-MSH autoantibodies production relevant to food intake and body weight. Mucositis and anorexia were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methotrexate (MTX, 2.5mg/kg/day, for three days, subcutaneously). Plasma levels of total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies were measured during and after MTX-induced mucositis and were compared with pair-fed and ad libitum-fed controls. Effects of intraperitoneal injections of rabbit anti-α-MSH IgG (3 or 10 μg/day/rat) on MTX-induced anorexia and on plasma α-MSH peptide concentration were separately studied. Here we show that in MTX rats, intestinal mucositis and anorexia were accompanied by decreased plasma levels of both total IgG and of α-MSH autoantibodies while refeeding was characterized by their elevated levels. In spite of similar food intake in MTX and pair-fed rats, recovery of body weight was delayed by at least 1 week in the MTX group. During refeeding and body weight deficit in MTX rats, α-MSH IgG autoantibody levels correlated negatively with food to water intake ratios. Injections of anti-α-MSH IgG induced a dose-dependent attenuation of food intake and body weight regain in MTX-treated rats accompanied by increased concentrations of α-MSH peptide which correlated positively with plasma levels of α-MSH autoantibodies. These data show that intestinal inflammation, independently from food restriction, affects general humoral immune response which may influence food intake and body weight control via modulation of α-MSH plasma concentration by α-MSH reactive autoantibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rationale, design, and analysis of combined Brazilian household budget survey and food intake individual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos ABPA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on food intake at the individual level and its statistical distribution in population groups defined by age, gender, or geographic areas are important in planning public health and nutrition programs. However, individual-based surveys in representative population samples are expensive to perform. Methods/Design In Brazil, an individual based survey is under consideration to be conducted alongside the household budget survey (HBS, which will be carried out in 2008–2009. This paper presents the methodological framework of dietary data collection and indicates the directions to combining both sources of data. The 2008–2009 Brazilian HBS sample will include 60,000 households. Of the selected HBS households, 30% will be randomly sampled to gather data on individual food intake. Therefore, individual dietary intake data is expected to be gathered for 70,000 individuals. Data collection procedures will comprise: completion of a diary with information regarding food purchases during a seven-day period; registration of all items consumed during two non-consecutive days for all 10 year-old or older members of the household. The sample will be large enough to capture the variation between individuals, and the two records will assure the estimation of the variation within individuals for food groups, energy and nutrients. Data on individual dietary intake and food family budget will be stratified by the five regions of the country and by rural or urban. A pilot study has been conducted in two states, and it indicated that combining individual and budgetary data in a survey is feasible. Discussion This kind of study will allow us to estimate correlations between individual intake and household purchases, overcoming the limitations of individual dietary surveys, and enhancing the HBS with information on eating out and intra-familiar distribution of food.

  18. Changes in children's sleep duration on food intake, weight, and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Chantelle N; Carskadon, Mary A; Considine, Robert V; Fava, Joseph L; Lawton, Jessica; Raynor, Hollie A; Jelalian, Elissa; Owens, Judith; Wing, Rena

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of experimental changes in children's sleep duration on self-reported food intake, food reinforcement, appetite-regulating hormones, and measured weight. Using a within-subjects, counterbalanced, crossover design, 37 children, 8 to 11 years of age (27% overweight/obese) completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount at home for 1 week and were then randomized to either increase or decrease their time in bed by 1.5 hours per night for 1 week, completing the alternate schedule on the third week. Primary outcomes were dietary intake as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls, food reinforcement (ie, points earned for a food reward), and fasting leptin and ghrelin. The secondary outcome was child weight. Participants achieved a 2 hour, 21 minute difference in the actigraph defined sleep period time between the increase and decrease sleep conditions (P food reinforcement or in fasting ghrelin. Compared with decreased sleep, increased sleep duration in school-age children resulted in lower reported food intake, lower fasting leptin levels, and lower weight. The potential role of sleep duration in pediatric obesity prevention and treatment warrants further study.

  19. Relationships between food consumption and dietary intake among healthy volunteers and implications for meeting dietary goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, A; Hebert, J R; Reddy, B S

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative food frequency questionnaires and 5-day food records were used to explore relationships between food consumption and nutrient intake among 65 healthy volunteers who were willing to participate in a dietary fiber intervention study. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between the nutrient intake and the frequency of consumption of each food item, as well as the amount consumed per month. Percentage of calories from fat was related to frequency of consumption and amount of consumption, respectively, of bacon (r = .48, .49), frankfurters and sausage (r = .45, .45), and french fries and fried potatoes (r = .43, .39). Frequency and amount, respectively, of consumption of fruits were most highly correlated with intake of vitamin A (r = .45, .46), vitamin C (r = .44, .48), and dietary fiber (r = .43, .43). We conclude that specific food consumption amounts and/or frequency of eating foods such as legumes, fruits, and whole-grain or bran-rich cereals should be recommended to assist individuals in meeting dietary goals.

  20. Commercial complementary food consumption is prospectively associated with added sugar intake in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foterek, Kristina; Buyken, Anette E; Bolzenius, Katja; Hilbig, Annett; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Given that commercial complementary food (CF) can contain high levels of added sugar, a high consumption may predispose to a preference for sweet taste later in life. This study examined cross-sectional associations between commercial CF consumption and added sugar intake in infancy as well as its prospective relation to added sugar intake in pre-school and primary-school age children. In all, 288 children of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 3-d weighed dietary records at 0·5 and 0·75 (infancy), 3 and 4 (pre-school age) and 6 and 7 years of age (primary-school age) were included in this analysis. Individual commercial CF consumption as percentage of total commercial CF (%cCF) was averaged at 0·5 and 0·75 years. Individual total added sugar intake (g/d, energy percentage/d) was averaged for all three age groups. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to analyse associations between %cCF and added sugar intake. In infancy, a higher %cCF was associated with odds for high added sugar intake from CF and for high total added sugar intake (>75th percentile, Psugar intake in both pre-school (Psugar intake in infancy. A higher %cCF in infancy may predispose to higher added sugar intake in later childhood by virtue of its added sugar content. Therefore, offering home-made CF or carefully chosen commercial CF without added sugar might be one strategy to reduce sugar intake in infancy and later on.

  1. Double trouble. Trait food craving and impulsivity interactively predict food-cue affected behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Impulsivity and food craving have both been implicated in overeating. Recent results suggest that both processes may interactively predict increased food intake. In the present study, female participants performed a Go/No-go task with pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. They were instructed to press a button in response to the respective target category, but withhold responses to the other category. Target category was switched after every other block, thereby creating blocks in which stimulus-response mapping was the same as in the previous block (nonshift blocks) and blocks in which it was reversed (shift blocks). The Food Cravings Questionnaires and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used to assess trait and state food craving and attentional, motor, and nonplanning impulsivity. Participants had slower reaction times and more omission errors (OE) in high-calorie than in low-calorie blocks. Number of commission errors (CE) and OE was higher in shift blocks than in nonshift blocks. Trait impulsivity was positively correlated with CE in shift blocks while trait food craving was positively correlated with CE in high-calorie blocks. Importantly, CE in high-calorie-shift blocks were predicted by an interaction of food craving × impulsivity such that the relationship between food craving and CE was particularly strong at high levels of impulsivity, but vanished at low levels of impulsivity. Thus, impulsive reactions to high-calorie food-cues are particularly pronounced when both trait impulsivity and food craving is high, but low levels of impulsivity can compensate for high levels of trait food craving. Results support models of self-regulation which assume that interactive effects of low top-down control and strong reward sensitive, bottom-up mechanisms may determine eating-related disinhibition, ultimately leading to increased food intake.

  2. Duck cerebellum participates in regulation of food intake via the neurotransmitters serotonin and neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua Z; Li, Xin Y; Tong, Jing J; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhan, Han C; Sha, Jun N; Peng, Ke M

    2008-10-01

    Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum. Moreover, the expression level of 5-HT in fasted (4 h) and tryptophan (100-200 mg/kg)-treated ducks was significantly higher than that in control animals (Pfood intake respectively increased and decreased cerebellar 5-HT and NPY in the duck.

  3. Protein intake in Parkinsonian patients using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczewska, Agnieszka; De Notaris, Roberta; Sieri, Sabina; Barichella, Michela; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2006-08-01

    The dietary habits of 45 Italian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their spouses were investigated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire. Average daily energy intake was similar, but PD patients consumed significantly more vegetable proteins and carbohydrates (both +18%; P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). Daily protein intake, which interferes with levodopa absorption, was 50% higher than the recommended daily allowance (1.2 vs. 0.8 g/kg) in both PD patients and spouses and was significantly higher in patients with moderate/severe symptoms (1.27 +/- 0.29 vs. 1.07 +/- 0.28 g/kg; P protein intake (P = 0.027). Dietary habits of patients with advanced and/or fluctuating PD should always be checked, with particular reference to protein intake.

  4. NUTRIENT INTAKES IN ISFAHANIAN ADULTS BY: IRANIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PROGRAM (IFCP 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAFIEI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Survey for food consumption patterns prepares the quantitative and qualitative scales for assessing nutriotonal state among population. Healthy nutrition is one of the preventive factors for non communicable diseases as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Regarding the increasing trends in CVD mortality/morbidity and relatively high incidences of CVD risk factors in Isfahan, it is essential to determine food consumption patterns in this population. Methods. One of the most reliable procedure for social food patterns is 24 hr recall, performed mainly by pictural questionnaire. Food Consumption Program-Heart Concern Software (IFCP was developed for this task through 24 hr recall. By this computerized program, user can work with pictures of food album for determining what kind and how much foods the patients consumed. The sensitivity of this software is very high for determining nutrient intakes corresponding to Iranian cooking and feeding culture. In this cross sectional study, 1193 people (aged 20-70 years old were selected systematically from 40 clusters in Isfahan city through 4 seasons. For each person, two computerized questionnaires were completed for personal characteristics and daily food consumption by an instructive operator. Interview for 24 hr food consumption was design for 3 days determined randomly through a week. Therefore, distribution were maintained for food data. The obtained yearly data was analysed by the same program achieved the level of energy, carbohydrate, portein, total fat, cholesterol and fatty acids intaken form daily feeding. Results. Mean energy intake was 2380.9±1082.2 Kcal/day for total population. Thre was a significant difference between men and women in all age groups (P < 0.0001. The energy obtained from fat was 29.28 percent in people aged 20-70 years old in Isfahan city. Cholesterol intake for each person was 253.5 ± 179.1 mg/day and the energy obtained from each fatty acid groups as SFA, MUFA

  5. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Reduced food intake is a frequent problem at a hospital setting, being a cause and/or consequence of malnutrition. Food presentation can affect food intake and induce nutritional benefit. To investigate the effect of improved meal presentation supported by gastronomy expertise on the food intake in adults hospitalized in internal medicine departments. Controlled before and after study. Two hundred and six newly hospitalized patients in internal medicine departments were included and divided in two groups, a) control: receiving the standard lunch from the hospital and b) experimental: receiving a lunch improved in terms of presentation by the advices received by the Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, Lyon, France together with the hospital kitchen of the Beilinson Hospital, without change in the composition of the meal. The amount of food left at the participants' plates was estimated using the Digital Imaging Method, which consisted in photographing the plates immediately to previous tray collection by the researcher. In addition, the nutritionDay questionnaire was used to measure other variables concerned to their food intake during hospitalization. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demography or Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients who received the meal with the improved presentation showed significantly higher food intake than those who received the standard meal, despite reported loss in appetite. Participants from the experimental group left on their plate less starch (0.19 ± 0.30 vs. 0.52 + 0.41) (p  0.05). Both of the groups were asked how hungry they were before the meal and no significance was shown. More participants from the experimental group reported their meal to be tasty in comparison to those in the control group (49.5% vs. 33.7% p < 0.005). Length of stay was not different but readmission rate decreased significantly in the study group (p < 0.02) from 31.2% to 13

  6. When snacks become meals: How hunger and environmental cues bias food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount of food they eat. In addition, we expect the effect of those cues on food intake to be strongest among those who are hungry. Methods One-hundred and twenty-two undergraduates (75 men, 47 women; mean BMI = 22.8, SD = 3.38 were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in which they were offered foods such as quesadillas and chicken wings in an environment that was associated with either meal cues (ceramic plates, glasses, silverware, and cloth napkins at a table, or snack cues (paper plates and napkins, plastic cups, and no utensils. After participants finished eating, they were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their hunger, satiety, perception of the foods, and included demographic and anthropometric questions. In addition, participants' total food intake was recorded. Results Participants who were in the presence of meal-related cues ate 27.9% more calories than those surrounded with snack cues (416 versus 532 calories. The amount participants ate was partially mediated by whether they perceived the eating occasion to be a meal or a snack. In addition, the effect of the environmental cues on intake was most pronounced among participants who were hungry. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that environmental and situational cues associated with an eating occasion could influence overall food intake. People were more likely to eat foods when they were associated with meal cues. Importantly, the present study reveals that the effect of these cues is uniquely intertwined with cognition and motivation. First, people were more likely to eat ambiguous foods when they perceived them as a meal rather than a

  7. Examining the effects of remote-video confederates on young women's food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Salvy, S.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    One's decisions about eating are at times, largely based on the observations of other people's eating behavior. Previous studies have shown that modeling of eating is a robust effect. The current research examined the impact of a video remote confederate on young women's food intake. Experiment 1 ex

  8. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and umam

  9. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and u

  10. Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, diet quality, and nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein per kg per day for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food...

  11. Food intake, nutritional anthropometry and blood chemical parameters in 3 selected Dutch schoolchildren populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.; Kromhout, D.

    1978-01-01

    The major health problems in populations of economically developed countries at the present time are of a chronic nature with, as their main clinical characteristic, the frequently occurring premature coronary heart disease. When food intake data are to be evaluated, it would be incorrect

  12. The effects of playing with thin dolls on body image and food intake in young girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of playing with thin dolls on body image and food intake in 6- to 10-year-old Dutch girls (N = 117). Girls were randomly assigned to play with a thin doll, an average-sized doll, or Legos in a no doll control condition. After 10 min, they participated in

  13. Television watching and the emotional impact on social modeling of food intake among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Meiselman, H.L.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to test whether exposure to happy, neutral, or sad media content influences social modeling effects of (snack) food intake in young children. The study was conducted at 14 Dutch urban and suburban primary schools. The participants (N = 112) were asked to watch a movie

  14. Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates hypothalamic nuclei that regulate food intake and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Milene de Oliveira Lara; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Kawakami, Suzi Emiko; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among metabolic regulation and stress response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of 96 h of PSD on metabolism regulation, feeding behaviour and stress response by studying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and orexin (ORX) immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Once-daily assessments of body weight, twice-daily measurements of (spillage-corrected) food intake, and once-daily determinations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were made throughout PSD or at corresponding times in control rats (CTL). Immunoreactivity for CRH in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and for ORX in the hypothalamic lateral area was evaluated at the end of the experimental period. PSD resulted in increased diurnal, but not nocturnal, food intake, producing no significant changes in global food intake. PSD augmented the immunoreactivity for CRH and plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels, characterizing activation of the HPA axis. PSD also markedly increased the ORX immunoreactivity. The average plasma level of corticosterone correlated negatively with body weight gain throughout PSD. These results indicate that augmented ORX and CRH immunoreactivity in specific hypothalamic nuclei may underlie some of the metabolic changes consistently described in PSD.

  15. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  16. Socio-economic status, dietary intake and 10 y trends: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Telman, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study differences in dietary intake between adults with different socioeconomic status (SES) and trends over time. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data of three Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys (DNFCS-1 1987/88; DNFCS-2 1992; DNFCS-3 1997/98), obtained from a panel by a

  17. Dietary Flavonols and Flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebamowo, C.A.; Sampson, L.; Katan, M.B.; Spiegelman, D.; Willett, W.C.; Holmes, M.D.; Cho, E.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory and animal studies suggest that dietary flavonols may reduce breast cancer risk but there are limited epidemiological studies. We computed flavonol intakes from dietary data collected by validated food