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  1. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses dendritic cell function and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Ge, Zhenzhen; Da, Yurong; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Kai; Zhuang, Hao; Peng, Meiyu; Li, Yan; Li, Wen; Simard, Alain; Hao, Junwei; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2013-03-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used clinically as an anticancer drug and also has immunosuppressive properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of effects of vorinostat on central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases remain incomplete. Here, this study investigates the effects of vorinostat on human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse immature DC in vitro. Furthermore, we explore the therapeutic effects and cellular mechanisms of vorinostat on animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that vorinostat inhibited human CD14(+) monocyte-derived DCs differentiation, maturation, endocytosis, and further inhibited mDCs' stimulation of allogeneic T-cell proliferation. In addition, vorinostat inhibited DC-directed Th1- (Type 1T helper) and Th17-polarizing cytokine production. Furthermore, vorinostat ameliorated Th1- and Th17-mediated EAE by reducing CNS inflammation and demyelination. What's more, Th1 and Th17 cell functions were suppressed in vorinostat-treated EAE mice. Finally, vorinostat suppressed expression of costimulatory molecules of DC in EAE mice. These suggest therapeutic effects of vorinostat on EAE which may by suppress DCs and DCs-mediated Th1 and Th17 cell functions. Our findings warrant further investigation in the potential of vorinostat for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat suppresses the growth of uterine sarcomas in vitro and in vivo

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    Petru Edgar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine sarcomas are very rare malignancies with no approved chemotherapy protocols. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors belong to the most promising groups of compounds for molecular targeting therapy. Here, we described the antitumor effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat on MES-SA uterine sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated effects of vorinostat on growth and colony forming ability by using uterine sarcoma MES-SA cells. We analyzed the influence of vorinostat on expression of different HDACs, p21WAF1 and activation of apoptosis. Finally, we examined the antitumor effects of vorinostat on uterine sarcoma in vivo. Results Vorinostat efficiently suppressed MES-SA cell growth at a low dosage (3 μM already after 24 hours treatment. Decrease of cell survival was even more pronounced after prolonged treatment and reached 9% and 2% after 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Colony forming capability of MES-SA cells treated with 3 μM vorinostat for 24 and 48 hours was significantly diminished and blocked after 72 hours. HDACs class I (HDAC2 and 3 as well as class II (HDAC7 were preferentially affected by this treatment. Vorinostat significantly increased p21WAF1 expression and apoptosis. Nude mice injected with 5 × 106 MES-SA cells were treated for 21 days with vorinostat (50 mg/kg/day and, in comparison to placebo group, a tumor growth reduction of more than 50% was observed. Results obtained by light- and electron-microscopy suggested pronounced activation of apoptosis in tumors isolated from vorinostat-treated mice. Conclusions Our data strongly indicate the high therapeutic potential of vorinostat in uterine sarcomas.

  3. Clinical pharmacology profile of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

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    Iwamoto, Marian; Friedman, Evan J; Sandhu, Punam; Agrawal, Nancy G B; Rubin, Eric H; Wagner, John A

    2013-09-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has demonstrated preclinical activity in numerous cancer models. Clinical activity has been demonstrated in patients with a variety of malignancies. Vorinostat is presently indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical investigation is ongoing for therapy of other solid tumors and hematological malignancies either as monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic properties of vorinostat. Monotherapy pharmacokinetic data across a number of pharmacokinetic studies were reviewed, and data are presented. In addition, literature review was performed to obtain published Phase I and II pharmacokinetic combination therapy data to identify and characterize potential drug interactions with vorinostat. Pharmacokinetic data in special populations were also reviewed. The clinical pharmacology profile of vorinostat is favorable, exhibiting dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and modest food effect. There appear to be no major differences in the pharmacokinetics of vorinostat in special populations, including varying demographics and hepatic dysfunction. Combination therapy pharmacokinetic data indicate that vorinostat has a low propensity for drug interactions. Vorinostat's favorable clinical pharmacology and drug interaction profile aid in the ease of administration of vorinostat for the treatment of advanced CTCL and will be beneficial in continued assessment for other oncologic indications. Although a number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the detailed pharmacokinetic profile of vorinostat, more rigorous assessment of vorinostat pharmacokinetics, including clinical drug interaction studies, will be informative.

  4. Genetic blockade of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor via recombinant adenovirus in lung cancer can be enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat.

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    Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Dal Rae; Eo, Eun Young; Lim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho-Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek

    2013-01-01

    Many approaches have been suggested as anti-tumor therapy for targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We introduced recombinant adenoviruses expressing antisense, dominant negative or short hairpin RNA to IGF-1R. Moreover, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) can increase the transduction efficiency of adenoviruses by increasing CAR-induced transduction and by enhancing the transcription of the adenoviral transgene. In the present study, we showed that the combination of ad-sh (short hairpin) IGF-1R with vorinostat leads to a synergistic enhancement of IGF-1R blockade. We measured the change in IGF-1R upon cotreatment with vorinostat and ad-shIGF-1R. Changes in transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R were measured by fluorescent microscopy. Changes in apoptotic proportion and cell survival after the cotreatment were measured by the sub-G1 assay and cell counts. The effect of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was also measured by NF-κB p65 activation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Drug interactions were analyzed upon cotreatment with ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin. Combined treatment of ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat synergistically suppressed the IGF-1R expression in lung cancer cell lines and also increased the transduction efficiency of ad-shIGF-1R. Ad-shIGF-1R and vorinostat cotreatment increased apoptotic cell death and synergistically suppressed cell growth compared to ad-shIGF-1R or vorinostat treatment alone. Vorinostat suppressed NF-κB activation, which was activated by ad-shIGF-1R. Moreover, triple combination of ad-shIGF-1R, vorinostat and cisplatin demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Vorinostat enhanced the blocking capability of ad-shIGF-1R. The combined treatment of vorinostat and ad-sh-IGF-1R appears to have promising potential as a new therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Unexpected Biotransformation of the HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Yields Aniline-Containing Fungal Metabolites.

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    Adpressa, Donovon A; Stalheim, Kayla J; Proteau, Philip J; Loesgen, Sandra

    2017-07-21

    The diversity of genetically encoded small molecules produced by filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored, which makes these fungi an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. However, accessing their full chemical repertoire under common laboratory culture conditions is a challenge. Epigenetic manipulation of gene expression has become a well-established tool for overcoming this obstacle. Here, we report that perturbation of the endophytic ascomycete Chalara sp. 6661, producer of the isofusidienol class of antibiotics, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat resulted in the production of four new modified xanthones. The structures of chalanilines A (1) and B (2) and adenosine-coupled xanthones A (3) and B (4) were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the bioactivities of 1-4 were tested in antibiotic and cytotoxicity assays. Incorporation studies with deuterium-labeled vorinostat indicate that the aniline moiety in chalalanine A is derived from vorinostat itself. Our study shows that Chalara sp. is able to metabolize the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat to release aniline. This is a rare report of fungal biotransformation of the popular epigenetic modifier vorinostat into aniline-containing polyketides.

  6. Vorinostat Modulates the Imbalance of T Cell Subsets, Suppresses Macrophage Activity, and Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis.

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    Fang, Sijie; Meng, Xiangda; Zhang, Zhuhong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yuanyuan; You, Caiyun; Yan, Hua

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficiency of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in female C57BL/6J mice immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide. Vorinostat or the control treatment, phosphate-buffered saline, was administrated orally from 3 days before immunization until euthanasia at day 21 after immunization. The clinical and histopathological scores of mice were graded, and the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier was examined by Evans blue staining. T helper cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry, and the macrophage functions were evaluated with immunohistochemistry staining and immunofluorescence assays. The mRNA levels of tight junction proteins were measured by qRT-PCR. The expression levels of intraocular cytokines and transcription factors were examined by western blotting. Vorinostat relieved both clinical and histopathological manifestations of EAU in our mouse model, and the BRB integrity was maintained in vorinostat-treated mice, which had less vasculature leakage and higher mRNA and protein expressions of tight junction proteins than controls. Moreover, vorinostat repressed Th1 and Th17 cells and increased Th0 and Treg cells. Additionally, the INF-γ and IL-17A expression levels were significantly decreased, while the IL-10 level was increased by vorinostat treatment. Furthermore, due to the reduced TNF-α level, the macrophage activity was considerably inhibited in EAU mice. Finally, transcription factors, including STAT1, STAT3, and p65, were greatly suppressed by vorinostat treatment. Our data suggest that vorinostat might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent in the management of uveitis and other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  7. Proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib interacts synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells.

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    Gao, Minjie; Gao, Lu; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaosong; Xu, Hongwei; Tompkins, Van S; Han, Ying; Wu, Huiqun; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the interactions between proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells. Coexposure of cells to minimally lethal concentrations of CFZ with very low concentration of vorinostat resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects and enhanced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, accompanied with the sharply increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), the striking decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the increased release of cytochrome c, the enhanced activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of PARP. The combined treatment of Jurkat cells pre-treated with ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that ROS generation was a former event of the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, NAC also resulted in a marked reduction in apoptotic cells, indicating a critical role for increased ROS generation by combined treatment. In addition, combined treatment arrested the cell cycle in G2-M phase. These results imply that CFZ interacted synergistically with vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, which raised the possibility that the combination of carfilzomib with vorinostat may represent a novel strategy in treating T-cell Leukemia. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat.

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    Carbone, Carmine; Di Gennaro, Elena; Piro, Geny; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca 2+ dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. We demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effect of the HDACi vorinostat is paralleled by the induction of TG2 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells but not in ex vivo treated peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect was also shared by other pan-HDACi and resulted in increased TG2 transamidating activity. Notably, high TG2 basal levels in a panel of cancer cell lines correlated with lower vorinostat antiproliferative activity. Notably, in TG2-knockdown cancer cells vorinostat anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced, whereas in TG2-full-length transfected cells were impaired, suggesting that TG2 could represent a mechanism of intrinsic or acquired resistance to vorinostat. In fact, co-treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of TG2 transamidating activity potentiated the antitumor effect of vorinostat. Moreover, vorinostat-resistant MCF7 cells selected by stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug, significantly overexpressed TG2 protein compared to parental cells, and co-treatment of these cells with TG2 inhibitors reversed vorinostat-resistance. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TG2 is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to vorinostat, as well as to other HDACi.

  9. Combining the ABL1 kinase inhibitor ponatinib and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat: a potential treatment for BCR-ABL-positive leukemia.

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    Okabe, Seiichi; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Kimura, Shinya; Maekawa, Taira; Kitahara, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yoko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to imatinib (Gleevec®) in cancer cells is frequently because of acquired point mutations in the kinase domain of BCR-ABL. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and it has been investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) has been evaluated for its significant clinical activity in hematological malignancies. Thus, treatments combining ABL TKIs with additional drugs may be a promising strategy in the treatment of leukemia. In the current study, we analyzed the efficacy of ponatinib and vorinostat treatment by using BCR-ABL-positive cell lines. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We found that ponatinib potently inhibited the growth of Ba/F3 cells ectopically expressing BCR-ABL T315I mutation. Upon BCR-ABL phosphorylation, Crk-L was decreased, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was activated in a dose-dependent manner. Combined treatment of Ba/F3 T315I mutant cells with vorinostat and ponatinib resulted in significantly increased cytotoxicity. Additionally, the intracellular signaling of ponatinib and vorinostat was examined. Caspase 3 and PARP activation increased after combination treatment with ponatinib and vorinostat. Moreover, an increase in the phosphorylation levels of γH2A.X was observed. Previously established ponatinib-resistant Ba/F3 cells were also resistant to imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. We investigated the difference in the efficacy of ponatinib and vorinostat by using ponatinib-resistant Ba/F3 cells. Combined treatment of ponatinib-resistant cells with ponatinib and vorinostat caused a significant increase in cytotoxicity. Thus, combined administration of ponatinib and vorinostat may be a powerful strategy against BCR-ABL mutant cells and could enhance the cytotoxic effects of ponatinib in those BCR

  10. The HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat diminishes the in vitro metastatic behavior of Osteosarcoma cells.

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    Mu, Xiaodong; Brynien, Daniel; Weiss, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  11. The HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Diminishes the In Vitro Metastatic Behavior of Osteosarcoma Cells

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    Xiaodong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  12. Vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, showed anti-osteoarthritic activities through inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression, p38 and ERK phosphorylation and blocking NF-κB nuclear translocation.

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    Zhong, Hui-ming; Ding, Qian-hai; Chen, Wei-ping; Luo, Ru-bin

    2013-10-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In present study, we investigated whether vorinostat can inhibit the catabolic effects of IL-1β in vitro, especially the inhibition of MMPs and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) through the attenuation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in human chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were either left untreated or treated with various concentrations of vorinostat followed by incubation with IL-1β (5ng/mL). Effects of vorinostat on IL-1β-induced gene and protein expression of iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were verified by quantitative real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Production of NO, MMP-1, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 released in culture supernatant was estimated using commercially available kits. The roles of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the regulation of targeted genes and the mechanism involved in vorinostat mediated modulation of these genes were determined by Western blot using specific antibodies. We found that vorinostat down-regulated iNOS, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression and up-regulated TIMP-1 expression in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the release of NO, MMP-1 and MMP-13 secreted from IL-1β stimulated chondrocytes was also suppressed by vorinostat. Interestingly, vorinostat selectively inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 and ERK1/2 activation without affecting JNK activation. Furthermore, we observed that vorinostat inhibited NF-κB pathway by suppressing the degradation of I-κBα and attenuating NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that vorinostat may be a promising therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of OA. © 2013.

  13. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

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    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat...

  14. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelen, Marie Grøn; Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristian, Alexandr; Fleten, Karianne Giller; Furre, Torbjørn; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials

  15. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma.

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    Saelen, Marie Grøn; Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristian, Alexandr; Fleten, Karianne Giller; Furre, Torbjørn; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-09-27

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials.

  16. Phase I study of the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat in advanced renal cell carcinoma and other solid tumors.

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    Zibelman, Matthew; Wong, Yu-Ning; Devarajan, Karthik; Malizzia, Lois; Corrigan, Alycia; Olszanski, Anthony J; Denlinger, Crystal S; Roethke, Susan K; Tetzlaff, Colleen H; Plimack, Elizabeth R

    2015-10-01

    Drugs inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are approved in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but resistance inevitably emerges. Proposed escape pathways include increased phosphorylation of Akt, which can be down regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. We hypothesized that co-treatment with the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat may abrogate resistance in RCC. This phase 1 study evaluated the co-administration of ridaforolimus and vorinostat in patients with advanced solid tumors. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in RCC patients. Although all solid tumors were allowed, prior cytotoxic chemotherapy was limited to 1 regimen. Using a modified 3 + 3 dose escalation design, various dose combinations were tested concurrently in separate cohorts. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Fifteen patients were treated at one of three dose levels, thirteen with RCC (10 clear cell, 3 papillary). Dosing was limited by thrombocytopenia. The MTD was determined to be ridaforolimus 20 mg daily days 1-5 with vorinostat 100 mg BID days 1-3 weekly, however late onset thrombocytopenia led to a lower recommended phase II dose: ridaforolimus 20 mg daily days 1-5 with vorinostat 100 mg daily days 1-3 weekly. Two patients, both with papillary RCC, maintained disease control for 54 and 80 weeks, respectively. The combination of ridaforolimus and vorinostat was tolerable at the recommended phase II dose. Two patients with papillary RCC experienced prolonged disease stabilization, thus further study of combined HDAC and mTOR inhibition in this population is warranted.

  17. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  18. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelen Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC. Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Methods Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Results Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Conclusions Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials.

  19. Ruxolitinib combined with vorinostat suppresses tumor growth and alters metabolic phenotype in hematological diseases.

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    Civallero, Monica; Cosenza, Maria; Pozzi, Samantha; Sacchi, Stefano

    2017-11-28

    JAK-2 dysregulation plays an important role as an oncogenic driver, and is thus a promising therapeutic target in hematological malignancies. Ruxolitinib is a pyrrolo[2.3-d]pyrimidine derivative with inhibitory activity against JAK1 and JAK2, moderate activity against TYK2, and minor activity against JAK3. Vorinostat is an HDAC inhibitor that reduces JAK-2 expression, thus affecting JAK-2 mRNA expression and increasing JAK-2 proteasomal deterioration. Here we hypothesized that the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat could have synergistic effects against hematological disease. We tested combinations of low doses of ruxolitinib and vorinostat in 12 cell lines, and observed highly synergistic cytotoxic action in six cell lines, which was maintained for up to 120 h in the presence of stromal cells. The sensitivity of the six cell lines may be explained by the broad effects of the drug combination, which can affect various targets. Treatment with the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat appeared to induce a possible reversal of the Warburg effect, with associated ROS production, apoptotic events, and growth inhibition. Decreased glucose metabolism may have markedly sensitized the six more susceptible cell lines to combined treatment. Therapeutic inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway seems to offer substantial anti-tumor benefit, and combined therapy with ruxolitinib and vorinostat may represent a promising novel therapeutic modality for hematological neoplasms.

  20. Antitumor activity of vorinostat-incorporated nanoparticles against human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

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    Kwak, Tae Won; Kim, Do Hyung; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the anticancer activity of vorinostat-incorporated nanoparticles (vorinostat-NPs) against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Vorinostat-NPs were fabricated by a nanoprecipitation method using poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer. Vorinostat-NPs exhibited spherical shapes with sizes Vorinostat-NPs have anticancer activity similar to that of vorinostat in vitro. Vorinostat-NPs as well as vorinostat itself increased acetylation of histone-H3. Furthermore, vorinostat-NPs have similar effectiveness in the suppression or expression of histone deacetylase, mutant type p53, p21, and PARP/cleaved caspase-3. However, vorinostat-NPs showed improved antitumor activity against HuCC-T1 cancer cell-bearing mice compared to vorinostat, whereas empty nanoparticles had no effect on tumor growth. Furthermore, vorinostat-NPs increased the expression of acetylated histone H3 in tumor tissue and suppressed histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in vivo. The improved antitumor activity of vorinostat-NPs can be explained by molecular imaging studies using near-infrared (NIR) dye-incorporated nanoparticles, i.e. NIR-dye-incorporated nanoparticles were intensively accumulated in the tumor region rather than normal one. Our results demonstrate that vorinostat and vorinostat-NPs exert anticancer activity against HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells by specific inhibition of HDAC expression. Thus, we suggest that vorinostat-NPs are a promising candidate for anticancer chemotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma. Graphical abstract Local delivery strategy of vorinostat-NPs against cholangiocarcinomas.

  1. Vorinostat and metformin sensitize EGFR-TKI resistant NSCLC cells via BIM-dependent apoptosis induction.

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    Chen, Hengyi; Wang, Yubo; Lin, Caiyu; Lu, Conghua; Han, Rui; Jiao, Lin; Li, Li; He, Yong

    2017-11-07

    There is a close relationship between low expression of BIM and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). Vorinostat is a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that augments BIM expression in various types of tumor cells, however, this effect is attenuated by the high expression of anti-apoptotic proteins in EGFR-TKI resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Vorinostat in combination with metformin - a compound that can inhibit anti-apoptotic proteins expression, might cooperate to activate apoptotic signaling and overcome EGFR-TKI resistance. This study aimed to investigate the cooperative effect and evaluate possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that vorinostat combined with gefitinib augmented BIM expression and increased the sensitivity of EGFR-TKI resistant NSCLC cells to gefitinib, adding metformin simultaneously could obviously inhibit the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and further increased expression levels of BIM and BAX, and as a result, further improved the sensitivity of gefitinib both on the NSCLC cells with intrinsic and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI. In addition, autophagy induced by gefitinib and vorinostat could be significantly suppressed by metformin, which might also contribute to enhance apoptosis and improve sensitivity of gefitinib. These results suggested that the combination of vorinostat and metformin might represent a novel strategy to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance associated with BIM-dependent apoptosis in larger heterogeneous populations.

  2. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, μCT, histological an...

  3. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  4. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  5. Trends in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma – critical evaluation and perspectives on vorinostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang CL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sophia Rangwala, Madeleine Duvic, Chunlei ZhangDepartment of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USAAbstract: Epigenetic modification with small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors has been a promising new anti-neoplastic approach for various solid and hematological malignancies, particularly cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL. Oral vorinostat was the first histone deacetylase inhibitor approved to enter the clinical oncology market for treating CTCL patients who have progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease after failing two systemic therapies. In two phase II clinical trials, oral vorinostat was found to be safe and effective at a dose of 400 mg/day, with an overall response rate of 24%–30% in heavily pretreated patients with advanced CTCL, including those with large-cell transformed mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. About half of CTCL patients receiving vorinostat also experienced substantial relief in pruritus and thus a marked improvement in quality of life. A subsequent follow-up study reported long-term safety and clinical benefits of vorinostat in patients with refractory CTCL, regardless of previous treatment failures. The most frequent side effects of vorinostat include gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, and thrombocytopenia. These adverse reactions are dose-related and reversible upon cessation of therapy. Preclinical studies have supported the therapeutic potential of vorinostat by demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities against CTCL, including selective induction of apoptosis in malignant T cells, inhibition of angiogenesis, suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Identification of biomarkers of response and resistance will help select CTCL patients most likely to benefit from treatment and guide the design of effective combination therapies.Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

  6. The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) increases the susceptibility of uninfected CD4+ T cells to HIV by increasing the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Mark B; Tilton, Carisa A; Mao, Hongxia; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Tabler, Caroline O; Haqqani, Aiman A; Karn, Jonathan; Tilton, John C

    2014-09-01

    Latently infected cells remain a primary barrier to eradication of HIV-1. Over the past decade, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which latency is established and maintained has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that selectively reactivate latent proviruses without inducing polyclonal T cell activation. Recently, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has been demonstrated to induce HIV transcription from latently infected cells when administered to patients. While vorinostat will be given in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART), infection of new cells by induced virus remains a clinical concern. Here, we demonstrate that vorinostat significantly increases the susceptibility of CD4(+) T cells to infection by HIV in a dose- and time-dependent manner that is independent of receptor and coreceptor usage. Vorinostat does not enhance viral fusion with cells but rather enhances the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events, including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration, and enhances viral production in a spreading-infection assay. Selective inhibition of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 with tubacin recapitulated the effect of vorinostat. These findings reveal a previously unknown cytoplasmic effect of HDAC inhibitors promoting productive infection of CD4(+) T cells that is distinct from their well-characterized effects on nuclear histone acetylation and long-terminal-repeat (LTR) transcription. Our results indicate that careful monitoring of patients and ART intensification are warranted during vorinostat treatment and indicate that HDAC inhibitors that selectively target nuclear class I HDACs could reactivate latent HIV without increasing the susceptibility of uninfected cells to HIV. HDAC inhibitors, particularly vorinostat, are currently being investigated clinically as part of a "shock-and-kill" strategy to purge latent reservoirs of HIV. We demonstrate here that vorinostat increases the

  7. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: Vorinostat-Gateway to Epigenetic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wm Kevin; Marks, Paul; Richon, Victoria M

    2015-05-15

    The study by Kelly and colleagues, published in the September 1, 2003, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, established the safety and biologic activity of the first-in-class histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, which was administered intravenously. Subsequent studies led to the development of oral vorinostat and the regulatory approval of vorinostat for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, which opened the door for the next generation of inhibitors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Ballestas, Mary E; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ajantha; Ghneim, Khader; Ahlers, Jeffrey; Cameron, Mark J.; Smith, Miranda Z.; Spelman, Tim; McMahon, James; Velayudham, Pushparaj; Brown, Gregor; Roney, Janine; Watson, Jo; Prince, Miles H.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Chomont, Nicolas; Fromentin, Rémi; Procopio, Francesco A.; Zeidan, Joumana; Palmer, Sarah; Odevall, Lina; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Martin, Ben P.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Deeks, Steven G.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Cameron, Paul U.; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365065 PMID:25393648

  10. Activation of HIV transcription with short-course vorinostat in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian H Elliott

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065. Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90% with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1. CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365065.

  11. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of vorinostat in a murine model of polycythemia vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akada, Hajime; Akada, Saeko; Gajra, Ajeet; Bair, Alicia; Graziano, Stephen; Hutchison, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in most patients with Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms has led to the development of JAK2 kinase inhibitors. However, JAK2 inhibitor therapy has shown limited efficacy and dose-limiting hematopoietic toxicities in clinical trials. In the present study, we describe the effects of vorinostat, a small-molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase, against cells expressing JAK2V617F and in an animal model of polycythemia vera (PV). We found that vorinostat markedly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in cells expressing JAK2V617F. In addition, vorinostat significantly inhibited JAK2V617F-expressing mouse and human PV hematopoietic progenitors. Biochemical analyses revealed significant inhibition of phosphorylation of JAK2, Stat5, Stat3, Akt, and Erk1/2 in vorinostat-treated, JAK2V617F-expressing human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Expression of JAK2V617F and several other genes, including GATA1, KLF1, FOG1, SCL, C/EPBα, PU.1, and NF-E2, was significantly down-regulated, whereas the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was up-regulated by vorinostat treatment. More importantly, we observed that vorinostat treatment normalized the peripheral blood counts and markedly reduced splenomegaly in Jak2V617F knock-in mice compared with placebo treatment. Vorinostat treatment also decreased the mutant allele burden in mice. Our results suggest that vorinostat may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PV and other JAK2V617F-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:22408262

  13. A phase I-II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat plus sequential weekly paclitaxel and doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yifan; Hershman, Dawn L; Bhalla, Kapil; Fiskus, Warren; Pellegrino, Christine M; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Makower, Della; Kalinsky, Kevin; Fehn, Karen; Fineberg, Susan; Negassa, Abdissa; Montgomery, Leslie L; Wiechmann, Lisa S; Alpaugh, R Katherine; Huang, Min; Sparano, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that regulate chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Vorinostat is a panHDAC inhibitor that sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxanes and trastuzumab by suppressing HDAC6 and Hsp90 client proteins. Fifty-five patients with clinical stage IIA-IIIC breast cancer received 12 weekly doses of paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) plus vorinostat (200-300 mg PO BID) on days 1-3 of each paclitaxel dose plus trastuzumab (for Her2/neu positive disease only), followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (60/600 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks plus pegfilgrastim). The primary study endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). pCR occurred in 13 of 24 evaluable patients with Her2-positive disease (54, 95 % confidence intervals [CI] 35-72 %), which met the prespecified study endpoint. pCR occurred in 4 of 15 patients with triple negative disease (27, 95 % CI 11-52 %) and none of 12 patients with ER-positive, Her2/neu negative disease (0, 95 % CI 0-24 %), which did not meet the prespecified endpoint. ER-positive tumors exhibited lower Ki67 and higher Hsp70 expression, and HDAC6, Hsp70, p21, and p27 expression were not predictive of response. Vorinostat increased acetylation of Hsp90 and alpha tubulin, and reduced expression of Hsp90 client proteins and HDAC6 in the primary tumor. Combination of vorinostat with weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide is associated with a high pCR rate in locally advanced Her2/neu positive breast cancer. Consistent with cell line and xenograft data, vorinostat increased acetylation of Hsp90 and alpha tubulin, and decreased Hsp90 client protein and HDAC6 expression in human breast cancers in vivo.

  14. The Mechanism of Action of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat Involves Interaction with the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfstein, Rive; Bruchim, Ilan; Fishman, Ami; Werner, Haim

    2011-01-01

    A correlation between components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and endometrial cancer risk has been shown in recent studies. The antitumor action of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, involves changes in the expression of specific genes via acetylation of histones and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to establish whether vorinostat can modify the expression of specific genes related to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling pathway and revert the transformed phenotype. Human endometrioid (Type I, Ishikawa) and uterine serous papillary (Type II, USPC-2) endometrial cancer cell lines were treated with vorinostat in the presence or absence of IGF-I. Vorinostat increased IGF-IR phosphorylation, produced acetylation of histone H3, up-regulated pTEN and p21 expression, and reduced p53 and cyclin D1 levels in Ishikawa cells. Vorinostat up-regulated IGF-IR and p21 expression, produced acetylation of histone H3, and down-regulated the expression of total AKT, pTEN and cyclin D1 in USPC-2 cells. Of interest, IGF-IR activation was associated with a major elevation in IGF-IR promoter activity. In addition, vorinostat treatment induced apoptosis in both cell lines and abolished the anti-apoptotic activity of IGF-I both in the absence or presence of a humanized monoclonal IGF-IR antibody, MK-0646. Finally, vorinostat treatment led to a significant decrease in proliferation and colony forming capability in both cell lines. In summary, our studies demonstrate that vorinostat exhibits a potent apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect in both Type I and II endometrial cancer cells, thus suggesting that endometrial cancer may be therapeutically targeted by vorinostat. PMID:21931726

  15. The mechanism of action of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat involves interaction with the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rive Sarfstein

    Full Text Available A correlation between components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system and endometrial cancer risk has been shown in recent studies. The antitumor action of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, involves changes in the expression of specific genes via acetylation of histones and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to establish whether vorinostat can modify the expression of specific genes related to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathway and revert the transformed phenotype. Human endometrioid (Type I, Ishikawa and uterine serous papillary (Type II, USPC-2 endometrial cancer cell lines were treated with vorinostat in the presence or absence of IGF-I. Vorinostat increased IGF-IR phosphorylation, produced acetylation of histone H3, up-regulated pTEN and p21 expression, and reduced p53 and cyclin D1 levels in Ishikawa cells. Vorinostat up-regulated IGF-IR and p21 expression, produced acetylation of histone H3, and down-regulated the expression of total AKT, pTEN and cyclin D1 in USPC-2 cells. Of interest, IGF-IR activation was associated with a major elevation in IGF-IR promoter activity. In addition, vorinostat treatment induced apoptosis in both cell lines and abolished the anti-apoptotic activity of IGF-I both in the absence or presence of a humanized monoclonal IGF-IR antibody, MK-0646. Finally, vorinostat treatment led to a significant decrease in proliferation and colony forming capability in both cell lines. In summary, our studies demonstrate that vorinostat exhibits a potent apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect in both Type I and II endometrial cancer cells, thus suggesting that endometrial cancer may be therapeutically targeted by vorinostat.

  16. Genistein cooperates with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat to induce cell death in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Cornel J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among American men, prostate cancer is the most common, non-cutaneous malignancy that accounted for an estimated 241,000 new cases and 34,000 deaths in 2011. Previous studies have suggested that Wnt pathway inhibitory genes are silenced by CpG hypermethylation, and other studies have suggested that genistein can demethylate hypermethylated DNA. Genistein is a soy isoflavone with diverse effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and gene expression that suggest it could be a potential therapeutic agent for prostate cancer. We undertook the present study to investigate the effects of genistein on the epigenome of prostate cancer cells and to discover novel combination approaches of other compounds with genistein that might be of translational utility. Here, we have investigated the effects of genistein on several prostate cancer cell lines, including the ARCaP-E/ARCaP-M model of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, to analyze effects on their epigenetic state. In addition, we investigated the effects of combined treatment of genistein with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat on survival in prostate cancer cells. Methods Using whole genome expression profiling and whole genome methylation profiling, we have determined the genome-wide differences in genetic and epigenetic responses to genistein in prostate cancer cells before and after undergoing the EMT. Also, cells were treated with genistein, vorinostat, and combination treatment, where cell death and cell proliferation was determined. Results Contrary to earlier reports, genistein did not have an effect on CpG methylation at 20 μM, but it did affect histone H3K9 acetylation and induced increased expression of histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1. In addition, genistein also had differential effects on survival and cooperated with the histone deacteylase inhibitor vorinostat to induce cell death and inhibit proliferation. Conclusion Our results suggest that

  17. Vorinostat in solid and hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richon Victoria M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vorinostat (Zolinza®, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006 for the treatment of cutaneous manifestations in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who have progressive, persistent or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. This review summarizes evidence on the use of vorinostat in solid and hematologic malignancies and collated tolerability data from the vorinostat clinical trial program. Pooled vorinostat clinical trial data from 498 patients with solid or hematologic malignancies show that vorinostat was well tolerated as monotherapy or combination therapy. The most commonly reported drug-related adverse events (AEs associated with monotherapy (n = 341 were fatigue (61.9%, nausea (55.7%, diarrhea (49.3%, anorexia (48.1%, and vomiting (32.8%, and Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs included fatigue (12.0%, thrombocytopenia (10.6%, dehydration (7.3%, and decreased platelet count (5.3%. The most common drug-related AEs observed with vorinostat in combination therapy (n = 157, most of whom received vorinostat 400 mg qd for 14 days were nausea (48.4%, diarrhea (40.8%, fatigue (34.4%, vomiting (31.2%, and anorexia (20.4%, with the majority of AEs being Grade 2 or less. In Phase I trials, combinations with vorinostat were generally well tolerated and preliminary evidence of anticancer activity as monotherapy or in combination with other systemic therapies has been observed across a range of malignancies. Ongoing and planned studies will further evaluate the potential of vorinostat in combination therapy, including combinations with radiation, in patients with diverse malignancy types, including non-small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndrome.

  18. Vorinostat synergizes with ridaforolimus and abrogates the ridaforolimus-induced activation of AKT in synovial sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherif S; Cranmer, Lee D

    2014-11-18

    Curative treatments for patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma (SS) do not exist, and such patients have a poor prognosis. We explored combinations of molecularly-targeted and cytotoxic agents to identify synergistic treatment combinations in SS cells. Two SS cell lines (HS-SY-II and SYO-I) were treated with single agents or combinations of molecularly targeted therapies (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat; mTOR inhibitor, ridaforolimus) and cytotoxic agents. After 72 hours, cell viability was measured using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Combination Indices (CI) were calculated to determine whether each combination was synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. Western Blot analysis assessed alterations in total and phospho-AKT protein levels in response to drug treatment. We determined the single-agent IC50 for ridaforolimus, vorinostat, doxorubicin, and melphalan in HS-SY-II and SYO-I. Synergism was apparent in cells co-treated with ridaforolimus and vorinostat: CI was 0.28 and 0.63 in HS-SY-II and SYO-I, respectively. Ridaforolimus/doxorubicin and ridaforolimus/melphalan exhibited synergism in both cell lines. An additive effect was observed with combination of vorinostat/doxorubicin in both cell lines. Vorinostat/melphalan was synergistic in HS-SY-II and additive in SYO-I. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ridaforolimus increased pAKT-ser473 levels; this effect was abrogated by vorinostat co-treatment. The combination of ridaforolimus and vorinostat demonstrates in vitro synergism in SS. Addition of vorinostat abrogated ridaforolimus-induced AKT activation. Since AKT activation is a possible mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors, adding vorinostat (or another HDAC inhibitor) may be a route to circumvent AKT-mediated resistance to mTOR inhibitors.

  19. Role of 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R; Siddiqui, Saad; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8-3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4-1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in αSMA mRNA by 31%-45% and protein

  20. Effect of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song; De Veirman, Kim; Evans, Holly; Santini, Gaia Cecilia; Vande Broek, Isabelle; Leleu, Xavier; De Becker, Ann; Van Camp, Ben; Croucher, Peter; Vanderkerken, Karin; Van Riet, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in a clinical phase III trial for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, has been reported to cause bone loss. The purpose of this study was to test whether, and to what extent, vorinostat influences the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were prepared from both normal donors and MM patients. The MSCs were cultured in an osteogenic differentiation induction medium to induce osteogenic differentiation, which was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red S staining and the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. Naïve mice were administered vorinostat (100 mg/kg, ip) every other day for 3 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, bone formation was assessed based on serum osteocalcin level and histomorphometric analysis. Vorinostat inhibited the viability of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner (the IC50 value was 15.57 μmol/L). The low concentration of vorinostat (1 μmol/L) did not significantly increase apoptosis in hMSCs, whereas pronounced apoptosis was observed following exposure to higher concentrations of vorinostat (10 and 50 μmol/L). In bone marrow-derived hMSCs from both normal donors and MM patients, vorinostat (1 μmol/L) significantly increased ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization. These effects were associated with upregulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor Runx2 and with the epigenetic alterations during normal hMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, the mice treated with vorinostat did not show any bone loss in response to the optimized treatment regimen. Vorinostat, known as a potent anti-myeloma drug, stimulates MSC osteogenesis in vitro. With the optimized treatment regimen, any decrease in bone formation was not observed in vivo.

  1. A genome scale RNAi screen identifies GLI1 as a novel gene regulating vorinostat sensitivity.

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    Falkenberg, K J; Newbold, A; Gould, C M; Luu, J; Trapani, J A; Matthews, G M; Simpson, K J; Johnstone, R W

    2016-07-01

    Vorinostat is an FDA-approved histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that has proven clinical success in some patients; however, it remains unclear why certain patients remain unresponsive to this agent and other HDACis. Constitutive STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) activation, overexpression of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and loss of HR23B have been identified as potential biomarkers of HDACi resistance; however, none have yet been used to aid the clinical utility of HDACi. Herein, we aimed to further elucidate vorinostat-resistance mechanisms through a functional genomics screen to identify novel genes that when knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) sensitized cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis. A synthetic lethal functional screen using a whole-genome protein-coding RNAi library was used to identify genes that when knocked down cooperated with vorinostat to induce tumor cell apoptosis in otherwise resistant cells. Through iterative screening, we identified 10 vorinostat-resistance candidate genes that sensitized specifically to vorinostat. One of these vorinostat-resistance genes was GLI1, an oncogene not previously known to regulate the activity of HDACi. Treatment of vorinostat-resistant cells with the GLI1 small-molecule inhibitor, GANT61, phenocopied the effect of GLI1 knockdown. The mechanism by which GLI1 loss of function sensitized tumor cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis is at least in part through interactions with vorinostat to alter gene expression in a manner that favored apoptosis. Upon GLI1 knockdown and vorinostat treatment, BCL2L1 expression was repressed and overexpression of BCL2L1 inhibited GLI1-knockdown-mediated vorinostat sensitization. Taken together, we present the identification and characterization of GLI1 as a new HDACi resistance gene, providing a strong rationale for development of GLI1 inhibitors for clinical use in combination with HDACi therapy.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Vorinostat In Vivo Reveals both Transient and Delayed HIV Transcriptional Activation and Minimal Killing of Latently Infected Cells.

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    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R; Elliott, Julian H; Perelson, Alan S

    2015-10-01

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recent clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Furthermore, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo.

  3. Vorinostat-induced autophagy switches from a death-promoting to a cytoprotective signal to drive acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré-Richer, D; Kinal, M; Ménasché, V; Nielsen, T H; Del Rincon, S; Pettersson, F; Miller, W H

    2013-02-07

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising activity against hematological malignancies in clinical trials and have led to the approval of vorinostat for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, de novo or acquired resistance to HDACi therapy is inevitable, and their molecular mechanisms are still unclear. To gain insight into HDACi resistance, we developed vorinostat-resistant clones from the hematological cell lines U937 and SUDHL6. Although cross-resistant to some but not all HDACi, the resistant cell lines exhibit dramatically increased sensitivity toward chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Consistent with this, resistant cells growing in vorinostat show increased autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy in vorinostat-resistant U937 cells by knockdown of Beclin-1 or Lamp-2 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2) restores sensitivity to vorinostat. Interestingly, autophagy is also activated in parental U937 cells by de novo treatment with vorinostat. However, in contrast to the resistant cells, inhibition of autophagy decreases sensitivity to vorinostat. These results indicate that autophagy can switch from a proapoptotic signal to a prosurvival function driving acquired resistance. Moreover, inducers of autophagy (such as mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors) synergize with vorinostat to induce cell death in parental cells, whereas the resistant cells remain insensitive. These data highlight the complexity of the design of combination strategies using modulators of autophagy and HDACi for the treatment of hematological malignancies.

  4. A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Attenuates Chemoresistance in Biliary Tract Cancer.

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    Takuya Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is involved in the characteristics of malignancy, such as invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. In biliary tract cancer (BTC, EMT is induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1. The EMT is reversible; therefore, it is conceivable that it could be related to some epigenetic changes. We focused on histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors as regulators of TGF-β1 signaling, and investigated their effect on EMT and chemoresistance. We employed four BTC cell lines (MzChA-1, gemcitabine-resistant MzChA-1, TFK-1, and gemcitabine-resistant TFK-1 and used vorinostat as the HDAC inhibitor. The relative mRNA expression of an epithelial marker (CDH1 and mesenchymal markers (CDH2, vimentin, SNAI1 were measured by qRT-PCR to evaluate factors associated with EMT. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to evaluate the chemoresistance of each cell line. In addition, NOD/SCID mice were used to evaluate the effect of vorinostat in vivo. In the parent MzChA-1 and TFK-1 cell lines, TGF-β1 induced EMT and chemoresistance; while vorinostat inhibited the EMT and chemoresistance induced by TGF-β1. In gemcitabine-resistant cell lines that highly expressed TGF-β1, vorinostat inhibited EMT and attenuated chemoresistance. We showed that vorinostat inhibits nuclear translocation of SMAD4 which is a signaling factor of TGF-β1, and this is one of the mechanisms by which vorinostat regulates EMT. We also showed that vorinostat attenuates the binding affinity of SMAD4 to the CDH1-related transcription factors SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, and TWIST. Furthermore, combination therapy with vorinostat and gemcitabine improved survival time in the mice xenografted with gemcitabine resistant MzChA-1 cells. In conclusion, vorinostat regulated TGF-β1-induced EMT and chemoresistance through inhibition of SMAD4 nuclear translocation.

  5. Role of 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R.; Siddiqui, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Methods Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Results Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8–3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4–1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in

  6. Gene expression signature analysis identifies vorinostat as a candidate therapy for gastric cancer.

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    Sofie Claerhout

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.

  7. Genome-wide functional genomic and transcriptomic analyses for genes regulating sensitivity to vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Katrina J; Gould, Cathryn M; Johnstone, Ricky W; Simpson, Kaylene J

    2014-01-01

    Identification of mechanisms of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as vorinostat, is important in order to utilise these anticancer compounds more efficiently in the clinic. Here, we present a dataset containing multiple tiers of stringent siRNA screening for genes that when knocked down conferred sensitivity to vorinostat-induced cell death. We also present data from a miRNA overexpression screen for miRNAs contributing to vorinostat sensitivity. Furthermore, we provide transcriptomic analysis using massively parallel sequencing upon knockdown of 14 validated vorinostat-resistance genes. These datasets are suitable for analysis of genes and miRNAs involved in cell death in the presence and absence of vorinostat as well as computational biology approaches to identify gene regulatory networks.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of the Proteome Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (HDACi) Vorinostat in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kanagaraj; Rauniyar, Navin; Lavalleé-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R; Balch, William E

    2017-11-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder principally caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC disease is characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (Ly) (LE/Ly). Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), restores cholesterol homeostasis in fibroblasts derived from NPC patients; however, the exact mechanism by which Vorinostat restores cholesterol level is not known yet. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic profiling of the response of NPC1 I1061T fibroblasts to Vorinostat. After stringent statistical criteria to filter identified proteins, we observed 202 proteins that are differentially expressed in Vorinostat-treated fibroblasts. These proteins are members of diverse cellular pathways including the endomembrane dependent protein folding-stability-degradation-trafficking axis, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Our study shows that treatment of NPC1 I1061T fibroblasts with Vorinostat not only enhances pathways promoting the folding, stabilization and trafficking of NPC1 (I1061T) mutant to the LE/Ly, but alters the expression of lysosomal proteins, specifically the lysosomal acid lipase (LIPA) involved in the LIPA->NPC2->NPC1 based flow of cholesterol from the LE/Ly lumen to the LE/Ly membrane. We posit that the Vorinostat may modulate numerous pathways that operate in an integrated fashion through epigenetic and post-translational modifications reflecting acetylation/deacetylation balance to help manage the defective NPC1 fold, the function of the LE/Ly system and/or additional cholesterol metabolism/distribution pathways, that could globally contribute to improved mitigation of NPC1 disease in the clinic based on as yet uncharacterized principles of cellular metabolism dictating cholesterol homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Vorinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorinostat is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a type of cancer) in people whose ... or has come back after taking other medications. Vorinostat is in a class of medications called histone ...

  10. Vorinostat eliminates multicellular resistance of mesothelioma 3D spheroids via restoration of Noxa expression.

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    Dario Barbone

    Full Text Available When grown in 3D cultures as spheroids, mesothelioma cells acquire a multicellular resistance to apoptosis that resembles that of solid tumors. We have previously found that resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in 3D can be explained by a lack of upregulation of Noxa, the pro-apoptotic BH3 sensitizer that acts via displacement of the Bak/Bax-activator BH3-only protein, Bim. We hypothesized that the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat might reverse this block to Noxa upregulation in 3D. Indeed, we found that vorinostat effectively restored upregulation of Noxa protein and message and abolished multicellular resistance to bortezomib in the 3D spheroids. The ability of vorinostat to reverse resistance was ablated by knockdown of Noxa or Bim, confirming the essential role of the Noxa/Bim axis in the response to vorinostat. Addition of vorinostat similarly increased the apoptotic response to bortezomib in another 3D model, the tumor fragment spheroid, which is grown from human mesothelioma ex vivo. In addition to its benefit when used with bortezomib, vorinostat also enhanced the response to cisplatin plus pemetrexed, as shown in both 3D models. Our results using clinically relevant 3D models show that the manipulation of the core apoptotic repertoire may improve the chemosensitivity of mesothelioma. Whereas neither vorinostat nor bortezomib alone has been clinically effective in mesothelioma, vorinostat may undermine chemoresistance to bortezomib and to other therapies thereby providing a rationale for combinatorial strategies.

  11. Vorinostat Eliminates Multicellular Resistance of Mesothelioma 3D Spheroids via Restoration of Noxa Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbone, Dario; Cheung, Priscilla; Battula, Sailaja; Busacca, Sara; Gray, Steven G.; Longley, Daniel B.; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David J.; Fennell, Dean A.; Broaddus, V. Courtney

    2012-01-01

    When grown in 3D cultures as spheroids, mesothelioma cells acquire a multicellular resistance to apoptosis that resembles that of solid tumors. We have previously found that resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in 3D can be explained by a lack of upregulation of Noxa, the pro-apoptotic BH3 sensitizer that acts via displacement of the Bak/Bax-activator BH3-only protein, Bim. We hypothesized that the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat might reverse this block to Noxa upregulation in 3D. Indeed, we found that vorinostat effectively restored upregulation of Noxa protein and message and abolished multicellular resistance to bortezomib in the 3D spheroids. The ability of vorinostat to reverse resistance was ablated by knockdown of Noxa or Bim, confirming the essential role of the Noxa/Bim axis in the response to vorinostat. Addition of vorinostat similarly increased the apoptotic response to bortezomib in another 3D model, the tumor fragment spheroid, which is grown from human mesothelioma ex vivo. In addition to its benefit when used with bortezomib, vorinostat also enhanced the response to cisplatin plus pemetrexed, as shown in both 3D models. Our results using clinically relevant 3D models show that the manipulation of the core apoptotic repertoire may improve the chemosensitivity of mesothelioma. Whereas neither vorinostat nor bortezomib alone has been clinically effective in mesothelioma, vorinostat may undermine chemoresistance to bortezomib and to other therapies thereby providing a rationale for combinatorial strategies. PMID:23300762

  12. Vorinostat enhances the anticancer effect of oxaliplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

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    Liao, Bo; Zhang, Yingying; Sun, Quan; Jiang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Oxaliplatin-based systemic chemotherapy has been proposed to have efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the combination of vorinostat and oxaliplatin for possible synergism in HCC cells. SMMC7721, BEL7402, and HepG2 cells were treated with vorinostat and oxaliplatin. Cytotoxicity assay, tumorigenicity assay in vitro, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis analysis, western blot analysis, animal model study, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR were performed. We found that vorinostat and oxaliplatin inhibited the proliferation of SMMC7721, BEL7402, and HepG2 cells. The combination index (CI) values were all vorinostat and oxaliplatin induced G2/M phase arrest, triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis, and decreased tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo. Vorinostat suppressed the expression of BRCA1 induced by oxaliplatin. In conclusion, cotreatment with vorinostat and oxaliplatin exhibited synergism in HCC cells. The combination inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our results predict that a combination of vorinostat and oxaliplatin may be useful in the treatment of advanced HCC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gene Expression Signature Analysis Identifies Vorinostat as a Candidate Therapy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, KyoungHyun; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mills, Gordon B.; Cho, Jae Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer–specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern. Conclusions/Significance We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment. PMID:21931799

  14. Phase 1 clinical trial of the novel proteasome inhibitor marizomib with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with melanoma, pancreatic and lung cancer based on in vitro assessments of the combination.

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    Millward, Michael; Price, Timothy; Townsend, Amanda; Sweeney, Christopher; Spencer, Andrew; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Longenecker, Angie; Lee, Lonnie; Lay, Ana; Sharma, Girish; Gemmill, Robert M; Drabkin, Harry A; Lloyd, G Kenneth; Neuteboom, Saskia T C; McConkey, David J; Palladino, Michael A; Spear, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    Combining proteasome and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been seen to provide synergistic anti-tumor activity, with complementary effects on a number of signaling pathways. The novel bi-cyclic structure of marizomib with its unique proteasome inhibition, toxicology and efficacy profiles, suggested utility in combining it with an HDAC inhibitor such as vorinostat. Thus, in this study in vitro studies assessed the potential utility of combining marizomib and vorinostat, followed by a clinical trial with the objectives of assessing the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and preliminary anti-tumor activity of the combination in patients. Combinations of marizomib and vorinostat were assessed in vitro. Subsequently, in a Phase 1 clinical trial patients with melanoma, pancreatic carcinoma or Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) were given escalating doses of weekly marizomib in combination with vorinostat 300 mg daily for 16 days in 28 day cycles. In addition to standard safety studies, proteasome inhibition and pharmacokinetics were assayed. Marked synergy of marizomib and vorinostat was seen in tumor cell lines derived from patients with NSCLC, melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma. In the clinical trial, 22 patients were enrolled. Increased toxicity was not seen with the combination. Co-administration did not appear to affect the PK or PD of either drug in comparison to historical data. Although no responses were demonstrated using RECIST criteria, 61% of evaluable patients demonstrated stable disease with 39% having decreases in tumor measurements. Treatment of multiple tumor cell lines with marizomib and vorinostat resulted in a highly synergistic antitumor activity. The combination of full dose marizomib with vorinostat is tolerable in patients with safety findings consistent with either drug alone.

  15. Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response Contributes toward the Antitumor Activity of Vorinostat

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    Soumen Kahali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors represent an emerging class of anticancer agents progressing through clinical trials. Although their primary target is thought to involve acetylation of core histones, several nonhistone substrates have been identified, including heat shock protein (HSP 90, which may contribute towards their antitumor activity. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 is a member of the HSP family of molecular chaperones and plays a central role in regulating the unfolded protein response (UPR. Emerging data suggest that GRP78 is critical in cellular adaptation and survival associated with oncogenesis and may serve as a cancer-specific therapeutic target. On the basis of shared homology with HSP family proteins, we sought to determine whether GRP78 could serve as a molecular target of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat. Vorinostat treatment led to GRP78 acetylation, dissociation, and subsequent activation of its client protein double-stranded RNA-activated protein-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK. Investigations in a panel of cancer cell lines identified that UPR activation after vorinostat exposure is specific to certain lines. Mass spectrometry performed on immunoprecipitated GRP78 identified lysine-585 as a specific vorinostat-induced acetylation site of GRP78. Downstream activation of the UPR was confirmed, including eukaryotic initiating factor 2α phosphorylation and increase in ATF4 and C/EBP homologous protein expression. To determine the biologic relevance of UPR activation after vorinostat, RNA interference of PERK was performed, demonstrating significantly decreased sensitivity to vorinostat-induced cytotoxicity. Collectively, these findings indicate that GRP78 is a biologic target of vorinostat, and activation of the UPR through PERK phosphorylation contributes toward its antitumor activity.

  16. Vorinostat enhances the cisplatin-mediated anticancer effects in small cell lung cancer cells.

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    Pan, Chun-Hao; Chang, Ying-Fang; Lee, Ming-Shuo; Wen, B-Chen; Ko, Jen-Chung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Liang, Mei-Chih

    2016-11-07

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is a promising agent for cancer therapy. Combining vorinostat with cisplatin may relax the chromatin structure and facilitate the accessibility of cisplatin, thus enhancing its cytotoxicity. Studies have not yet investigated the effects of the combination of vorinostat and cisplatin on small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We first assessed the efficacy of vorinostat with etoposide/cisplatin (EP; triple combination) and then investigated the effects of cotreatment with vorinostat and cisplatin on H209 and H146 SCLC cell lines. The anticancer effects of various combinations were determined in terms of cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and vorinostat-regulated proteins. We also evaluated the efficacy of vorinostat/cisplatin combination in H209 xenograft nude mice. Our data revealed that the triple combination engendered a significant reduction of cell viability and high apoptotic cell death. In addition, vorinostat combined with cisplatin enhanced cell growth inhibition, induced apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest. We observed that the acetylation levels of histone H3 and α-tubulin were higher in combination treatments than in vorinostat treatment alone. Moreover, vorinostat reduced the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), and TS remained inhibited after cotreament with cisplatin. Furthermore, an in vivo study revealed that the combination of vorinostat and cisplatin significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft nude mice (tumor growth inhibition T/C% = 20.5 %). Combined treatments with vorinostat promote the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and induce the expression of vorinostat-regulated acetyl proteins, eventually enhancing antitumor effects in SCLC cell lines. Triple combinations with a low dosage of cisplatin demonstrate similar therapeutic effects. Such triple combinations, if applied clinically, may reduce the undesired adverse effects of cisplatin. The effects of the combination of

  17. Vorinostat induces reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

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    Luca A Petruccelli

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are promising anti-cancer agents, however, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells, HDACi have been reported to arrest growth and induce apoptosis. In this study, we elucidate details of the DNA damage induced by the HDACi vorinostat in AML cells. At clinically relevant concentrations, vorinostat induces double-strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in AML cell lines. Additionally, AML patient blasts treated with vorinostat display increased DNA damage, followed by an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and a reduction in cell viability. Vorinostat-induced DNA damage is followed by a G2-M arrest and eventually apoptosis. We found that pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC reduces vorinostat-induced DNA double strand breaks, G2-M arrest and apoptosis. These data implicate DNA damage as an important mechanism in vorinostat-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in both AML cell lines and patient-derived blasts. This supports the continued study and development of vorinostat in AMLs that may be sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and as a combination therapy with ionizing radiation and/or other DNA damaging agents.

  18. Vorinostat Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

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    Pettersson, Filippa; Retrouvey, Hélène; Skoulikas, Sophia; Miller, Wilson H.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising anti-cancer agents, however, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, HDACi have been reported to arrest growth and induce apoptosis. In this study, we elucidate details of the DNA damage induced by the HDACi vorinostat in AML cells. At clinically relevant concentrations, vorinostat induces double-strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in AML cell lines. Additionally, AML patient blasts treated with vorinostat display increased DNA damage, followed by an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and a reduction in cell viability. Vorinostat-induced DNA damage is followed by a G2-M arrest and eventually apoptosis. We found that pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces vorinostat-induced DNA double strand breaks, G2-M arrest and apoptosis. These data implicate DNA damage as an important mechanism in vorinostat-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in both AML cell lines and patient-derived blasts. This supports the continued study and development of vorinostat in AMLs that may be sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and as a combination therapy with ionizing radiation and/or other DNA damaging agents. PMID:21695163

  19. Combination of Vorinostat and caspase‐8 inhibition exhibits high anti‐tumoral activity on endometrial cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà, Laura; Sorolla, Annabel; Yeramian, Andree; Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as Vorinostat display anti‐neoplastic activity against a variety of solid tumors. Here, we have investigated the anti‐tumoral activity of Vorinostat on endometrial cancer cells. We have found that Vorinostat caused cell growth arrest, loss of clonogenic growth and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Vorinostat‐induced the activation of caspase‐8 and ‐9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. Next, we ...

  20. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of histone deacetylase-inhibitor, vorinostat, on antitumour activity of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Expression of thymidine phosphorlase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was measured by real-time PCR and western ...

  1. Vorinostat approved in Japan for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori SatoDepartment of Urology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, JapanAbstract: Histone acetylation and deacetylation play important roles in the regulation of gene transcription and in the modulation of chromatin structure. The levels of histone acetylation are determined by the activities of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. HDACs are associated with a number of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and can be aberrantly expressed and/or inappropriately activated in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have therefore recently emerged as a novel treatment modality against malignancies. They regulate gene expression by enhancing the acetylation of not only histones but also nonhistone proteins, including transcription factors, transcription regulators, signal transduction mediators, and DNA repair enzymes, and they inhibit cancer growth. Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is one of the most potent HDAC inhibitors, and was approved in Japan in 2011 for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Numerous clinical trials have shown it to be effective against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma but less so against other types of cancer. Because vorinostat can overcome resistance to or enhance the efficacy of other anticancer agents, such as 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, paclitaxel, bortezomib, and tamoxifen, combination therapies using vorinostat and these agents have been investigated. This review introduces the background and mechanism of action of vorinostat and describes the results of clinical trials using vorinostat, both as a single agent and in combination with other anticancer agents, against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and other malignancies.Keywords: vorinostat, T-cell lymphoma, cancer, novel treatment

  2. Synergistic activity of vorinostat combined with gefitinib but not with sorafenib in mutant KRAS human non-small cell lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, Victor; Busser, Benoit; Vanwonterghem, Laetitia; Michallet, Sophie; Ferroudj, Sana; Cokol, Murat; Coll, Jean-Luc; Ozturk, Mehmet; Hurbin, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    Development of drug resistance limits the efficacy of targeted therapies. Alternative approaches using different combinations of therapeutic agents to inhibit several pathways could be a more effective strategy for treating cancer. The effects of the approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib) or a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor (sorafenib) in combination with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and signaling pathway activation in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS were investigated. The effects of the synergistic drug combinations were also studied in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo. The combination of gefitinib and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell growth and strongly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/protein kinase B (IGF-1R/AKT)-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, the gefitinib and vorinostat combination strongly inhibited tumor growth in mice with lung adenocarcinoma or hepatocarcinoma tumor xenografts. In contrast, the combination of sorafenib and vorinostat did not inhibit cell proliferation compared to a single treatment and induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. The sorafenib and vorinostat combination sustained the IGF-1R-, AKT-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. These results showed that there was synergistic cytotoxicity when vorinostat was combined with gefitinib for both lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma with mutant KRAS in vitro and in vivo but that the combination of vorinostat with sorafenib did not show any benefit. These findings highlight the important role of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway in the resistance to targeted therapies and support the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, especially for

  3. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Antagonize Distinct Pathways to Suppress Tumorigenesis of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra Vleeshouwer-Neumann

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS is the most common soft tissue cancer in children. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or metastatic disease remains poor. ERMS genomes show few recurrent mutations, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic regulation might play a major role in driving ERMS tumor biology. In this study, we have demonstrated the diverse roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs in the pathogenesis of ERMS by characterizing effects of HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; also known as vorinostat in vitro and in vivo. TSA and SAHA suppress ERMS tumor growth and progression by inducing myogenic differentiation as well as reducing the self-renewal and migratory capacity of ERMS cells. Differential expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed downregulation of key oncogenic pathways upon HDAC inhibitor treatment. By gain-of-function, loss-of-function, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP studies, we show that Notch1- and EphrinB1-mediated pathways are regulated by HDACs to inhibit differentiation and enhance migratory capacity of ERMS cells, respectively. Our study demonstrates that aberrant HDAC activity plays a major role in ERMS pathogenesis. Druggable targets in the molecular pathways affected by HDAC inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for ERMS patients.

  4. Additive effects of vorinostat and MLN8237 in pediatric leukemia, medulloblastoma, and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscal, Jodi A; Scorsone, Kathleen A; Zhang, Linna; Ecsedy, Jeffrey A; Berg, Stacey L

    2013-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as vorinostat, decrease Aurora kinase activity by a variety of mechanisms. Vorinostat and MLN8237, a selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor, disrupt the spindle assembly and the mitotic checkpoint at different points, suggesting that the combination could have increased antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of vorinostat and MLN8237 in pediatric tumor cell lines. Cell survival was measured after 72 h of drug treatment using a modified methyl tetrazolium assay. For drug combination experiments, cells were exposed to medium alone (controls), single drug alone, or to different concentrations of the combination of the two drugs, for a total of 36 concentration pairs per plate. The interaction of the drug combination was analyzed using the universal response surface approach. The cells express the target of MLN8237, Aurora A. For each cell line, the single agent IC(50) for MLN8237 and for vorinostat was in the clinically relevant range. Both drugs inhibited cell survival in a concentration-dependent fashion. At concentrations of MLN8237 exceeding approximately 1 μM, there was a paradoxical increase in viability signal in all three lines that may be explained by inhibition of Aurora B kinase. The combination of MLN8237 and vorinostat showed additive cytotoxicity in all three cell lines and nearly abrogated the paradoxical increase in survival noted at high single-agent MLN8237 concentrations. MLN8237 and vorinostat are active in vitro against cancer cell lines. These results provide important preclinical support for the development of future clinical studies of MLN8237and vorinostat.

  5. Vorinostat induces apoptosis and differentiation in myeloid malignancies: genetic and molecular mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant epigenetic patterns are central in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic diseases such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Vorinostat is a HDACi which has produced responses in these disorders. The purpose of this study was to address the functional effects of vorinostat in leukemic cell lines and primary AML and MDS myeloid cells and to dissect the genetic and molecular mechanisms by which it exerts its action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Functional assays showed vorinostat promoted cell cycle arrest, inhibited growth, and induced apoptosis and differentiation of K562, HL60 and THP-1 and of CD33(+ cells from AML and MDS patients. To explore the genetic mechanism for these effects, we quantified gene expression modulation by vorinostat in these cells. Vorinostat increased expression of genes down-regulated in MDS and/or AML (cFOS, COX2, IER3, p15, RAI3 and suppressed expression of genes over-expressed in these malignancies (AXL, c-MYC, Cyclin D1 and modulated cell cycle and apoptosis genes in a manner which would favor cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of neoplastic cells, consistent with the functional assays. Reporter assays showed transcriptional effect of vorinostat on some of these genes was mediated by proximal promoter elements in GC-rich regions. Vorinostat-modulated expression of some genes was potentiated by mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with SP1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences, and siRNA-mediated SP1 reduction. ChIP assays revealed vorinostat inhibited DNA binding of SP1 to the proximal promoter regions of these genes. These results suggest vorinostat transcriptional action in some genes is regulated by proximal promoter GC-rich DNA sequences and by SP1. CONCLUSION: This study sheds light on the effects of vorinostat in AML and MDS and supports the implementation of clinical trials to explore the use of vorinostat in the treatment of these diseases.

  6. Vorinostat induces apoptosis and differentiation in myeloid malignancies: genetic and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela; Cardoso, Bruno A; Belo, Hélio; Almeida, António Medina

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic patterns are central in the pathogenesis of haematopoietic diseases such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Vorinostat is a HDACi which has produced responses in these disorders. The purpose of this study was to address the functional effects of vorinostat in leukemic cell lines and primary AML and MDS myeloid cells and to dissect the genetic and molecular mechanisms by which it exerts its action. Functional assays showed vorinostat promoted cell cycle arrest, inhibited growth, and induced apoptosis and differentiation of K562, HL60 and THP-1 and of CD33(+) cells from AML and MDS patients. To explore the genetic mechanism for these effects, we quantified gene expression modulation by vorinostat in these cells. Vorinostat increased expression of genes down-regulated in MDS and/or AML (cFOS, COX2, IER3, p15, RAI3) and suppressed expression of genes over-expressed in these malignancies (AXL, c-MYC, Cyclin D1) and modulated cell cycle and apoptosis genes in a manner which would favor cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of neoplastic cells, consistent with the functional assays. Reporter assays showed transcriptional effect of vorinostat on some of these genes was mediated by proximal promoter elements in GC-rich regions. Vorinostat-modulated expression of some genes was potentiated by mithramycin A, a compound that interferes with SP1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences, and siRNA-mediated SP1 reduction. ChIP assays revealed vorinostat inhibited DNA binding of SP1 to the proximal promoter regions of these genes. These results suggest vorinostat transcriptional action in some genes is regulated by proximal promoter GC-rich DNA sequences and by SP1. This study sheds light on the effects of vorinostat in AML and MDS and supports the implementation of clinical trials to explore the use of vorinostat in the treatment of these diseases.

  7. The Existing Drug Vorinostat as a New Lead Against Cryptosporidiosis by Targeting the Parasite Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; McNair, Nina N; Mead, Jan R; Zhu, Guan

    2018-03-13

    Cryptosporidiosis affects all human populations, but can be much more severe or life-threatening in children and individuals with weak or weakened immune systems. However, current options to treat cryptosporidiosis are limited. An in vitro phenotypic screening assay was employed to screen 1200 existing drugs for their anticryptosporidial activity and to determine the inhibitory kinetics of top hits. Selected top hits were further evaluated in mice. The action of the lead compound vorinostat on the parasite histone deacetylase (HDAC) was biochemically validated. Fifteen compounds exhibited anticryptosporidial activity at nanomolar level in vitro. Among them, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat retained outstanding efficacy in vitro (half maximal effective concentration, EC50 = 203 nM) and in an interleukin 12 knockout mouse model (50% inhibition dose = 7.5 mg/kg). Vorinostat was effective on various parasite developmental stages and could irreversibly kill the parasite. Vorinostat was highly effective against the parasite native HDAC enzymes (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 90.0 nM) and a recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum HDAC (the inhibitor constant, Ki = 123.0 nM). These findings suggest the potential for repurposing of vorinostat to treat cryptosporidiosis, and imply that the parasite HDAC can be explored for developing more selective anticryptosporidial therapeutics.

  8. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T; Senanayake, Dinindu S; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J; Ory, Daniel S; Maue, Robert A; Chen, Fannie W; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ioannou, Yiannis A; Sturley, Stephen L

    2017-03-17

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1 nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null ( Npc1 -/- ) and missense ( Npc1 nmf164 ) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T.; Senanayake, Dinindu S.; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J.; Ory, Daniel S.; Maue, Robert A.; Chen, Fannie W.; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Ioannou, Yiannis A.; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null (Npc1−/−) and missense (Npc1nmf164) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. PMID:28031458

  10. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Lee M.; Kindler, Hedy L.; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S.; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E. E.; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M.; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Lubiniecki, Gregory M.; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat

  11. Intracellular vorinostat accumulation and its relationship to histone deacetylase activity in soft tissue sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenne, Jürgen; Liu, Lu; Heilig, Christoph E; Meid, Andreas D; Leisen, Margarete; Schmitt, Thomas; Kasper, Bernd; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2017-08-01

    In the regulation of chromatin-structure and histone function, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key enzymes and thus modulators of epigenetic regulation and gene expression. Accesses of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat to intracellular compartments are essential to exert epigenetic effects. In ten sarcoma patients receiving oral Zolinza (400 mg qd) vorinostat concentrations in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were quantified using validated LC/MS/MS assays to determine intracellular and extracellular pharmacokinetic data. Cellular HDAC activity was evaluated using a fluorogenic assay. Concentration-response relationships were established between intracellular and extracellular vorinostat concentrations and HDAC inhibition in PBMCs. Pharmacokinetics of vorinostat and its two main inactive metabolites were determined over 8 h in plasma and PBMCs. Steady state AUCs (±SD) and T 1/2 (±SD) were calculated to 4.61 ± 0.87 h µM and 1.73 ± 0.69 h (plasma) and 15.2 ± 9.03 h µM and 5.30 ± 4.27 h (PBMCs). Intracellular accumulation of vorinostat was determined together with prolonged vorinostat elimination in PBMCs. Cellular HDAC inhibition increased parallel with vorinostat concentrations in plasma and PBMCs. For effective inhibition of cellular HDACs (IC 50 ) vorinostat concentrations of 0.05 µM in plasma and 0.17 µM in PBMCs were necessary. HDAC inhibition closely followed intracellular vorinostat concentrations and was short-lasting, which may contribute to the limited efficacy seen with vorinostat in solid tumors so far.

  12. Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Vorinostat and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against HuCC-T1 Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of vorinostat and epigallocatechin-3-gallate against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. A novel chemotherapy strategy is required as cholangiocarcinomas rarely respond to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Both vorinostat and EGCG induce apoptosis and suppress invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. The combination of vorinostat and EGCG showed synergistic growth inhibitory effects and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. The Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 and -7 activity increased, but poly (ADP-ribose polymerase expression decreased when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Furthermore, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and migration of tumor cells decreased following treatment with the vorinostat and EGCG combination compared to those of vorinostat or EGCG alone. Tube length and junction number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs decreased as well as vascular endothelial growth factor expression following vorinostat and EGCG combined treatment. These results indicate that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG had a synergistic effect on inhibiting tumor cell angiogenesis potential. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG is a novel option for cholangiocarcinoma chemotherapy.

  13. Quantification of vorinostat and its main metabolites in plasma and intracellular vorinostat in PBMCs by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its relation to histone deacetylase activity in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Detering, Jan-Christoph; Milde, Till; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Witt, Olaf; Burhenne, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) is the first approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma after progressive disease following two systemic therapies. Intracellular access of vorinostat is essential to exert its epigenetic effects. Therefore, we studied the relationship between vorinostat extracellular (plasma) and intracellular (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) concentration and assessed its concentration-effect relationship by HDAC activity testing. Assays were developed and validated for the low nanomolar quantification of vorinostat and two inactive metabolites in human plasma and PBMCs. For the vorinostat extraction from plasma and PBMCs solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction methods were applied. Extraction recoveries ranged from 88.6% to 114.4% for all analytes and extraction methods. Extracts were chromatographed on a Phenomenex Luna column isocratically (plasma) or by gradient (PBMCs) consisting of acidic ammonium acetate, acetonitrile, and methanol. The analytes were quantified using deuterated internal standards and positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (multiple reaction monitoring) with lower limits of quantification of 11.0 ng/mL (plasma) and 0.1 ng/3 × 10(6) cells (PBMCs). The calibrated ranges were linear for vorinostat in plasma 11.0-1100 (11,000) ng/mL (metabolites) and PBMCs 0.1-10.0 ng/3 × 10(6) cells with correlation coefficients >0.99, an overall accuracy varying between -6.7% and +3.8% in plasma, -8.1% and -1.5% in PBMCs, and an overall precision ranging from 3.2% to 6.1% in plasma and 0.8% to 4.0% in PBMCs (SD batch-to-batch). The application to blood samples from healthy volunteers incubated with vorinostat revealed accumulation of vorinostat in PBMCs, effective intracellular HDAC inhibition at therapeutic vorinostat concentrations and a direct vorinostat concentration dependency to HDAC inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Biomarker modulation following short-term vorinostat in women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Vered; Jacobs, Lisa K; Fackler, Maryjo; Tsangaris, Theodore N; Rudek, Michelle A; Higgins, Michaela; Lange, Julie; Cheng, Zandra; Slater, Shannon A; Jeter, Stacie C; Powers, Penny; Briest, Susanne; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Sugar, Elizabeth; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Sukumar, Saraswati; Gabrielson, Edward; Davidson, Nancy E

    2013-07-15

    Agents that target the epigenome show activity in breast cancer models. In preclinical studies, the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat induces cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation. We evaluated biomarker modulation in breast cancer tissues obtained from women with newly diagnosed invasive disease who received vorinostat and those who did not. Tumor specimens were collected from 25 women who received up to 6 doses of oral vorinostat 300 mg twice daily and from 25 untreated controls in a nonrandomized study. Candidate gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay, and by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3. Matched samples from treated women were analyzed for gene methylation by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP). Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to compare changes in quantitative gene expression levels pre- and post-vorinostat with changes in expression in untreated controls, and changes in gene methylation between pre- and post-vorinostat samples. Vorinostat was well tolerated and there were no study-related delays in treatment. Compared with untreated controls, there were statistically significant decreases in the expression of proliferation-associated genes Ki-67 (P = 0.003), STK15 (P = 0.005), and Cyclin B1 (P = 0.03) following vorinostat, but not in other genes by the Oncotype DX assay, or in expression of Ki-67 or cleaved caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry. Changes in methylation were not observed. Short-term vorinostat administration is associated with a significant decrease in expression of proliferation-associated genes in untreated breast cancers. This demonstration of biologic activity supports investigation of vorinostat in combination with other agents for the management of breast cancer.

  15. Combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Sorolla, Annabel; Yeramian, Andree; Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as Vorinostat display anti-neoplastic activity against a variety of solid tumors. Here, we have investigated the anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat on endometrial cancer cells. We have found that Vorinostat caused cell growth arrest, loss of clonogenic growth and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Vorinostat-induced the activation of caspase-8 and -9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. Next, we investigated the role of the extrinsic pathway in apoptosis triggered by Vorinostat. We found that Vorinostat caused a dramatic decrease of FLIP mRNA and protein levels. However, overexpression of the long from of FLIP did not block Vorinostat-induced apoptosis. To further investigate the role of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in Vorinostat-induced apoptosis, we performed an shRNA-mediated knock-down of caspase-8. Surprisingly, downregulation of caspase-8 alone caused a marked decrease in clonogenic ability and reduced the growth of endometrial cancer xenografts in vivo, revealing that targeting caspase-8 may be an attractive target for anticancer therapy on endometrial tumors. Furthermore, combination of caspase-8 inhibition and Vorinostat treatment caused an enhancement of apoptotic cell death and a further decrease of clonogenic growth of endometrial cancer cells. More importantly, combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition caused a nearly complete inhibition of tumor xenograft growth. Finally, we demonstrate that cell death triggered by Vorinostat alone or in combination with caspase-8 shRNAs was inhibited by the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Our results suggest that combinatory therapies using Vorinostat treatment and caspase-8 inhibition can be an effective treatment for endometrial carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated analysis of the molecular action of Vorinostat identifies epi-sensitised targets for combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jodie F; Lappin, Katrina; Liberante, Fabio; Kettyle, Laura M; Matchett, Kyle B; Thompson, Alexander; Mills, Ken I

    2017-09-15

    Several histone deacetylase inhibitors including Vorinostat have received FDA approval for the treatment of haematological malignancies. However, data from these trials indicate that Vorinostat has limited efficacy as a monotherapy, prompting the need for rational design of combination therapies. A number of epi-sensitised pathways, including sonic hedgehog (SHH), were identified in AML cells by integration of global patterns of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation with transcriptomic analysis following Vorinostat-treatment. Direct targeting of the SHH pathway with SANT-1, following Vorinostat induced epi-sensitisation, resulted in synergistic cell death of AML cells. In addition, xenograft studies demonstrated that combination therapy induced a marked reduction in leukemic burden compared to control or single agents. Together, the data supports epi-sensitisation as a potential component of the strategy for the rational development of combination therapies in AML.

  17. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, represses hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha expression through translational inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Hutt

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor--eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Vorinostat ameliorates impaired fear extinction possibly via the hippocampal NMDA-CaMKII pathway in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasutaka; Morinobu, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Takei, Shiro; Fujita, Yosuke; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2013-09-01

    Given that impairment of fear extinction plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), drugs that facilitate fear extinction may be useful as novel treatments for PTSD. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have recently been shown to enhance fear extinction in animal studies. Using a single prolonged stress (SPS) paradigm, an animal model of PTSD, we examined whether the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat can facilitate fear extinction in rats, and elucidated the mechanism by which vorinostat enhanced fear extinction, focusing on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signals in the hippocampus. Seven days after SPS, rats received contextual fear conditioning, followed by 2-day extinction training. Vorinostat was intraperitoneally injected immediately after second extinction training session. Contextual fear response was assessed 24 h after vorinostat injection. Hippocampal tissues were dissected 2 h after vorinostat injection. The levels of mRNA and protein tested were measured by RT-PCR or western blotting, respectively. Systemic administration of vorinostat with extinction training significantly enhanced fear extinction in SPS rats as compared with the controls. Furthermore, vorinostat enhanced the hippocampal levels of NR2B and calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) α and β proteins, accompanied by increases in the levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4. These findings suggest that vorinostat ameliorated the impaired fear extinction in SPS rats, and this effect was associated with an increase in histone acetylation and thereby enhancement of NR2B and CaMKII in the hippocampus. Our results may provide new insight into the molecular and therapeutic mechanisms of PTSD.

  19. DNA microarray profiling of genes differentially regulated by the histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and LBH589 in colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Heinz-Josef

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant progress made in colon cancer chemotherapy, advanced disease remains largely incurable and novel efficacious chemotherapies are urgently needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi represent a novel class of agents which have demonstrated promising preclinical activity and are undergoing clinical evaluation in colon cancer. The goal of this study was to identify genes in colon cancer cells that are differentially regulated by two clinically advanced hydroxamic acid HDACi, vorinostat and LBH589 to provide rationale for novel drug combination partners and identify a core set of HDACi-regulated genes. Methods HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with LBH589 or vorinostat and growth inhibition, acetylation status and apoptosis were analyzed in response to treatment using MTS, Western blotting and flow cytometric analyses. In addition, gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina Human-6 V2 BeadChip array and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis. Results Treatment with either vorinostat or LBH589 rapidly induced histone acetylation, cell cycle arrest and inhibited the growth of both HCT116 and HT29 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of the microarray profiling revealed significant similarity in the genes altered in expression following treatment with the two HDACi tested within each cell line. However, analysis of genes that were altered in expression in the HCT116 and HT29 cells revealed cell-line-specific responses to HDACi treatment. In addition a core cassette of 11 genes modulated by both vorinostat and LBH589 were identified in both colon cancer cell lines analyzed. Conclusion This study identified HDACi-induced alterations in critical genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell survival which may represent potential intervention points for novel therapeutic combinations in colon cancer. This information will assist in the identification of novel pathways and targets

  20. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways.

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    Valerie B Sampson

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST. Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS.

  1. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Valerie B; Vetter, Nancy S; Kamara, Davida F; Collier, Anderson B; Gresh, Renee C; Kolb, E Anders

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor) plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST). Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS.

  2. Vorinostat enhances protein stability of p27 and p21 through negative regulation of Skp2 and Cks1 in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Norihisa; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2012-07-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that blocks cancer cell proliferation through the regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. We, herein, examined the involvement of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1 (Cks1), the components of the SCFSkp2-Cks1 (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, in the regulation of p27 and p21 during vorinostat-induced growth arrest of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Vorinostat significantly reduced BrdU incorporation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, which was associated with increased p27 and p21 protein levels without concomitant induction of p27 mRNA. Vorinostat-induced accumulation of p27 and p21 proteins was inversely correlated with the mRNA and protein levels of Skp2 and Cks1. Cycloheximide chase analysis revealed that vorinostat increased the half-life of p27 and p21 proteins. The accumulation of p27 and p21 proteins was attenuated by forced expression of Skp2 and Cks1, which conferred resistance to the vorinostat-induced S-phase reduction. These results suggest that vorinostat-induced growth arrest may be in part due to the enhanced protein stability of p27 and p21 through the downregulation of Skp2 and Cks1.

  3. Final Results of a Phase 1 Study of Vorinostat, Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin, and Bortezomib in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Peter M; Gasparetto, Cristina; Moore, Dominic T; Winans, Diane; Orlowski, Robert Z; Hurd, David D

    2017-07-01

    Deacetylase inhibitors have synergistic activity in combination with proteasome inhibitors and anthracyclines in preclinical models of multiple myeloma (MM). We therefore evaluated the safety and efficacy of the deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and bortezomib in relapsed/refractory MM. Thirty-two patients were treated with PLD and bortezomib in combination with escalating doses of vorinostat on days 4 to 11 or 1 to 14. The maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat was 400 mg on days 4 to 11. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia attributable to protocol therapy were seen in 59% and 94% of patients, of which 37% and 47% were of grade 3 or higher severity, respectively. Constitutional and gastrointestinal adverse events of all grades were common, the majority of which were less than grade 3 in severity. The overall response rate (partial response rate or better) was 65% and the clinical benefit rate (minimal response rate or better) 74%. The overall response rate was 83%, 71%, and 45% for patients with bortezomib-naive, -sensitive, and -refractory MM, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 13.9 months and the 3-year overall survival 77%. Whole blood proteasome activity assays demonstrated a potential impact of vorinostat on the chymotryptic-like activity of the proteasome. Further evaluation of PLD, bortezomib, and deacetylase inhibitor combinations is warranted, with special attention directed toward strategies to improve tolerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic activity of vorinostat combined with gefitinib but not with sorafenib in mutant KRAS human non-small cell lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannot V

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Victor Jeannot,1,2 Benoit Busser,1–3 Laetitia Vanwonterghem,1,2 Sophie Michallet,1,2 Sana Ferroudj,1,2 Murat Cokol,4 Jean-Luc Coll,1,2 Mehmet Ozturk,1,2,5 Amandine Hurbin1,2 1INSERM U1209, Department Cancer Targets and Experimental Therapeutics, Grenoble, France; 2University Grenoble Alpes, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Grenoble, France; 3Department of Biochemistry, Toxicology and Pharmacology, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France; 4Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eyul University, Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, Izmir, Turkey Abstract: Development of drug resistance limits the efficacy of targeted therapies. Alternative approaches using different combinations of therapeutic agents to inhibit several pathways could be a more effective strategy for treating cancer. The effects of the approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib or a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor (sorafenib in combination with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and signaling pathway activation in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS were investigated. The effects of the synergistic drug combinations were also studied in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo. The combination of gefitinib and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell growth and strongly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/protein kinase B (IGF-1R/AKT-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, the gefitinib and vorinostat combination strongly inhibited tumor growth in mice with lung adenocarcinoma or hepatocarcinoma tumor xenografts. In contrast, the combination of sorafenib and vorinostat did not inhibit cell proliferation compared to a single treatment and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest without

  5. Vorinostat in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced malignancies directly alters transcription of target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Traynor, Anne M; Holen, Kyle D; Hoang, Tien; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alberti, Dona; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Wright, John J; Wilding, George; Bailey, Howard H; Schelman, William R

    2013-09-01

    Vorinostat is a small molecule inhibitor of class I and II histone deacetylase enzymes which alters the expression of target genes including the cell cycle gene p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Patients enrolled in a phase I trial were treated with vorinostat alone on day 1 and vorinostat and bortezomib in combination on day 9. Paired biopsies were obtained in eleven subjects. Blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 9 of cycle 1 prior to dosing and 2 and 6 h post-dosing in all 60 subjects. Gene expression of p21, HSP70, AKT, Nur77, ERB1, and ERB2 was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of p21, HSP70, and Nur77 was also performed in biopsy samples. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Nur77 was significantly and consistently decreased 2 h after vorinostat administration on both days 1 and 9, median ratio of gene expression relative to baseline of 0.69 with interquartile range 0.49-1.04 (p vorinostat and bortezomib. p21, a downstream target of Nur77, was significantly decreased on day 9, 2 and 6 h after administration of vorinostat and bortezomib, 0.67 (0.41-1.03) (p vorinostat in tissue biopsies in most patients. Vorinostat inhibits Nur77 expression, which in turn may decrease p21 and AKT expression in PBMCs. The influence of vorinostat on target gene expression in tumor tissue was variable; however, most patients demonstrated interaction of acetylated H3 with Nur77, HSP70, and p21 which provides evidence of interaction with the transcriptionally active acetylated H3.

  6. Vorinostat plus tacrolimus/methotrexate to prevent GVHD after myeloablative conditioning, unrelated donor HCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, S.W.; Braun, T.; Henig, I.; Gatza, E.; Magenau, J.; Parkin, B.; Pawarode, A.; Riwes, M.; Yanik, G.; Dinarello, C.A.; Reddy, P.

    2017-01-01

    The oral histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (vorinostat) is safe and results in low incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after reduced-intensity conditioning, related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, its safety and efficacy in preventing acute GVHD in

  7. Vorinostat?An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat is a new drug used in the management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma when the disease persists, gets worse or comes back during or after treatment with other medicines. It is an efficacious and well tolerated drug and has been considered a novel drug in the treatment of this condition. Currently apart from cutaneous T cell lymphoma the role of Vorinostat for other types of cancers is being investigated both as mono-therapy and combination therapy.

  8. Vorinostat differentially alters 3D nuclear structure of cancer and non-cancerous esophageal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Hansen, Nanna; Glenn, Honor L; Han, Jessica H; Helland, Stephanie; Hernandez, Kathryn; Senechal, Patti; Johnson, Roger H; Bussey, Kimberly J; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2016-08-09

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has received significant attention in recent years as an 'epigenetic' drug used to treat solid tumors. However, its mechanisms of action are not entirely understood, particularly with regard to its interaction with the aberrations in 3D nuclear structure that accompany neoplastic progression. We investigated the impact of vorinostat on human esophageal epithelial cell lines derived from normal, metaplastic (pre-cancerous), and malignant tissue. Using a combination of novel optical computed tomography (CT)-based quantitative 3D absorption microscopy and conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, we show that subjecting malignant cells to vorinostat preferentially alters their 3D nuclear architecture relative to non-cancerous cells. Optical CT (cell CT) imaging of fixed single cells showed that drug-treated cancer cells exhibit significant alterations in nuclear morphometry. Confocal microscopy revealed that vorinostat caused changes in the distribution of H3K9ac-marked euchromatin and H3K9me3-marked constitutive heterochromatin. Additionally, 3D immuno-FISH showed that drug-induced expression of the DNA repair gene MGMT was accompanied by spatial relocation toward the center of the nucleus in the nuclei of metaplastic but not in non-neoplastic cells. Our data suggest that vorinostat's differential modulation of 3D nuclear architecture in normal and abnormal cells could play a functional role in its anti-cancer action.

  9. Vorinostat-An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Bubna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vorinostat is a new drug used in the management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma when the disease persists, gets worse or comes back during or after treatment with other medicines. It is an efficacious and well tolerated drug and has been considered a novel drug in the treatment of this condition. Currently apart from cutaneous T cell lymphoma the role of Vorinostat for other types of cancers is being investigated both as mono-therapy and combination therapy.

  10. Vorinostat increases expression of functional norepinephrine transporter in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S.; Itsara, Melissa; Yang, Xiaodong; Geier, Ethan G.; Tadano, Michelle K.; Seo, Youngho; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Weiss, William A.; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; DuBois, Steven G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition causes transcriptional activation or repression of several genes that in turn can influence the biodistribution of other chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we hypothesize that the combination of vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) would lead to preferential accumulation of the latter in neuroblastoma (NB) tumors via increased expression of the human norepinephrine transporter (NET). Experimental Design In vitro and in vivo experiments examined the effect of vorinostat on the expression of NET, an uptake transporter for 131I-MIBG. Human NB cell lines (Kelly and SH-SY-5Y) and NB1691luc mouse xenografts were employed. The upregulated NET protein was characterized for its effect on 123I-MIBG biodistribution. Results Preincubation of NB cell lines, Kelly and SH-SY-5Y, with vorinostat caused dose-dependent increases in NET mRNA and protein levels. Accompanying this was a corresponding dose-dependent increase in MIBG uptake in NB cell lines. Four-fold and 2.5 fold increases were observed in Kelly and SH-SY-5Y cells, respectively, pre-treated with vorinostat in comparison to untreated cells. Similarly, NB xenografts, created by intravenous tail vein injection of NB1691-luc, and harvested from nude mice livers treated with vorinostat (150 mg/kg i.p.) showed substantial increases in NET protein expression. Maximal effect of vorinostat pretreatment in NB xenografts on 123I-MIBG biodistribution was observed in tumors that exhibited enhanced uptake in vorinostat treated (0.062 ± 0.011 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected)) versus untreated mice (0.022 ± 0.003 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected); p vorinostat treatment can enhance NB therapy with 131I-MIBG. PMID:21421857

  11. Preclinical Activity of the Rational Combination of Selumetinib (AZD6244) in Combination with Vorinostat in KRAS-Mutant Colorectal Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M. Pia; Tentler, John J.; Kulikowski, Gillian N.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica L.; Pitts, Todd M.; Brown, Amy M.; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Arcaroli, John J.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite the availability of several active combination regimens for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), the 5-year survival rate remains poor at less than 10%,supporting the development of novel therapeutic approaches. In this study, we focused on the preclinical assessment of a rationally based combination against KRAS-mutated CRC by testing the combination of the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, and vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Experimental Design Transcriptional profiling and gene set enrichment analysis (baseline and post-treatment) of CRC cell lines provided the rationale for the combination. The activity of selumetinib and vorinostat against the KRAS-mutant SW620 and SW480 CRC cell lines was studied in vitro and in vivo. The effects of this combination on tumor phenotype were assessed using monolayer and 3-dimensional cultures, flow cytometry, apoptosis, and cell migration. In vivo, tumor growth inhibition, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out to evaluate the growth inhibitory and metabolic responses, respectively, in CRC xenografts. Results In vitro, treatment with selumetinib and vorinostat resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and spheroid formation in both CRC cell lines. This inhibition was associated with an increase in apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest in G1, and reduced cellular migration and VEGF-A secretion. In vivo, the combination resulted in additive tumor growth inhibition. The metabolic response to selumetinib and vorinostat consisted of significant inhibition of membrane phospholipids; no significant changes in glucose uptake or metabolism were observed in any of the treatment groups. Conclusion These data indicate that the rationally based combination of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, selumetinib, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat results in synergistic antiproliferative

  12. Vorinostat plus tacrolimus/methotrexate to prevent GVHD after myeloablative conditioning, unrelated donor HCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Won; Braun, Thomas; Henig, Israel; Gatza, Erin; Magenau, John; Parkin, Brian; Pawarode, Attaphol; Riwes, Mary; Yanik, Greg; Dinarello, Charles A; Reddy, Pavan

    2017-10-12

    The oral histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (vorinostat) is safe and results in low incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after reduced-intensity conditioning, related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, its safety and efficacy in preventing acute GVHD in settings of heightened clinical risk that use myeloablative conditioning, unrelated donor (URD), and methotrexate are not known. We conducted a prospective, phase 2 study in this higher-risk setting. We enrolled 37 patients to provide 80% power to detect a significant difference in grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD of 50% compared with a reduction in target to 28%. Eligibility included adults with a hematological malignancy to receive myeloablative HCT from an available 8/8-HLA matched URD. Patients received GVHD prophylaxis with tacrolimus and methotrexate. Vorinostat (100 mg twice daily) was started on day -10 and continued through day +100 post-HCT. Median age was 56 years (range, 18-69 years), and 95% had acute myelogenous leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Vorinostat was safe and tolerable. The cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD at day 100 was 22%, and for grade 3 to 4 it was 8%. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29%; relapse, nonrelapse mortality, GVHD-free relapse-free survival, and overall survival at 1 year were 19%, 16%, 47%, and 76%, respectively. Correlative analyses showed enhanced histone (H3) acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and reduced interleukin 6 ( P = .028) and GVHD biomarkers (Reg3, P = .041; ST2, P = .002) at day 30 post-HCT in vorinostat-treated subjects compared with similarly treated patients who did not receive vorinostat. Vorinostat for GVHD prevention is an effective strategy that should be confirmed in a randomized phase 3 study. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01790568. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Biomarkers of histone deacetylase inhibitor activity in a phase 1 combined-modality study with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hansen Ree

    Full Text Available Following the demonstration that histone deacetylase inhibitors enhanced experimental radiation-induced clonogenic suppression, the Pelvic Radiation and Vorinostat (PRAVO phase 1 study, combining fractionated radiotherapy with daily vorinostat for pelvic carcinoma, was designed to evaluate both clinical and novel biomarker endpoints, the latter relating to pharmacodynamic indicators of vorinostat action in clinical radiotherapy.Potential biomarkers of vorinostat radiosensitizing action, not simultaneously manifesting molecular perturbations elicited by the radiation itself, were explored by gene expression array analysis of study patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, sampled at baseline (T0 and on-treatment two and 24 hours (T2 and T24 after the patients had received vorinostat.This strategy revealed 1,600 array probes that were common for the comparisons T2 versus T0 and T24 versus T2 across all of the patients, and furthermore, that no significantly differential expression was observed between the T0 and T24 groups. Functional annotation analysis of the array data showed that a significant number of identified genes were implicated in gene regulation, the cell cycle, and chromatin biology. Gene expression was validated both in patients' PBMC and in vorinostat-treated human carcinoma xenograft models, and transient repression of MYC was consistently observed.Within the design of the PRAVO study, all of the identified genes showed rapid and transient induction or repression and therefore, in principle, fulfilled the requirement of being pharmacodynamic biomarkers of vorinostat action in fractionated radiotherapy, possibly underscoring the role of MYC in this therapeutic setting.

  14. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes cell cycle arrest and re-sensitizes rituximab- and chemo-resistant lymphoma cells to chemotherapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Gu, Juan J; Zhang, Qunling; Mavis, Cory; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Czuczman, Myron S; Guo, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical models of chemotherapy resistance and clinical observations derived from the prospective multicenter phase III collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma (CORAL) study demonstrated that primary refractory/relapsed B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma has a poor clinical outcome with current available second-line treatments. Preclinically, we found that rituximab resistance is associated with a deregulation on the mitochondrial potential rendering lymphoma cells resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic stimuli. There is a dire need to develop agents capable to execute alternative pathways of cell death in an attempt to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Posttranscriptional histone modification plays an important role in regulating gene transcription and is altered by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs regulate several key cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, antigen presentation, and/or immune regulation. Given their influence in multiple regulatory pathways, HDAC inhibition is an attractive strategy to evaluate its anti-proliferation activity in cancer cells. To this end, we studied the anti-proliferation activity and mechanisms of action of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) in rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant preclinical models. A panel of rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive (RSCL) and rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant cell lines (RRCL) and primary tumor cells isolated from relapsed/refractory B cell lymphoma patients were exposed to escalating doses of vorinostat. Changes in mitochondrial potential, ATP synthesis, and cell cycle distribution were determined by Alamar blue reduction, Titer-Glo luminescent assays, and flow cytometric, respectively. Protein lysates were isolated from vorinostat-exposed cells, and changes in members of Bcl-2 family, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and the acetylation status of histone H3 were

  15. Antitumor activity of vorinostat-incorporated nanoparticles against human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Tae Won; Kim, Do Hyung; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the anticancer activity of vorinostat-incorporated nanoparticles (vorinostat-NPs) against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Vorinostat-NPs were fabricated by a nanoprecipitation method using poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer. Results Vorinostat-NPs exhibited spherical shapes with sizes

  16. A phase 2 study of vorinostat in locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Priscila H; Heilbrun, Lance K; Barrett, Michael T; Kummar, Shivaani; Hansen, Aaron R; Siu, Lillian L; Piekarz, Richard L; Sukari, Ammar W; Chao, Joseph; Pilat, Mary Jo; Smith, Daryn W; Casetta, Lindsay; Boerner, Scott A; Chen, Alice; Lenkiewicz, Elizabeth; Malasi, Smriti; LoRusso, Patricia M

    2017-05-16

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Based on a confirmed partial response (PR) in an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) patient treated with vorinostat in a prior phase 1 trial, we initiated this phase 2 trial. Vorinostat was administered orally 400 mg daily, 28 day cycles. The primary objective was to evaluate response rate (RR). Exploratory studies included whole exome sequencing (WES) of selected patients. Thirty patients were enrolled. Median age of patients was 53 years (range 21-73). Median number of cycles was 5 (range 1-66). Lymphopenia (n = 5), hypertension (n = 3), oral pain (n = 2), thromboembolic events (n = 2) and fatigue (n = 2) were the only grade 3 adverse events (AEs) that occurred in more than 1 patient. Eleven patients were dose reduced secondary to drug-related AEs. Two patients had a partial response (PR), with response durations of 53 and 7.2 months. One patient had a minor response with a decrease in ascites (for 19 cycles). Stable disease was the best response in 27 patients. Targeted and WES of 8 patients in this trial identified mutations in chromatin remodeling genes highlighting the role of the epigenome in ACC. Vorinostat demonstrated efficacy in patients with ACC supporting the inclusion of HDACi in future studies to treat ACC.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors: Saha (Vorinostat) Analogs and Biaryl Indolyl Benzamide Inhibitors Display Isoform Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negmeldin, Ahmed Thabet

    HDAC proteins have emerged as interesting targets for anti-cancer drugs due to their involvement in cancers, as well as several other diseases. Several HDAC inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as anti-cancer drugs, including SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Vorinostat). Unfortunately, SAHA inhibits most HDAC isoforms, which limit its use as a pharmacological tool and may lead to side effects in the clinic. In this work we were interested in developing isoform selective HDAC inhibitors, which may decrease or eliminate the side effects associated with non-selective inhibitors treatment. In addition, isoform selective HDAC inhibitors can be used as biological tools to help understand the HDAC-related cancer biology. Our strategy was based on synthesis and screening of several derivatives of the non-selective FDA approved drug SAHA substituted at different positions of the linker region. Several SAHA analogs modified at the C4 and C5 positions of the linker were synthesized. The new C4- and C5-modified SAHA libraries, along with the previously synthesized C2-modified SAHA analogs were screened in vitro and in cellulo for HDAC isoform selectivity. Interestingly, several analogs exhibited dual HDAC6/HDAC8 selectivity. Enantioselective syntheses of the pure enantiomers of some of the interesting analogs were performed and the enantiomers were screened in vitro. Among the most interesting analogs, ( R)-C4-benzyl SAHA displayed 520- to 1300-fold selectivity for HDAC6 and HDAC8 over HDAC1, 2, and 3, with IC50 values of 48 and 27 nM with HDAC6 and 8, respectively. Docking studies were performed to provide structural rationale for the observed selectivity of the new analogs. In addition, rational design, synthesis, and screening of several other biaryl indolyl benzamide HDAC inhibitors is discussed, and some showed modest HDAC1 selectivity. The new biaryl indolyl benzamides can be useful to further develop HDAC1 selective inhibitors. The dual HDAC6/8 selective

  18. Phase I and pharmacodynamic study of vorinostat combined with capecitabine and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changhoon; Ryu, Min-Hee; Na, Young-Soon; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Lee, Chae-Won; Maeng, Jeheon; Kim, Se-Yeon; Koo, Dong Hoe; Park, Inkeun; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2014-04-01

    A phase I trial of first-line vorinostat, an orally bio-available histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP) was performed to assess recommend phase II trial dose in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Five dose levels of three-weekly vorinostat-XP were tested; vorinostat was dosed at 300-400 mg once daily on Days 1-14, capecitabine at 800-1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily on Days 1-14, and cisplatin at 60-80 mg/m(2) on Day 1. To assess the pharmacodynamics of vorinostat, histone H3 acetylation was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before the study treatment and at Day 8 of cycle 1. In total, 30 patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma were included. Dose-limiting toxicities were thrombocytopenia, fatigue, stomatitis, and anorexia. The following doses were recommended for phase II trial: 400 mg of vorinostat once daily, 1,000 mg/m(2) of capecitabine twice daily, and 60 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (47 %), anorexia (20 %), thrombocytopenia (17 %), and fatigue (13 %). In overall, response rate was 56 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 32-81). With a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.1 months (95 % CI: 3.8-10.3) and 18.0 months (95 % CI: 4.8-31.1), respectively. The change in H3 acetylation after treatment with vorinostat correlated significantly with the vorinostat dose (300 vs. 400 mg/day) and the baseline level of H3 acetylation before treatment. Three-weekly vorinostat-XP regimen is feasible and recommended for further development in advanced gastric cancer.

  19. The effect of vorinostat on the development of resistance to doxorubicin in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Lautz

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, especially vorinostat, are currently under investigation as potential adjuncts in the treatment of neuroblastoma. The effect of vorinostat co-treatment on the development of resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents is unknown. In the present study, we treated two human neuroblastoma cell lines [SK-N-SH and SK-N-Be(2C] with progressively increasing doses of doxorubicin under two conditions: with and without vorinsotat co-therapy. The resultant doxorubicin-resistant (DoxR and vorinostat-treated doxorubicin resistant (DoxR-v cells were equally resistant to doxorubicin despite significantly lower P-glycoprotein expression in the DoxR-v cells. Whole genome analysis was performed using the Ilumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression Beadchip to identify genes with differential expression unique to the DoxR-v cells. We uncovered a number of genes whose differential expression in the DoxR-v cells might contribute to their resistant phenotype, including hypoxia inducible factor-2. Finally, we used Gene Ontology to categorize the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes unique to the DoxR-v cells and found that genes involved in cellular metabolism were especially affected.

  20. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors MS-275 and SAHA Suppress the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway and Chemotaxis in Rheumatoid Arthritic Synovial Fibroblastic E11 Cells

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    Hai-Shu Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MS-275 (entinostat and SAHA (vorinostat, two histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors currently in oncological trials, have displayed potent anti-rheumatic activities in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To further elucidate their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, the impact of MS-275 and SAHA on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis was assessed in human rheumatoid arthritic synovial fibroblastic E11 cells. MS-275 and SAHA significantly suppressed the expression of p38α  MAPK, but induced the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, an endogenous suppressor of p38α  in E11 cells. At the same time, the association between p38α and MKP-1 was up-regulated and consequently, the activation (phosphorylation of p38α  was inhibited. Moreover, MS-275 and SAHA suppressed granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in E11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, E11-driven migration of THP-1 and U937 monocytes was inhibited. In summary, suppression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis appear to be important anti-rheumatic mechanisms of action of these HDAC inhibitors.

  1. A phase IIb trial of vorinostat in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to previous lenalidomide-containing regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Larysa; Vesole, David H; Richter, Joshua R; Biran, Noa; Bilotti, Elizabeth; McBride, Laura; Anand, Palka; Ivanovski, Kristin; Siegel, David S

    2017-02-01

    Clinical trials of vorinostat, a Class I/II histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents have shown activity in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. This phase IIb, open-label, single-institution study evaluated the efficacy of vorinostat in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in lenalidomide-refractory patients. Patients were considered lenalidomide-refractory if they had no clinical response (vorinostat 400 mg days 1-7 and 15-21, lenalidomide 25 mg days 1-21, and dexamethasone 40 mg days 1, 8, 15 and 22 in 28-day cycles. Twenty-five patients were enrolled, median age was 65 years and patients had received a median of 5 prior regimens. The overall response rate was 24% (6 partial responses) and clinical benefit rate (≥stable disease) was 80%. Median time to a partial response was 1·9 months and median duration of response was 3·3 months. Median progression-free survival was 5·3 months. Most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (48%), thrombocytopenia (32%), anaemia (20%) and gastrointestinal toxicities (16%). In this heavily pre-treated population, vorinostat in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was active in lenalidomide-refractory patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bortezomib-induced sensitization of malignant human glioma cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis depends on reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction, Noxa upregulation, Mcl-1 cleavage, and DNA damage.

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    Premkumar, Daniel R; Jane, Esther P; Agostino, Naomi R; DiDomenico, Joseph D; Pollack, Ian F

    2013-02-01

    Glioblastomas are invasive tumors with poor prognosis despite current therapies. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a class of agents that can modulate gene expression to reduce tumor growth, and we and others have noted some antiglioma activity from HDACIs, such as vorinostat, although insufficient to warrant use as monotherapy. We have recently demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib, dramatically sensitized highly resistant glioma cells to apoptosis induction, suggesting that proteasomal inhibition may be a promising combination strategy for glioma therapeutics. In this study, we examined whether bortezomib could enhance response to HDAC inhibition in glioma cells. Although primary cells from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients and established glioma cell lines did not show significant induction of apoptosis with vorinostat treatment alone, the combination of vorinostat plus bortezomib significantly enhanced apoptosis. The enhanced efficacy was due to proapoptotic mitochondrial injury and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results also revealed that combination of bortezomib with vorinostat enhanced apoptosis by increasing Mcl-1 cleavage, Noxa upregulation, Bak and Bax activation, and cytochrome c release. Further downregulation of Mcl-1 using shRNA enhanced cell killing by the bortezomib/vorinostat combination. Vorinostat induced a rapid and sustained phosphorylation of histone H2AX in primary GBM and T98G cells, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-administration of bortezomib. Vorinostat/bortezomib combination also induced Rad51 downregulation, which plays an important role in the synergistic enhancement of DNA damage and apoptosis. The significantly enhanced antitumor activity that results from the combination of bortezomib and HDACIs offers promise as a novel treatment for glioma patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Possible involvement of ROS generation in vorinostat pretreatment induced enhancement of the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin

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    Masadeh MM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majed M Masadeh,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Sayer I Al-azzam,2 Ahlam M Al-buhairan3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The mechanism underlying ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA and, thus, the induction of double-strand breaks in DNA. It also involves elevated oxidative stress, which might contribute to bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. The current work investigated a possible interactive effect of vorinostat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (ATCC 43300, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, with or without pretreatment of bacterial cells by vorinostat, was examined using the disc diffusion procedure and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All tested bacterial strains showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. When pretreated with vorinostat, significantly larger zones of inhibition and smaller MIC values were observed in all bacterial strains compared to those treated with ciprofloxacin alone. In correlation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by the antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin was enhanced by treatment of bacterial cells with vorinostat. Results showed the possible agonistic properties of vorinostat when used together with ciprofloxacin. This could be related to the

  4. Phase I study of combination of vorinostat, carboplatin, and gemcitabine in women with recurrent, platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulonis, Ursula; Berlin, Suzanne; Lee, Hang; Whalen, Christin; Obermayer, Elizabeth; Penson, Richard; Liu, Joyce; Campos, Susana; Krasner, Carolyn; Horowitz, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Combining histone deacetylase inhibitors and chemotherapy is synergistic. This phase I study combined escalating vorinostat doses with constant doses of carboplatin and gemcitabine for the treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximally tolerated dose of this combination; secondary objectives included preliminary response rate of this regimen and toxicity profile. Fifteen patients with relapsed ovarian cancer were enrolled into this phase I study. Doses of carboplatin and gemcitabine were AUC 4 on day 1 and 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, respectively; cycles were administered every 21 days. Vorinostat was tested using four different schedules. The first dose level (DL A) tested vorinostat as daily oral dosing from days 1 to 14. DL B tested twice daily (BID) vorinostat dosing on days 1-3 and 8-10. DL C tested BID vorinostat dosing on days 1, 2, 8, and 9, starting vorinostat 1 day prior to initiation of carboplatin and gemcitabine, and DL D tested vorinostat on days 1 and 2 with chemotherapy starting on day 2. All four DLs tested resulted in dose-limiting toxicities, and no MTD was determined. Toxicities were mostly hematologic. Seven patients were evaluable for RECIST assessment, and six of them had partial responses (PR) via RECIST. Combination of carboplatin, gemcitabine, and vorinostat has activity in relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, but was difficult to combine because of hematologic toxicities in this phase I study. No maximally tolerated dose was found, and the study was terminated early.

  5. Phase I/II trial of vorinostat combined with temozolomide and radiation therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: results of Alliance N0874/ABTC 02.

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    Galanis, Evanthia; Anderson, S Keith; Miller, C Ryan; Sarkaria, Jann N; Jaeckle, Kurt; Buckner, Jan C; Ligon, Keith L; Ballman, Karla V; Moore, Dennis F; Nebozhyn, Michael; Loboda, Andrey; Schiff, David; Ahluwalia, Manmeet Singh; Lee, Eudocia Q; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Lesser, Glenn J; Prados, Michael; Grossman, Stuart A; Cerhan, Jane; Giannini, Caterina; Wen, Patrick Y

    2018-03-27

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has shown radiosensitizing properties in preclinical studies. This open-label, single-arm trial evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD; phase I) and efficacy (phase II) of vorinostat combined with standard chemoradiation in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients received oral vorinostat (300 or 400 mg/day) on days 1-5 weekly during temozolomide chemoradiation. Following a 4- to 6-week rest, patients received up to 12 cycles of standard adjuvant temozolomide and vorinostat (400 mg/day) on days 1-7 and 15-21 of each 28-day cycle. Association between vorinostat response signatures and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed based on RNA sequencing of baseline tumor tissue. Phase I and phase II enrolled 15 and 107 patients, respectively. The combination therapy MTD was vorinostat 300 mg/day and temozolomide 75 mg/m2/day. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and grade 3 aspartate aminotransferase elevation, hyperglycemia, fatigue, and wound dehiscence. The primary efficacy endpoint in the phase II cohort, OS rate at 15 months, was 55.1% (median OS 16.1 mo), and consequently, the study did not meet its efficacy objective. Most common treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicities in the phase II component were lymphopenia (32.7%), thrombocytopenia (28.0%), and neutropenia (21.5%). RNA expression profiling of baseline tumors (N = 76) demonstrated that vorinostat resistance (sig-79) and sensitivity (sig-139) signatures had a reverse and positive association with OS/PFS, respectively. Vorinostat combined with standard chemoradiation had acceptable tolerability in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Although the primary efficacy endpoint was not met, vorinostat sensitivity and resistance signatures could facilitate patient selection in future trials.

  6. Vorinostat-eluting poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofiber-coated stent for inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Tae Won; Lee, Hye Lim; Song, Yeon Hui; Kim, Chan; Kim, Jungsoo; Seo, Sol-Ji; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a vorinostat (Zolinza™)-eluting nanofiber membrane-coated gastrointestinal (GI) stent and to study its antitumor activity against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Vorinostat and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) dissolved in an organic solvent was sprayed onto a GI stent to make a nanofiber-coated stent using an electro-spinning machine. Intact vorinostat and vorinostat released from nanofibers was used to assess anticancer activity in vitro against various CCA cells. The antitumor activity of the vorinostat-eluting nanofiber membrane-coated stent was evaluated using HuCC-T1 bearing mice. A vorinostat-incorporated polymer nanofiber membrane was formed on the surface of the GI stent. Vorinostat was continuously released from the nanofiber membrane over 10 days, and its release rate was higher in cell culture media than in phosphate-buffered saline. Released vorinostat showed similar anticancer activity against various CCA cells in vitro compared to that of vorinostat. Like vorinostat, vorinostat released from nanofibers induced acetylation of histone H4 and inhibited histone deacetylases 1⋅3⋅4/5/7 expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, vorinostat nanofibers showed a higher tumor growth inhibition rate in HuCC-T1 bearing mice than vorinostat injections. Vorinostat-eluting nanofiber membranes showed significant antitumor activity against CCA cells in vitro and in vivo. We suggest the vorinostat nanofiber-coated stent may be a promising candidate for CCA treatment.

  7. A phase 1 clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with decitabine in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark; Gojo, Ivana; Goldberg, Stuart L; Bredeson, Christopher; Kujawski, Lisa A; Yang, Allen; Marks, Peter; Frankel, Paul; Sun, Xing; Tosolini, Alessandra; Eid, Joseph E; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) may respond to treatment with epigenetic-modifying agents. Histone deacetylase inhibitors may synergize with hypomethylating agents. This phase 1 dose-escalation study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, safety and tolerability of vorinostat plus decitabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, newly-diagnosed AML, or intermediate- to high-grade MDS. Thirty-four patients received concurrent therapy with decitabine plus vorinostat and 37 received sequential therapy with decitabine followed by vorinostat. Twenty-nine patients had relapsed/refractory AML, 31 had untreated AML and 11 had MDS. The target maximum administered dose (MAD) of decitabine 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 d plus vorinostat 400 mg/d for 14 d was achieved for concurrent and sequential schedules, with one dose-limiting toxicity (Grade 3 QTc prolongation) reported in the sequential arm. Common toxicities were haematological and gastrointestinal. Responses were observed more frequently at the MAD on the concurrent schedule compared with the sequential schedule in untreated AML (46% vs. 14%), relapsed/refractory AML (15% vs. 0%) and MDS (60% vs. 0%). Decitabine plus vorinostat given concurrently or sequentially appears to be safe and well-tolerated. Concurrent therapy shows promising clinical activity in AML or MDS, warranting further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharmacological Analysis of Vorinostat Analogues as Potential Anti-tumor Agents Targeting Human Histone Deacetylases: an Epigenetic Treatment Stratagem for Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseetha, Sugathan; Bandaru, Srinivas; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Sureshkumar, Sivanpillai

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of the acetylation status of chromatin and other non-histone proteins by HDAC inhibitors has evolved as an excellent epigenetic strategy in treatment of cancers. The present study was sought to identify compounds with positive pharmacological profiles targeting HDAC1. Analogues of Vorinostat synthesized by Cai et al, 2015 formed the test compounds for the present pharmacological evaluation. Hydroxamte analogue 6H showed superior pharmacological profile in comparison to all the compounds in the analogue dataset owing to its better electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding patterns. In order to identify compounds with even better high affinity and pharmacological profile than 6H and Vorinostat, virtual screening was performed. A total of 83 compounds similar to Vorinostat and 154 compounds akin to analogue 6H were retrieved. SCHEMBL15675695 (PubCid: 15739209) and AKOS019005527 (PubCid: 80442147) similar to Vorinostat and 6H, were the best docked compounds among the virtually screened compounds. However, in spite of having good affinity, none of the virtually screened compounds had better affinity than that of 6H. In addition SCHEMBL15675695 was predicted to be a carcinogen while AKOS019005527 is Ames toxic. From, our extensive analysis involving binding affinity analysis, ADMET properties predictions and pharmacophoric mappings, we report Vorinostat hydroxamate analogue 6H to be a potential candidate for HDAC inhibition in treatment of cancers through an epigenetic strategy.

  9. Hematologic Response to Vorinostat Treatment in Relapsed Myeloid Leukemia of Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Carina; Kratz, Christian; Witt, Olaf; Creutzig, Ursula; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning

    2016-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at high risk to develop myeloid leukemia (ML-DS). Despite their excellent prognosis, children with ML-DS particularly suffer from severe therapy-related toxicities and for relapsed ML-DS the cure rates are very poor. Here we report the clinical course of one child with ML-DS treated with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) after second relapse. The child had previously received conventional chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation, yet showed a remarkable clinical and hematologic response. Thus, HDAC inhibitor may represent an effective class of drugs for the treatment of ML-DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Phase I Study of Vorinostat as a Radiation Sensitizer with 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) for Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Steven G; Groshen, Susan; Park, Julie R; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Yang, Xiaodong; Geier, Ethan; Chen, Eugene; Giacomini, Kathy; Weiss, Brian; Cohn, Susan L; Granger, M Meaghan; Yanik, Gregory A; Hawkins, Randall; Courtier, Jesse; Jackson, Hollie; Goodarzian, Fariba; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Czarnecki, Scarlett; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Villablanca, Judith G; Marachelian, Araz; Matthay, Katherine K

    2015-06-15

    (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a radiopharmaceutical with activity in neuroblastoma. Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has radiosensitizing properties. The goal of this phase I study was to determine the MTDs of vorinostat and MIBG in combination. Patients ≤ 30 years with relapsed/refractory MIBG-avid neuroblastoma were eligible. Patients received oral vorinostat (dose levels 180 and 230 mg/m(2)) daily days 1 to 14. MIBG (dose levels 8, 12, 15, and 18 mCi/kg) was given on day 3 and peripheral blood stem cells on day 17. Alternating dose escalation of vorinostat and MIBG was performed using a 3+3 design. Twenty-seven patients enrolled to six dose levels, with 23 evaluable for dose escalation. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were seen in the first three dose levels. At dose level 4 (15 mCi/kg MIBG/230 mg/m(2) vorinostat), 1 of 6 patients had DLT with grade 4 hypokalemia. At dose level 5 (18 mCi/kg MIBG/230 mg/m(2) vorinostat), 2 patients had dose-limiting bleeding (one grade 3 and one grade 5). At dose level 5a (18 mCi/kg MIBG/180 mg/m(2) vorinostat), 0 of 6 patients had DLT. The most common toxicities were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The response rate was 12% across all dose levels and 17% at dose level 5a. Histone acetylation increased from baseline in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected on days 3 and 12 to 14. Vorinostat at 180 mg/m(2)/dose is tolerable with 18 mCi/kg MIBG. A phase II trial comparing this regimen to single-agent MIBG is ongoing. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. [Dexamethasone and vorinostat cooperatively promote differentiation and apoptosis in Kasumi-1 leukemia cells through ubiquitination and degradation of AML1-ETO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Jian-wei; Xu, Fa-mei; Xing, Hai-yan; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Min; Wang, Jian-xiang

    2013-09-01

    To probe the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) combined with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat on inhibiting proliferation and inducing differentiation and apoptosis in Kasumi-1 leukemia cells, and its possible mechanisms in order to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of AML1-ETO positive AML. The cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis rates were tested by MTT or flow cytometry analysis after Kasumi-1 cells were treated by DMSO, DEX (20 nmol/L), vorinostat (1 μmol/L) or DEX (20 nmol/L) in combination with vorinostat (1 μmol/L). WB and IP-WB were performed to detect AML1-ETO and its ubiquitination. Treatment with the combination of DEX and vorinostat for 48 h led to statistically significant differences of inhibited proliferation [(42.06±8.20)%], increased differentiation [(52.83±8.97)%] and apoptosis [(52.92±2.53)%] of Kasumi-1 cells when compared with vorinostat [(33.82±9.41)%, (43.93±9.04)% and (42.98±3.01)%, respectively], DEX [(17.30±3.49)%, (22.53±4.51)% and (19.57±2.17)%, respectively] or control [(6.96±0.39)%, (21.73±2.03)% and (6.96±0.39)%, respectively]. Also significant ubiquitination and decreased AML1-ETO protein in Kasumi-1 cells after the combination treatment over single agent or control were observed. The results indicated that DEX and vorinostat could synergistically inhibit the Kasumi-1 cells proliferation, induce Kasumi-1 cells differentiation and apoptosis through ubiquitination and degradation of AML1-ETO.

  12. Vorinostat and Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases: A Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Clara Y H; Wakelee, Heather A; Neal, Joel W; Pinder-Schenck, Mary C; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael; Chang, Steven D; Adler, John R; Modlin, Leslie A; Harsh, Griffith R; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-09-01

    To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, given concurrently with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases. Secondary objectives were to determine toxicity, local failure, distant intracranial failure, and overall survival rates. In this multicenter study, patients with 1 to 4 NSCLC brain metastases, each ≤2 cm, were enrolled in a phase 1, 3 + 3 dose escalation trial. Vorinostat dose levels were 200, 300, and 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days. Single-fraction SRS was delivered on day 3. A dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 3 to 5 acute nonhematologic adverse event related to vorinostat or SRS occurring within 30 days. From 2009 to 2014, 17 patients were enrolled and 12 patients completed study treatment. Because no DLTs were observed, the MTD was established as 400 mg. Acute adverse events were reported by 10 patients (59%). Five patients discontinued vorinostat early and withdrew from the study. The most common reasons for withdrawal were dyspnea (n=2), nausea (n=1), and fatigue (n=2). With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-64 months), Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 13 months. There were no local failures. One patient (8%) at the 400-mg dose level with a 2.0-cm metastasis developed histologically confirmed grade 4 radiation necrosis 2 months after SRS. The MTD of vorinostat with concurrent SRS was established as 400 mg. Although no DLTs were observed, 5 patients withdrew before completing the treatment course, a result that emphasizes the need for supportive care during vorinostat administration. There were no local failures. A larger, randomized trial may evaluate both the tolerability and potential local control benefit of vorinostat concurrent with SRS for brain metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vorinostat-eluting poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide nanofiber-coated stent for inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak TW

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hye Lim Lee,2,* Yeon Hui Song,2 Chan Kim,3 Jungsoo Kim,2 Sol-Ji Seo,2 Young-Il Jeong,2 Dae Hwan Kang2,4 1Medical Convergence Textile Center, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea; 2Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan, Republic of Korea; 3Amogreentech Co. Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to fabricate a vorinostat (Zolinza™-eluting nanofiber membrane-coated gastrointestinal (GI stent and to study its antitumor activity against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Vorinostat and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide dissolved in an organic solvent was sprayed onto a GI stent to make a nanofiber-coated stent using an electro-spinning machine. Intact vorinostat and vorinostat released from nanofibers was used to assess anticancer activity in vitro against various CCA cells. The antitumor activity of the vorinostat-eluting nanofiber membrane-coated stent was evaluated using HuCC-T1 bearing mice. Results: A vorinostat-incorporated polymer nanofiber membrane was formed on the surface of the GI stent. Vorinostat was continuously released from the nanofiber membrane over 10 days, and its release rate was higher in cell culture media than in phosphate-buffered saline. Released vorinostat showed similar anticancer activity against various CCA cells in vitro compared to that of vorinostat. Like vorinostat, vorinostat released from nanofibers induced acetylation of histone H4 and inhibited histone deacetylases 1·3·4/5/7 expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, vorinostat nanofibers showed a higher tumor growth inhibition rate in HuCC-T1 bearing mice than vorinostat injections. Conclusion: Vorinostat-eluting nanofiber membranes showed significant antitumor

  14. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat for pediatric and adult patients and its application for dose specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moj, Daniel; Britz, Hannah; Burhenne, Jürgen; Stewart, Clinton F; Egerer, Gerlinde; Haefeli, Walter E; Lehr, Thorsten

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at recommending pediatric dosages of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat and potentially more effective adult dosing regimens than the approved standard dosing regimen of 400 mg/day, using a comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling approach. A PBPK/PD model for vorinostat was developed for predictions in adults and children. It includes the maturation of relevant metabolizing enzymes. The PBPK model was expanded by (1) effect compartments to describe vorinostat concentration-time profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), (2) an indirect response model to predict the HDAC inhibition, and (3) a thrombocyte model to predict the dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. Parameterization of drug and system-specific processes was based on published and unpublished in silico, in vivo, and in vitro data. The PBPK modeling software used was PK-Sim and MoBi. The PBPK/PD model suggests dosages of 80 and 230 mg/m 2 for children of 0-1 and 1-17 years of age, respectively. In comparison with the approved standard treatment, in silico trials reveal 11 dosing regimens (9 oral, and 2 intravenous infusion rates) increasing the HDAC inhibition by an average of 31%, prolonging the HDAC inhibition by 181%, while only decreasing the circulating thrombocytes to a tolerable 53%. The most promising dosing regimen prolongs the HDAC inhibition by 509%. Thoroughly developed PBPK models enable dosage recommendations in pediatric patients and integrated PBPK/PD models, considering PD biomarkers (e.g., HDAC activity and platelet count), are well suited to guide future efficacy trials by identifying dosing regimens potentially superior to standard dosing regimens.

  15. Translational Phase I Trial of Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid) Combined with Cytarabine and Etoposide in Patients with Relapsed, Refractory, or High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojo, Ivana; Tan, Ming; Fang, Hong-Bin; Sadowska, Mariola; Lapidus, Rena; Baer, Maria R.; Carrier, France; Beumer, Jan H.; Anyang, Bean N.; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Ross, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat combined with fixed doses of cytarabine (ara-C or cytosine arabinoside) and etoposide in patients with poor-risk or advanced acute leukemia, to obtain preliminary efficacy data, describe pharmacokinetics, and in vivo pharmacodynamic effects of vorinostat in leukemia blasts. Experimental Design In this open-label phase I study, vorinostat was given orally on days one to seven at three escalating dose levels: 200 mg twice a day, 200 mg three times a day, and 300 mg twice a day. On days 11 to 14, etoposide (100 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1 or 2 g/m2 twice a day if ≥65 or vorinostat 200 mg twice a day. Of 21 patients enrolled, seven attained a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete platelet recovery, including six of 13 patients treated at the MTD. The median remission duration was seven months. No differences in percentage S-phase cells or multidrug resistance transporter (MDR1 or BCRP) expression or function were observed in vivo in leukemia blasts upon vorinostat treatment. Conclusions Vorinostat 200 mg twice a day can be given safely for seven days before treatment with cytarabine and etoposide. The relatively high CR rate seen at the MTD in this poor-risk group of patients with AML warrants further studies to confirm these findings. PMID:23403629

  16. Hemolytic anemia in two patients with glioblastoma multiforme: A possible interaction between vorinostat and dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer A; Petty, William J; Harmon, Michele; Peacock, James E; Valente, Kari; Owen, John; Pirmohamed, Munir; Lesser, Glenn J

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing treatment for glioblastoma multiforme are routinely placed on prophylactic treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia because of significant therapy-induced lymphopenia. In patients with sulfa allergies, dapsone prophylaxis is often used due to its efficacy, long half-life, cost effectiveness, and general safety at low doses. However, dapsone may uncommonly induce a hemolytic anemia, particularly in patients deficient of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This hemolysis is thought to be a result of oxidative stress on red blood cells induced by dapsone metabolites which produce reactive oxygen species that disrupt the red blood cell membrane and promote splenic sequestration. A single case report of dapsone-induced hemolytic anemia in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme has been reported. We present two patients with glioblastoma multiforme who developed severe hemolytic anemia shortly after initiating therapy with vorinostat, a pan-active histone deacetylase inhibitor, while on prophylactic dapsone. There are several potential mechanisms by which histone deacetylase inhibition may alter dapsone metabolism including changes in hepatic acetylation or N-glucuronidation leading to an increase in the bioavailability of dapsone's hematotoxic metabolites. In addition, vorinostat may lead to increased hemolysis through inhibition of heat shock protein-90, a chaperone protein that maintains the integrity of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton. The potential interaction between dapsone and vorinostat may have important clinical implications as more than 10 clinical trials evaluating drug combinations with vorinostat in patients with malignant glioma are either ongoing or planned in North America. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. A pediatric phase 1 trial of vorinostat and temozolomide in relapsed or refractory primary brain or spinal cord tumors: a Children's Oncology Group phase 1 consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Trent R; Wagner, Lars; Ahern, Charlotte; Fouladi, Maryam; Reid, Joel M; McGovern, Renee M; Ames, Matthew M; Gilbertson, Richard J; Horton, Terzah; Ingle, Ashish M; Weigel, Brenda; Blaney, Susan M

    2013-09-01

    We conducted a pediatric phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and pharmacokinetic properties of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, when given in combination with temozolomide in children with refractory or recurrent CNS malignancies. Vorinostat, followed by temozolomide approximately 1 hour later, was orally administered, once daily, for 5 consecutive days every 28 days at three dose levels using the rolling six design. Studies of histone accumulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed on Day 1 at 0, 6, and 24 hours after vorinostat dosing. Vorinostat pharmacokinetics (PK) and serum MGMT promoter status were also assessed. Nineteen eligible patients were enrolled and 18 patients were evaluable for toxicity. There were no DLTs observed at dose level 1 or 2. DLTs occurred in four patients at dose level 3: thrombocytopenia (4), neutropenia (3), and leucopenia (1). Non-dose limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities related to protocol therapy were also hematologic and included neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leucopenia. Three patients exhibited stable disease and one patient had a partial response. There was no clear relationship between vorinostat dosage and drug exposure over the dose range studied. Accumulation of acetylated H3 histone in PBMC was observed after administration of vorinostat. Five-day cycles of vorinostat in combination with temozolomide are well tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies with myelosuppression as the DLT. The recommended phase II combination doses are vorinostat, 300 mg/m(2) /day and temozolomide, 150 mg/m(2) /day. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Phase IB trial of ixabepilone and vorinostat in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thehang; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Blanchard, Suzette; Anyang, Bean; Hurria, Arti; Yang, Lixin; Beumer, Jan H; Somlo, George; Yen, Yun

    2018-01-01

    To translate promising preclinical data on the combination of vorinostat and ixabepilone for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) into clinical trials. We conducted a randomized two-arm Phase IB clinical trial of ascending doses of vorinostat and ixabepilone in prior -treated MBC patients. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), 37 patients were randomized to schedule A: every-3-week ixabepilone + vorinostat (days 1-14), or schedule B: weekly ixabepilone + vorinostat (days 1-7; 15-21) Pharmacokinetics were assessed. Nineteen additional patients were randomized to schedule A or B and objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The schedule A MTD was vorinostat 300 mg daily (days 1-14), ixabepilone 32 mg/m 2 (day 2); 21-day cycle 27% dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). The schedule B MTD was vorinostat 300 mg daily (days 1-7; 15-21), ixabepilone 16 mg/m 2 (days 2, 9, 16); 28-day cycle; no DLTs. Vorinostat and ixabepilone clearances were 194 L/h and 21.3 L/h/m 2 , respectively. Grade 3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was reported in 8% (A) and 21% (B) of patients. The ORR and CBR were 22 and 22% (A); 30 and 35% (B). Median PFS was 3.9 (A) and 3.7 (B) months. OS was 14.8 (A) and 17.1 (B) months. We established the MTD of vorinostat and ixabepilone. This drug combination offers a novel therapy for previously treated MBC patients. The potential for lower toxicity and comparable efficacy compared to current therapies warrants further study.

  19. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lee M; Kindler, Hedy L; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat given as a second-line or third-line therapy improved patients' overall survival. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in 90 international centres. Patients with measurable advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma and disease progression after one or two previous systemic regimens were eligible. After stratification for Karnofsky performance status, histology, and number of previous chemotherapy regimens, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive voice response system with a block size of four to either treatment with vorinostat or placebo. Patients received oral vorinostat 300 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoints were overall survival and safety and tolerability of vorinostat. The primary efficacy comparison was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety and tolerability was assessed in the treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128102. From July 12, 2005, to Feb 14, 2011, 661 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either vorinostat (n=329) or placebo (n=332) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival for vorinostat was 30·7 weeks (95% CI 26·7-36·1) versus 27·1 weeks (23·1-31·9) for placebo (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·17, p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events for patients treated with vorinostat were fatigue or malaise (51 [16%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 25 [8%] in the placebo group]) and dyspnoea (35 [11%] vs 45 [14%]). In this randomised trial, vorinostat given as a second-line or third

  20. Preparation of a mixed-matrix hydrogel of vorinostat for topical administration on the rats as experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenwen; Wang, Chenhui; Yu, Changhui; Yao, Ju; Sun, Fengying; Teng, Lesheng; Li, Youxin

    2015-10-12

    Oral vorinostat has the remarkable curative effect on aggravated and recurrent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), but is accompanied by serious adverse effects. Therefore, oral vorinostat is not applicable to the treatment of early stage CTCL. The aim of this study is to develop a novel vorinostat formulation which is effective for early stage CTCL and free of the serious adverse effects. A mixed-matrix hydrogel of vorinostat was prepared and characterized as a potential topical skin delivery system. Moisture retention, swelling behavior, viscosity, real-time morphology and differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC) of hydrogel were evaluated to select the solvent, matrix and humectant. The optimal HPMC/HPC ratio, pH, additive, dose and drug loading of vorinostat hydrogel were determined by evaluating the cumulative vorinostat amount of skin retention and transdermal amount of vorinostat through the skin in vitro. The optimal hydrogel presented a low transdermal amount of vorinostat through the skin, suggesting that the hydrogel reduced the amount of vorinostat that was absorbed in the systemic circulation. More importantly, in vivo percutaneous permeation experiments were also performed to evaluate the permeation behavior of vorinostat into the skin. The topical application with a much lower dose showed higher AUC (the cumulative vorinostat amount of skin retention) than oral application and the hydrogel achieved a sustained permeation of vorinostat in the skin for 24h in vivo. It indicated that a higher relative bioavailability for hydrogel was achieved compared with oral vorinostat. Moreover, there was no damage, inflammation or cell swelling of the skin after administration. Thus, the mixed-matrix vorinostat hydrogel prepared in this study could deliver vorinostat into local skin more efficiently than oral administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase I/II trial of vorinostat (SAHA) and erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations after erlotinib progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguart, Noemi; Rosell, Rafael; Cardenal, Felipe; Cardona, Andres F; Isla, Dolores; Palmero, Ramon; Moran, Teresa; Rolfo, Christian; Pallarès, M Cinta; Insa, Amelia; Carcereny, Enric; Majem, Margarita; De Castro, Javier; Queralt, Cristina; Molina, Miguel A; Taron, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Vorinostat or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with demonstrated antiproliferative effects due to drug-induced accumulation of acetylated proteins, including the heat shock protein 90. We prospectively studied the activity of vorinostat plus erlotinib in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with progression to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We conducted this prospective, non-randomized, multicenter, phase I/II trial to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose, toxicity profile and efficacy of erlotinib and vorinostat. Patients with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations and progressive disease after a minimum of 12 weeks on erlotinib were included. The maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat plus erlotinib was used as recommended dose for the phase II (RDP2) to assess the efficacy of the combination. The primary end point was progression-free-survival rate at 12 weeks (PFSR12w). Pre-treatment plasma samples were required to assess T790M resistant mutation. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the phase I-II trial. The maximum tolerated dose was erlotinib 150 mg p.o., QD, and 400mg p.o., QD, on days 1-7 and 15-21 in a 28-day cycle. Among the 25 patients treated at the RDP2, the most common toxicities included anemia, fatigue and diarrhea. No responses were observed. PFSR12w was 28% (IC 95%: 18.0-37.2); median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8 weeks (IC 95%: 7.43-8.45) and overall survival (OS) 10.3 months (95% CI: 2.4-18.1). Full dose of continuous erlotinib with vorinostat 400mg p.o., QD on alternative weeks can be safely administered. Still, the combination has no meaningful activity in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients after TKI progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vorinostat with sustained exposure and high solubility in poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) micelle nanocarriers: characterization and effects on pharmacokinetics in rat serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M; Remsberg, Connie M; Borg, Thanaa M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Takemoto, Jody K; Sayre, Casey L; Martinez, Stephanie E; Davies, Neal M; Forrest, M Laird

    2012-10-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anticancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat's pharmacokinetics in rats was investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (p.o.) (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared with a conventional polyethylene glycol 400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 to 8.15 ± 0.60 and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/mL at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19%, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the p.o. and i.v. pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reactivation of estrogen receptor α by vorinostat sensitizes mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer to aminoflavone, a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karri; Burger, Angelika; Wu, Jianmei; Shelton, Phillip; Polin, Lisa; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF) acts as a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1 can sensitize breast cancer cells to AF. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of AF and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat for treating mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) as well as the underlying mechanisms of such treatment. In vitro antiproliferative activity of AFP464 (AF prodrug) in breast cancer cell lines was evaluated by MTS assay. In vitro, the combined effect of AFP464 and vorinostat on cell proliferation was assessed by the Chou-Talalay method. In vivo, antitumor activity of AFP464, given alone and in combination with vorinostat, was studied using TNBC xenograft models. Knockdown of ERα was performed using specific, small-interfering RNA. Western blot, quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to study the mechanisms underlying the combined antitumor effect. Luminal and basal A subtype breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to AFP464, whereas basal B subtype or mesenchymal-like TNBC cells were resistant. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells to AFP464. It also potentiated the antitumor activity of AFP464 in a xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. In vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies suggested that vorinostat reactivated ERα expression and restored AhR-mediated transcriptional induction of CYP1A1. The response of breast cancer cells to AF or AFP464 was associated with their gene expression profile. Vorinostat sensitized mesenchymal-like TNBC to AF, at least in part, by reactivating ERα expression and restoring the responsiveness of AhR to AF.

  4. Circulating YKL-40 in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera treated with the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Bjørn, Mads Emil; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    YKL-40 regulates vascular endothelial growth factors and induces tumor proliferation. We investigated YKL-40 before and after treatment with vorinostat in 31 polycythemia vera (PV) and 16 essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. Baseline PV patient levels were 2 times higher than in healthy...

  5. Vorinostat plus tacrolimus and mycophenolate to prevent graft-versus-host disease after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase 1/2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, S.W.; Braun, T.; Chang, L.; Ferrara, J.L.; Pawarode, A.; Magenau, J.M.; Hou, G.; Beumer, J.H.; Levine, J.E.; Goldstein, S.; Couriel, D.R.; Stockerl-Goldstein, K.; Krijanovski, O.I.; Kitko, C.; Yanik, G.A.; Lehmann, M.H.; Tawara, I.; Sun, Y; Paczesny, S.; Mapara, M.Y.; Dinarello, C.A.; Dipersio, J.F.; Reddy, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a barrier to more widespread application of allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases and was shown to attenuate GVHD in preclinical models. We aimed to study the safety and

  6. Overcoming Resistance of Cancer Cells to PARP-1 Inhibitors with Three Different Drug Combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Yalon

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARPis show promise for treatment of cancers which lack capacity for homologous recombination repair (HRR. However, new therapeutic strategies are required in order to overcome innate and acquired resistance to these drugs and thus expand the array of cancers that could benefit from them. We show that human cancer cell lines which respond poorly to ABT-888 (a PARPi, become sensitive to it when co-treated with vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi. Vorinostat also sensitized PARPis insensitive cancer cell lines to 6-thioguanine (6-TG-a drug that targets PARPis sensitive cells. The sensitizing effect of vorinostat was associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 2α which in and of itself increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to ABT-888. Importantly, these drug combinations did not affect survival of normal fibroblasts and breast cells, and significantly increased the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth relative to each drug alone, without affecting the mice weight or their liver and kidney function. Our results show that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. Importantly, drugs which increase phosphorylation of eIF2α may mimic the sensitizing effect of vorinostat on cellular response to PARPis or to 6-TG, without activating all of its downstream effectors.

  7. Electrooxidation and amperometric determination of vorinostat on hierarchical leaf-like gold nanolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vais, R Dehdari; Karimian, K; Heli, H

    2018-02-01

    Hierarchical leaf-like gold nanolayers were electrodeposited using choline chloride as a shape directing agent and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrooxidation behavior of vorinostat was then studied on the nanolayers and the kinetic parameters of the electrodic process were obtained by voltammetric measurements in a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.40. Vorinostat was electrooxidized on the nanolayers' surface at a lower potential and with a higher rate, compared to a polycrystalline smooth gold surface, through an irreversible process. Based on the results, an amperometric sensor was designed using the hierarchical leaf-like gold nanolayers for the determination of vorinostat. A linear dynamic range of 4.0-52μmol L -1 with a calibration sensitivity of 7.7mAmol -1 L, and a detection limit of 1.40μmolL -1 were obtained. The amperometry method was also applied to the analysis of vorinostat capsules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vorinostat increases carboplatin and paclitaxel activity in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Balius, Trent; Belani, Chandra P.; Hershberger, Pamela A.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a 53% response rate in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with vorinostat plus paclitaxel/carboplatin in a Phase I trial. Studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism (s) underlying this activity. Growth inhibition was assessed in NSCLC cells by MTT assay after 72 h of continuous drug exposure. Vorinostat (1 µM) inhibited growth by: 17±7% in A549, 28±6% in 128-88T, 39±8% in Calu1, and 41±7% in 201T cells. Vorinostat addition to carboplatin or paclitaxel le...

  9. Vorinostat with Sustained Exposure and High Solubility in Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) Micelle Nanocarriers: Characterization and Effects on Pharmacokinetics in Rat Serum and Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A.; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M.; Remsberg, Connie M.; Borg, Thanaa M.; Foda, Abdel Monem M.; Takemoto, Jody K.; Sayre, Casey; Martinez, Stephanie; Davies, Neal M.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anti-cancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat’s pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared to a conventional PEG400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 mg/ml to 8.15 ± 0.60 mg/ml and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/ml at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 nm and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19 %, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22806441

  10. A phase II study of vorinostat (MK-0683) in patients with polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen L; McMullin, Mary F; Ejerblad, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    objective was to evaluate if vorinostat was followed by a decline in clonal myeloproliferation as defined by European Leukaemia Net. Thirty patients (48%) completed the intervention period (24 weeks of therapy). An intention-to-treat response rate of 35% was identified. Pruritus was resolved [19% to 0% (P=0...... (5 patients). In conclusion, vorinostat showed effectiveness by normalizing elevated leucocyte and platelet counts, resolving pruritus and significantly reducing splenomegaly. However, vorinostat was associated with significant side effects resulting in a high discontinuation rate. A lower dose...... of vorinostat in combination with conventional and/or novel targeted therapies may be warranted in future studies....

  11. Vorinostat in refractory soft tissue sarcomas - Results of a multi-centre phase II trial of the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Bone Tumour Working Group (AIO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Mayer-Steinacker, Regine; Mayer, Frank; Grünwald, Viktor; Schütte, Jochen; Hartmann, Jörg T; Kasper, Bernd; Hüsing, Johannes; Hajda, Jacek; Ottawa, Gregor; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Lehmann, Lorenz; Heilig, Christoph E; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2016-09-01

    New treatment options for patients with metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma are urgently needed. Preclinical studies suggested activity of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. A multi-centre, open-label, non-randomised phase II trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of vorinostat in patients with locally advanced or metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma failing 1st-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy was initiated. Patients were treated with vorinostat 400 mg po qd for 28 d followed by a treatment-free period of 7 d, representing a treatment cycle of 5 weeks. Restaging was performed every three cycles or at clinical progression. Between 06/10 and 09/13, 40 Soft Tissue Sarcoma patients were treated with vorinostat at seven participating centres. Patients had received 1 (n=8, 20%), 2 (n=10, 25%) or ≥3 (n=22, 55%) previous lines of chemotherapy. Best response after three cycles of treatment was stable disease (n=9, 23%). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.2 and 12.3 months, respectively. Six patients showed long-lasting disease stabilisation for up to ten cycles. Statistical analyses failed to identify baseline predictive markers in this subgroup. Major toxicities (grade ≥III) included haematological toxicity (n=6, 15%) gastrointestinal disorders (n=5, 13%), fatigue (n=4, 10%), musculoskeletal pain (n=4, 10%), and pneumonia (n=2, 5%). In a heavily pre-treated patient population, objective response to vorinostat was low. However, a small subgroup of patients had long-lasting disease stabilisation. Further studies aiming to identify predictive markers for treatment response as well as exploration of combination regimens are warranted. NCT00918489 (ClinicalTrials.gov) EudraCT-number: 2008-008513-19. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequential Exposure of Bortezomib and Vorinostat is Synergistic in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanavati, Charvi; Mager, Donald E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the combination of bortezomib and vorinostat in multiple myeloma cells (U266) and xenografts, and to assess the nature of their potential interactions with semi-mechanistic pharmacodynamic models and biomarkers. Methods U266 proliferation was examined for a range of bortezomib and vorinostat exposure times and concentrations (alone and in combination). A non-competitive interaction model was used with interaction parameters that reflect the nature of drug interactions after simultaneous and sequential exposures. p21 and cleaved PARP were measured using immunoblotting to assess critical biomarker dynamics. For xenografts, data were extracted from literature and modeled with a PK/PD model with an interaction parameter. Results Estimated model parameters for simultaneous in vitro and xenograft treatments suggested additive drug effects. The sequence of bortezomib preincubation for 24 hours, followed by vorinostat for 24 hours, resulted in an estimated interaction term significantly less than 1, suggesting synergistic effects. p21 and cleaved PARP were also up-regulated the most in this sequence. Conclusions Semi-mechanistic pharmacodynamic modeling suggests synergistic pharmacodynamic interactions for the sequential administration of bortezomib followed by vorinostat. Increased p21 and cleaved PARP expression can potentially explain mechanisms of their enhanced effects, which require further PK/PD systems analysis to suggest an optimal dosing regimen. PMID:28101809

  13. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Transcriptional Modulation of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Primary CD4+ T Cells Following Vorinostat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory H. White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The greatest obstacle to a cure for HIV is the provirus that integrates into the genome of the infected cell and persists despite antiretroviral therapy. A “shock and kill” approach has been proposed as a strategy for an HIV cure whereby drugs and compounds referred to as latency-reversing agents (LRAs are used to “shock” the silent provirus into active replication to permit “killing” by virus-induced pathology or immune recognition. The LRA most utilized to date in clinical trials has been the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor—vorinostat. Potentially, pathological off-target effects of vorinostat may result from the activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which share common ancestry with exogenous retroviruses including HIV. To explore the effects of HDAC inhibition on HERV transcription, an unbiased pharmacogenomics approach (total RNA-Seq was used to evaluate HERV expression following the exposure of primary CD4+ T cells to a high dose of vorinostat. Over 2,000 individual HERV elements were found to be significantly modulated by vorinostat, whereby elements belonging to the ERVL family (e.g., LTR16C and LTR33 were predominantly downregulated, in contrast to LTR12 elements of the HERV-9 family, which exhibited the greatest signal, with the upregulation of 140 distinct elements. The modulation of three different LTR12 elements by vorinostat was confirmed by droplet digital PCR along a dose–response curve. The monitoring of LTR12 expression during clinical trials with vorinostat may be indicated to assess the impact of this HERV on the human genome and host immunity.

  15. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou ... of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer ... Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and GSPs can be an effective and innovative ...

  16. Direct but no transgenerational effects of decitabine and vorinostat on male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kläver

    Full Text Available Establishment and maintenance of the correct epigenetic code is essential for a plethora of physiological pathways and disturbed epigenetic patterns can provoke severe consequences, e.g. tumour formation. In recent years, epigenetic drugs altering the epigenome of tumours actively have been developed for anti-cancer therapies. However, such drugs could potentially also affect other physiological pathways and systems in which intact epigenetic patterns are essential. Amongst those, male fertility is one of the most prominent. Consequently, we addressed possible direct effects of two epigenetic drugs, decitabine and vorinostat, on both, the male germ line and fertility. In addition, we checked for putative transgenerational epigenetic effects on the germ line of subsequent generations (F1-F3. Parental adult male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with either decitabine or vorinostat and analysed as well as three subsequent untreated generations derived from these males. Treatment directly affected several reproductive parameters as testis (decitabine & vorinostat and epididymis weight, size of accessory sex glands (vorinostat, the height of the seminiferous epithelium and sperm concentration and morphology (decitabine. Furthermore, after decitabine administration, DNA methylation of a number of loci was altered in sperm. However, when analysing fertility of treated mice (fertilisation, litter size and sex ratio, no major effect of the selected epigenetic drugs on male fertility was detected. In subsequent generations (F1-F3 generations only subtle changes on reproductive organs, sperm parameters and DNA methylation but no overall effect on fertility was observed. Consequently, in mice, decitabine and vorinostat neither affected male fertility per se nor caused marked transgenerational effects. We therefore suggest that both drugs do not induce major adverse effects-in terms of male fertility and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance-when used in anti-cancer-therapies.

  17. Direct but no transgenerational effects of decitabine and vorinostat on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläver, Ruth; Sánchez, Victoria; Damm, Oliver S; Redmann, Klaus; Lahrmann, Elisabeth; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Rohde, Christian; Wistuba, Joachim; Ehmcke, Jens; Schlatt, Stefan; Gromoll, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of the correct epigenetic code is essential for a plethora of physiological pathways and disturbed epigenetic patterns can provoke severe consequences, e.g. tumour formation. In recent years, epigenetic drugs altering the epigenome of tumours actively have been developed for anti-cancer therapies. However, such drugs could potentially also affect other physiological pathways and systems in which intact epigenetic patterns are essential. Amongst those, male fertility is one of the most prominent. Consequently, we addressed possible direct effects of two epigenetic drugs, decitabine and vorinostat, on both, the male germ line and fertility. In addition, we checked for putative transgenerational epigenetic effects on the germ line of subsequent generations (F1-F3). Parental adult male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with either decitabine or vorinostat and analysed as well as three subsequent untreated generations derived from these males. Treatment directly affected several reproductive parameters as testis (decitabine & vorinostat) and epididymis weight, size of accessory sex glands (vorinostat), the height of the seminiferous epithelium and sperm concentration and morphology (decitabine). Furthermore, after decitabine administration, DNA methylation of a number of loci was altered in sperm. However, when analysing fertility of treated mice (fertilisation, litter size and sex ratio), no major effect of the selected epigenetic drugs on male fertility was detected. In subsequent generations (F1-F3 generations) only subtle changes on reproductive organs, sperm parameters and DNA methylation but no overall effect on fertility was observed. Consequently, in mice, decitabine and vorinostat neither affected male fertility per se nor caused marked transgenerational effects. We therefore suggest that both drugs do not induce major adverse effects-in terms of male fertility and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance-when used in anti-cancer-therapies.

  18. Vorinostat Combined with High-Dose Gemcitabine, Busulfan, and Melphalan with Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Refractory Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Yago; Valdez, Benigno C; Thall, Peter F; Ahmed, Sairah; Jones, Roy B; Hosing, Chitra; Popat, Uday; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Gulbis, Alison; Anderlini, Paolo; Alousi, Amin; Shah, Nina; Bashir, Qaiser; Liu, Yan; Oki, Yasuhiro; Hagemeister, Frederick; Fanale, Michelle; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Pinnix, Chelsea; Champlin, Richard; Andersson, Borje S

    2015-11-01

    More active high-dose regimens are needed for refractory/poor-risk relapsed lymphomas. We previously developed a regimen of infusional gemcitabine/busulfan/melphalan, exploiting the synergistic interaction. Its encouraging activity in refractory lymphomas led us to further enhance its use as a platform for epigenetic modulation. We previously observed increased cytotoxicity in refractory lymphoma cell lines when the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat was added to gemcitabine/busulfan/melphalan, which prompted us to clinically study this four-drug combination. Patients ages 12 to 65 with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL), Hodgkin (HL), or T lymphoma were eligible. Vorinostat was given at 200 mg/day to 1000 mg/day (days -8 to -3). Gemcitabine was infused continuously at 10 mg/m(2)/minute over 4.5 hours (days -8 and -3). Busulfan dosing targeted 4000 μM-minute/day (days -8 to -5). Melphalan was infused at 60 mg/m(2)/day (days -3 and -2). Patients with CD20(+) tumors received rituximab (375 mg/m(2), days +1 and +8). We enrolled 78 patients: 52 DLCL, 20 HL, and 6 T lymphoma; median age 44 years (range, 15 to 65); median 3 prior chemotherapy lines (range, 2 to 7); and 48% of patients had positron emission tomography-positive tumors at high-dose chemotherapy (29% unresponsive). The vorinostat dose was safely escalated up to 1000 mg/day, with no treatment-related deaths. Toxicities included mucositis and dermatitis. Neutrophils and platelets engrafted promptly. At median follow-up of 25 (range, 16 to 41) months, event-free and overall survival were 61.5% and 73%, respectively (DLCL) and 45% and 80%, respectively (HL). In conclusion, vorinostat/gemcitabine/busulfan/melphalan is safe and highly active in refractory/poor-risk relapsed lymphomas, warranting further evaluation. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCI-2011-02891). Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bratland, Ase

    2011-04-08

    Abstract Background In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Findings Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. Conclusions When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00455351

  20. Gastrointestinal toxicity of vorinostat: reanalysis of phase 1 study results with emphasis on dose-volume effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratland, Åse; Dueland, Svein; Hollywood, Donal; Flatmark, Kjersti; Ree, Anne H

    2011-01-01

    In early-phase studies with targeted therapeutics and radiotherapy, it may be difficult to decide whether an adverse event should be considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the investigational systemic agent, as acute normal tissue toxicity is frequently encountered with radiation alone. We have reanalyzed the toxicity data from a recently conducted phase 1 study on vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with pelvic palliative radiotherapy, with emphasis on the dose distribution within the irradiated bowel volume to the development of DLT. Of 14 eligible patients, three individuals experienced Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events grade 3 gastrointestinal and related toxicities, representing a toxicity profile vorinostat has in common with radiotherapy to pelvic target volumes. For each study patient, the relative volumes of small bowel receiving radiation doses between 6 Gy and 30 Gy at 6-Gy intervals (V6-V30) were determined from the treatment-planning computed tomography scans. The single patient that experienced a DLT at the second highest dose level of vorinostat, which was determined as the maximum-tolerated dose, had V6-V30 dose-volume estimates that were considerably higher than any other study patient. This patient may have experienced an adverse radiation dose-volume effect rather than a toxic effect of the investigational drug. When reporting early-phase trial results on the tolerability of a systemic targeted therapeutic used as potential radiosensitizing agent, radiation dose-volume effects should be quantified to enable full interpretation of the study toxicity profile.

  1. A Phase I study of intermittently dosed vorinostat in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Dustin A; Ninan, Jacob; Bailey, Howard H; Kolesar, Jill M; Eickhoff, Jens; Reid, Joel M; Ames, Matthew M; McGovern, Renee M; Alberti, Dona; Marnocha, Rebecca; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Wright, John; Wilding, George; Schelman, William R

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence shows evidence of efficacy with the combination of vorinostat and bortezomib in solid tumors. We previously examined a once-daily continuous dosing schedule of vorinostat in combination with bortezomib which was well tolerated in cycles 1 and 2; however, there was concern regarding the tolerability through multiple cycles. This study was conducted to evaluate an intermittent dosing schedule of vorinostat with bortezomib. Vorinostat was initially administered orally twice daily on days 1-14 with bortezomib IV on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21 day cycle. Two DLTs (elevated ALT and fatigue) were observed at dose level 1, thus the protocol was amended to administer vorinostat intermittently twice daily on days 1-4 and 8-11. 29 patients were enrolled; 13 men and 16 women. Common cancer types included sarcoma, pancreatic, colorectal, GIST, and breast. The most common Grade 3-4 toxicities at any dose level included thrombocytopenia, fatigue, increased ALT, elevated INR, and diarrhea. DLTs in the intermittent dosing scheduled included thrombocytopenia and fatigue. The Cmax and AUC for the intermittent dosing regimen were similar to those observed in the daily dosing. In this heavily pretreated population, stable disease was observed in patients with sarcoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma and GIST. The MTD was established at vorinostat 300 mg BID on days 1-4 and 8-11 and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) IV on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21 day cycle. Tolerability was not improved with the intermittent dosing schedule of vorinostat when compared to continuous dosing.

  2. A phase I study of vorinostat in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelman, William R; Traynor, Anne M; Holen, Kyle D; Kolesar, Jill M; Attia, Steven; Hoang, Tien; Eickhoff, Jens; Jiang, Zhisheng; Alberti, Dona; Marnocha, Rebecca; Reid, Joel M; Ames, Matthew M; McGovern, Renee M; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Wright, John J; Wilding, George; Bailey, Howard H

    2013-12-01

    A phase I study to assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), pharmacokinetics (PK) and antitumor activity of vorinostat in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients received vorinostat orally once daily on days 1-14 and bortezomib intravenously on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of a 21-day cycle. Starting dose (level 1) was vorinostat (400 mg) and bortezomib (0.7 mg/m(2)). Bortezomib dosing was increased using a standard phase I dose-escalation schema. PKs were evaluated during cycle 1. Twenty-three patients received 57 cycles of treatment on four dose levels ranging from bortezomib 0.7 mg/m(2) to 1.5 mg/m(2). The MTD was established at vorinostat 400 mg daily and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2). DLTs consisted of grade 3 fatigue in three patients (1 mg/m(2),1.3 mg/m(2) and 1.5 mg/m(2)) and grade 3 hyponatremia in one patient (1.5 mg/m(2)). The most common grade 1/2 toxicities included nausea (60.9%), fatigue (34.8%), diaphoresis (34.8%), anorexia (30.4%) and constipation (26.1%). Objective partial responses were observed in one patient with NSCLC and in one patient with treatment-refractory soft tissue sarcoma. Bortezomib did not affect the PKs of vorinostat; however, the Cmax and AUC of the acid metabolite were significantly increased on day 2 compared with day 1. This combination was generally well-tolerated at doses that achieved clinical benefit. The MTD was established at vorinostat 400 mg daily × 14 days and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of a 21-day cycle.

  3. A phase I study of vorinostat combined with bortezomib in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Ogura, Michinori; Tobinai, Kensei; Ando, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Takashi; Ohmachi, Ken; Uchida, Toshiki; Hanson, Mary E; Tanaka, Yoshinobu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Shimamoto, Takashi; Hotta, Tomomitsu

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics and to determine treatment doses of vorinostat plus bortezomib in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Of 9 originally enrolled patients, 2 were refractory to bortezomib, and both experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), prompting a protocol amendment to exclude bortezomib-refractory individuals. Patients not considered bortezomib refractory (N = 7) received 21-day cycles of 1.3 mg/m(2) intravenous bortezomib (Days 1, 4, 8, and 11) and oral vorinostat 400 mg (Days 1 through 14) and were further evaluated. Vorinostat and bortezomib treatment doses were determined by DLT and safety, tolerability, and treatment response were assessed. Of 7 enrolled patients, 6 were evaluated, and one developed DLTs. The most common adverse events were leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, nausea, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Combination of vorinostat plus bortezomib did not increase vorinostat exposure at Day 11 [AUC0-24 h ratio (95% CI) = 1.08 (0.80, 1.45)]; geometric mean AUC0-24 h ratio for bortezomib (90% CI) was 1.96 (1.24-3.12). Objective therapeutic response occurred in 3 patients, including 1 complete response and 2 partial responses. Vorinostat 400 mg plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was safe and well-tolerated in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory MM not considered bortezomib refractory (NCT00858234).

  4. Phase I study of vorinostat in combination with temozolomide in patients with high-grade gliomas: North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 04-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eudocia Q; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Reid, Joel M; Kuhn, John G; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Chang, Susan M; Drappatz, Jan; Yung, W K Alfred; Gilbert, Mark R; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Lassman, Andrew B; McGovern, Renee M; Xu, Jihong; Desideri, Serena; Ye, Xiabu; Ames, Matthew M; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Prados, Michael D; Wen, Patrick Y

    2012-11-01

    A phase I, dose-finding study of vorinostat in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and pharmacokinetics in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). This phase I, dose-finding, investigational study was conducted in two parts. Part 1 was a dose-escalation study of vorinostat in combination with TMZ 150 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days every 28 days. Part 2 was a dose-escalation study of vorinostat in combination with TMZ 150 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days of the first cycle and 200 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days of the subsequent 28-day cycles. In part 1, the MTD of vorinostat administered on days 1 to 7 and 15 to 21 of every 28-day cycle, in combination with TMZ, was 500 mg daily. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) included grade 3 anorexia, grade 3 ALT, and grade 5 hemorrhage in the setting of grade 4 thrombocytopenia. In part 2, the MTD of vorinostat on days 1 to 7 and 15 to 21 of every 28-day cycle, combined with TMZ, was 400 mg daily. No DLTs were encountered, but vorinostat dosing could not be escalated further due to thrombocytopenia. The most common serious adverse events were fatigue, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and thromboembolic events. There were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions between vorinostat and TMZ. Vorinostat treatment resulted in hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in peripheral mononuclear cells. Vorinostat in combination with temozolomide is well tolerated in patients with HGG. A phase I/II trial of vorinostat with radiotherapy and concomitant TMZ in newly diagnosed glioblastoma is underway. ©2012 AACR.

  5. Dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors suppress cellular geroconversion (a senescence program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontieva, Olga V; Demidenko, Zoya N; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2015-09-15

    In proliferating cells, mTOR is active and promotes cell growth. When the cell cycle is arrested, then mTOR converts reversible arrest to senescence (geroconversion). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress geroconversion, maintaining quiescence instead. Here we showed that ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors (Torin1 and PP242), which inhibit both mTORC1 and TORC2, also suppressed geroconversion. Despite inhibition of proliferation (in proliferating cells), mTOR inhibitors preserved re-proliferative potential (RP) in arrested cells. In p21-arrested cells, Torin 1 and PP242 detectably suppressed geroconversion at concentrations as low as 1-3 nM and 10-30 nM, reaching maximal gerosuppression at 30 nM and 300 nM, respectively. Near-maximal gerosuppression coincided with inhibition of p-S6K(T389) and p-S6(S235/236). Dual mTOR inhibitors prevented senescent morphology and hypertrophy. Our study warrants investigation into whether low doses of dual mTOR inhibitors will prolong animal life span and delay age-related diseases. A new class of potential anti-aging drugs can be envisioned.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces HIV expression in CD4 T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy at concentrations achieved by clinical dosing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsen George Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD, a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM and other histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM. The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.

  7. Phase I study of vorinostat in combination with isotretinoin in patients with refractory/recurrent neuroblastoma: A new approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy (NANT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Navin; DuBois, Steven G; Marachelian, Araz; Diede, Scott J; Taraseviciute, Agne; Glade Bender, Julia L; Tsao-Wei, Denice; Groshen, Susan G; Reid, Joel M; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Reynolds, C Patrick; Kang, Min H; Irwin, Meredith S; Macy, Margaret E; Villablanca, Judith G; Matthay, Katherine K; Park, Julie R

    2018-03-30

    Vorinostat combined with retinoids produces additive antitumor effects in preclinical studies of neuroblastoma. Higher systemic exposures of vorinostat than achieved in pediatric phase I trials with continuous daily dosing are necessary for in vivo increased histone acetylation and cytotoxic activity. We conducted a phase I trial in children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat on an interrupted schedule, escalating beyond the previously identified pediatric MTD. Isotretinoin (cis-13-retinoic acid) 80 mg/m 2 /dose was administered by mouth twice daily on days 1-14 in combination with escalating doses of daily vorinostat up to 430 mg/m 2 /dose (days 1-4; 8-11) in each 28-day cycle using the standard 3 + 3 design. Vorinostat pharmacokinetic testing and histone acetylation assays were performed. Twenty-nine patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma were enrolled and 28 were evaluable for dose escalation decisions. Median number of cycles completed was two (range 1-15); 11 patients received four or more cycles. Three patients experienced cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicities. A total of 18 patients experienced grade 3/4 toxicities related to study therapy. The maximum intended dose of vorinostat (430 mg/m 2 /day, days 1-4; 8-11) was tolerable and led to increased histone acetylation in surrogate tissues when compared to lower doses of vorinostat (P = 0.009). No objective responses were seen. Increased dose vorinostat (430 mg/m 2 /day) on an interrupted schedule is tolerable in combination with isotretinoin. This dose led to increased vorinostat exposures and demonstrated increased histone acetylation. Prolonged stable disease in patients with minimal residual disease warrants further investigation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inhibitors of the proteasome suppress homologous DNA recombination in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Barber, Louise J; Zeng, Weihua; Yokomori, Kyoko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Lehmann, Alan; Zhao, Guang Yu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Boulton, Simon J; Takeda, Shunichi

    2007-09-15

    Proteasome inhibitors are novel antitumor agents against multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Despite the increasing clinical application, the molecular basis of their antitumor effect has been poorly understood due to the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in multiple cellular metabolisms. Here, we show that treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors has no significant effect on nonhomologous end joining but suppresses homologous recombination (HR), which plays a key role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In this study, we treat human cells with proteasome inhibitors and show that the inhibition of the proteasome reduces the efficiency of HR-dependent repair of an artificial HR substrate. We further show that inhibition of the proteasome interferes with the activation of Rad51, a key factor for HR, although it does not affect the activation of ATM, gammaH2AX, or Mre11. These data show that the proteasome-mediated destruction is required for the promotion of HR at an early step. We suggest that the defect in HR-mediated DNA repair caused by proteasome inhibitors contributes to antitumor effect, as HR plays an essential role in cellular proliferation. Moreover, because HR plays key roles in the repair of DSBs caused by chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and by radiotherapy, proteasome inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of these treatments through the suppression of HR-mediated DNA repair pathways.

  9. Combination treatment with docetaxel and histone deacetylase inhibitors downregulates androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Eun; Kim, Ha-Gyeong; Kim, Dong Eun; Jung, Yoo Jung; Kim, Yunlim; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2018-04-01

    Backgrounds Since most patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develop resistance to its standard therapy docetaxel, many studies have attempted to identify novel combination treatment to meet the large clinical unmet need. In this study, we examined whether histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) enhanced the effect of docetaxel on AR signaling in CRPC cells harboring AR and its splice variants. Methods HDACIs (vorinostat and CG200745) were tested for their ability to enhance the effects of docetaxel on cell viability and inhibition of AR signaling in CRPC 22Rv1 and VCaP cells by using CellTiter-Glo™ Luminescent cell viability assay, synergy index analysis and Western blotting. The nuclear localization of AR was examined via immunocytochemical staining in 22Rv1 cells and primary tumor cells from a patient with CRPC. Results Combination treatment with HDACIs (vorinostat or CG200745) and docetaxel synergistically inhibited the growth of 22Rv1 and VCaP cells. Consistently, the combination treatment decreased the levels of full-length AR (AR-FL), AR splice variants (AR-Vs), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins more efficiently compared with docetaxel or vorinostat alone. Moreover, the combination treatment accelerated the acetylation and bundling of tubulin, which significantly inhibited the nuclear accumulation of AR in 22Rv1 cells. The cytoplasmic colocalization of AR-FL and AR-V7 with microtubule bundles increased after combination treatment in primary tumor cells from a patient with CRPC. Conclusions The results suggested that docetaxel, in combination with HDACIs, suppressed the expression and nuclear translocation of AR-FL and AR-Vs and showed synergistic anti-proliferative effect in CRPC cells. This combination therapy may be useful for the treatment of patients with CRPC.

  10. Combined autophagy and HDAC inhibition: a phase I safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic analysis of hydroxychloroquine in combination with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Devalingam; Mita, Monica; Sarantopoulos, John; Wood, Leslie; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Davis, Lisa E; Mita, Alain C; Curiel, Tyler J; Espitia, Claudia M; Nawrocki, Steffan T; Giles, Francis J; Carew, Jennifer S

    2014-08-01

    We previously reported that inhibition of autophagy significantly augmented the anticancer activity of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) through a cathepsin D-mediated mechanism. We thus conducted a first-in-human study to investigate the safety, preliminary efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the combination of the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and VOR in patients with advanced solid tumors. Of 27 patients treated in the study, 24 were considered fully evaluable for study assessments and toxicity. Patients were treated orally with escalating doses of HCQ daily (QD) (d 2 to 21 of a 21-d cycle) in combination with 400 mg VOR QD (d one to 21). Treatment-related adverse events (AE) included grade 1 to 2 nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, and elevated creatinine. Grade 3 fatigue and/or myelosuppression were observed in a minority of patients. Fatigue and gastrointestinal AE were dose-limiting toxicities. Six-hundred milligrams HCQ and 400 mg VOR was established as the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II regimen. One patient with renal cell carcinoma had a confirmed durable partial response and 2 patients with colorectal cancer had prolonged stable disease. The addition of HCQ did not significantly impact the PK profile of VOR. Treatment-related increases in the expression of CDKN1A and CTSD were more pronounced in tumor biopsies than peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Based on the safety and preliminary efficacy of this combination, additional clinical studies are currently being planned to further investigate autophagy inhibition as a new approach to increase the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors.

  11. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Anagliptin Prevents Intracranial Aneurysm Growth by Suppressing Macrophage Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Minami, Manabu; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Nagata, Manabu; Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Yasui, Mika; Aoki, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Yokode, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-06-19

    Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects, including suppressing macrophage infiltration, in various inflammatory models. We examined whether a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, could suppress the growth of IAs in a rodent aneurysm model. IAs were surgically induced in 7-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats, followed by oral administration of 300 mg/kg anagliptin. We measured the morphologic parameters of aneurysms over time and their local inflammatory responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we used lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the anagliptin-treated group, aneurysms were significantly smaller 2 to 4 weeks after IA induction. Anagliptin inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in IAs, reduced the expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, anagliptin treatment significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor α, MCP-1, and IL-6 (interleukin 6) independent of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), the key mediator in the antidiabetic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, anagliptin activated ERK5 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5), which mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, in RAW264.7 macrophages. Preadministration with an ERK5 inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of anagliptin on MCP-1 and IL-6 expression. Accordingly, the ERK5 inhibitor also counteracted the suppression of p65 phosphorylation in vitro. A DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, prevents the growth of IAs via its anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Vorinostat or placebo in combination with bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma (VANTAGE 088): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios; Siegel, David S; Lonial, Sagar; Qi, Junyuan; Hajek, Roman; Facon, Thierry; Rosinol, Laura; Williams, Catherine; Blacklock, Hilary; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hungria, Vania; Spencer, Andrew; Palumbo, Antonio; Graef, Thorsten; Eid, Joseph E; Houp, Jennifer; Sun, Linda; Vuocolo, Scott; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2013-10-01

    We aimed to assess efficacy and tolerability of vorinostat in combination with bortezomib for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In our randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we enrolled adults (≥18 years) at 174 university hospitals in 31 countries worldwide. Eligible patients had to have non-refractory multiple myeloma that previously responded to treatment (one to three regimens) but were currently progressing, ECOG performance statuses of 2 or less, and no continuing toxic effects from previous treatment. We excluded patients with known resistance to bortezomib. We randomly allocated patients (1:1) using an interactive voice response system to receive 21 day cycles of bortezomib (1·3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) in combination with oral vorinostat (400 mg) or matching placebo once-daily on days 1-14. We stratified patients by baseline tumour stage (International Staging System stage 1 or stage ≥2), previous bone-marrow transplantation (yes or no), and number of previous regimens (1 or ≥2). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed adverse events in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number 00773747. Between Dec 24, 2008, and Sept 8, 2011, we randomly allocated 317 eligible patients to the vorinostat group (315 of whom received at least one dose) and 320 to the placebo group (all of whom received at least one dose). Median PFS was 7·63 months (95% CI 6·87-8·40) in the vorinostat group and 6·83 months (5·67-7·73) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·64-0·94; p=0·0100). 312 (99%) of 315 patients in the vorinostat group and 315 (98%) of 320 patients in the placebo group had adverse events (300 [95%] adverse events in the vorinostat group and 282 [88%] in the control group were regarded as related to treatment). The most

  13. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Are Weak Activators of the FMR1 Gene in Fragile X Syndrome Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. It is a result of CGG repeat expansion in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR of the FMR1 gene. This gene encodes the FMRP protein that is involved in neuronal development. Repeat expansion leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter, gene silencing, and the subsequent absence of FMRP. To date, there is no specific therapy for the syndrome. All treatments in clinic practice provide symptomatic therapy. The development of drug therapy for Fragile X syndrome treatment is connected with the search for inhibitors of enzymes that are responsible for heterochromatinization. Here, we report a weak transcriptional activity of the FMR1 gene and the absence of FMRP protein after Fragile X syndrome cell lines treatment with two FDA approved inhibitors of histone deacetylases, romidepsin and vorinostat. We demonstrate that romidepsin, an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases, does not activate FMR1 expression in patient cell cultures, whereas vorinostat, an inhibitor of classes I and II histone deacetylases, activates a low level of FMR1 expression in some patient cell lines.

  14. New clinical developments in histone deacetylase inhibitors for epigenetic therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yuehua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA methylation and histone acetylation are two well known epigenetic chromatin modifications. Epigenetic agents leading to DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation have been approved for treatment of hematological disorders. The first histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been licensed for cutaneous T cell lymphoma treatment. More than 11 new epigenetic agents are in various stages of clinical development for therapy of multiple cancer types. In this review we summarize novel histone deacetylase inhibitors and new regimens from clinical trials for epigenetic therapy of cancer.

  15. A Phase I Study of Pulse High-Dose Vorinostat (V) plus Rituximab (R), Ifosphamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide (ICE) in Patients with Relapsed Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Lihua E.; Zhang, Michelle M.; Shustov, Andrei R.; Pagel, John M.; Gooley, Ted A.; Oliveira, George R.; Chen, Tara L.; Knudsen, Nancy L.; Roden, Jennifer E.; Kammerer, Britt E.; Frayo, Shani L.; Warr, Thomas A.; Boyd, Thomas E.; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Given the poor outcomes of relapsed aggressive lymphomas and preclinical data suggesting that ≥2.5 μM concentrations of vorinostat synergize with both etoposide and platinums, we hypothesized that pulse high-dose vorinostat could safely augment the anti-tumour activity of (R)ICE [(rituximab), ifosphamide, carboplatin, etoposide] chemotherapy. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study using a schedule with oral vorinostat ranging from 400 mg/d to 700 mg bid for 5 days in combination with the standard (R)ICE regimen (days 3, 4 and 5). Twenty-nine patients (median age 56 years, median 2 prior therapies, 14 chemoresistant [of 27 evaluable], 2 prior transplants) were enrolled and treated. The maximally tolerated vorinostat dose was defined as 500 mg twice daily × 5 days. Common dose limiting toxicities included infection (n=2), hypokalaemia (n=2), and transaminitis (n=2). Grade 3 related gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients. The median vorinostat concentration on day 3 was 4.5 μM (range 4.2–6.0 μM) and in vitro data confirmed the augmented antitumour and histone acetylation activity at these levels. Responses were observed in 19 of 27 evaluable patients (70%) including 8 complete response/unconfirmed complete response. High-dose vorinostat can be delivered safely with (R)ICE, achieves potentially synergistic drug levels, and warrants further study, although adequate gastrointestinal prophylaxis is warranted. PMID:23356514

  16. Comparative effects of 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid and vorinostat on cell growth and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Timothy J; Ali, Amna; Matesic, Diane F

    2015-02-01

    4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid (PBA) is a small-molecule anti-inflammatory agent, which has been shown to inhibit growth, increase gap junction intercellular communication and modulate activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) in tumorigenic cells at concentrations that do not similarly affect non-tumorigenic cells. Vorinostat is an anticancer agent structurally similar to PBA. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these two agents on JNK and p38 activation, cell growth and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Cell growth, GJIC and western blot analyses were performed utilizing tumorigenic WBras1 and H2009 human carcinoma cells, and non-tumorigenic WBneo3 and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Both compounds significantly inhibited WBras1 and H2009 tumorigenic cell growth and increased GJIC in WBras1 cells, as previously reported for PBA. Under similar conditions, both compounds increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in tumorigenic but not in non-tumorigenic cells and decreased phosphorylation of JNK in tumorigenic cells. However, a decrease in phosphorylation of JNK occurred in non-tumorigenic WBras1 cells following vorinostat treatment but not PBA treatment. Both compounds showed a selective growth inhibition of H2009 human carcinoma over normal HBE lung cells but, unlike PBA, vorinostat significantly decreased cell growth in WBneo3 cells. Overall, PBA exhibited similar effects to vorinostat in tumorigenic cells, while also showing reduced effects on JNK phosphorylation and growth in non-tumorigenic cells compared to ras-transformed cells. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. A phase I trial of vorinostat and alvocidib in patients with relapsed, refractory, or poor prognosis acute leukemia, or refractory anemia with excess blasts-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkova, Beata; Supko, Jeffrey G; Ames, Matthew M; Reid, Joel M; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Perkins, Edward Brent; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Tombes, Mary Beth; Honeycutt, Connie; McGovern, Renee M; Kmieciak, Maciej; Shrader, Ellen; Wellons, Martha D; Sankala, Heidi; Doyle, Austin; Wright, John; Roberts, John D; Grant, Steven

    2013-04-01

    This phase I study was conducted to identify the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of alvocidib when combined with vorinostat in patients with relapsed, refractory, or poor prognosis acute leukemia, or refractory anemia with excess blasts-2. Secondary objectives included investigating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of the combination. Patients received vorinostat (200 mg orally, three times a day, for 14 days) on a 21-day cycle, combined with 2 different alvocidib administration schedules: a 1-hour intravenous infusion, daily × 5; or a 30-minute loading infusion followed by a 4-hour maintenance infusion, weekly × 2. The alvocidib dose was escalated using a standard 3+3 design. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and treated. The alvocidib MTD was 20 mg/m(2) (30-minute loading infusion) followed by 20 mg/m(2) (4-hour maintenance infusion) on days one and eight, in combination with vorinostat. The most frequently encountered toxicities were cytopenias, fatigue, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and QT prolongation. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were cardiac arrhythmia-atrial fibrillation and QT prolongation. No objective responses were achieved although 13 of 26 evaluable patients exhibited stable disease. Alvocidib seemed to alter vorinostat pharmacokinetics, whereas alvocidib pharmacokinetics were unaffected by vorinostat. Ex vivo exposure of leukemia cells to plasma obtained from patients after alvocidib treatment blocked vorinostat-mediated p21(CIP1) induction and downregulated Mcl-1 and p-RNA Pol II for some specimens, although parallel in vivo bone marrow responses were infrequent. Alvocidib combined with vorinostat is well tolerated. Although disease stabilization occurred in some heavily pretreated patients, objective responses were not obtained with these schedules. ©2013 AACR.

  18. Overview of the Classical Histone Deacetylase Enzymes and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2012-01-01

    The important role of histone deacetylase enzymes in regulating gene expression, cellular proliferation, and survival has made them attractive targets for the development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza), a structural analogue of the prototypical Trichostatin A, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in 2006. This was followed by approval of the cycl...

  19. Subtype-specific suppression of Shiga toxin 2 released from Escherichia coli upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Gantzhorn; Hansen, Claus; Riise, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of severe disease including hemolytic-uremic syndrome, caused by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC strains increase the release of Stx in vitro following the addition of fluoroquinolones, whereas protein synthesis...... inhibitors previously have been reported to suppress the release of Stx. The amount of Stx released from wild-type STEC strains incubated with protein synthesis inhibitors was examined by a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The amounts released were compared to the Stx type (Stx1 or Stx2) and additionally...... to the individual subtypes and toxin variants of Stx2. In general, Stx2 release was suppressed significantly upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors at MICs, which was not observed in the case of Stx1. Also, the average amount of different Stx2 toxin variants released was suppressed to various levels ranging...

  20. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ming Jang; Arnold, Megan S J; Xu, Weijun; Lancelot, Julien; Lamotte, Suzanne; Späth, Gerald F; Prina, Eric; Pierce, Raymond J; Fairlie, David P; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Andrews, Katherine T

    2017-04-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin) that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC 50 9-370 nM), with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8-45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF) or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC 50  > 20 μM) or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC 50  > 10 μM), however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC 50 ∼10 μM). Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days), with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4-7 and 4-10 after infection (P < 0.05), respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Jang Chua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC50 9–370 nM, with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8–45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC50 > 20 μM or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC50 > 10 μM, however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC50 ∼10 μM. Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days, with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4–7 and 4–10 after infection (P < 0.05, respectively.

  2. Negative effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on recurrence-free survival in stage II-IIIA lung adenocarcinoma and its expression modulation by vorinostat in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju; Jin, DongHao; Lee, Bo Bin; Kim, Yujin; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2015-12-17

    This study was aimed at identifying prognostic biomarkers for stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to histology and at investigating the effect of vorinostat on the expression of these biomarkers. Expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A2, cyclin E, and p16 proteins that are involved in the G1-to-S phase progression of cell cycle were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 372 samples of stage II-IIIA NSCLC. The effect of vorinostat on the expression of these proteins, impacts on cell cycle, and histone modification was explored in lung cancer cells. Abnormal expression of cyclin A2, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p16 was found in 66, 47, 34, and 51 % of 372 cases, respectively. Amongst the four proteins, only cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.87; 95 % confidence interval = 1.12 - 2.69, P = 0.02) in adenocarcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.44). Vorinostat inhibited cell cycle progression to the S-phase and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1 in vitro. The down-regulation of cyclin D1 by vorinostat was comparable to a siRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclin D1 in A549 cells, but vorinostat in the presence of benzo[a]pyrene showed a differential effect in different lung cancer cell lines. Cyclin D1 down-regulation by vorinostat was associated with the accumulation of dimethyl-H3K9 at the promoter of the gene. The present study suggests that cyclin D1 may be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in stage II-IIIA adenocarcinoma of lung and its expression may be modulated by vorinostat.

  3. Vorinostat in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, D S; Richardson, P; Dimopoulos, M; Moreau, P; Mitsiades, C; Weber, D; Houp, J; Gause, C; Vuocolo, S; Eid, J; Graef, T; Anderson, K C

    2014-01-01

    The addition of vorinostat to lenalidomide/dexamethasone represents a novel combination therapy in multiple myeloma (MM), informed by laboratory studies suggesting synergy. This was a phase I, multicenter, open-label, non-randomized, dose-escalating study in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory MM. Clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, laboratory studies and adverse events were obtained and assessed. The maximum-tolerated dose was not reached owing to a non-occurrence of two dose-limiting toxicities per six patients tested at any of the dosing levels. Patients tolerated the highest dose tested (Level 5) and this was considered the maximum administered dose: at 400 mg vorinostat on days 1–7 and 15–21, 25 mg lenalidomide on days 1–21 and 40 mg dexamethasone on days 1, 8, 15 and 22, per 28-day cycle. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 90% of patients serious adverse experiences were reported in 45% of the patients and 22% of all patients had adverse experiences considered, possibly related to study drug by the investigators. A confirmed partial response or better was reported for 14/30 patients (47%) evaluable for efficacy, including 31% of patients previously treated with lenalidomide. Vorinostat in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone proved tolerable with appropriate supportive care, with encouraging activity observed

  4. IκBα mediates prostate cancer cell death induced by combinatorial targeting of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Sarah Louise; Centenera, Margaret Mary; Tilley, Wayne Desmond; Selth, Luke Ashton; Butler, Lisa Maree

    2016-01-01

    Combining different clinical agents to target multiple pathways in prostate cancer cells, including androgen receptor (AR) signaling, is potentially an effective strategy to improve outcomes for men with metastatic disease. We have previously demonstrated that sub-effective concentrations of an AR antagonist, bicalutamide, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, act synergistically when combined to cause death of AR-dependent prostate cancer cells. In this study, expression profiling of human prostate cancer cells treated with bicalutamide or vorinostat, alone or in combination, was employed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying this synergistic action. Cell viability assays and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate identified candidate genes. A substantial proportion of the genes modulated by the combination of bicalutamide and vorinostat were androgen regulated. Independent pathway analysis identified further pathways and genes, most notably NFKBIA (encoding IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB and p53 signaling), as targets of this combinatorial treatment. Depletion of IκBα by siRNA knockdown enhanced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, while ectopic overexpression of IκBα markedly suppressed cell death induced by the combination of bicalutamide and vorinostat. These findings implicate IκBα as a key mediator of the apoptotic action of this combinatorial AR targeting strategy and a promising new therapeutic target for prostate cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2188-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. A therapeutic trial of decitabine and vorinostat in combination with chemotherapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Lamba, Jatinder K; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Ghodke-Puranik, Yogita; Lindgren, Bruce R; Weigel, Brenda J; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation are pathways of leukemia resistance. We investigated the tolerability and efficacy of decitabine and vorinostat plus chemotherapy in relapse/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Decitabine (15 mg/m(2) iv) and vorinostat (230 mg/m(2) PO div BID) were given days 1-4 followed by vincristine, prednisone, PEG-asparaginase, and doxorubicin. Genome wide methylation profiles were performed in 8 matched patient bone marrow (BM) samples taken at day 0 and day 5 (postdecitabine). The median age was 16 (range, 3-54) years. All patients had a prior BM relapse, with five relapsing after allogeneic transplant. The most common nonhematological toxicities possibly related to decitabine or vorinostat were infection with neutropenia (grade 3; n = 4) and fever/neutropenia (grade 3, n = 4; grade 4, n = 1). Of the 13 eligible patients, four achieved complete remission without platelet recovery (CRp), two partial response (PR), one stable disease (SD), one progressive disease (PD), two deaths on study and three patients who did not have end of therapy disease evaluations for an overall response rate of 46.2% (CRp + PR). Following decitabine, significant genome-wide hypo-methylation was observed. Comparison of clinical responders with nonresponders identified methylation profiles of clinical and biological relevance. Decitabine and vorinostat followed by re-Induction chemotherapy was tolerable and demonstrated clinical benefit in relapsed patients with ALL. Methylation differences were identified between responders and nonresponders indicating interpatient variation, which could impact clinical outcome. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00882206. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eckschlager

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC and histone acetyltransferases (HAT. HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  8. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  9. The sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines to histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced apoptosis is modulated by BCL-2 family protein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease and this variation can often be used to explain the response of individual patients to chemotherapy. One cancer therapeutic approach currently in clinical trials uses histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a variety of cell-based and molecular/biochemical assays to show that two pan-HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and vorinostat, induce apoptosis in seven of eight human DLBCL cell lines. Consistent with previous reports implicating the BCL-2 family in regulating HDACi-induced apoptosis, ectopic over-expression of anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-XL or pro-apoptotic protein BIM in these cell lines conferred further resistance or sensitivity, respectively, to HDACi treatment. Additionally, BCL-2 family antgonist ABT-737 increased the sensitivity of several DLBCL cell lines to vorinostat-induced apoptosis, including one cell line (SUDHL6 that is resistant to vorinostat alone. Moreover, two variants of the HDACi-sensitive SUDHL4 cell line that have decreased sensitivity to vorinostat showed up-regulation of BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-XL and MCL-1, as well as decreased sensitivity to ABT-737. These results suggest that the regulation and overall balance of anti- to pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein expression is important in defining the sensitivity of DLBCL to HDACi-induced apoptosis. However, the sensitivity of DLBCL cell lines to HDACi treatment does not correlate with expression of any individual BCL-2 family member. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies indicate that the sensitivity of DLBCL to treatment with HDACi's is dependent on the complex regulation of BCL-2 family members and that BCL-2 antagonists may enhance the response of a subset of DLBCL patients to HDACi treatment.

  10. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG sensitizes Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol by suppressing ERK-mediated protective autophagy and Mcl-1 accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Linfeng; Ni, Zhenhong; Dai, Xufang; Qin, Liyan; Wu, Yaran; Li, Xinzhe; Xu, Liang; Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2014-11-01

    Natural BH3-memitic (-)-gossypol shows promising antitumor efficacy in several kinds of cancer. However, our previous studies have demonstrated that protective autophagy decreases the drug sensitivities of Bcl-2 inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, we are the first to report that Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG enhanced (-)-gossypol-induced apoptosis via suppressing (-)-gossypol-triggered protective autophagy and Mcl-1 accumulation. The suppression effect of 17-AAG on autophagy was mediated by inhibiting ERK-mediated Bcl-2 phosphorylation while was not related to Beclin1 or LC3 protein instability. Meanwhile, 17-AAG downregulated (-)-gossypol-triggered Mcl-1 accumulation by suppressing Mcl-1(Thr163) phosphorylation and promoting protein degradation. Collectively, our study indicates that Hsp90 plays an important role in tumor maintenance and inhibition of Hsp90 may become a new strategy for sensitizing Bcl-2-targeted chemotherapies in HCC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase 1 trial of carfilzomib (PR-171) in combination with vorinostat (SAHA) in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkova, Beata; Kmieciak, Maciej; Bose, Prithviraj; Yazbeck, Victor Y; Barr, Paul M; Tombes, Mary Beth; Shrader, Ellen; Weir-Wiggins, Caryn; Rollins, April D; Cebula, Erin M; Pierce, Emily; Herr, Megan; Sankala, Heidi; Hogan, Kevin T; Wan, Wen; Feng, Changyong; Peterson, Derick R; Fisher, Richard I; Grant, Steven; Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    A phase 1 study with carfilzomib and vorinostat was conducted in 20 B-cell lymphoma patients. Vorinostat was given orally twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 followed by carfilzomib (given as a 30-min infusion) on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16. A treatment cycle was 28 days. Dose escalation initially followed a standard 3 + 3 design, but adapted a more conservative accrual rule following dose de-escalation. The maximum tolerated dose was 20 mg/m2 carfilzomib and 100 mg vorinostat (twice daily). The dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 pneumonitis, hyponatremia, and febrile neutropenia. One patient had a partial response and two patients had stable disease. Correlative studies showed a decrease in NF-κB activation and an increase in Bim levels in some patients, but these changes did not correlate with clinical response.

  12. Epigenetics targeted protein-vorinostat nanomedicine inducing apoptosis in heterogeneous population of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells including refractory and relapsed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Kavalakatt, Anu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Vasanthakumari, Divya Rani Vikraman Nair; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Pavithran, Keechilat; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetics play a key role in the onset and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein we report in silico modelling based development of a novel, protein-vorinostat nanomedicine exhibiting selective and superior anti-leukemic activity against heterogeneous population of AML patient samples (n=9), including refractory and relapsed cases, and three representative cell lines expressing CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cell phenotype (KG-1a), promyelocytic phenotype (HL-60) and FLT3-ITD mutation (MV4-11). Nano-vorinostat having ~100nm size exhibited enhanced cellular uptake rendering significantly lower IC50 in AML cell lines and patient samples, and induced enhanced HDAC inhibition, oxidative injury, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis compared to free vorinostat. Most importantly, nanomedicine showed exceptional single-agent activity against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. Collectively, this epigenetics targeted nanomedicine appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British (FAB) classes of AML. Through the use of a protein-vorinostat agent, exceptional single-agent activity was demonstrated against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. The studied epigenetics targeted nanomedicine approach is a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British classes of acute myeloid leukemia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unlocking the chromatin of adenoid cystic carcinomas using HDAC inhibitors sensitize cancer stem cells to cisplatin and induces tumor senescence

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    Luciana O. Almeida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an uncommon malignancy of the salivary glands that is characterized by local recurrence and distant metastasis due to its resistance to conventional therapy. Platinum-based therapies have been extensively explored as a treatment for ACC, but they show little effectiveness. Studies have shown that a specific group of tumor cells, harboring characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, are involved in chemoresistance of myeloid leukemias, breast, colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas. Therapeutic strategies that target CSCs improve the survival of patients by decreasing the rates of tumor relapse, and epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, have shown promising results in targeting CSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of the HDACi Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, and cisplatin, alone or in combination, on CSCs and non-CSCs from ACC. We used CSCs as a biological marker for tumor resistance to therapy in patient-derived xenograft (PDX samples and ACC primary cells. We found that cisplatin reduced tumor viability, but enriched the population of CSCs. Systemic administration of Vorinostat reduced the number of detectable CSCs in vivo and in vitro, and a low dose of Vorinostat decreased tumor cell viability. However, the combination of Vorinostat and cisplatin was extremely effective in depleting CSCs and reducing tumor viability in all ACC primary cells by activating cellular senescence. These observations suggest that HDACi and intercalating agents act more efficiently in combination to destroy tumor cells and their stem cells.

  14. Suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII in a murine model of hemophilia A by oral delivery of antigens bioencapsulated in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexandra; Su, Jin; Lin, Shina; Wang, Xiaomei; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2014-09-04

    Hemophilia A is the X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). To address serious complications of inhibitory antibody formation in current replacement therapy, we created tobacco transplastomic lines expressing FVIII antigens, heavy chain (HC) and C2, fused with the transmucosal carrier, cholera toxin B subunit. Cholera toxin B-HC and cholera toxin B-C2 fusion proteins expressed up to 80 or 370 µg/g in fresh leaves, assembled into pentameric forms, and bound to GM1 receptors. Protection of FVIII antigen through bioencapsulation in plant cells and oral delivery to the gut immune system was confirmed by immunostaining. Feeding of HC/C2 mixture substantially suppressed T helper cell responses and inhibitor formation against FVIII in mice of 2 different strain backgrounds with hemophilia A. Prolonged oral delivery was required to control inhibitor formation long-term. Substantial reduction of inhibitor titers in preimmune mice demonstrated that the protocol could also reverse inhibitor formation. Gene expression and flow cytometry analyses showed upregulation of immune suppressive cytokines (transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10). Adoptive transfer experiments confirmed an active suppression mechanism and revealed induction of CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells that potently suppressed anti-FVIII formation. In sum, these data support plant cell-based oral tolerance for suppression of inhibitor formation against FVIII. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  16. Tetrahydroisoquinolines as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors for treatment of cancer

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    Danqi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a critical process in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs remove the acetyl group, leading to chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. HDAC inhibitors are considered a new class of anticancer agents and have been shown to alter gene transcription and exert antitumor effects. This paper describes our work on the structural determination and structure-activity relationship (SAR optimization of tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds as HDAC inhibitors. These compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit HDAC 1, 3, 6 and for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Among these, compound 82 showed the greatest inhibitory activity toward HDAC 1, 3, 6 and strongly inhibited growth of the cancer cell lines, with results clearly superior to those of the reference compound, vorinostat (SAHA. Compound 82 increased the acetylation of histones H3, H4 and tubulin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that it is a broad inhibitor of HDACs.

  17. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents

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    Petrillo Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs can regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes and activities of transcriptional factors involved in both cancer initiation and progression through alteration of either DNA or the structural components of chromatin. Recently, the role of gene repression through modulation such as acetylation in cancer patients has been clinically validated with several inhibitors of HDACs. One of the HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, has been approved by FDA for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL for patients with progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. Other inhibitors, for example, FK228, PXD101, PCI-24781, ITF2357, MGCD0103, MS-275, valproic acid and LBH589 have also demonstrated therapeutic potential as monotherapy or combination with other anti-tumor drugs in CTCL and other malignancies. At least 80 clinical trials are underway, testing more than eleven different HDAC inhibitory agents including both hematological and solid malignancies. This review focuses on recent development in clinical trials testing HDAC inhibitors as anti-tumor agents.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Rodd, Annabelle L; Tang, Michelle M; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutics with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin) already being approved for clinical use. Numerous studies have identified that histone deacetylase inhibitors will be most effective in the clinic when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. One promising combination, particularly for hematologic malignancies, involves the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors with the anthracycline, doxorubicin. However, we previously identified that trichostatin A can potentiate doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy, the dose-limiting side-effect of the anthracycline, in cardiac myocytes. Here we have the extended the earlier studies and evaluated the effects of combinations of the histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A, valproic acid and sodium butyrate on doxorubicin-induced DNA double-strand breaks in cardiomyocytes. Using γH2AX as a molecular marker for the DNA lesions, we identified that all of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors tested augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, it is evident from the fluorescence photomicrographs of stained nuclei that the histone deacetylase inhibitors also augment doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy. These observations highlight the importance of investigating potential side-effects, in relevant model systems, which may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs): multitargeted anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Hiong, Alison; Karagiannis, Tom C; Licciardi, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents) as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza) and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax). More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the advancement of these drugs, especially to facilitate the rational design of HDAC inhibitors that are effective as antineoplastic agents. This review will discuss the use of HDAC inhibitors as multitargeted therapies for malignancy. Further, we outline the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors while

  20. JTP-103237, a monoacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, prevents fatty liver and suppresses both triglyceride synthesis and de novo lipogenesis

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    Chihiro Okuma

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, JTP-103237 prevented carbohydrate-induced fatty liver and suppressed both TG synthesis and de novo lipogenesis, suggesting MGAT inhibitor may prevent carbohydrate-induced metabolic disorders, including NAFLD, obesity and diabetes.

  1. Therapeutic Strategies to Enhance the Anticancer Efficacy of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

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    Claudia P. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression. More recently, other nonhistone proteins have been identified to be acetylated which can regulate their function, stability, localization, or interaction with other molecules. Modulating acetylation with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi has been validated to have anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical cancer models. This has led to development and approval of the first HDACi, vorinostat, for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, to date, targeting acetylation with HDACi as a monotherapy has shown modest activity against other cancers. To improve their efficacy, HDACi have been paired with other antitumor agents. Here, we discuss several combination therapies, highlighting various epigenetic drugs, ROS-generating agents, proteasome inhibitors, and DNA-damaging compounds that together may provide a therapeutic advantage over single-agent strategies.

  2. Vorinostat enhances chemosensitivity to arsenic trioxide in K562 cell line

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    Nainong Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the chemosensitive augmentation effect and mechanism of HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO on proliferation and apoptosis of K562 cells.Methods. The CCK-8 assay was used to compare proliferation of the cells. Annexin-V and PI staining by flow cytometry and acridine orange/ethidium bromide stains were used to detect and quantify apoptosis. Western blot was used to detect expression of p21, Akt, pAkt, p210, Acetyl-Histone H3, and Acetyl-Histone H4 proteins.Results. SAHA and ATO inhibited proliferation of K562 cells in an additive and time- and dose-dependent manner. SAHA in combination with ATO showed significant apoptosis of K562 cells in comparison to the single drugs alone (p < 0.01. Both SAHA and ATO alone and in combination showed lower levels of p210 expression. SAHA and SAHA and ATO combined treatment showed increased levels of Acetyl-Histone H3 and Acetyl-Histone H4 protein expression. SAHA alone showed increased expression of p21, while ATO alone and in combination with SAHA showed no significant change. SAHA and ATO combined therapy showed lower levels of Akt and pAkt protein expression than SAHA or ATO alone.Conclusion. SAHA and ATO combined treatment inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and showed a chemosensitive augmentation effect on K562 cells. The mechanism might be associated with increasing histone acetylation levels as well as regulating the Akt signaling pathway.

  3. The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways.

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    Bruno A Cardoso

    Full Text Available The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM stromal cells (HS-5 protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1 and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN.

  4. The Bone Marrow-Mediated Protection of Myeloproliferative Neoplastic Cells to Vorinostat and Ruxolitinib Relies on the Activation of JNK and PI3K Signalling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Bruno A.; Belo, Hélio; Barata, João T.; Almeida, António M.

    2015-01-01

    The classical BCR-ABL-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) are a group of heterogeneous haematological diseases characterized by constitutive JAK-STAT pathway activation. Targeted therapy with Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-specific inhibitor, achieves symptomatic improvement but does not eliminate the neoplastic clone. Similar effects are seen with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), albeit with poorer tolerance. Here, we show that bone marrow (BM) stromal cells (HS-5) protected MPN-derived cell lines (SET-2; HEL and UKE-1) and MPN patient-derived BM cells from the cytotoxic effects of Ruxolitinib and the HDACi Vorinostat. This protective effect was mediated, at least in part, by the secretion of soluble factors from the BM stroma. In addition, it correlated with the activation of signalling pathways important for cellular homeostasis, such as JAK-STAT, PI3K, JNK, MEK-ERK and NF-κB. Importantly, the pharmacological inhibition of JNK and PI3K pathways completely abrogated the BM protective effect on MPN cell lines and MPN patient samples. Our findings shed light on mechanisms of tumour survival and may indicate novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MPN. PMID:26623653

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Are Protective in Acute but Not in Chronic Models of Ototoxicity

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    Chao-Hui Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants. In vivo, however, treatment with SAHA attenuated neither GM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in guinea pigs nor kanamycin (KM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in mice under chronic models of ototoxicity. These findings suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuates aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in an acute model, but not in chronic models, cautioning that one cannot rely solely on in vitro experiments to test the efficacy of otoprotectant compounds.

  6. Suppression of Zika Virus Infection and Replication in Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes by PKA Inhibitor PKI 14-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fan; Ramos da Silva, Suzane; Huang, I-Chueh; Jung, Jae U; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2018-02-15

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), a reemerging flavivirus, and its associated neurological disorders, such as Guillain-Barré (GB) syndrome and microcephaly, have generated an urgent need to develop effective ZIKV vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here, we used human endothelial cells and astrocytes, both of which represent key cell types for ZIKV infection, to identify potential inhibitors of ZIKV replication. Because several pathways, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase A (PKA), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, have been reported to play important roles in flavivirus replication, we tested inhibitors and agonists of these pathways for their effects on ZIKV replication. We identified the PKA inhibitor PKI 14-22 (PKI) to be a potent inhibitor of ZIKV replication. PKI effectively suppressed the replication of ZIKV from both the African and Asian/American lineages with a high efficiency and minimal cytotoxicity. While ZIKV infection does not induce PKA activation, endogenous PKA activity is essential for supporting ZIKV replication. Interestingly, in addition to PKA, PKI also inhibited another unknown target(s) to block ZIKV replication. PKI inhibited ZIKV replication at the postentry stage by preferentially affecting negative-sense RNA synthesis as well as viral protein translation. Together, these results have identified a potential inhibitor of ZIKV replication which could be further explored for future therapeutic application. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents against Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, a reemerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, including Guillain-Barré (GB) syndrome and microcephaly. By screening for inhibitors of several cellular pathways, we have identified the PKA inhibitor PKI 14-22 (PKI) to be a potent inhibitor of ZIKV replication. We show that PKI effectively suppresses the replication of all ZIKV

  7. Vorinostat Renders the Replication-Competent Latent Reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Vulnerable to Clearance by CD8 T Cells

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    Julia A. Sung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA. The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen. Here we show a reduction in the recovery of replication-competent virus from VOR exposed resting CD4 T cells following addition of immune effectors for a discrete period. Take home message: VOR exposure leads to sufficient production of viral protein on the cell surface, creating a window of vulnerability within this latent reservoir in antiretroviral therapy (ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals that allows the clearance of latently infected cells by an array of effector mechanisms.

  8. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

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    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  9. CG13250, a novel bromodomain inhibitor, suppresses proliferation of multiple myeloma cells in an orthotopic mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imayoshi, Natsuki; Yoshioka, Makoto; Chauhan, Jay; Nakata, Susumu; Toda, Yuki; Fletcher, Steven; Strovel, Jeffrey W.; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. Despite a stream of new molecular targets based on better understanding of the disease, MM remains incurable. Epigenomic abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of MM. bromodomain 4 (BRD4), a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family, binds to acetylated histones during M/G1 transition in the cell cycle promoting progression to S phase. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel BET inhibitor CG13250 on MM cells. CG13250 inhibited ligand binding to BRD4 in a dose-dependent manner and with an IC 50 value of 1.1 μM. It inhibited MM proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cells in G1, resulting in the induction of apoptosis through caspase activation. CG13250 inhibited the binding of BRD4 to c-MYC promoter regions suppressing the transcription of the c-MYC gene. Administered in vivo, CG13250 significantly prolonged survival of an orthotopic MM-bearing mice. In conclusion, CG13250 is a novel bromodomain inhibitor that is a promising molecular targeting agent against MM. - Highlights: • A novel bromodomain inhibitor CG13250 suppresses MM cell proliferation. • CG13250 decreases C-MYC expression, resulting in the induction of apoptosis. • CG13250 prolongs the survivals of MM-bearing mice.

  10. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza®) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac

  11. VANTAGE 095: An International, Multicenter, Open-Label Study of Vorinostat (MK-0683) in Combination With Bortezomib in Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David S; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Jagannath, Sundar; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Durrant, Simon; Kaufman, Jonathan L; Leleu, Xavier; Nagler, Arnon; Offner, Fritz; Graef, Thorsten; Eid, Joseph E; Houp, Jennifer; Gause, Christine; Vuocolo, Scott; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2016-06-01

    The present global, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase IIb study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral vorinostat combined with standard doses of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma considered refractory to novel myeloma agents. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, had received ≥ 2 previous regimens, had disease refractory to ≥ 1 previous bortezomib-containing regimen, and had received ≥ 1 dose of an immunomodulatory drug (thalidomide or lenalidomide)-based regimen. The patients received 21-day cycles of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) plus oral vorinostat (400 mg/d on days 1-14). Oral dexamethasone, 20 mg, on the day of and the day after each dose of bortezomib could be added for patients with progressive disease after 2 cycles or no change after 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. The objective response rate was 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 6.6%-17.7%), and the median duration of response was 211 days (range, 64-550 days). The median overall survival duration was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.5-14.4 months), with a 2-year survival rate of 32%. The frequently reported adverse events were thrombocytopenia (69.7%), nausea (57.0%), diarrhea (53.5%), anemia (52.1%), and fatigue (48.6%); the overall safety profile was consistent with that of bortezomib and vorinostat. The combination of vorinostat and bortezomib is active in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to novel treatment modalities and offers a new therapeutic option for this difficult-to-treat patient population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00773838). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of a novel polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol‑derived SIRT1 inhibitor with cancer‑specific anti-proliferative and invasion-suppressing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijia; Qi, Ji; Chiao, Christine Ya-Chi; Zhang, Qiang; Porco, John A; Faller, Douglas V; Dai, Yan

    2014-11-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, plays a critical role in regulating cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, which makes it a potential target for cancer therapeutics. In this study, we screened derivatives of several groups of natural products and identified a novel SIRT1 inhibitor JQ-101, a synthetic derivative of the polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural products, with an IC(50) for SIRT1 of 30 µM in vitro, with 5-fold higher activity for SIRT1 vs. SIRT2. Exposure of tumor cells to JQ-101 significantly enhanced acetylation of p53 and histone H4K16 at known sites of SIRT1 deacetylation, validating SIRT1 as its cellular target. JQ-101 suppressed cancer cell growth and survival by targeting SIRT1, and also exhibited selective cytotoxicity towards a panel of human tumor cell lines, while producing no toxicity in two normal human cell types at comparable concentrations. JQ-101 induced both apoptosis and cell senescence, and suppressed cancer cell invasion in vitro. In summary, we have identified JQ-101 as a new SIRT1 inhibitor which may have potential application in cancer treatment through its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis and senescence and suppress cancer cell invasion.

  13. Identification of a novel polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol-derived SIRT1 inhibitor with cancer-specific anti-proliferative and invasion-suppressing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, LIJIA; QI, JI; CHIAO, CHRISTINE YA-CHI; ZHANG, QIANG; PORCO, JOHN A.; FALLER, DOUGLAS V.; DAI, YAN

    2014-01-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, plays a critical role in regulating cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, which makes it a potential target for cancer therapeutics. In this study, we screened derivatives of several groups of natural products and identified a novel SIRT1 inhibitor JQ-101, a synthetic derivative of the polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural products, with an IC50 for SIRT1 of 30 μM in vitro, with 5-fold higher activity for SIRT1 vs. SIRT2. Exposure of tumor cells to JQ-101 significantly enhanced acetylation of p53 and histone H4K16 at known sites of SIRT1 deacetylation, validating SIRT1 as its cellular target. JQ-101 suppressed cancer cell growth and survival by targeting SIRT1, and also exhibited selective cytotoxicity towards a panel of human tumor cell lines, while producing no toxicity in two normal human cell types at comparable concentrations. JQ-101 induced both apoptosis and cell senescence, and suppressed cancer cell invasion in vitro. In summary, we have identified JQ-101 as a new SIRT1 inhibitor which may have potential application in cancer treatment through its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis and senescence and suppress cancer cell invasion. PMID:25189993

  14. A facile route to form self-carried redox-responsive vorinostat nanodrug for effective solid tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han LQ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leiqiang Han, Tianqi Wang, Jingliang Wu, Xiaolan Yin, Hao Fang, Na Zhang School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Ji’nan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Small molecule-based nanodrugs with nanoparticles (NPs that are mainly composed of small molecules, have been considered as a promising candidate for a next-generation nanodrug, owing to their unique properties. Vorinostat (SAHA is a canonical US Food and Drug Administration-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the lack of efficacy against solid tumors hinders its progress in clinical use. Herein, a novel nanodrug of SAHA was developed based on disulfide-linked prodrug SAHA-S-S-VE. SAHA-S-S-VE could self-assemble into 148 nm NPs by disulfide-induced mechanisms, which were validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Under reduced conditions, the redox-responsive behavior of SAHA-S-S-VE was investigated, and the HDAC inhibition results verified the efficient release of free SAHA. With a biocompatible d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS functionalization, the SAHA-S-S-VE/TPGS NPs exhibited low critical aggregation concentration of 4.5 µM and outstanding stability in vitro with drug-loading capacity of 24%. In vitro biological assessment indicated that SAHA-S-S-VE/TPGS NPs had significant anticancer activity against HepG2. Further in vivo evaluation demonstrated that the resulting NPs could be accumulated in the tumor region and inhibit the tumor growth effectively. This approach, which turned SAHA into a self-assembled redox-responsive nanodrug, provided a new channel for the use of HDAC inhibitor in solid tumor therapy. Keywords: SAHA, HDAC, small molecule, nanoparticles, self-assemble, disulfide bond

  15. [Novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): facilitating fear extinction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacological agents enhancing fear extinction may be promising tools for the treatment of PTSD. Histone acetylation is involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and subsequently enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitated fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). The levels of acetylated histone and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus 2 h after administration of vorinostat. We investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The levels of acetylated histone and the binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene were increased. These findings suggest that vorinostat in conjunction with exposure therapy can be a promising new avenue for the treatment of PTSD.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs: multitargeted anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ververis K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Ververis,1 Alison Hiong,1 Tom C Karagiannis,1,* Paul V Licciardi2,*1Epigenomic Medicine, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Allergy and Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax. More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the

  17. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cea

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527 and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  18. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, potentiates anticancer effect of docetaxel in prostate cancer via decreasing Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Taelim; Kim, Mi Joung; Jeong, In Gab; Lee, Je-Hwan; Choi, Jene; Jang, Sejin; Ro, Seonggu; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2012-08-01

    We synthesized a novel hydroxamate-based pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), CG200745 {(E)-2-(Naphthalen-1-yloxymethyl)-oct-2-enedioic acid 1-[(3-dimethylamino-propyl)-amide] 8-hydroxyamide]}. Like other inhibitors, for example vorinostat and belinostat, CG200745 has the hydroxamic acid moiety to bind zinc at the bottom of catalytic pocket. Firstly, we analyzed its inhibitory activity against histone deacetylase (HDAC) in hormone-dependent LNCaP cells and hormone-independent DU145 and PC3 cells. CG200745 inhibited deacetylation of histone H3 and tubulin as much as vorinostat and belinostat did. CG200745 also inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells, increased sub-G1 population, and activated caspase-9, -3 and -8 in LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 cells. These results indicate that CG200745 induces apoptosis. Next, we examined the effect of CG200745 on cell death induced by docetaxel in DU145 cells in vitro and in vivo. Compared to mono-treatment with each drug, pre-treatment of DU145 cells with docetaxel followed by CG200745 showed synergistic cytotoxicity, and increased the apoptotic sub-G1 population, caspase activation, and tubulin acetylation. Moreover, the combination treatment decreased Mcl-1 and Bcl-(XL). Docetaxel and CG200745 combination reduced tumor size in the DU145 xenograft model. These preclinical results show that combination treatment with docetaxel and new HDACI, CG200745, potentiated anti-tumor effect in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) cells via activation of apoptosis.

  19. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation in an IκBα-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor IκB kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors suppress the AR-V7-mediated transcription and selectively inhibit cell growth in AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Koyama, Ryokichi; Nakayama, Kazuhide; Kitazawa, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Hara, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, including AR-V7, play a pivotal role in resistance to androgen blockade in prostate cancer treatment. The development of new therapeutic agents that can suppress the transcriptional activities of AR splice variants has been anticipated as the next generation treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. High-throughput screening of AR-V7 signaling inhibitors was performed using an AR-V7 reporter system. The effects of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, LY-2090314, on endogenous AR-V7 signaling were evaluated in an AR-V7-positive cell line, JDCaP-hr, by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling was assessed using RNA interference. The effect of LY-2090314 on cell growth in various prostate cancer cell lines was also evaluated. We identified GSK3 inhibitors as transcriptional suppressors of AR-V7 using a high-throughput screen with an AR-V7 reporter system. LY-2090314 suppressed the reporter activity and endogenous AR-V7 activity in JDCaP-hr cells. Because silencing of β-catenin partly rescued the suppression, it was evident that the suppression was mediated, at least partially, via the activation of β-catenin signaling. AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling reciprocally regulate each other in JDCaP-hr cells, and therefore, GSK3 inhibition can repress AR-V7 transcriptional activity by accumulating intracellular β-catenin. Notably, LY-2090314 selectively inhibited the growth of AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate the potential of GSK3 inhibitors in treating advanced prostate cancer driven by AR splice variants. In vivo evaluation of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer models will help illustrate the overall significance of GSK3 inhibitors in treating prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Refractory CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma showing loss of CD20 expression after rituximab therapy and gain of CD20 expression after administration of vorinostat and gemcitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Kazuaki; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Kume, Masaaki; Takahashi, Satsuki; Saito, Masahiro; Takahashi, Naoto

    A 79-year-old male patient presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. A lymph node biopsy revealed effacement of the normal nodal architecture with diffuse proliferation of medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells. Southern blot analyses demonstrated rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene but not the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. He was diagnosed with CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), NOS. Although he achieved partial remission after six cycles of R-CHOP, he relapse occurred after 2 months. CD20-negative conversion was confirmed in the lymph node, which was positive for CCR4, and the skin at the time of relapse. The patient received the GDP regimen as salvage therapy with the addition of vorinostat for skin involvement; however, he failed to respond, and the disease systemically progressed. Furthermore, he also exhibited progression in the skin after stopping vorinostat due to hematologic toxicity. A lymph node biopsy at progression revealed CD20 re-expression by immunohistochemistry. At progression, the patient received mogamulizumab but failed to respond, and he died owing to disease progression 8 months after relapse. In this case, we demonstrated CD20-negative conversion following rituximab and CD20-positive reversion after using vorinostat and gemcitabine.

  2. The dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor, nepicastat, suppresses chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Craving for chocolate is a common phenomenon, which may evolve to an addictive-like behaviour and contribute to obesity. Nepicastat is a selective dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor that suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. We verified whether nepicastat was able to modify the reinforcing and motivational properties of a chocolate solution and to prevent the reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats. Nepicastat (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) produced a dose-related inhibition of operant self-administration of the chocolate solution in rats under fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement, measures of the reinforcing and motivational properties of the chocolate solution, respectively. The effect of nepicastat on the reinstatement of chocolate seeking was studied in rats in which lever-responding had been extinguished by removing the chocolate solution for approximately 8 d. Nepicastat dose-dependently suppressed the reinstatement of lever-responding triggered by a 'priming' of the chocolate solution together with cues previously associated with the availability of the reward. In a separate group of food-restricted rats trained to lever-respond for regular food pellets, nepicastat reduced FR10 lever-responding with the same potency as for the chocolate solution. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not modified by nepicastat doses that reduced self-administration of the chocolate solution and regular food pellets and suppressed the reinstatement of chocolate seeking. The results indicate that nepicastat reduces motivation to food consumption sustained by appetite or palatability. Moreover, the results suggest that DBH inhibitors may be a new class of pharmacological agents potentially useful in the prevention of relapse to food seeking in human dieters.

  3. Vorinostat and hydroxychloroquine improve immunity and inhibit autophagy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sukeshi; Hurez, Vincent; Nawrocki, Steffan T; Goros, Martin; Michalek, Joel; Sarantopoulos, John; Curiel, Tyler; Mahalingam, Devalingam

    2016-09-13

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) enhances the anti-cancer activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat (VOR), in pre-clinical models and early phase clinical studies of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Mechanisms could include autophagy inhibition, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, and subsequent tumor cell apoptosis. There is growing evidence that autophagy inhibition could lead to improved anti-cancer immunity. To date, effects of autophagy on immunity have not been reported in cancer patients. To address this, we expanded an ongoing clinical study to include patients with advanced, refractory mCRC to evaluate further the clinical efficacy and immune effects of VOR plus HCQ. Refractory mCRC patients received VOR 400 milligrams orally with HCQ 600 milligrams orally daily, in a 3-week cycle. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (mPFS). Secondary endpoints include median overall survival (mOS), adverse events (AE), pharmacodynamic of inhibition of autophagy in primary tumors, immune cell analyses, and cytokine levels. Twenty patients were enrolled (19 evaluable for survival) with a mPFS of 2.8 months and mOS of 6.7 months. Treatment-related grade 3-4 AEs occurred in 8 patients (40%), with fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and anemia being the most common. Treatment significantly reduced CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ regulatory and PD-1+ (exhausted) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and decreased CD45RO-CD62L+ (naive) T cells, consistent with improved anti-tumor immunity. On-study tumor biopsies showed increases in lysosomal protease cathepsin D and p62 accumulation, consistent with autophagy inhibition. Taken together, VOR plus HCQ is active, safe and well tolerated in refractory CRC patients, resulting in potentially improved anti-tumor immunity and inhibition of autophagy.

  4. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  5. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs) in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassadonia, Antonino [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Cioffi, Pasquale; Simiele, Felice [Hospital Pharmacy, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Iezzi, Laura; Zilli, Marinella [Oncology Department, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Natoli, Clara, E-mail: natoli@unich.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs), such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  6. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs) in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassadonia, Antonino; Cioffi, Pasquale; Simiele, Felice; Iezzi, Laura; Zilli, Marinella; Natoli, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs), such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms

  7. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Zilli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs, such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yingying; Chen, Xi; Yu, Dehai [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Tao [Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Hu, Ji-Fan, E-mail: jifan@stanford.edu [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Wei, E-mail: jdyylw@163.com [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming.

  9. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppresses endogenous fibrinolysis in a canine model of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, C.F.; Fujita, T.; Hutzelmann, J.E.; Mayer, E.J.; Shebuski, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the specific, fast-acting inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), binds to fibrin and has been found in high concentrations within arterial thrombi. These findings suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a thrombus protects that same thrombus from fibrinolysis. In this study, clot-bound PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to suppress clot lysis in vivo. Autologous, canine whole blood clots were formed in the presence of increasing amounts of activated PAI-1 (0-30 micrograms/ml). Approximately 6-8% of the PAI-1 bound to the clots under the experimental conditions. Control and PAI-1-enriched clots containing iodine-125-labeled fibrin (ogen) were homogenized, washed to remove nonbound elements, and delivered to the lungs of anesthetized dogs where the homogenates subsequently underwent lysis by the endogeneous fibrinolytic system. 125I-labeled fibrin degradation products appeared in the blood of control animals within 10 minutes and were maximal by 90 minutes. PAI-1 reduced fibrin degradation product release in a dose-responsive manner at all times between 30 minutes and 5 hours (greater than or equal to 76% inhibition at 30 minutes, PAI-1 greater than or equal to 6 micrograms/ml). PAI-1 also suppressed D-dimer release from clots containing small amounts of human fibrin (ogen). t-PA administration attenuated the effects of PAI-1, whereas latent PAI-1 (20 micrograms/ml) had no effect on clot lysis. Blood levels of PA and PAI activity remained unaltered during these experiments. The results indicate that PAI-1 markedly inhibits endogenous fibrinolysis in vivo and, moreover, suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a forming thrombus is an important physiological mechanism for subsequent thrombus stabilization

  10. Antidepressant activity of vorinostat is associated with amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kv, Athira; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Js, Indu Chandran; Lahkar, Mangala; Sinha, Swapnil; Naidu, V G M

    2018-05-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to rodents is used to mimic the stress associated dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a well-established feature found in depressive patients. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the antidepressant potential of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. So, we examined the antidepressant potential of vorinostat (VOR), a HDAC inhibitor against CORT injections in male mice. VOR (25 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and fluoxetine (FLX) (15 mg/kg; oral) treatments were provided to CORT administered mice. At the end of dosing schedule, neurobehavioral tests were conducted; followed by mechanistic evaluation through biochemical analysis, RTPCR and western blot in serum and hippocampus. Neurobehavioral tests revealed the development of anxiety/depressive-like behavior in CORT mice as compared to the vehicle control. Depressive-mice showed concomitant HPA axis dysregulation as observed from the significant increase in serum CORT and ACTH. Chronic CORT administration was found to significantly increase hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and iNOS levels while lowering glutathione (GSH) content, as compared to vehicle control. VOR treatment, in a similar manner to the classical antidepressant FLX, significantly ameliorated anxiety/depressive-like behavior along with HPA axis alterations induced by CORT. The antidepressant-like ability of drug treatments against chronic CORT induced stress model, as revealed in our study, may be due to their potential to mitigate inflammatory damage and oxidative stress via modulation of hippocampal NF-κB p65, COX-2, HDAC2 and phosphorylated JNK levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Administration of PDE4 Inhibitors Suppressed the Pannus-Like Inflammation by Inhibition of Cytokine Production by Macrophages and Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  12. Administration of PDE4 inhibitors suppressed the pannus-like inflammation by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Suda, Toshio; Manabe, Haruhiko; Miki, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  13. Suppression of elongation and growth of tomato seedlings by auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and modeling of the growth and environmental response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashide, Tadahisa; Narukawa, Megumi; Shimada, Yukihisa; Soeno, Kazuo

    2014-04-02

    To develop a growth inhibitor, the effects of auxin inhibitors were investigated. Application of 30 μM L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) or (S)-methyl 2-((1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)oxy)-3-phenylpropanoate (KOK1101), decreased the endogenous IAA levels in tomato seedlings at 8 days after sowing. Then, 10-1200 μM AOPP or KOK1101 were sprayed on the leaves and stem of 2-3 leaf stage tomato plants grown under a range of environmental conditions. We predicted plant growth and environmental response using a model based on the observed suppression of leaf enlargement. Spraying AOPP or KOK1101 decreased stem length and leaf area. Concentration-dependent inhibitions and dose response curves were observed. Although the effects of the inhibitors on dry weight varied according to the environmental conditions, the net assimilation rate was not influenced by the inhibitors. Accordingly, the observed decrease in dry weight caused by the inhibitors may result from decreased leaf area. Validation of the model based on observed data independent of the dataset showed good correlations between the observed and predicted values of dry weight and leaf area index.

  14. Comparative gene expression profiling of P. falciparum malaria parasites exposed to three different histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine T Andrews

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new drugs for a range of diseases, including malaria. HDAC inhibitors are also important tools for the study of epigenetic mechanisms, transcriptional control, and other important cellular processes. In this study the effects of three structurally related antimalarial HDAC inhibitors on P. falciparum malaria parasite gene expression were compared. The three hydroxamate-based compounds, trichostatin A (TSA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat® and a 2-aminosuberic acid derivative (2-ASA-9, all caused profound transcriptional effects, with ~2-21% of genes having >2-fold altered expression following 2 h exposure to the compounds. Only two genes, alpha tubulin II and a hydrolase, were up-regulated by all three compounds after 2 h exposure in all biological replicates examined. The transcriptional changes observed after 2 h exposure to HDAC inhibitors were found to be largely transitory, with only 1-5% of genes being regulated after removing the compounds and culturing for a further 2 h. Despite some structural similarity, the three inhibitors caused quite diverse transcriptional effects, possibly reflecting subtle differences in mode of action or cellular distribution. This dataset represents an important contribution to our understanding of how HDAC inhibitors act on malaria parasites and identifies alpha tubulin II as a potential transcriptional marker of HDAC inhibition in malaria parasites that may be able to be exploited for future development of HDAC inhibitors as new antimalarial agents.

  15. Mangiferin, a novel nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase inhibitor, suppresses metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tomoya; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Ichimura, Eri; Enomoto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuri [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Tatsuki [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kinki University School of Agriculture, Nara, Nara (Japan); Imano, Motohiro [Department of Surgery, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Hideaki [Department of Natural Drugs Resources, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Satou, Takao [Department of Pathology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Nishida, Shozo, E-mail: nishida@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Advanced metastatic melanoma, one of the most aggressive malignancies, is currently without reliable therapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone and exerts many beneficial biological activities. However, the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth of metastatic melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model. We found that mangiferin inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and increases the expression of IκB protein in vivo. In addition, we found that mangiferin inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and very late antigens (VLAs) in vivo. Mangiferin treatment also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53, and phosphorylated p53 proteins, and decreased the expression of Survivin and Bcl-associated X (Bcl-xL) proteins in vivo. These results indicate that mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation, thereby inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth. Importantly, the number of reported NIK selective inhibitors is limited. Taken together, our data suggest that mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent with a new mechanism of targeting NIK for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Mangiferin prolongs survival in mice by inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth • Mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation • Mangiferin regulates the expression of MMPs, VLAs, and apoptosis regulatory proteins.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, P V; Ververis, K; Tang, M L; El-Osta, A; Karagiannis, T C

    2013-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have emerged as a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The classical broad-spectrum HDACi typically alter the cell cycle distribution and induce cell death, apoptosis and differentiation in malignant and transformed cells. This provides the basis for the clinical potential of HDACi in cancer therapy. Currently two compounds, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza™) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax™) have been approved for by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Apart from clinical application in oncology, HDACi have also been investigated as potential therapeutics for various pathologies including those of the central nervous system (such as Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis), cardiac conditions (particularly hypertrophy), arthritis and malaria. Further, evidence is accumulating for potent immunomodulatory effects of classical HDACi which is the focus of this review. We review the antiinflammatory effects of HDACi and in particular findings implicating regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems by HDAC enzymes. The recent findings highlighting the immunomodulatory function of HDAC11 which relates to balancing immune activation versus tolerance are also discussed.

  17. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  18. Randomized Phase II Study of Azacitidine Alone or in Combination With Lenalidomide or With Vorinostat in Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: North American Intergroup Study SWOG S1117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeres, Mikkael A; Othus, Megan; List, Alan F; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Stone, Richard M; Gore, Steven D; Litzow, Mark R; Buckstein, Rena; Fang, Min; Roulston, Diane; Bloomfield, Clara D; Moseley, Anna; Nazha, Aziz; Zhang, Yanming; Velasco, Mario R; Gaur, Rakesh; Atallah, Ehab; Attar, Eyal C; Cook, Elina K; Cull, Alyssa H; Rauh, Michael J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Erba, Harry P

    2017-08-20

    Purpose Azacitidine is standard, first-line therapy in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Whether azacitidine-based combinations with lenalidomide or vorinostat produce superior overall response rates (ORRs) to azacitidine is not known. Patients and Methods North American Intergroup Study S1117 is a phase II/III trial that randomly assigned patients with higher-risk MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) 1:1:1 to azacitidine (75 mg/m 2 /day on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle); azacitidine plus lenalidomide (10 mg/day on days 1 to 21); or azacitidine plus vorinostat (300 mg twice daily on days 3 to 9). The primary phase II end point was improved ORR. Results Of 277 patients from 90 centers, 92 received azacitidine, 93 received azacitidine plus lenalidomide, and 92 received azacitidine plus vorinostat. Median age was 70 years (range, 28 to 93 years), 85 patients (31%) were female, and 53 patients (19%) had CMML. Serious adverse events were similar across arms, although combination-arm patients were more likely to undergo nonprotocol-defined dose modifications ( P vorinostat ( P = .16 v azacitidine). For patients with CMML, ORR was higher for azacitidine plus lenalidomide versus azacitidine (68% v 28%, P = .02) but similar for all arms across cytogenetic subgroups, as was remission duration and overall survival. ORR was higher with mutations in DNMT3A and lower for SRSF2, whereas ORR duration improved with fewer mutations. Lenalidomide dose reduction was associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.30; P = .05). Conclusion Patients with higher-risk MDS treated with azacitidine-based combinations had similar ORR to azacitidine monotherapy, although patients with CMML benefitted from azacitidine plus lenalidomide. The efficacy of combination regimens may have been affected by dose modifications.

  19. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. ► PFT-α suppresses ES cell proliferation. ► PFT-α induces ES cell cycle arrest. ► PFT-α downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-α, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-α resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-α caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  20. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-{alpha}, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed, E-mail: essam_abdelalim@yahoo.com [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Tooyama, Ikuo [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} suppresses ES cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} induces ES cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-{alpha}, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-{alpha} resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-{alpha} caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  1. Suppression of NFAT5-mediated Inflammation and Chronic Arthritis by Novel κB-binding Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer and arthritis. However, therapeutic agents inhibiting NFAT5 activity are currently unavailable. To discover NFAT5 inhibitors, a library of >40,000 chemicals was screened for the suppression of nitric oxide, a direct target regulated by NFAT5 activity, through high-throughput screening. We validated the anti-NFAT5 activity of 198 primary hit compounds using an NFAT5-dependent reporter assay and identified the novel NFAT5 suppressor KRN2, 13-(2-fluoro-benzylberberine, and its derivative KRN5. KRN2 inhibited NFAT5 upregulation in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and repressed the formation of NF-κB p65-DNA complexes in the NFAT5 promoter region. Interestingly, KRN2 selectively suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including Nos2 and Il6, without hampering high-salt-induced NFAT5 and its target gene expressions. Moreover, KRN2 and KRN5, the latter of which exhibits high oral bioavailability and metabolic stability, ameliorated experimentally induced arthritis in mice without serious adverse effects, decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Particularly, orally administered KRN5 was stronger in suppressing arthritis than methotrexate, a commonly used anti-rheumatic drug, displaying better potency and safety than its original compound, berberine. Therefore, KRN2 and KRN5 can be potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic arthritis.

  2. Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat suppresses regulatory T cells and enhances immunotherapies in renal and prostate cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CR Myc-CaP model.RENCA or CR Myc-CaP tumors were implanted orthotopically or subcutaneously, respectively. Inoculated mice were randomized into four treatment groups: vehicle, entinostat, cytokine or vaccine, and combination. Tregs in the blood were assessed by FACS analysis. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of isolated T cell subpopulations from spleen were performed to determine Foxp3 gene and protein expression. The suppressive function of Tregs was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Low dose (5 mg/kg entinostat reduced Foxp3 levels in Tregs and this was associated with enhanced tumor growth inhibition in combination with either IL-2 or a SurVaxM vaccine. Entinostat down-regulated Foxp3 expression transcriptionally and blocked Tregs suppressive function without affecting T effector cells (Teffs. In vitro low dose entinostat (0.5 µM induced STAT3 acetylation and a specific inhibitor of STAT3 partially rescued entinostat-induced down-regulation of Foxp3, suggesting that STAT3 signaling is involved in Foxp3 down-regulation by entinostat.These results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory effect of class I HDAC inhibition and provide a rationale for the clinical testing of entinostat to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Glioma-Associated Oncogene Homolog Inhibitors Have the Potential of Suppressing Cancer Stem Cells of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Jeng, Chi-Juei; Sheen, I-Shyan; Wu, Szu-Hua; Lu, Ssu-Jung; Wang, Chih-Hsuan; Chang, Chiung-Fang

    2018-05-05

    Overexpression of Sonic Hedgehog signaling (Shh) pathway molecules is associated with invasiveness and recurrence in breast carcinoma. Therefore, inhibition of the Shh pathway downstream molecule Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog (Gli) was investigated for its ability to reduce progression and invasiveness of patient-derived breast cancer cells and cell lines. Human primary breast cancer T2 cells with high expression of Shh signaling pathway molecules were compared with breast cancer line MDA-MB-231 cells. The therapeutic effects of Gli inhibitors were examined in terms of the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cancer stem cells, cell migration and gene expression. Blockade of the Shh signaling pathway could reduce cell proliferation and migration only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hh pathway inhibitor-1 (HPI-1) increased the percentages of late apoptotic cells in MDA-MB-231 cells and early apoptotic cells in T2 cells. It reduced Bcl2 expression for cell proliferation and increased Bim expression for apoptosis. In addition, Gli inhibitor HPI-1 decreased significantly the percentages of cancer stem cells in T2 cells. HPI-1 worked more effectively than GANT-58 against breast carcinoma cells. In conclusion, HPI-1 could inhibit cell proliferation, reduce cell invasion and decrease cancer stem cell population in breast cancer cells. To target Gli-1 could be a potential strategy to suppress breast cancer stem cells.

  4. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  5. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate suppresses uric acid crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent L Reber

    Full Text Available Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in joints. Despite many treatment options for gout, there is a substantial need for alternative treatments for patients unresponsive to current therapies. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have demonstrated therapeutic benefit in experimental models of antibody-dependent arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis in humans, but to date, the potential effects of such inhibitors on gouty arthritis has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib can suppress inflammation induced by injection of MSU crystals into subcutaneous air pouches or into the ankle joint of wild type mice. Moreover, imatinib treatment also largely abolished the lower levels of inflammation which developed in IL-1R1-/- or KitW-sh/W-sh mice, indicating that this drug can inhibit IL-1-independent pathways, as well as mast cell-independent pathways, contributing to pathology in this model. Imatinib treatment not only prevented ankle swelling and synovial inflammation when administered before MSU crystals but also diminished these features when administrated after the injection of MSU crystals, a therapeutic protocol more closely mimicking the clinical situation in which treatment occurs after the development of an acute gout flare. Finally, we also assessed the efficiency of local intra-articular injections of imatinib-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles in this model of acute gout. Treatment with low doses of this long-acting imatinib:PLGA formulation was able to reduce ankle swelling in a therapeutic protocol. Altogether, these results raise the possibility that tyrosine kinase inhibitors might have utility in the treatment of acute gout in humans.

  6. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Johannes D Aebi,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA; 2Medicinal Chemistry, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Standard treatment for primary prostate cancer includes systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs that target androgen receptor or antihormone therapy (chemical castration; however, drug-resistant cancer cells generally emerge during treatment, limiting the continued use of systemic chemotherapy. Patients are then treated with more toxic standard therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel and more effective treatments for prostate cancer. The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treating endocrine-dependent cancers because cholesterol is an essential structural and functional component of cell membranes as well as the metabolic precursor of endogenous steroid hormones. In this study, we have examined the effects of RO 48-8071 (4'-[6-(allylmethylaminohexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate; Roche Pharmaceuticals internal reference: RO0488071 (RO, which is an inhibitor of 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclase (a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, on prostate cancer cells. Exposure of both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells to RO reduced prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro. RO treatment reduced androgen receptor protein expression in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and increased estrogen receptor β (ERβ protein expression in both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Combining RO with an ERβ agonist increased its ability to reduce castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability. In addition, RO effectively suppressed the

  7. The impact of nevirapine- versus protease inhibitor-based regimens on virological markers of HIV-1 persistence during seemingly suppressive ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselinova, Maja; Anna, Maria; Malatinkova, Eva; Vervish, Karen; Beloukas, Apostolos; Messiaen, Peter; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Trypsteen, Wim; Callens, Steven; Verhofstede, Chris; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2014-01-01

    The source and significance of residual plasma HIV-1 RNA detection during suppressive ART remain controversial. It has been proposed that nevirapine (NVP)-based regimens achieve a greater HIV-1 RNA suppression than regimens containing a protease inhibitor (PI). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of receiving NVP- vs PI-based ART on the virological markers of HIV persistence in peripheral blood. The study population comprised 161 HIV-1 infected patients receiving either NVP-based (n=81) or PI-based (n=80) ART and showing a HIV-1 RNA load stably suppressed ART, with median (IQR) levels of 5 (3-6) and 5 (3-8) copies/mL, respectively. HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with shorter duration of suppressive ART regardless of treatment arm (p=0.007), and lower CD4 nadir (p=0.015). HIV-1 DNA levels were median 282 (120-484) and 213 (87-494) copies/106 PBMCs in the two groups respectively, and were lowest (ART HIV-1 RNA load (p=0.0001). In this comprehensive characterization of patients on long-term suppressive ART, we did not observe evidence for a greater suppressive activity of NVP-based over PI-based therapy on plasma and intracellular markers of virus persistence. Overall excellent correlation was observed between the markers, allowing the identification of a subset of treated patients with low HIV-1 expression as an important cohort for future HIV cure studies.

  8. A Novel Small-molecule WNT Inhibitor, IC-2, Has the Potential to Suppress Liver Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Kenzo; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Itaba, Noriko; Azumi, Junya; Oka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Minoru; Umekita, Yoshihisa; Shiota, Goshi

    2017-07-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) contributes to metastasis, recurrence, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The WNT signaling pathway is reportedly linked to the maintenance of stemness of CSCs. In the present study, in order to eliminate liver CSCs and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC, we explored whether small-molecule compounds targeting WNT signaling pathway suppress liver CSCs. The screening was performed using cell proliferation assay and reporter assay. We next investigated whether these compounds suppress liver CSC properties by using flow cytometric analysis and sphere-formation assays. A mouse xenograft model transplanted with CD44-positive HuH7 cells was used to examine the in vivo antitumor effect of IC-2. In HuH7 human HCC cells, 10 small-molecule compounds including novel derivatives, IC-2 and PN-3-13, suppressed cell viability and WNT signaling activity. Among them, IC-2 significantly reduced the CD44-positive population, also known as liver CSCs, and dramatically reduced the sphere-forming ability of both CD44-positive and CD44-negative HuH7 cells. Moreover, CSC marker-positive populations, namely CD90-positive HLF cells, CD133-positive HepG2 cells, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells, were also reduced by IC-2 treatment. Finally, suppressive effects of IC-2 on liver CSCs were also observed in a xenograft model using CD44-positive HuH7 cells. The novel derivative of small-molecule WNT inhibitor, IC-2, has the potential to suppress liver CSCs and can serve as a promising therapeutic agent to improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse model of experimental dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Wang, Yuqian; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jie; Luo, Pingping; He, Hui; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-08-07

    To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of serine protease inhibitor A3K (SERPINA3K) on the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse dry eye model induced by topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC). The eye drops containing SERPINA3K were topically administered during the induction of BAC-induced dry eye. The clinical indications of dry eye were evaluated on day (D)16, including tear break-up time (BUT), tear volume, corneal fluorescein staining, and inflammatory index. Global specimens were collected on D16 and the following examinations were performed: histologic investigation, immunostaining of cytokeratin 10 (K10), p63 and Ki67 in the cornea, and Western blot analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye, presenting with longer BUTs, lower corneal fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index, while no significant changes in tear volume. It also reduced the severity of abnormal differentiation and proliferation on ocular surface with lower expressions of K10, p63, and Ki67, and retained the number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix. Serine protease inhibitor A3K significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α in the cornea. Topical application of SERPINA3K ameliorated the severity of ocular surface squamous metaplasia and suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Microglial activation induced by brain trauma is suppressed by post-injury treatment with a PARP inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Avila Joana C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI induces activation of microglia. Activated microglia can in turn increase secondary injury and impair recovery. This innate immune response requires hours to days to become fully manifest, thus providing a clinically relevant window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Microglial activation is regulated in part by poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1. Inhibition of PARP-1 activity suppresses NF-kB-dependent gene transcription and thereby blocks several aspects of microglial activation. Here we evaluated the efficacy of a PARP inhibitor, INO-1001, in suppressing microglial activation after cortical impact in the rat. Methods Rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact and subsequently treated with 10 mg/kg of INO-1001 (or vehicle alone beginning 20 - 24 hours after the TBI. Brains were harvested at several time points for histological evaluation of inflammation and neuronal survival, using markers for microglial activation (morphology and CD11b expression, astrocyte activation (GFAP, and neuronal survival (NeuN. Rats were also evaluated at 8 weeks after TBI using measures of forelimb dexterity: the sticky tape test, cylinder test, and vermicelli test. Results Peak microglial and astrocyte activation was observed 5 to 7 days after this injury. INO-1001 significantly reduced microglial activation in the peri-lesion cortex and ipsilateral hippocampus. No rebound inflammation was observed in rats that were treated with INO-1001 or vehicle for 12 days followed by 4 days without drug. The reduced inflammation was associated with increased neuronal survival in the peri-lesion cortex and improved performance on tests of forelimb dexterity conducted 8 weeks after TBI. Conclusions Treatment with a PARP inhibitor for 12 days after TBI, with the first dose given as long as 20 hours after injury, can reduce inflammation and improve histological and functional outcomes.

  11. Nonnucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitor- vs Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitor-based Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Lundh, Andreas; Tendal, Britta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) cause faster virologic suppression, while ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) recover more CD4 cells. However, individual trials have not been powered to compare clinical outcomes. METHODS: ...

  12. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Hao

    Full Text Available The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that blocking BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that some BMP antagonists, which bind to extracellular BMP ligands and prevent their association with BMP receptors, dramatically reduced lung tumor growth. However, clinical application of protein-based BMP antagonists is limited by short half-lives, poor intra-tumor delivery as well as resistance caused by potential gain-of-function mutations in the downstream of the BMP pathway. Small molecule BMP inhibitors which target the intracellular BMP cascades would be ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously identified a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase domain of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we demonstrated that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell proliferation, promoted cell death, and decreased cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cells by blocking BMP signaling, as indicated by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene expression of Id1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth in human lung cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  13. Monoamine depletion by reuptake inhibitors

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    Hinz M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3DBS Labs Inc, Duluth, MN, USABackground: Disagreement exists regarding the etiology of cessation of the observed clinical results with administration of reuptake inhibitors. Traditionally, when drug effects wane, it is known as tachyphylaxis. With reuptake inhibitors, the placebo effect is significantly greater than the drug effect in the treatment of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, leading some to assert that waning of drug effects is placebo relapse, not tachyphylaxis.Methods: Two groups were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 was composed of subjects with depression and Group 2 was composed of bariatric subjects treated with reuptake inhibitors for appetite suppression.Results: In Group 1, 200 subjects with depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg per day. A total of 46.5% (n = 93 achieved relief of symptoms (Hamilton-D rating score ≤ 7, of whom 37 (39.8% of whom experienced recurrence of depression symptoms, at which point an amino acid precursor formula was started. Within 1–5 days, 97.3% (n = 36 experienced relief of depression symptoms. In Group 2, 220 subjects were treated with phentermine 30 mg in the morning and citalopram 20 mg at 4 pm. In this group, 90.0% (n = 198 achieved adequate appetite suppression. The appetite suppression ceased in all 198 subjects within 4–48 days. Administration of an amino acid precursor formula restored appetite suppression in 98.5% (n = 195 of subjects within 1–5 days.Conclusion: Reuptake inhibitors do not increase the total number of monoamine molecules in the central nervous system. Their mechanism of action facilitates redistribution of monoamines from one place to another. In the process, conditions are induced that facilitate depletion of monoamines. The "reuptake inhibitor monoamine depletion theory" of this paper

  14. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-κB acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul; Lee, Mee-Hee; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin; Kim, Sunoh; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. → Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. → Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-κB. → Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKBα. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNFα-stimulated increases in NF-κB function and expression of NF-κB target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  15. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-{kappa}B acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ah-Reum; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, KyungChul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mee-Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoo-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The University of Suwon, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeongmin [Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Woojin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunoh, E-mail: sunoh@korea.ac.kr [Jeollanamdo Institute of Natural Resources Research, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Geun, E-mail: yhgeun@yuhs.ac [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Delphinidin is a novel inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase. {yields} Delphinidin prevents the hyperacetylation of p65 by inhibiting the HAT activity of p300/CBP. {yields} Delphinidin efficiently suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in MH7A cells via hypoacetylation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} Delphinidin inhibits cytokine release in the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell line. -- Abstract: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors (HATi) isolated from dietary compounds have been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling, which contributes to rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we identified a novel HATi in Punica granatum L. known as delphinidin (DP). DP did not affect the activity of other epigenetic enzymes (histone deacetylase, histone methyltransferase, or sirtuin1). DP specifically inhibited the HAT activities of p300/CBP. It also inhibited p65 acetylation in MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. DP-induced hypoacetylation was accompanied by cytosolic accumulation of p65 and nuclear localization of IKB{alpha}. Accordingly, DP treatment inhibited TNF{alpha}-stimulated increases in NF-{kappa}B function and expression of NF-{kappa}B target genes in these cells. Importantly, DP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Jurkat T lymphocytes, demonstrating that HATi efficiently suppresses cytokine-mediated immune responses. Together, these results show that the HATi activity of DP counters anti-inflammatory signaling by blocking p65 acetylation and that this compound may be useful in preventing inflammatory arthritis.

  16. Effects of treatment with suppressive combination antiretroviral drug therapy and the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; (SAHA on SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Ling

    Full Text Available Viral reservoirs-persistent residual virus despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART-remain an obstacle to cure of HIV-1 infection. Difficulty studying reservoirs in patients underscores the need for animal models that mimics HIV infected humans on cART. We studied SIV-infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch-RM treated with intensive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and 3 weeks of treatment with the histone deacetyalse inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA.SIVmac251 infected Ch-RM received reverse transcriptase inhibitors PMPA and FTC and integrase inhibitor L-870812 beginning 7 weeks post infection. Integrase inhibitor L-900564 and boosted protease inhibitor treatment with Darunavir and Ritonavir were added later. cART was continued for 45 weeks, with daily SAHA administered for the last 3 weeks, followed by euthanasia/necropsy. Plasma viral RNA and cell/tissue-associated SIV gag RNA and DNA were quantified by qRT-PCR/qPCR, with flow cytometry monitoring changes in immune cell populations.Upon cART initiation, plasma viremia declined, remaining <30 SIV RNA copy Eq/ml during cART, with occasional blips. Decreased viral replication was associated with decreased immune activation and partial restoration of intestinal CD4+ T cells. SAHA was well tolerated but did not result in demonstrable treatment-associated changes in plasma or cell associated viral parameters.The ability to achieve and sustain virological suppression makes cART-suppressed, SIV-infected Ch-RM a potentially useful model to evaluate interventions targeting residual virus. However, despite intensive cART over one year, persistent viral DNA and RNA remained in tissues of all three animals. While well tolerated, three weeks of SAHA treatment did not demonstrably impact viral RNA levels in plasma or tissues; perhaps reflecting dosing, sampling and assay limitations.

  17. Targeting Pin1 by inhibitor API-1 regulates microRNA biogenesis and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wenchen; Li, Jiao; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Shen, Xianyan; Fan, Xin; Zhou, Jian-Kang; He, Juan; Deng, Yulan; Liu, Xuesha; Wang, Chun; Yang, Shengyong; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhang, Guolin; Wei, Yu-Quan; Peng, Yong

    2018-01-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, but there are few effective treatments. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is correlated with HCC development. We previously demonstrated that peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) participates in miRNA biogenesis and is a potential HCC treatment target. However, how Pin1 modulates miRNA biogenesis remains obscure. Here, we present in vivo evidence that Pin1 overexpression is directly linked to the development of HCC. Administration with the Pin1 inhibitor (API-1), a specific small molecule targeting Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain and inhibiting Pin1 cis-trans isomerizing activity, suppresses in vitro cell proliferation and migration of HCC cells. But API-1-induced Pin1 inhibition is insensitive to HCC cells with low Pin1 expression and/or low exportin-5 (XPO5) phosphorylation. Mechanistically, Pin1 recognizes and isomerizes the phosphorylated serine-proline motif of phosphorylated XPO5 and passivates phosphorylated XPO5. Pin1 inhibition by API-1 maintains the active conformation of phosphorylated XPO5 and restores XPO5-driven precursor miRNA nuclear-to-cytoplasm export, activating anticancer miRNA biogenesis and leading to both in vitro HCC suppression and HCC suppression in xenograft mice. Experimental evidence suggests that Pin1 inhibition by API-1 up-regulates miRNA biogenesis by retaining active XPO5 conformation and suppresses HCC development, revealing the mechanism of Pin1-mediated miRNA biogenesis and unequivocally supporting API-1 as a drug candidate for HCC therapy, especially for Pin1-overexpressing, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-activated HCC. (Hepatology 2018). © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Effects of protease inhibitors on radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Little, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of three protease inhibitors, antipain, leupeptin, and soybean trypsin inhibitor, on the induction of oncogenic transformation in mouse C3H10T 1/2 cells by X-rays. The patterns of inhibition by the three protease inhibitors were different. Antipain was the most effective, having the ability to suppress completely radiation transformation as well as radiation transformation enhanced by the phorbol ester promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The fact that antipain could suppress transformation when present for only 1 day following irradiation suggests that an effect on a DNA repair process might be important in its action. Leupeptin was less effective than antipain in its inhibition of radiation transformation. Soybean trypsin inhibitor suppressed only the promotional effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on transformation. Our results suggest that there may be more than one protease involved in carcinogenesis

  19. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress UV-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression at the posttranscriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagoe, S.; Kohda, T.; Oishi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is induced not only by trans activation mediated through a gene product (tat) encoded by the virus but also by treatment of virus-carrying cells with DNA-damaging agents such as UV light. Employing an artificially constructed DNA in which the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, we analyzed the induction process in HeLa cells and found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppressed UV-induced HIV-1 gene expression but not tat-mediated expression. We also found that suppression occurs at the posttranscriptional level. These results indicate that HIV-1 gene expression is activated by at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves poly-ADP ribosylation. A possible new role of poly-ADP ribosylation in the regulation of specific gene expression is also discussed

  20. Peripheral Inhibitor of AChE, Neostigmine, Prevents the Inflammatory Dependent Suppression of GnRH/LH Secretion during the Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej P. Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH/luteinising hormone (LH secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal. An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg. Peripheral treatment with Donepezil and Neostigmine prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0.05 in LHβ gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland (AP and in LH release. Moreover, Donepezil completely abolished (P<0.05 the suppressory effect of inflammation on GnRH synthesis in the preoptic area, when pretreatment with Neostigmine reduced (P<0.05 the decrease in GnRH content in this hypothalamic structure. Moreover, administration of both AChE inhibitors diminished (P<0.05 the inhibitory effect of LPS treatment on the expression of GnRH receptor in the AP. Our study shows that inflammatory dependent changes in the GnRH/LH secretion may be eliminated or reduced by AChE inhibitors suppressing inflammatory reaction only at the periphery such as Neostigmine, without the need for interfering in the central nervous system.

  1. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahal, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.mahal@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Kahlen, Philip, E-mail: philip.kahlen@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Biersack, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.biersack@yahoo.com [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Schobert, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schobert@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  2. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahal, Katharina; Kahlen, Philip; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  3. Oncogenic roles of TOPK and MELK, and effective growth suppression by small molecular inhibitors in kidney cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taigo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Seiya; Tamada, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-04-05

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) have been reported to play critical roles in cancer cell proliferation and maintenance of stemness. In this study, we investigated possible roles of TOPK and MELK in kidney cancer cells and found their growth promotive effect as well as some feedback mechanism between these two molecules. Interestingly, the blockade of either of these two kinases effectively caused downregulation of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) activity which is known as an oncogenic transcriptional factor in various types of cancer cells. Small molecular compound inhibitors against TOPK (OTS514) and MELK (OTS167) effectively suppressed the kidney cancer cell growth, and the combination of these two compounds additively worked and showed the very strong growth suppressive effect on kidney cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that both TOPK and MELK are promising molecular targets for kidney cancer treatment and that dual blockade of OTS514 and OTS167 may bring additive anti-tumor effects with low risk of side effects.

  4. Hesperetin, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Effectively Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness without Influencing Xylazine/Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hesperetin, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE4 inhibitor, is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi.” Therefore, we were interested in investigating its effects on ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and clarifying its rationale for ameliorating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hesperetin was revealed to have a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of >11. Hesperetin (10 ~ 30 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. It dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the BALF and serum. However, hesperetin did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that hesperetin has few or no emetic effects. In conclusion, the rationales for ameliorating allergic asthma and COPD by hesperetin are anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and bronchodilation.

  5. Lysine deacetylase inhibition prevents diabetes by chromatin-independent immunoregulation and β-cell protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Gysemans, Conny; Lundh, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is due to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi) protect β-cells from inflammatory destruction in vitro and are promising immunomodulators. Here we demonstrate that the clinically well-tolerated KDACi vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes...... in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes and counteract inflammatory target cell damage by a mechanism of action consistent with transcription factor-rather than global chromatin-hyperacetylation. Weaning NOD mice received low doses of vorinostat and givinostat in their drinking water until...... 100-120 d of age. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 38% and 45%, respectively, there was a 15% increase in the percentage of islets without infiltration, and pancreatic insulin content increased by 200%. Vorinostat treatment increased the frequency of functional regulatory T-cell subsets...

  6. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, GSK2126458 and PKI-587, suppress tumor progression and increase radiosensitivity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan; Li, Qi; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Yuqin; Wang, Rong; Lin, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Dong; Yuan, Yawei; Chen, Longhua; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Although combined chemoradiotherapy has provided considerable improvements for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), recurrence and metastasis are still frequent. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a critical role in tumor formation and tumor cell survival after radiation-induced DNA damage. In the present study, we evaluated whether inhibition of PI3K/mTOR by two novel dual inhibitors, GSK2126458 and PKI-587, could suppress tumor progression and sensitize NPC cells to radiation. Four NPC cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, 5-8F, and 6-10B) were used to analyze the effects of GSK216458 and PKI-587 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, clonogenic survival, amount of residual γ-H2AX foci, cell cycle, and apoptosis after radiation. A 5-8F xenograft model was used to evaluate the in vivo effects of the two compounds in combination with ionizing radiation (IR). Both GSK216458 and PKI-587 effectively inhibited cell proliferation and motility in NPC cells and suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, S6, and 4EBP1 proteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, both compounds sensitized NPC cells to IR by increasing DNA damage, enhancing G2-M cell-cycle delay, and inducing apoptosis. In vivo, the combination of IR with GSK2126458 or PKI-587 significantly inhibited tumor growth. Antitumor effect was correlated with induction of apoptosis and suppression of the phosphorylation of mTOR, Akt, and 4EBP1. These new findings suggest the usefulness of PI3K/mTOR dual inhibition for antitumor and radiosensitizing. The combination of IR with a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, GSK2126458 or PKI-587, might be a promising therapeutic strategy for NPC. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Histone Deacetylase 3 Inhibition Overcomes BIM Deletion Polymorphism-Mediated Osimertinib Resistance in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Azusa; Takeuchi, Shinji; Arai, Sachiko; Fukuda, Koji; Yamada, Tadaaki; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong; Yano, Seiji

    2017-06-15

    Purpose: The BIM deletion polymorphism is associated with apoptosis resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations. Here, we investigated whether the BIM deletion polymorphism contributes to resistance against osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI. In addition, we determined the efficacy of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, against this form of resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Experimental Design: We used EGFR -mutated NSCLC cell lines, which were either heterozygous or homozygous for the BIM deletion polymorphism, to evaluate the effect of osimertinib in vitro and in vivo Protein expression was examined by Western blotting. Alternative splicing of BIM mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results: EGFR -mutated NSCLC cell lines with the BIM deletion polymorphism exhibited apoptosis resistance to osimertinib in a polymorphism dosage-dependent manner, and this resistance was overcome by combined use with vorinostat. Experiments with homozygous BIM deletion-positive cells revealed that vorinostat affected the alternative splicing of BIM mRNA in the deletion allele, increased the expression of active BIM protein, and thereby induced apoptosis in osimertinib-treated cells. These effects were mediated predominantly by HDAC3 inhibition. In xenograft models, combined use of vorinostat with osimertinib could regress tumors in EGFR -mutated NSCLC cells homozygous for the BIM deletion polymorphism. Moreover, this combination could induce apoptosis even when tumor cells acquired EGFR -T790M mutations. Conclusions: These findings indicate the importance of developing HDAC3-selective inhibitors, and their combined use with osimertinib, for treating EGFR -mutated lung cancers carrying the BIM deletion polymorphism. Clin Cancer Res; 23(12); 3139-49. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. The STAT3 inhibitor pimozide impedes cell proliferation and induces ROS generation in human osteosarcoma by suppressing catalase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nan; Zhou, Wei; Ye, Lan-Lan; Chen, Jun; Liang, Qiu-Ni; Chang, Gang; Chen, Jia-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable need to develop new treatments for osteosarcoma (OS), a very aggressive bone cancer. The activation of STAT3 signaling is positively associated with poor prognosis and aggressive progression in OS patients. Our previous study reported that the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug pimozide had anti-tumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect of pimozide on OS cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Pimozide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and sphere formation capacities of the OS cells in a dose-dependent manner, inducing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Pimozide reduced the percentage of side population cells representing cancer stem-like cells and enhanced the sensitivity of OS cells to 5-FU induced proliferative inhibition. In addition, pimozide induced apoptosis of U2OS cells, which showed increased expression of cleaved-PARP, a marker of programmed cell death. Moreover, pimozide suppressed Erk signaling in OS cells. Importantly, pimozide induced ROS generation by downregulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). NAC treatment partially reversed the ROS generation and cytotoxic effects induced by pimozide. CAT treatment attenuated the pimozide-induced proliferation inhibition. The decrease of CAT expression induced by pimozide was potentially mediated through the suppression of cellular STAT3 activity in OS cells. Thus, pimozide may be a novel STAT3 inhibitor that suppresses cellular STAT3 activity to inhibit OS cells or stem-like cells and is a novel potential anti-cancer agent in OS treatment.

  9. Environmental life cycle analysis of potato sprout inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, R.P.V.; Ree, C.M.; Moll, H.C.

    Potato sprout inhibitors are generally applied to suppress sprouting during winter storage. This study presents the compared environmental profiles of the two sprout inhibitors available on the Dutch market: A traditional chemical product with isopropyl-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC) and

  10. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jessica A; Jones, Amy J; Avery, Vicky M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Ng, Susanna S; Fairlie, David P; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Andrews, Katherine T

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat(®)), romidepsin (Istodax(®)) and belinostat (Beleodaq(®)), are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10-200 nM), while only romidepsin was active at sub-μM concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM). The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4.

  11. HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers in fear, anxiety and trauma therapy: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A novel strategy to treat anxiety and fear-related disorders such as phobias, panic and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is combining CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), including extinction-based exposure therapy, with cognitive enhancers. By targeting and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevention. Progress in revealing the role of epigenetic regulation of specific genes associated with extinction memory generation has opened new avenues in this direction. The present review examines recent evidence from pre-clinical studies showing that increasing histone acetylation, either via genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDACs (histone deacetylases) by e.g. vorinostat/SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), entinostat/MS-275, sodium butyrate, TSA (trichostatin A) or VPA (valproic acid), or by targeting HATs (histone acetyltransferases), augments fear extinction and, importantly, generates a long-term extinction memory that can protect from return of fear phenomena. The molecular mechanisms and pathways involved including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor signalling are just beginning to be revealed. First studies in healthy humans are in support of extinction-facilitating effects of HDAC inhibitors. Very recent evidence that HDAC inhibitors can rescue deficits in extinction-memory-impaired rodents indicates a potential clinical utility of this approach also for exposure therapy-resistant patients. Important future work includes investigation of the long-term safety aspects of HDAC inhibitor treatment, as well as design of isotype(s)-specific inhibitors. Taken together, HDAC inhibitors display promising potential as pharmacological adjuncts to augment the efficacy of exposure-based approaches in anxiety and trauma therapy.

  12. Natural proteasome inhibitor celastrol suppresses androgen-independent prostate cancer progression by modulating apoptotic proteins and NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dai

    Full Text Available Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the current study, we aim to test the hypothesis that celastrol suppresses AIPC progression via inhibiting the constitutive NF-κB activity as well as modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins.We examined the efficacy of celastrol both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the role of NF-κB in celastrol-mediated AIPC regression. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation in all three AIPC cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and CL1, with IC₅₀ in the range of 1-2 µM. Celastrol also suppressed cell migration and invasion. Celastrol significantly induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased sub-G1 population, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, celastrol promoted cleavage of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and activated the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. In addition, celastrol rapidly blocked cytosolic IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. Likewise, celastrol inhibited the expression of multiple NF-κB target genes that are involved in proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis. Celastrol suppressed AIPC tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis, in PC-3 xenograft model in nude mouse. Furthermore, increased cellular IκBα and inhibited expression of various NF-κB target genes were observed in tumor tissues.Our data suggest that, via targeting the proteasome, celastrol suppresses proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by inducing the apoptotic machinery and attenuating constitutive NF-κB activity in AIPC both in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol as an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine could thus be

  13. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses Ca(2+)-induced and "sensitized"-contraction of skinned tracheal muscles from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Blebbistatin, a potent inhibitor of myosin II, has inhibiting effects on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and contractile filament organization without affecting the Ca(2+)-sensitivity to the force and phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC20) in skinned (cell membrane permeabilized) taenia cecum from the guinea pig (Watanabe et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010; 298: C1118-26). In the present study, we investigated blebbistatin effects on the contractile force of skinned tracheal muscle, in which myosin filaments organization is more labile than that in the taenia cecum. Blebbistatin at 10 μM or higher suppressed Ca(2+)-induced tension development at any given Ca(2+) concentration, but had little effects on the Ca(2+)- induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Also blebbistatin at 10 μM and higher significantly suppressed GTP-γS-induced "sensitized" force development. Since the force inhibiting effects of blebbistatin on the skinned trachea were much stronger than those in skinned taenia cecum, blebbistatin might directly affect myosin filaments organization.

  14. A Rationally Designed Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Distinct Antitumor Activity against Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs are a class of antineoplastic agents previously demonstrating preclinical chemosensitizing activity against drug-resistant cancer cells and mouse xenografts. However, whereas clinical studies have shown efficacy against human hematologic malignancies, solid tumor trials have proved disappointing. We previously developed a novel HDACI, “OSU-HDAC42,” and herein examine its activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts. OSU-HDAC42, (i unlike most HDACIs, elicited a more than five-fold increase in G2-phase cells, at 2.5 µM, with G2 arrest followed by apoptosis; (ii at 1.0 µM, completely repressed messenger RNA expression of the cell cycle progression gene cdc2; (iii at low doses (0.25–1.0 µM for 24 hours, induced tumor cell epithelial differentiation, as evidenced by morphology changes and a more than five-fold up-regulation of epithelium-specific cytokeratins; (iv potently abrogated the growth of numerous ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.5 to 1.0 µM, whereas also remaining eight-fold less toxic (IC50 of 8.6 µM to normal ovarian surface epithelial cells; and (v chemosensitizated platinum-resistant mouse xenografts to cisplatin. Compared with the clinically approved HDACI suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, 1.0 µM OSU-HDAC42 was more biochemically potent (i.e., enzyme-inhibitory, as suggested by greater gene up-regulation and acetylation of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In p53-dysfunctional cells, however, OSU-HDAC42 was two- to eight-fold less inductive of p53-regulated genes, whereas also having a two-fold higher IC50 than p53-functional cells, demonstrating some interaction with p53 tumor-suppressive cascades. These findings establish OSU-HDAC42 as a promising therapeutic agent for drug-resistant ovarian cancer and justify its further investigation.

  15. Santacruzamate A, a potent and selective histone deacetylase inhibitor from the Panamanian marine cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Christopher M; Wong, Christina Y B; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L; Gerwick, William H; Balunas, Marcy J

    2013-11-22

    A dark brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity.

  16. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett's esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-0293 (Japan); Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyaki 980-8574 (Japan); Pinlaor, Somchai [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation by Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett's esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3-6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and

  17. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2017-06-08

    Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.

  18. Potentiation of apoptosis by histone deacetylase inhibitors and doxorubicin combination: cytoplasmic cathepsin B as a mediator of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Kuhns, M A; Kalaycio, M E; Borden, E C

    2011-03-15

    Although inhibitors of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in combination with genotoxins potentiate apoptosis, the role of proteases other than caspases in this process remained elusive. Therefore, we examined the potentiation of apoptosis and related mechanisms of HDACis and doxorubicin combination in a panel of myeloma cell lines and in 25 primary myelomas. At IC(50) concentrations, sodium butyrate (an HDACi) or doxorubicin alone caused little apoptosis. However, their combination potentiated apoptosis and synergistically reduced the viability of myeloma cells independent of p53 and caspase 3-7 activation. Potentiated apoptosis correlated with nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, suggesting the induction of caspase 3- and 7-independent pathways. Consistent with this, butyrate and doxorubicin combination significantly increased the activity of cytoplasmic cathepsin B. Inhibition of cathepsin B either with a small-molecule inhibitor or downregulation with a siRNA reversed butyrate- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis. Finally, ex vivo, clinically relevant concentrations of butyrate or SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, an HDACi in clinical testing) in combination with doxorubicin significantly (Pmediating apoptosis potentiated by HDACi and doxorubicin combinations in myeloma. Our results support a molecular model of lysosomal-mitochondrial crosstalk in HDACi- and doxorubicin-potentiated apoptosis through the activation of cathepsin B.

  19. JAK inhibitors suppress t(8;21) fusion protein-induced leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Miao-Chia; Peterson, Luke F.; Yan, Ming; Cong, Xiuli; Hickman, Justin H.; DeKelver, Russel C.; Niewerth, Denise; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in components of the JAK/STAT pathway, including those in cytokine receptors and JAKs, lead to increased activity of downstream signaling and are frequently found in leukemia and other hematological disorders. Thus, small-molecule inhibitors of this pathway have been the focus of targeted therapy in these hematological diseases. We previously showed that t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO and its alternatively spliced variant AML1-ETO9a (AE9a) enhance the JAK/STAT pathway via down-regulation of CD45, a negative regulator of this pathway. To investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT in t(8;21) leukemia, we examined the effects of a JAK2-selective inhibitor TG101209 and a JAK1/2-selective inhibitor INCB18424 on t(8;21) leukemia cells. TG101209 and INCB18424 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, TG101209 treatment in AE9a leukemia mice reduced tumor burden and significantly prolonged survival. TG101209 also significantly impaired the leukemia-initiating potential of AE9a leukemia cells in secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic efficacy of JAK inhibitors in treating t(8;21) AML. PMID:23812420

  20. HDAC inhibition induces HIV-1 protein and enables immune-based clearance following latency reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guoxin; Swanson, Michael; Talla, Aarthi

    2017-01-01

    Promising therapeutic approaches for eradicating HIV include transcriptional activation of provirus from latently infected cells using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and immune-mediated clearance to purge reservoirs. Accurate detection of cells capable of producing viral antigens and virions......, and the measurement of clearance of infected cells, is essential to assessing therapeutic efficacy. Here, we apply enhanced methodology extending the sensitivity limits for the rapid detection of subfemtomolar HIV gag p24 capsid protein in CD4+ T cells from ART-suppressed HIV+ individuals, and we show viral protein...... induction following treatment with LRAs. Importantly, we demonstrate that clinical administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis; vorinostat and panobinostat) induced HIV gag p24, and ex vivo stimulation produced sufficient viral antigen to elicit immune-mediated cell killing using anti-gp120/CD3...

  1. Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Christopher M.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D.; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L.; Gerwick, William H.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2013-01-01

    A dark-brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca, and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat®], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity. PMID:24164245

  2. Suppression of tau propagation using an inhibitor that targets the DK-switch of nSMase2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilousova, Tina; Elias, Chris; Miyoshi, Emily; Alam, Mohammad Parvez; Zhu, Chunni; Campagna, Jesus; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Gylys, Karen Hoppens; John, Varghese

    2018-05-23

    Targeting of molecular pathways involved in the cell-to-cell propagation of pathological tau species is a novel approach for development of disease-modifying therapies that could block tau pathology and attenuate cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. We discovered cambinol through a screening effort and show that it is an inhibitor of cell-to-cell tau propagation. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cambinol inhibits neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) enzyme activity in dose response fashion, and suppresses extracellular vesicle (EV) production while reducing tau seed propagation. Our in vivo testing with cambinol shows that it can reduce the nSMase2 activity in the brain after oral administration. Our molecular docking and simulation analysis reveals that cambinol can target the DK-switch in the nSMase2 active site. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 17-AAG enhances the cytotoxicity of flavopiridol in mantle cell lymphoma via autophagy suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Guan, J

    2015-01-01

    Flavopiridol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI), shows promising anti-tumor activity in hematologic malignancies. However, Flavopiridol-induced protective autophagy may lead to drug resistance. Here we found that Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG can sensitize mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells to flavopiridol by suppressing flavopiridol-triggered protective autophagy. The suppressing effect of 17-AAG on autophgy was mediated by Beclin1 degradation and ERK inactivation. Furthermore, 17-AAG enhanced flavopiridol-induced apoptosis and growth suppression in MCL cells. Our study may provide some insights into CDKI -targeted chemotherapies.

  4. Nicotine suppresses the neurotoxicity by MPP+/MPTP through activating α7nAChR/PI3K/Trx-1 and suppressing ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanxue; Zhang, Xianwen; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Yanhui; Yao, Jianhua; Bai, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Nicotine has been reported to have the role in preventing Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism is still unclear. In present study we found that nicotine suppressed 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion(MPP + ) toxicity in PC12 cells by MTT assay. The expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1) was decreased by MPP + , which was restored by nicotine. The nicotine suppressed expressions of Glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78/Bip) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induced by MPP + . The methyllycaconitine (MLA), the inhibitor of α7nAChR and LY294002, the inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked the suppressions of above molecules, respectively. Consistently, pretreatment with nicotine ameliorated the motor ability, restored the declines of Trx-1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and suppressed the expressions of Bip and CHOP induced by 1-Methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice. Our results suggest that nicotine plays role in resisting MPP + /MPTP neurotoxicity through activating the α7nAChR/PI3K/Trx-1 pathway and suppressing ER stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Engel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat®, romidepsin (Istodax® and belinostat (Beleodaq®, are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10–200 nM, while only romidepsin was active at sub-μM concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM. The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4.

  6. HDAC inhibitors repress BARD1 isoform expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells via activation of miR-19a and/or b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Lepore

    Full Text Available Over the past years BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 has been considered as both a BRCA1 (BReast Cancer susceptibility gene 1, early onset interactor and tumor suppressor gene mutated in breast and ovarian cancers. Despite its role as a stable heterodimer with BRCA1, increasing evidence indicates that BARD1 also has BRCA1-independent oncogenic functions. Here, we investigate BARD1 expression and function in human acute myeloid leukemias and its modulation by epigenetic mechanism(s and microRNAs. We show that the HDACi (histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat reduces BARD1 mRNA levels by increasing miR-19a and miR-19b expression levels. Moreover, we identify a specific BARD1 isoform, which might act as tumor diagnostic and prognostic markers.

  7. Systematic Analysis of Time-Series Gene Expression Data on Tumor Cell-Selective Apoptotic Responses to HDAC Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-feng Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or vorinostat is the first nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. SAHA affects histone acetylation in chromatin and a variety of nonhistone substrates, thus influencing many cellular processes. In particularly, SAHA induces selective apoptosis of tumor cells, although the mechanism is not well understood. A series of microarray experiments was recently conducted to investigate tumor cell-selective proapoptotic transcriptional responses induced by SAHA. Based on that gene expression time series, we propose a novel framework for detailed analysis of the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis selectively induced by SAHA. Our analyses indicated that SAHA selectively disrupted the DNA damage response, cell cycle, p53 expression, and mitochondrial integrity of tumor samples to induce selective tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest a possible regulation network. Our research extends the existing research.

  8. Activation of the ζ receptor 1 suppresses NMDA responses in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-J; Liu, L-L; Jiang, S-X; Zhong, Y-M; Yang, X-L

    2011-03-17

    The sigma receptor 1 (σR1) has been shown to modulate the activity of several voltage- and ligand-gated channels. Using patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we demonstrated that activation of σR1 by SKF10047 (SKF) or PRE-084 suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated current responses from both ON and OFF type ganglion cells (GCs), dose-dependently, and the effect could be blocked by the σR1 antagonist BD1047 or the σR antagonist haloperidol. The suppression by SKF of NMDA currents was abolished with pre-incubation of the G protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or the Gi/o activator mastoparan. We further explored the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for the SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses. Application of either cAMP/the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP or cGMP/the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not change the SKF-induced effect, suggesting the involvement of neither cAMP/PKA nor cGMP/PKG pathway. In contrast, suppression of NMDA responses by SKF was abolished by internal infusion of the phosphatidylinostiol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, but not by the phosphatidylcholine-PLC inhibitor D609. SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses was dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), as evidenced by the fact that the effect was abolished when [Ca2+]i was buffered with 10 mM BAPTA. The SKF effect was blocked by xestospongin-C/heparin, IP3 receptor antagonists, but unchanged by ryanodine/caffeine, ryanodine receptor modulators. Furthermore, application of protein kinase C inhibitors Bis IV and Gö6976 eliminated the SKF effect. These results suggest that the suppression of NMDA responses of rat retinal GCs caused by the activation of σR1 may be mediated by a distinct [Ca2+]i-dependent PLC-PKC pathway. This effect of SKF could help ameliorate malfunction of GCs caused by excessive stimulation of NMDA receptors under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Lysine deacetylase inhibition prevents diabetes by chromatin-independent immunoregulation and beta-cell protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, D.P.; Gysemans, C.; Lundh, M.; Dahllof, M.S.; Noesgaard, D.; Schmidt, S.F.; Mandrup, S; Birkbak, N.; Workman, C.T.; Piemonti, L.; Blaabjerg, L.; Monzani, V.; Fossati, G.; Mascagni, P.; Paraskevas, S.; Aikin, R.A.; Billestrup, N.; Grunnet, L.G.; Dinarello, C.A.; Mathieu, C.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is due to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Lysine deacetylase inhibitors (KDACi) protect beta-cells from inflammatory destruction in vitro and are promising immunomodulators. Here we demonstrate that the clinically well-tolerated KDACi vorinostat and givinostat revert diabetes

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration Inhibitors Suppress Protein Translation and Hypoxic Signaling via the Hyperphosphorylation and Inactivation of Translation Initiation Factor eIF2α and Elongation Factor eEF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Datta, Sandipan; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Over 20000 lipid extracts of plants and marine organisms were evaluated in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided isolation and dereplication-based structure elucidation of an active extract from the Bael tree (Aegle marmelos) afforded two protolimonoids, skimmiarepin A (1) and skimmiarepin C (2). In T47D cells, 1 and 2 inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation with IC50 values of 0.063 µM and 0.068 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also suppressed hypoxic induction of the HIF-1 target genes GLUT-1 and VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 and 2 inhibited HIF-1 activation by blocking the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein. At the range of concentrations that inhibited HIF-1 activation, 1 and 2 suppressed cellular respiration by selectively inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I (NADH dehydrogenase). Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial respiration inhibitors such as 1 and rotenone induced the rapid hyperphosphorylation and inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF2α and elongation factor eEF2. The inhibition of protein translation may account for the short-term exposure effects exerted by mitochondrial inhibitors on cellular signaling, while the suppression of cellular ATP production may contribute to the inhibitory effects following extended treatment periods. PMID:21875114

  11. A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisato, Chikako; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  13. Valproic acid decreases urothelial cancer cell proliferation and induces thrombospondin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byler Timothy K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of bladder cancer recurrence is a central challenge in the management of this highly prevalent disease. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (sodium valproate has anti-angiogenic properties and has been shown to decrease bladder cancer growth in model systems. We have previously shown reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 in a mouse model and in human bladder cancer relative to normal urothelium. We speculated that inhibition of angiogenesis by valproate might be mediated by this anti-angiogenic protein. Methods Bladder cancer cell lines UMUC3 and T24 were treated with valproate or another histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, in culture for a period of three days. Proliferation was assessed by alamar blue reduction. Gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcription of RNA and quantitative PCR. Results Proliferation assays showed treatment with valproate or vorinostat decreased proliferation in both cell lines. Histone deacetylase inhibition also increased relative expression of thrombospondin-1 up to 8 fold at 5 mM valproate. Conclusions Histone deacetylase inhibitors warrant further study for the prevention or treatment of bladder cancer.

  14. Bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET Inhibitor Suppresses Macrophage-Driven Steroid-Resistant Exacerbations of Airway Hyper-Responsiveness and Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hiep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of asthma are linked to significant decline in lung function and are often poorly controlled by corticosteroid treatment. Clinical investigations indicate that viral and bacterial infections play crucial roles in the onset of steroid-resistant inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR that are hallmark features of exacerbations. We have previously shown that interferon γ (IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS cooperatively activate pulmonary macrophages and induce steroid-resistant airway inflammation and AHR in mouse models. Furthermore, we have established a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced exacerbation of asthma, which exhibits macrophage-dependent, steroid-resistant lung disease. Emerging evidence has demonstrated a key role for bromo- and extra-terminal (BET proteins in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We hypothesised that BET proteins may be involved in the regulation of AHR and airway inflammation in our steroid-resistant exacerbation models.We investigated the effects of a BET inhibitor (I-BET-762 on the development of steroid-resistant AHR and airway inflammation in two mouse models. I-BET-762 administration decreased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the airways, and suppressed key inflammatory cytokines in both models. I-BET treatment also suppressed key inflammatory cytokines linked to the development of steroid-resistant inflammation such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, keratinocyte-derived protein chemokine (KC, IFNγ, and interleukin 27 (IL-27. Attenuation of inflammation was associated with suppression of AHR.Our results suggest that BET proteins play an important role in the regulation of steroid-resistant exacerbations of airway inflammation and AHR. BET proteins may be potential targets for the development of future therapies to treat steroid-resistant inflammatory components of asthma.

  15. Influence of natural and synthetic histone deacetylase inhibitors on chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Kwa, Faith A A; Ververis, Katherine; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Tang, Mimi L; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-07-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutics. The hydroxamic acid, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza™), and the cyclic peptide, depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax™), were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in 2006 and 2009, respectively. At least 15 HDACIs are currently undergoing clinical trials either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities for the treatment of numerous hematological and solid malignancies. The potential utility of HDACIs has been extended to nononcologic applications, including autoimmune disorders, inflammation, diseases of the central nervous system, and malaria. Given the promise of HDACIs, there is growing interest in the potential of dietary compounds that possess HDAC inhibition activity. This review is focused on the identification of and recent findings with HDACIs from dietary, medicinal plant, and microbial sources. We discuss the mechanisms of action and clinical potential of natural HDACIs. Apart from identification of further HDACI compounds from dietary sources, further research will be aimed at understanding the effects on gene regulation on lifetime exposure to these compounds. Another important issue that requires clarification.

  16. Suppression of 19S proteasome subunits marks emergence of an altered cell state in diverse cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Sokol, Ethan; Jin, Dexter; Brune, Zarina; Thiru, Prathapan; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi A; Gupta, Piyush B; Santagata, Sandro; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-01-10

    The use of proteasome inhibitors to target cancer's dependence on altered protein homeostasis has been greatly limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. Analyzing data from thousands of cancer lines and tumors, we find that those with suppressed expression of one or more 19S proteasome subunits show intrinsic proteasome inhibitor resistance. Moreover, such proteasome subunit suppression is associated with poor outcome in myeloma patients, where proteasome inhibitors are a mainstay of treatment. Beyond conferring resistance to proteasome inhibitors, proteasome subunit suppression also serves as a sentinel of a more global remodeling of the transcriptome. This remodeling produces a distinct gene signature and new vulnerabilities to the proapoptotic drug, ABT-263. This frequent, naturally arising imbalance in 19S regulatory complex composition is achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation, and marks the emergence of a heritably altered and therapeutically relevant state in diverse cancers.

  17. Anti-apoptotic effect of caspase inhibitors on H₂O₂-treated HeLa cells through early suppression of its oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells may be of toxicological interest. In the present study, the effects of exogenous H2O2 on cell growth and death in HeLa cervical cancer cells were investigated, and the anti-apoptotic effects of various caspase (pan-caspase, caspase-3, -8 or -9) inhibitors on H2O2-treated HeLa cells were also evaluated with regard to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Based on MTT assays, H2O2 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC50 value of ~75 µM at 24 h. H2O2 increased the number of dead cells and Annexin V-FITC-positive cells in the HeLa cells, which was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm). However, relatively higher doses of H2O2 induced necrosis in HeLa cells. Caspase inhibitors significantly prevented H2O2-induced HeLa cell death. H2O2 increased ROS including O2•- at 24 h and increased the activity of catalase in HeLa cells. H2O2 also increased the ROS level at 1 h, and several caspase inhibitors attenuated the increased level at 1 h but not at 6, 12 and 24 h. H2O2 decreased the GSH level in HeLa cells at 1 h, and several caspase inhibitors attenuated the decreased level of GSH at this time. H2O2 induced GSH depletion at 24 h. In conclusion, H2O2 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells via apoptosis and/or necrosis, which was accompanied by intracellular increases in ROS levels and GSH depletion. Caspase inhibitors are suggested to suppress H2O2-induced oxidative stress to rescue HeLa cells at the early time point of 1 h.

  18. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  19. Detection of apoptotic cells using immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P.; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is commonly used to show the presence of apoptotic cells in situ. In this protocol, B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples are

  20. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome

  1. Structure of ‘linkerless’ hydroxamic acid inhibitor-HDAC8 complex confirms the formation of an isoform-specific subpocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabackman, Alexa A.; Frankson, Rochelle; Marsan, Eric S.; Perry, Kay; Cole, Kathryn E. (Ithaca); (Cornell); (Christopher Newport U)

    2016-11-04

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylated lysine side chains in histone and non-histone proteins, and play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. Aberrant HDAC activity is associated with cancer, making these enzymes important targets for drug design. In general, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) block the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and/or apoptosis, and comprise some of the leading therapies in cancer treatments. To date, four HDACi have been FDA approved for the treatment of cancers: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza®), romidepsin (FK228, Istodax®), belinostat (Beleodaq®), and panobinostat (Farydak®). Most current inhibitors are pan-HDACi, and non-selectively target a number of HDAC isoforms. Six previously reported HDACi were rationally designed, however, to target a unique sub-pocket found only in HDAC8. While these inhibitors were indeed potent against HDAC8, and even demonstrated specificity for HDAC8 over HDACs 1 and 6, there were no structural data to confirm the mode of binding. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Compound 6 complexed with HDAC8 to 1.98 Å resolution. We also describe the use of molecular docking studies to explore the binding interactions of the other 5 related HDACi. Our studies confirm that the HDACi induce the formation of and bind in the HDAC8-specific subpocket, offering insights into isoform-specific inhibition.

  2. Induction of granzyme B expression in T-cell receptor/CD28-stimulated human regulatory T cells is suppressed by inhibitors of the PI3K-mTOR pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Todd W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs can employ a cell contact- and granzyme B-dependent mechanism to mediate suppression of bystander T and B cells. Murine studies indicate that granzyme B is involved in the Treg-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment and in the Treg-mediated maintenance of allograft survival. In spite of its central importance, a detailed study of granzyme B expression patterns in human Tregs has not been performed. Results Our data demonstrated that natural Tregs freshly isolated from the peripheral blood of normal adults lacked granzyme B expression. Tregs subjected to prolonged TCR and CD28 triggering, in the presence of IL-2, expressed high levels of granzyme B but CD3 stimulation alone or IL-2 treatment alone failed to induce granzyme B. Treatment of Tregs with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin or the PI3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly suppressed granzyme B expression. However, neither rapamycin, as previously reported by others, nor LY294002 inhibited Treg proliferation or induced significant cell death in TCR/CD28/IL-2 stimulated cells. The proliferation rate of Tregs was markedly higher than that of CD4+ conventional T cells in the setting of rapamycin treatment. Tregs expanded by CD3/CD28/IL-2 stimulation without rapamycin demonstrated increased in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to Tregs expanded in the presence of rapamycin in both short term (6 hours and long term (48 hours cytotoxicity assays. Conclusion TCR/CD28 mediated activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is important for granyzme B expression but not proliferation in regulatory T cells. These findings may indicate that suppressive mechanisms other than granzyme B are utilized by rapamycin-expanded Tregs.

  3. Anti-leukemia activity of MS-275 histone deacetylase inhibitor implicates 4-1BBL/4-1BB immunomodulatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Vire

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi have demonstrated promising therapeutic potential in clinical trials for hematological malignancies. HDACi, such as SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275 were found to induce apoptosis of leukemic blasts through activation of the death receptor pathway and transcriptional induction of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-related pro-apoptotic family members, TRAIL and FasL. The impact of HDACi on TNF-related costimulatory molecules such as 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/TNFSF9 is however not known. Following exposure to SAHA/Vorinostat, Trichostatin A, and MS-275, transcript levels were determined by real time PCR in Jurkat, Raji and U937 cells. Treatment with HDACi up-regulated TNFSF9 gene expression in the three leukemia cell lines, yet to different extend and with distinct kinetics, which did not require de novo protein synthesis and was not associated with DNAse I hypersensitive chromatin remodeling. Transcriptional activity of TNFSF9 promoter-luciferase constructs was induced up to 12 fold by HDACi, and implication of Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors binding to functional GC-box elements was evidenced by reporter gene assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Functionality of modulated target genes was assessed in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction experiments. MS-275- and to a lesser extent Trichostatin A- and SAHA-treated Raji cells significantly up regulated T lymphocytes proliferation which was reduced by about 50% by a 4-1BB blocking recombinant protein, while MS-275- but neither Trichostatin A- nor SAHA-treated cells up-regulated IFNgamma secretion by T lymphocytes. Our results identify 4-1BBL/4-1BB as a downstream target of HDACi, especially of MS-275 anti-leukemia action in vitro. Thus, HDACi such as MS-275 displaying dual TNF-dependent proapoptotic and costimulatory activities might be favored for inclusion in HDACi-based anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.

  4. Amphetamine and cocaine suppress social play behavior in rats through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Siviy, Stephen M; Schrama, Laurens; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Social play behavior is a characteristic form of social behavior displayed by juvenile and adolescent mammals. This social play behavior is highly rewarding and of major importance for social and cognitive development. Social play is known to be modulated by neurotransmitter systems involved in reward and motivation. Interestingly, psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, profoundly suppress social play, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological underpinnings of amphetamine- and cocaine-induced suppression of social play behavior in rats. The play-suppressant effects of amphetamine were antagonized by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist RX821002 but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Remarkably, the effects of cocaine on social play were not antagonized by alpha-2 noradrenergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic receptor antagonists, administered either alone or in combination. The effects of a subeffective dose of cocaine were enhanced by a combination of subeffective doses of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR12909, and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Amphetamine, like methylphenidate, exerts its play-suppressant effect through alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. On the other hand, cocaine reduces social play by simultaneous increases in dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin neurotransmission. In conclusion, psychostimulant drugs with different pharmacological profiles suppress social play behavior through distinct mechanisms. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of social behavior during an important developmental period, and of the deleterious effects of psychostimulant exposure thereon.

  5. Cyclopamine tartrate, an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, strongly interferes with mitochondrial function and suppresses aerobic respiration in lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Sohoni, Sagar; Kalainayakan, Sarada Preeta; Garrossian, Massoud; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the development of many cancers including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and basal cell carcinoma. The Hh signaling pathway has been one of the most intensely investigated targets for cancer therapy, and a number of compounds inhibiting Hh signaling are being tested clinically for treating many cancers. Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three most common cancers (colon, breast, and prostate) combined. Cyclopamine was the first compound found to inhibit Hh signaling and has been invaluable for understanding the function of Hh signaling in development and cancer. To find novel strategies for combating lung cancer, we decided to characterize the effect of cyclopamine tartrate (CycT), an improved analogue of cyclopamine, on lung cancer cells and its mechanism of action. The effect of CycT on oxygen consumption and proliferation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines was quantified by using an Oxygraph system and live cell counting, respectively. Apoptosis was detected by using Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. CycT’s impact on ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial morphology in NSCLC cells was monitored by using fluorometry and fluorescent microscopy. Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy were used to detect the levels and localization of Hh signaling targets, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and heme-related proteins in various NSCLC cells. Our findings identified a novel function of CycT, as well as another Hh inhibitor SANT1, to disrupt mitochondrial function and aerobic respiration. Our results showed that CycT, like glutamine depletion, caused a substantial decrease in oxygen consumption in a number of NSCLC cell lines, suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Further, we found that CycT increased ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, and

  6. Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PF-2341066, suppresses growth and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhao,1,* Jing Zhang,2,* Ying Tian,1,* Cong Xue,1 Zhihuang Hu,1 Li Zhang1,3 1Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guang Zhou Traditional Chinese Medicine University, 3National Anti-Cancer Drug Research Centre, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We explored the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/Met signaling pathway on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the ability of Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI to block HGF-induced biological signaling.Experimental design: Met TKI inhibitor PF-2341066 alone, or in combination with cisplatin, was investigated for its ability to block HGF-induced signaling and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. HGF/Met expression and activation of signaling in NPC cells were detected by using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biological evaluation, including wound healing, cell proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells, was also examined, and the correlation between HGF/Met expression of primary and metastatic tumor in NPC patients and clinical prognosis were also analyzed.Results: Met TKI inhibitor, PF-2341066, inhibited growth of NPC cells in vivo with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.79±0.21 µmol/L, and suppressed invasion and migration of NPC cells; also, the inhibition of PF-2341066 was synergized with cisplatin treatment. Compared with the control group, Met TKI inhibited metastasis of transplanted NPC in nude mice (the number of live metastases [mean ± SD]: 5.8±2.2 versus 11.8±2.2, P=0.03; the number of lung metastases: 2.3±1.5 versus

  7. Suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation decreases invasive and metastatic potentials of B16-BL6 melanoma cells by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1997-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appears to be involved in the activation of signaling during cell attachment to and spreading on extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic cascade. To verify the assumption that PTK inhibitors might impair ECM signaling and prevent cancer metastasis, the highly metastatic B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to the PTK inhibitor genistein for 3 days. The ability of the cells to invade through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and to establish experimental pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 mice decreased after genistein exposure. The genistein-treated cells were also prevented from attaching to Matrigel and spread extremely poorly on the ECM substratum. Immunoblot analysis showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD protein in response to cell spreading on Matrigel was suppressed in the genistein-treated cells. Adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents the earlier and specific event in the activation of ECM signaling, so this result implied ECM signaling was impaired in the treated cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were located at the pericytoplasms of well-spread cells, but not at the periphery of poorly spread genistein-treated cells. Therefore, this paper suggests that genistein might impair ECM signaling and subsequently prevent cancer cells from spreading well and invading or establishing metastasis through the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PTKs and adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play a role in the control of invasion and metastasis.

  8. Changes in glucose-induced plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by co-administration of sodium–glucose cotransporter inhibitors with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Oguma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether structurally different sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 inhibitors, when co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 inhibitors, could enhance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs in rodents. Three different SGLT inhibitors—1-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl-4-chloro-3-[5-(6-fluoro-2-pyridyl-2-thienylmethyl]benzene (GTB, TA-1887, and canagliflozin—were examined to assess the effect of chemical structure. Oral treatment with GTB plus a DPP4 inhibitor enhanced glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1 elevation and suppressed glucose excursions in both normal and diabetic rodents. In DPP4-deficient rats, GTB enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation without affecting the basal level, whereas metformin, previously reported to enhance GLP-1 secretion, increased both the basal level and glucose-induced elevation. Oral treatment with canagliflozin and TA-1887 also enhanced glucose-induced aGLP-1 elevation when co-administered with either teneligliptin or sitagliptin. These data suggest that structurally different SGLT2 inhibitors enhance plasma aGLP-1 elevation and suppress glucose excursions during OGTT when co-administered with DPP4 inhibitors, regardless of the difference in chemical structure. Combination treatment with DPP4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors having moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity may be a promising therapeutic option for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. JAK-inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses interferon alfa production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and inhibits arthrogenic and antiviral effects of interferon alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, Patrick P C; de Ruiter, Petra E; Asmawidjaja, Patrick S; Lubberts, Erik; van der Laan, Luc J W; Kwekkeboom, Jaap

    2017-10-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and shows encouraging therapeutic effects in several other autoimmune diseases. A prominent adverse effect of tofacitinib therapy is the increased risk of viral infections. Despite its advanced stage of clinical development, the modes of action that mediate the beneficial and adverse effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Interferon alfa (IFNα) produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of many systemic autoimmune diseases and in immunity to viral infections. Using in vitro culture models with human cells, we studied the effects of tofacitinib on PDC survival and IFNα production, and on arthrogenic and antiviral effects of IFNα. Tofacitinib inhibited the expression of antiapoptotic BCL-A1 and BCL-XL in human PDC and induced PDC apoptosis. TLR7 stimulation upregulated the levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and prevented the induction of PDC apoptosis by tofacitinib. However, tofacitinib robustly inhibited the production of IFNα by toll like receptor-stimulated PDC. In addition, tofacitinib profoundly suppressed IFNα-induced upregulation of TLR3 on synovial fibroblasts, thereby inhibiting their cytokine and protease production in response to TLR3 ligation. Finally, tofacitinib counteracted the suppressive effects of IFNα on viral replication. Tofacitinib inhibits PDC survival and IFNα production and suppresses arthrogenic and antiviral effects of IFNα signaling. Inhibition of the IFNα pathway at 2 levels may contribute to the beneficial effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases and explain the increased viral infection rates observed during tofacitinib treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A metal-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jing Zhong

    Full Text Available A cyclometallated rhodium(III complex [Rh(ppy(2(dppz](+ (1 (where ppy=2-phenylpyridine and dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE. The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme.

  11. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis.

  12. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Aaron N.; Stebbins, Elizabeth G.; Henson, Margaret; O'Young, Gilbert; Choi, Sun J.; Quon, Diana; Damm, Debby; Reddy, Mamatha; Ma, Jing Y.; Haghnazari, Edwin; Kapoun, Ann M.; Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Protter, Andy; Schreiner, George F.; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Anderson, Judy; Roodman, G. David; Navas, Tony A.; Higgins, Linda S.

    2006-01-01

    The multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a critical role in supporting tumor growth and survival as well as in promoting formation of osteolytic lesions. Recent results suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important factor in maintaining this activated environment. In this report, we demonstrate that the p38α MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, suppresses secretion of the tumor-supportive factors IL-6 and VEGF from BM stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as cocultures of BMSCs with MM cells, resulting in reduction in MM cell proliferation. Additionally, we show that SCIO-469 prevents TNFα-induced adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs through an ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-independent mechanism. Microarray analysis revealed a novel set of TNFα-induced chemokines in BMSCs that is strongly inhibited by SCIO-469. Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNFα-induced MM adhesion. Lastly, we show that SCIO-469 inhibits secretion and expression of the osteoclast-activating factors IL-11, RANKL, and MIP-1α as well as prevents human osteoclast formation in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that SCIO-469 treatment can suppress factors in the bone marrow microenvironment to inhibit MM cell proliferation and adhesion and also to alleviate osteolytic activation in MM

  13. Pediatric Anaplastic Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Targeted Therapy Guided by Genetic Analysis and a Patient-Derived Xenograft Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart L. Cramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS has generally been limited to combinations of conventional cytotoxic agents similar to regimens originally developed in the late 1960s. Recently, identification of molecular alterations through next-generation sequencing of individual tumor specimens has facilitated the use of more targeted therapeutic approaches for various malignancies. Such targeted therapies have revolutionized treatment for some cancer types. However, malignancies common in children, thus far, have been less amenable to such targeted therapies. This report describes the clinical course of an 8-year-old female with embryonal RMS having anaplastic features. This patient experienced multiple relapses after receiving various established and experimental therapies. Genomic testing of this RMS subtype revealed mutations in BCOR, ARID1A, and SETD2 genes, each of which contributes to epigenetic regulation and interacts with or modifies the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC. Based on these findings, the patient was treated with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat as a single agent. The tumor responded transiently followed by subsequent disease progression. We also examined the efficacy of vorinostat in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX model developed using tumor tissue obtained from the patient’s most recent tumor resection. The antitumor activity of vorinostat observed with the PDX model reflected clinical observations in that obvious areas of tumor necrosis were evident following exposure to vorinostat. Histologic sections of tumors harvested from PDX tumor-bearing mice treated with vorinostat demonstrated induction of necrosis by this agent. We propose that the evaluation of clinical efficacy in this type of preclinical model merits further evaluation to determine if PDX models predict tumor sensitivity to specific agents and/or combination therapies.

  14. Combined effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vATPase inhibitors in NSCLC cells

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    Jin, Hyeon-Ok [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung-Eun [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soon [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143–701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Bora [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Seok-Il; Hong, Young Jun [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Kyung, E-mail: jklee@kirams.re.kr [KIRAMS Radiation Biobank, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 139–706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Despite excellent initial clinical responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), many patients eventually develop resistance. According to a recent report, vacuolar H + ATPase (vATPase) is overexpressed and is associated with chemotherapy drug resistance in NSCLC. We investigated the combined effects of EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors and their underlying mechanisms in the regulation of NSCLC cell death. We found that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, gefitinib, or lapatinib) and vATPase inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A) enhanced synergistic cell death compared to treatments with each drug alone. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A led to the induction of Bnip3 expression in an Hif-1α dependent manner. Knock-down of Hif-1α or Bnip3 by siRNA further enhanced cell death induced by bafilomycin A1, suggesting that Hif-1α/Bnip3 induction promoted resistance to cell death induced by the vATPase inhibitors. EGFR TKIs suppressed Hif-1α and Bnip3 expression induced by the vATPase inhibitors, suggesting that they enhanced the sensitivity of the cells to these inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. Taken together, we conclude that EGFR TKIs enhance the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to vATPase inhibitors by decreasing Hif-1α/Bnip3 expression. We suggest that combined treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC. - Highlights: • Co-treatment with EGFR TKIs and vATPase inhibitors induces synergistic cell death • EGFR TKIs enhance cell sensitivity to vATPase inhibitors via Hif-1α downregulation • Co-treatment of these inhibitors is potentially effective for the treatment of NSCLC.

  15. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  16. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Sei-ichi; Tanaka, Ryou-ichi

    1986-01-01

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  17. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor strongly suppressed pulmonary vascular remodeling of allergic vasculitis in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Yuka; Sasaki, Nobuhito; Niisato, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, ZSTK474 on vascular remodeling using a murine model of allergic vasculitis with eosinophil infiltration. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with OVA. The positive controls were exposed to aerosolized OVA daily for 7 days. The other group of mice were administered ZSTK474 (30 mg/kg, p.o. daily) in parallel with daily exposure to aerosolized OVA for 7 days. On the 3rd and 7th day, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and the lungs were excised for pathological analysis. Cell differentials were determined and the concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-βin BAL fluid were measured. The total cell numbers and eosinophil numbers in BALF were greatly reduced in the ZSTK474-treated group on the 3rd and 7th day after exposure to OVA. The numbers of total white blood cells and eosinophils in the peripheral blood were significantly reduced in the ZSTK474-treated group on the 3rd and 7th day after exposure to OVA. The concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BAL fluids were also reduced significantly on the 3rd day in the ZSTK474-treated group. The concentrations of TGF-β in BAL fluids were also reduced significantly on the 3rd and 7th day in the ZSTK474-treated group. The pathological scores reduced significantly in the ZSTK474-treated group compared to the control group. The PI3K inhibitor, ZSTK474 suppressed pulmonary vascular remodeling in the murine model of allergic vasculitis with eosinophil infiltration. PI3K signal transduction may have a critical role in the immunological process that induces allergic vasculitis.

  18. Tussilagone suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ahn, Yeon Hwa; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Woo-Young; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Tussilagone (TSL) was purified from plant as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. •TSL suppressed the β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. •The proteasomal degradation of β-catenin was induced by TSL. •TSL suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. •TSL inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway frequently induces colon cancer progression. In the present study, we identified tussilagone (TSL), a compound isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, as an inhibitor on β-catenin dependent Wnt pathway. TSL suppressed β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity and down-regulated β-catenin level both in cytoplasm and nuclei of HEK293 reporter cells when they were stimulated by Wnt3a or activated by an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Since the mRNA level was not changed by TSL, proteasomal degradation might be responsible for the decreased level of β-catenin. In SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, TSL suppressed the β-catenin activity and also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, representative target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and consequently inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Taken together, TSL might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human colon cancer

  19. Tussilagone suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of β-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Jin [Department of Natural Medicine Resources, Semyung University, 65 Semyung-ro, Jecheon, Chungbuk 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yeon Hwa; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Ha, E-mail: ryuha@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 Hyochangwon-Gil, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Tussilagone (TSL) was purified from plant as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. •TSL suppressed the β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. •The proteasomal degradation of β-catenin was induced by TSL. •TSL suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. •TSL inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway frequently induces colon cancer progression. In the present study, we identified tussilagone (TSL), a compound isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, as an inhibitor on β-catenin dependent Wnt pathway. TSL suppressed β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity and down-regulated β-catenin level both in cytoplasm and nuclei of HEK293 reporter cells when they were stimulated by Wnt3a or activated by an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Since the mRNA level was not changed by TSL, proteasomal degradation might be responsible for the decreased level of β-catenin. In SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, TSL suppressed the β-catenin activity and also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, representative target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and consequently inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Taken together, TSL might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human colon cancer.

  20. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on thought-action fusion, metacognitions, and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Çetinkaya, Nuralay; Selvi, Yavuz; Atli, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether cognitive processes change over time in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors without cognitive behavioral therapy and to investigate the factors associated with probable cognitive changes. During the 16 weeks of the study, 55 patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for OCD received open-label treatment with sertraline (100-200 mg/d) or fluoxetine (40-80 mg/d) and were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), and White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (P < .001), BDI (P < .001), TAFS morality (P < .005), MCQ-30 (P < .01), and WBSI (P < .005) scores at follow-up were significantly lower than baseline scores. When we excluded OCD patients with depressive disorder (n = 12), statistical significance in paired comparisons for MCQ and WBSI disappeared. Similarly, when OCD patients with religious obsessions (n = 16) were excluded, paired comparisons for MCQ and TAF morality were not statistically significant. Changes in BDI, TAFS morality, MCQ-30, and WBSI (P < .005) were significantly correlated with changes in severity of obsessions, but not that of compulsions. After controlling for the change in depression severity, significant correlations between changes in obsessive and cognitive scales did not continue to have statistical significance. The BDI changes (P < .05) significantly explained the changes in symptom severity in a linear regression model. Our findings suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can change appraisals of obsessive intrusions via their effects on negative emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

  2. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 inhibitor suppresses the proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer through TGF-β/TGFR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangyu; Fu, Zelong; Li, Xia; Tang, Haitao; Luo, Jiesi; Zhang, Dehui; Zhuang, Yongzhi; Han, Zhiyang; Yin, Mingzhu

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most invasive cancer types in female population. The functional activity of Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in breast cancer progression increasingly attracts attention as it provides a potential target for antibreast cancer drug development. However, the fundamental role of TAK1 for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression and the effect of potential anti-TAK1 drug candidate needs to be further evaluated. Herein, we focused on the role of TAK1 in human breast cancer cells, and we hypothesized that the inhibition of TAK1 activation can repress the growth of human TNBC cells. We found that the TAK1 is robustly activated within cancer cell population of clinic-derived TNBC samples and the human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Furthermore, we determined the effect of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (5Z-O), a TAK1-specific small molecule inhibitor, on proliferation of human TNBC cell line. 5Z-O treatment significantly suppressed the proliferation of human TNBC cells. Collectively, these demonstrate the role of TAK1 in human breast cancer and the antiproliferate effect of TAK1 inhibitor. Our study sets the stage for further research on TAK1 as a promising target for development of anti-TNBC drugs and therapeutic strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitors radiosensitize human cancer cells by suppressing DNA repair activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Ho; Chie, Eui Kyu; Da Young, Park; Kim, In Ah; Kim, Il Han

    2012-01-01

    Histone modifications and DNA methylation are two major factors in epigenetic phenomenon. Unlike the histone deacetylase inhibitors, which are known to exert radiosensitizing effects, there have only been a few studies thus far concerning the role of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors as radiosensitizers. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNMT inhibitors on the radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines, and to elucidate the mechanisms relevant to that process. A549 (lung cancer) and U373MG (glioblastoma) cells were exposed to radiation with or without six DNMT inhibitors (5-azacytidine, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, hydralazine, epigallocatechin gallate, and psammaplin A) for 18 hours prior to radiation, after which cell survival was evaluated via clonogenic assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed via flow cytometry. Expressions of DNMT1, 3A/3B, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected via Western blotting. Expression of γH2AX, a marker of radiation-induced DNA double-strand break, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Pretreatment with psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine radiosensitized both A549 and U373MG cells. Pretreatment with psammaplin A increased the sub-G1 fraction of A549 cells, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone. Prolongation of γH2AX expression was observed in the cells treated with DNMT inhibitors prior to radiation as compared with those treated by radiation alone. Psammaplin A, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and zebularine induce radiosensitivity in both A549 and U373MG cell lines, and suggest that this effect might be associated with the inhibition of DNA repair

  4. Epigenetic Alterations in Fanconi Anaemia: Role in Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Belo

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is an inherited disorder characterized by chromosomal instability. The phenotype is variable, which raises the possibility that it may be affected by other factors, such as epigenetic modifications. These play an important role in oncogenesis and may be pharmacologically manipulated. Our aim was to explore whether the epigenetic profiles in FA differ from non-FA individuals and whether these could be manipulated to alter the disease phenotype. We compared expression of epigenetic genes and DNA methylation profile of tumour suppressor genes between FA and normal samples. FA samples exhibited decreased expression levels of genes involved in epigenetic regulation and hypomethylation in the promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes. Treatment of FA cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat increased the expression of DNM3Tβ and reduced the levels of CIITA and HDAC9, PAK1, USP16, all involved in different aspects of epigenetic and immune regulation. Given the ability of Vorinostat to modulate epigenetic genes in FA patients, we investigated its functional effects on the FA phenotype. This was assessed by incubating FA cells with Vorinostat and quantifying chromosomal breaks induced by DNA cross-linking agents. Treatment of FA cells with Vorinostat resulted in a significant reduction of aberrant cells (81% on average. Our results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in oncogenesis in FA. Epigenetic agents may be helpful in improving the phenotype of FA patients, potentially reducing tumour incidence in this population.

  5. Differential regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β production from endotoxin stimulated human monocytes by phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Molnar-Kimber

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selective PDE-I (vinpocetine, PDE-III (milrinone, CI-930, PDE-IV (rolipram, nitroquazone, and PDE-V (zaprinast isozyme inhibitors on TNF-α and IL-1β production from LPS stimulated human monocytes was investigated. The PDE-IV inhibitors caused a concentration dependent inhibition of TNF-α production, but only partially inhibited IL-1β at high concentrations. High concentrations of the PDE-III inhibitors weakly inhibited TNF-α, but had no effect on IL-1β production. PDE-V inhibition was associated with an augmentation of cytokine secretion. Studies with combinations of PDE isozyme inhibitors indicated that PDE-III and PDE-V inhibitors modulate rolipram's suppression of TNF production in an additive manner. These data confirm that TNF-α and IL-1β production from LPS stimulated human monocytes are differentially regulated, and suggest that PDE-IV inhibitors have the potential to suppress TNF levels in man.

  6. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  7. Antitumorigenic effect of proteasome inhibitors on insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Allaman-Pillet, Nathalie; Karlsen, Allan E

    2004-01-01

    inhibition of the proteasome has an antitumorigenic potential in insulinoma cells. Exposure of mouse betaTC3 insulinoma cells to the proteasome inhibitor N-Acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO (ALLN) reduced cell viability, activated caspase-3, induced apoptosis, and suppressed insulin release. Treatment with ALLN also...

  8. PR-957, a selective inhibitor of immunoproteasome subunit low-MW polypeptide 7, attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis by suppressing Th17-cell differentiation and regulating cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijie; Wan, Chunxiao; Ding, Yanan; Han, Ranran; He, Yating; Xiao, Jinting; Hao, Junwei

    2017-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a CD4 + T-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system. It has been replicated in an animal model of human inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a selective inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit, low-MW polypeptide 7 (PR-957) in rats with EAN. Our results showed that PR-957 significantly delayed onset day, reduced severity and shortened duration of EAN, and alleviated demyelination and inflammatory infiltration in sciatic nerves. In addition to significantly regulating expression of the cytokine profile, PR-957 treatment down-regulated the proportion of proinflammatory T-helper (T h )17 cells in sciatic nerves and spleens of rats with EAN. Data presented show the role of PR-957 in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. PR-957 not only decreased expression of IL-6 and IL-23 but also led to down-regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation in CD4 + T cells. Regulation of the STAT3 pathway led to a reduction in retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γ t and IL-17 production. Furthermore, reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation may have directly suppressed T h 17-cell differentiation. Therefore, our study demonstrates that PR-957 could potently alleviate inflammation in rats with EAN and that it may be a likely candidate for treating Guillain-Barré syndrome.-Liu, H., Wan, C., Ding, Y., Han, R., He, Y., Xiao, J., Hao, J. PR-957, a selective inhibitor of immunoproteasome subunit low-MW polypeptide 7, attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis by suppressing T h 17-cell differentiation and regulating cytokine production. © FASEB.

  9. Caspase-1 inhibitor regulates humoral responses in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis via IL-6- dependent inhibiton of STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Min; Li, Heng; Li, Xiao-Li; Yue, Long-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ru-Tao; Chen, Hui; Li, Yan-Bin; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2017-08-24

    We have previously demonstrated that Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1) inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by inhibited cellular immune response, via suppressing DC IL-1 β, CD4 + T and γdT cells IL-17 pathways. In this study, we investigated the effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG and further explore the underlying mechanisms. An animal model of MG was induced by region 97-116 of the rat AChR α subunit (R97-116 peptide) in Lewis rats. Rats were treated with caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-cmk intraperitoneally (i.p.) every second day from day 13 after the first immunization. Flow cytometry, western blot, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG. The results showed that caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the relative affinity of anti-R97-116 IgG, suppressed germinal center response, decreased follicular helper T cells, and increased follicular regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells. In addition, we found that caspase-1 inhibitor inhibited humoral immunity response in EAMG rats via suppressing IL-6-STAT3-Bcl-6 pathways. These results suggest that caspase-1 inhibitor ameliorates EAMG by regulating humoral immune response, thus providing new insights into the development of myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  11. Kindlin-2 Association with Rho GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor α Suppresses Rac1 Activation and Podocyte Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Guo, Chen; Ma, Ping; Lai, Yumei; Yang, Fan; Cai, Jun; Cheng, Zhehao; Zhang, Kuo; Liu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Yeteng; Sheng, Yue; Tian, Ruijun; Deng, Yi; Xiao, Guozhi; Wu, Chuanyue

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of podocyte behavior is critically involved in the development and progression of many forms of human glomerular diseases. The molecular mechanisms that control podocyte behavior, however, are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Kindlin-2, a component of cell-matrix adhesions, in podocyte behavior in vivo Ablation of Kindlin-2 in podocytes resulted in alteration of actin cytoskeletal organization, reduction of the levels of slit diaphragm proteins, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and ultimately massive proteinuria and death due to kidney failure. Through proteomic analyses and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we identified Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDI α ) as a Kindlin-2-associated protein. Loss of Kindlin-2 in podocytes significantly reduced the expression of RhoGDI α and resulted in the dissociation of Rac1 from RhoGDI α , leading to Rac1 hyperactivation and increased motility of podocytes. Inhibition of Rac1 activation effectively suppressed podocyte motility and alleviated the podocyte defects and proteinuria induced by the loss of Kindlin-2 in vivo Our results identify a novel Kindlin-2-RhoGDI α -Rac1 signaling axis that is critical for regulation of podocyte structure and function in vivo and provide evidence that it may serve as a useful target for therapeutic control of podocyte injury and associated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  13. Novel agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a review about the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Naymagon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM is a disease that affects plasma cells and can lead to devastating clinical features such as anemia, lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, and renal disease. An enhanced understanding of MM disease mechanisms has led to new more targeted treatments. There is now a plethora of treatments available for MM. In this review article, our aim is to discuss many of the novel agents that are being studied or have recently been approved for the treatment of MM. These agents include the following: immunomodulators (pomalidomide, proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, marizomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, alkylating agents (bendamustine, AKT inhibitors (afuresertib, BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib, CDK inhibitors (dinaciclib, histone deacetylase inhibitors (panobinostat, rocilinostat, vorinostat, IL-6 inhibitors (siltuximab, kinesin spindle protein inhibitors (filanesib, monoclonal antibodies (daratumumab, elotuzumab, indatuximab, SAR650984, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors.

  14. Down-regulation of Notch-1 by γ-secretase inhibitor suppress the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notch-1 signaling is crucial for stem cell maintenance and in a variety of tissues. Previous research has demonstrated that Notch-1 activity plays a key role in prostate tumorigenesis. However, the function of Notch-1 signaling in tumorigenesis can be either oncogene or suppressor gene. In our paper, γ- secretase inhibitor ...

  15. [Study on membrane type leaf water evaporation inhibitors for improving effect of preventing diseases and pest controlling of Lycium barbarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Lv, Zhe; Xu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Sai; Chen, Jun; Peng, Xiao; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Through indoor and field comparative experiments, the properties of membrane type leaf evaporation inhibitors and its effects on photosynthesis of Lycium barbarum and compatibility and synergistic of pesticide were studied. The evaporation inhibitors and L. barbarum were chosen to investigate the suppression of water evaporation and the compatibility with pesticides. The effect of evaporation inhibitors on photosynthesis of L. barbarum leaves was determined by the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The results showed that water evaporation of L. barbarum leaves of different leaf age were evidently suppressed after treated with evaporation inhibitor. The inhibitor was well compatible with pesticide and effectively improved the pesticide efficacy,and had no significant effect on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. It is concluded that the evaporation inhibitor has good compatibility with the pesticide, and has remarkable effect of restraining moisture evaporation, which make it can be used for reducing the dosage and improving the efficacy of the pesticide in the field of L. barbarum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Kuroyanagi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 on osteoprotegerin (OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  17. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R.; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied.

  18. microRNA-101 is a potent inhibitor of autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Lisa B; Wen, Jiayu; Lees, Michael

    2011-01-01

    performed a functional screen in search of microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate the autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. In this study, we identified the tumour suppressive miRNA, miR-101, as a potent inhibitor of basal, etoposide- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. Through transcriptome profiling, we...

  19. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, Prespiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  20. Checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy: Cross reactivity of a CTLA-4 antibody and IDO-inhibitor L-1MT in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shatrawi, Zina Adil; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jungersen, Gregers

    a non-specific activation of porcine T cells. This will be further investigated to provide the basis for in vivo studies investigating checkpoint inhibitor blockade in combination with other cancer immunotherapies. Eventually our goal is to establish pigs as an alternative large animal model......Blockade of checkpoint inhibitors has recently shown very convincing results in the treatment of cancer. One key target is CTLA-4, which has been demonstrated to be a potent negative regulator of lymphocyte activation. The treatment with the FDA-approved fully human CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody...... Ipilimumab increases anticancer T-cell reactivity and overall survival of metastatic cancer patients. Indole-amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is another checkpoint inhibitor which suppresses T-cell immunity by the depletion of tryptophan in the T-cell microenvironment, and also inhibition of IDO by L-1...

  1. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses endogenous glucose production and enhances islet function after single-dose administration in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balas, Bogdan; Baig, Muhammad R; Watson, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vildagliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor that augments meal-stimulated levels of biologically active glucagon-like peptide-1. Chronic vildagliptin treatment decreases postprandial glucose levels and reduces hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetic patients. However......, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which vildagliptin promotes reduction in plasma glucose concentration. METHODS: Sixteen patients with type 2 diabetes (age, 48+/-3 yr; body mass index, 34.4+/-1.7 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 9.0+/-0.3%) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled trial. On separate days patients received 100 mg vildagliptin or placebo at 1730 h followed 30 min later by a meal tolerance test (MTT) performed with double tracer technique (3-(3)H-glucose iv and 1-(14)C-glucose orally). RESULTS: After vildagliptin, suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP...

  2. Epigenetic suppression of EGFR signaling in G-CIMP+ glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Taich, Zachary J; Goyal, Amit; Gonda, David; Akers, Johnny; Adhikari, Bandita; Patel, Kunal; Vandenberg, Scott; Yan, Wei; Bao, Zhaoshi; Carter, Bob S; Wang, Renzhi; Mao, Ying; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Clark C

    2014-09-15

    The intrinsic signaling cascades and cell states associated with the Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP) remain poorly understood. Using published mRNA signatures associated with EGFR activation, we demonstrate that G-CIMP+ tumors harbor decreased EGFR signaling using three independent datasets, including the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas(CGGA; n=155), the REMBRANDT dataset (n=288), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n=406). Additionally, an independent collection of 25 fresh-frozen glioblastomas confirmed lowered pERK levels in G-CIMP+ specimens (pCIMP+ glioblastomas harbored lowered mRNA levels for EGFR and H-Ras. Induction of G-CIMP+ state by exogenous expression of a mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, IDH1-R132H, suppressed EGFR and H-Ras protein expression as well as pERK accumulation in independent glioblastoma models. These suppressions were associated with increased deposition of the repressive histone markers, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, in the EGFR and H-Ras promoter regions. The IDH1-R132H expression-induced pERK suppression can be reversed by exogenous expression of H-RasG12V. Finally, the G-CIMP+ Ink4a-Arf-/- EGFRvIII glioblastoma line was more resistant to the EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib, relative to its isogenic G-CIMP- counterpart. These results suggest that G-CIMP epigenetically regulates EGFR signaling and serves as a predictive biomarker for EGFR inhibitors in glioblastoma patients.

  3. SGLT2 Inhibitors May Predispose to Ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Simeon I; Blau, Jenny E; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-08-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that increase urinary excretion of glucose, thereby improving glycemic control and promoting weight loss. Since approval of the first-in-class drug in 2013, data have emerged suggesting that these drugs increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. In May 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning that SGLT2 inhibitors may lead to ketoacidosis. Using PubMed and Google, we conducted Boolean searches including terms related to ketone bodies or ketoacidosis with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors or phlorizin. Priority was assigned to publications that shed light on molecular mechanisms whereby SGLT2 inhibitors could affect ketone body metabolism. SGLT2 inhibitors trigger multiple mechanisms that could predispose to diabetic ketoacidosis. When SGLT2 inhibitors are combined with insulin, it is often necessary to decrease the insulin dose to avoid hypoglycemia. The lower dose of insulin may be insufficient to suppress lipolysis and ketogenesis. Furthermore, SGLT2 is expressed in pancreatic α-cells, and SGLT2 inhibitors promote glucagon secretion. Finally, phlorizin, a nonselective inhibitor of SGLT family transporters decreases urinary excretion of ketone bodies. A decrease in the renal clearance of ketone bodies could also increase the plasma ketone body levels. Based on the physiology of SGLT2 and the pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors, there are several biologically plausible mechanisms whereby this class of drugs has the potential to increase the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. Future research should be directed toward identifying which patients are at greatest risk for this side effect and also to optimizing pharmacotherapy to minimize the risk to patients.

  4. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P) Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Leo; Urata, Shuzo; Ulanday, Gianne Eduard L; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-02-10

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs), which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P). Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent.

  5. Suppression of soil nitrification by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Guntur Venkata; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Worthington, Margaret; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Ando, Yasuo; Sahrawat, Kanwar Lal; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudhana; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Kishii, Masahiro; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, weakens the soil's ability to retain N and facilitates N-losses from production agriculture through nitrate-leaching and denitrification. This process has a profound influence on what form of mineral-N is absorbed, used by plants, and retained in the soil, or lost to the environment, which in turn affects N-cycling, N-use efficiency (NUE) and ecosystem health and services. As reactive-N is often the most limiting in natural ecosystems, plants have acquired a range of mechanisms that suppress soil-nitrifier activity to limit N-losses via N-leaching and denitrification. Plants' ability to produce and release nitrification inhibitors from roots and suppress soil-nitrifier activity is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI). With recent developments in methodology for in-situ measurement of nitrification inhibition, it is now possible to characterize BNI function in plants. This review assesses the current status of our understanding of the production and release of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) and their potential in improving NUE in agriculture. A suite of genetic, soil and environmental factors regulate BNI activity in plants. BNI-function can be genetically exploited to improve the BNI-capacity of major food- and feed-crops to develop next-generation production systems with reduced nitrification and N2O emission rates to benefit both agriculture and the environment. The feasibility of such an approach is discussed based on the progresses made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibiting TGFβ1 has a protective effect on mouse bone marrow suppression following ionizing radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Heng; Yan Hao; Wang Xinzhuo; Niu Jingxiu; Wang Hui; Wang Yingai; Meng Aimin; Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage but also residual bone marrow (BM) suppression. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we examined if SB431542, a transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) inhibitor, can mitigate IR-induced BM suppression in vitro. Our results showed that treatment with SB431542 protected mice bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from IR-induced suppression using cell viability assays, clonogenic assays and competitive repopulation assays. Moreover, expression of gene-related ROS production in hematopoietic cells was analyzed. The expression of NADPH oxidative 1 (NOX1), NOX2 and NOX4 was increased in irradiated BMMNCs, and that of NOX2 and NOX4 was reduced by SB431542 treatment. Therefore, the results from this study suggest that SB431542, a TGFβ1 inhibitor, alleviates IR-induced BM suppression at least in part via inhibiting IR-induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression. (author)

  7. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  8. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. BET Bromodomain Inhibition Synergizes with PARP Inhibitor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karakashev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PARP inhibition is known to be an effective clinical strategy in BRCA mutant cancers, but PARP inhibition has not been applied to BRCA-proficient tumors. Here, we show the synergy of BET bromodomain inhibition with PARP inhibition in BRCA-proficient ovarian cancers due to mitotic catastrophe. Treatment of BRCA-proficient ovarian cancer cells with the BET inhibitor JQ1 downregulated the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint regulator WEE1 and the DNA-damage response factor TOPBP1. Combining PARP inhibitor Olaparib with the BET inhibitor, we observed a synergistic increase in DNA damage and checkpoint defects, which allowed cells to enter mitosis despite the accumulation of DNA damage, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, JQ1 and Olaparib showed synergistic suppression of growth of BRCA-proficient cancer in vivo in a xenograft ovarian cancer mouse model. Our findings indicate that a combination of BET inhibitor and PARP inhibitor represents a potential therapeutic strategy for BRCA-proficient cancers.

  10. Inhibition of multiple pathogenic pathways by histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA in a corneal alkali-burn injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyu; Zhou, Qinbo; Hanus, Jakub; Anderson, Chastain; Zhang, Hongmei; Dellinger, Michael; Brekken, Rolf; Wang, Shusheng

    2013-01-01

    Neovascularization (NV) in the cornea is a major cause of vision impairment and corneal blindness. Hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of corneal NV. The current mainstay treatment, corticosteroid, treats the inflammation associated with corneal NV, but is not satisfactory due to such side effects as cataract and the increase in intraocular pressure. It is imperative to develop a novel therapy that specifically targets the hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and inflammation pathways underlying corneal NV. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been in clinical trials for cancer and other diseases. In particular, HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The functional mechanism of SAHA in cancer and especially in corneal NV remains unclear. Here, we show that topical application of SAHA inhibits neovascularization in an alkali-burn corneal injury model. Mechanistically, SAHA inhibits corneal NV by repressing hemangiogenesis, inflammation pathways and previously overlooked lymphangiogenesis. Topical SAHA is well tolerated on the ocular surface. In addition, the potency of SAHA in corneal NV appears to be comparable to the current steroid therapy. SAHA may possess promising therapeutic potential in alkali-burn corneal injury and other inflammatory neovascularization disorders. PMID:23186311

  11. Arginase Inhibitor in the Pharmacological Correction of Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail V. Pokrovskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. There is an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation factors of endothelium on the basis of endothelial dysfunction. Among vasodilatation agents, nitrogen oxide plays the basic role. Amino acid L-arginine serves as a source of molecules of nitrogen oxide in an organism. Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  13. Suppressive Effects of the Site 1 Protease (S1P Inhibitor, PF-429242, on Dengue Virus Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Uchida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection causes one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Despite the great need, effective vaccines and practical antiviral therapies are still under development. Intracellular lipid levels are regulated by sterol regulatory elements-binding proteins (SREBPs, which are activated by serine protease, site 1 protease (S1P. Small compound PF-429242 is known as a S1P inhibitor and the antivirus effects have been reported in some viruses. In this study, we examined the anti-DENV effects of PF-429242 using all four serotypes of DENV by several primate-derived cell lines. Moreover, emergence of drug-resistant DENV mutants was assessed by sequential passages with the drug. DENV dependency on intracellular lipids during their infection was also evaluated by adding extracellular lipids. The addition of PF-429242 showed suppression of viral propagation in all DENV serotypes. We showed that drug-resistant DENV mutants are unlikely to emerge after five times sequential passages through treatment with PF-429242. Although the levels of intracellular cholesterol and lipid droplets were reduced by PF-429242, viral propagations were not recovered by addition of exogenous cholesterol or fatty acids, indicating that the reduction of LD and cholesterol caused by PF-429242 treatment is not related to its mechanism of action against DENV propagation. Our results suggest that PF-429242 is a promising candidate for an anti-DENV agent.

  14. Pharmacological cdk inhibitor R-Roscovitine suppresses JC virus proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orba, Yasuko; Sunden, Yuji; Suzuki, Tadaki; Nagashima, Kazuo; Kimura, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    The human Polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) utilizes cellular proteins for viral replication and transcription in the host cell nucleus. These cellular proteins represent potential targets for antiviral drugs against the JCV. In this study, we examined the antiviral effects of the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor R-Roscovitine, which has been shown to have antiviral activity against other viruses. We found that Roscovitine significantly inhibited the viral production and cytopathic effects of the JCV in a JCV-infected cell line. Roscovitine attenuated the transcriptional activity of JCV late genes, but not early genes, and also prevented viral replication via inhibiting phosphorylation of the viral early protein, large T antigen. These data suggest that the JCV requires cdks to transcribe late genes and to replicate its own DNA. That Roscovitine exhibited antiviral activity in JCV-infected cells suggests that Roscovitine might have therapeutic utility in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

  15. Novel orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors with greater antitumor efficacy than an EZH2 selective inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Daisuke; Kanno, Osamu; Watanabe, Jun; Kinoshita, Junzo; Hirasawa, Makoto; Nosaka, Emi; Shiroishi, Machiko; Takizawa, Takeshi; Yasumatsu, Isao; Horiuchi, Takao; Nakao, Akira; Suzuki, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Nakajima, Katsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Miho; Yamazaki, Takanori; Yadav, Ajay Singh; Adachi, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) methylates histone H3 lysine 27 and represses gene expression to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) or its close homolog EZH1 functions as a catalytic subunit of PRC2, so there are two PRC2 complexes containing either EZH2 or EZH1. Tumorigenic functions of EZH2 and its synthetic lethality with some subunits of SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes have been observed. However, little is known about the function of EZH1 in tumorigenesis. Herein, we developed novel, orally bioavailable EZH1/2 dual inhibitors that strongly and selectively inhibited methyltransferase activity of both EZH2 and EZH1. EZH1/2 dual inhibitors suppressed trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 in cells more than EZH2 selective inhibitors. They also showed greater antitumor efficacy than EZH2 selective inhibitor in vitro and in vivo against diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells harboring gain-of-function mutation in EZH2. A hematological cancer panel assay indicated that EZH1/2 dual inhibitor has efficacy against some lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and leukemia with fusion genes such as MLL-AF9, MLL-AF4, and AML1-ETO. A solid cancer panel assay demonstrated that some cancer cell lines are sensitive to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. No clear correlation was detected between sensitivity to EZH1/2 dual inhibitor and SWI/SNF mutations, with a few exceptions. Severe toxicity was not seen in rats treated with EZH1/2 dual inhibitor for 14 days at drug levels higher than those used in the antitumor study. Our results indicate the possibility of EZH1/2 dual inhibitors for clinical applications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34 + transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34 − long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34 + HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34 − HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity

  17. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takakura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ntakaku@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science Technology Agency, CREST, K' s Gobancho, 7, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  18. Dynamic telomerase gene suppression via network effects of GSK3 inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E Bilsland

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti-telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression.In a focused promoter screen, several GSK3 inhibitors suppressed hTERT reporter activity. GSK3 inhibition using 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime suppressed hTERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length in several cancer cell lines and growth and hTERT expression in ovarian cancer xenografts. Microarray analysis, network modelling and oligonucleotide binding assays suggested that multiple transcription factors were affected. Extensive remodelling involving Sp1, STAT3, c-Myc, NFkappaB, and p53 occurred at the endogenous hTERT promoter. RNAi screening of the hTERT promoter revealed multiple kinase genes which affect the hTERT promoter, potentially acting through these factors. Prolonged inhibitor treatments caused dynamic expression both of hTERT and of c-Jun, p53, STAT3, AR and c-Myc.Our results indicate that GSK3 activates hTERT expression in cancer cells and contributes to telomere length homeostasis. GSK3 inhibition is a clinical strategy for several chronic diseases. These results imply that it may also be useful in cancer therapy. However, the complex network effects we show here have implications for either setting.

  19. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells through targeting the trinity of CK2, Cdc37 and Hsp90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yuan-Ji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a B-cell malignancy that is largely incurable and is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Apigenin, a common flavonoid, has been reported to suppress proliferation in a wide variety of solid tumors and hematological cancers; however its mechanism is not well understood and its effect on MM cells has not been determined. Results In this study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on MM cell lines and on primary MM cells. Cell viability assays demonstrated that apigenin exhibited cytotoxicity against both MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, kinase assays, immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis showed that apigenin inhibited CK2 kinase activity, decreased phosphorylation of Cdc37, disassociated the Hsp90/Cdc37/client complex and induced the degradation of multiple kinase clients, including RIP1, Src, Raf-1, Cdk4 and AKT. By depleting these kinases, apigenin suppressed both constitutive and inducible activation of STAT3, ERK, AKT and NF-κB. The treatment also downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Survivin, which ultimately induced apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, apigenin had a greater effects in depleting Hsp90 clients when used in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat. Conclusions Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90, and this observation reveals the therapeutic potential of apigenin in treating multiple myeloma.

  20. Suppression of survivin expression in glioblastoma cells by the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Roy; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Rechavi, Gideon; Kloog, Yoel

    2006-09-01

    The Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) has been shown to induce apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme, but its mechanism of action was unknown. We show that FTS or dominant-negative Ras, by deregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt signaling, decreases survivin gene transcripts in U87 glioblastoma multiforme, leading to disappearance of survivin protein and cell death. FTS affected both Ras-controlled regulators of survivin transcription and Ras-regulated survival signals. Thus, Ras inhibition by FTS resulted in release of the survivin "brake" on apoptosis and in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway: dephosphorylation of Bad, activation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, and caspase activation. FTS-induced apoptosis of U87 cells was strongly attenuated by forced expression of survivin or by caspase inhibitors. These results show that resistance to apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme can be abolished by a single Ras inhibitor, which targets both survivin, a critical inhibitor of apoptosis, and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic machinery.

  1. Suppression of Homologous Recombination by insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibition sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Oreekha; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Nader, Paul Abou; Laskov, Ido; Iqbal, Sanaa; Philip, Charles-André; Yasmeen, Amber; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of homologous recombination (HR) is found in close to 50 % of ovarian and breast cancer. Tumors with BRCA1 mutations show increased expression of the Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). We previously have shown that inhibition of IGF-1R results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of ovarian tumor cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between HR and sensitivity to IGF-1R inhibition. Further, we hypothesized that IGF-1R inhibition might sensitize HR proficient cancers to Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Using ovarian and breast cancer cellular models with known BRCA1 status, we evaluated their HR functionality by RAD51 foci formation assay. The 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (IGF-1Rki) in these cells was assessed, and western immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of proteins involved in the IGF-1R pathway. Moreover, IGF-1R inhibitors were added on HR proficient cell lines to assess mRNA and protein expression of RAD51 by qPCR and western blot. Also, we explored the interaction between RAD51 and Insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS-1) by immunoprecipitation. Next, combination effect of IGF-1R and PARP inhibitors was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cells with mutated/methylated BRCA1 showed an impaired HR function, and had an overactivation of the IGF-1R pathway. These cells were more sensitive to IGF-1R inhibition compared to HR proficient cells. In addition, the IGF-IR inhibitor reduced RAD51 expression at mRNA and protein levels in HR proficient cells, and sensitized these cells to PARP inhibitor. Targeting IGF-1R might lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with HR deficiency. Targeting both PARP and IGF-1R might increase the clinical efficacy in HR deficient patients and increase the population of patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors

  2. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xing-dong; Yang, Lan; Zheng, Li-yun; Pan, Yan-yan; Cao, Zhi-fei; Zhang, Zhi-qing; Zhou, Quan-sheng; Yang, Bo; Cao, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent. PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), cell survival, proliferation, migration and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) were analyzed. Associated signaling changes were also analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blots. Here, we reported that SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), exerted significant inhibitory efficiency against pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, migration and VM. SAHA dose-dependently inhibited PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cell growth with the IC-50 of 3.4 ± 0. 7 μM. Meanwhile, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell cycle progression through inducing G2/M arrest, which was associated with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK-1)/cyclin-B1 degradation and p21/p27 upregulation. Further, SAHA induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death of PaTu8988 cells. Significantly, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell in vitro migration and cell-dominant tube formation or VM, which was accompanied by semaphorin-4D (Sema-4D) and integrin-β5 down-regulation. Our evidences showed that Akt activation might be important for Sema-4D expression in PaTu8988 cells, and SAHA-induced Sema-4D down-regulation might be associated with Akt inhibition. This study is among the first to report the VM formation in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells. And we provided strong evidence to suggest that SAHA executes significant anti-VM efficiency in the progressive pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, SAHA could be further investigated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent

  3. Blockade of the ERK pathway markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Minoda, Ai; Kishikawa, Futaba; Kohno, Michiaki

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is associated with the neoplastic phenotype of a large number of human tumor cells. Although specific blockade of the ERK pathway by treating such tumor cells with potent mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors completely suppresses their proliferation, it by itself shows only a modest effect on the induction of apoptotic cell death. However, these MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptotic cell death: such an enhanced cell death is observed only in tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. Co-administration of MEK inhibitor markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, which appears to mediate the enhanced cell death induced by the combination of these agents. These results suggest that the combination of MEK inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors provides an efficient chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated

  4. Activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors highlights the role of BCR/ABL kinase dynamics in drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Nardi, Valentina; Shakespeare, William C.; Metcalf, Chester A.; Bohacek, Regine S.; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Sliz, Piotr; Veach, Darren R.; Bornmann, William G.; Clarkson, Bayard; Dalgarno, David C.; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Daley, George Q.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation in the ABL kinase domain is the principal mechanism of imatinib resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Many mutations favor active kinase conformations that preclude imatinib binding. Because the active forms of ABL and SRC resemble one another, we tested two dual SRC-ABL kinase inhibitors, AP23464 and PD166326, against 58 imatinib-resistant (IMR) BCR/ABL kinase variants. Both compounds potently inhibit most IMR variants, and in vitro drug selection demonstrates that active (AP23464) and open (PD166326) conformation-specific compounds are less susceptible to resistance than imatinib. Combinations of inhibitors suppressed essentially all resistance mutations, with the notable exception of T315I. Guided by mutagenesis studies and molecular modeling, we designed a series of AP23464 analogues to target T315I. The analogue AP23846 inhibited both native and T315I variants of BCR/ABL with submicromolar potency but showed nonspecific cellular toxicity. Our data illustrate how conformational dynamics of the ABL kinase accounts for the activity of dual SRC-ABL inhibitors against IMR-mutants and provides a rationale for combining conformation specific inhibitors to suppress resistance. PMID:16754879

  5. Apatinib Inhibits Angiogenesis Via Suppressing Akt/GSK3β/ANG Signaling Pathway in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and there is no efficient method to slow its process. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma patients. However, the effects of Apatinib in ATC are still unknown. Methods: In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of Apatinib on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vitro in ATC cells. Angiogenesis antibodies array was utilized to detect the expression of angiogenesis-related genes after Apatinib treatment in ATC cells. In addition, we used Akt activator, Akt inhibitor and GSK3β inhibitor to further study the mechanism for how Apatinib suppressed angiogenesis. Results: Apatinib treatment could suppress the growth of ATC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Apatinib treatment decreased the expression of angiogenin (ANG and inhibited angiogenesis of ATC cells in vitro and in vitro. We further confirmed that recombinant human ANG (rhANG significantly abrogated Apatinib-mediated anti-angiogenic ability in ATC cells. Additionally, Apatinib treatment decreased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK3β. Moreover, the Apatinib-mediated decrease of ANG and anti-angiogenic ability were partly reversed when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib can be enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, and the inhibition of GSK3β attenuated the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Apatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth, and Apatinib-induced suppression of Akt/GSK3β/ANG signaling pathway may play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis in ATC, supporting a potential therapeutic approach for using Apatinib in the treatment of ATC.

  6. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G., E-mail: C.G.Mowat@ed.ac.uk

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  7. Use of acid-suppressive therapy before anti-reflux surgery in 2922 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, A; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are adequately treated with acid-suppressive therapy before undergoing anti-reflux surgery. Little is known of the use of acid-suppressive drugs before anti-reflux surgery. AIM: To determine the use of proton pump...... inhibitors and H2 -receptor antagonists in the year before anti-reflux surgery. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 undergoing first-time anti-reflux surgery in Denmark during 2000-2012 using data from three different sources: the Danish National Register of Patients......, the Danish National Prescription Register, and the Danish Person Register. RESULTS: The study population thus included 2922 patients (median age: 48 years, 55.7% male). The annual proportion of patients redeeming ≥180 DDD of acid-suppressive therapy increased from 17.0% 5 years before anti-reflux surgery...

  8. Antitumor efficacy of PKI-587, a highly potent dual PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Robert; Feldberg, Larry R; Lucas, Judy; Chaudhary, Inder; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Santos, Efren Delos; Chen, Zecheng; dos Santos, Osvaldo; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Venkatesan, Aranapakam; Hollander, Irwin

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this study was to show preclinical efficacy and clinical development potential of PKI-587, a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR inhibitor. In vitro class 1 PI3K enzyme and human tumor cell growth inhibition assays and in vivo five tumor xenograft models were used to show efficacy. In vitro, PKI-587 potently inhibited class I PI3Ks (IC(50) vs. PI3K-α = 0.4 nmol/L), PI3K-α mutants, and mTOR. PKI-587 inhibited growth of 50 diverse human tumor cell lines at IC(50) values of less than 100 nmol/L. PKI-587 suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K/mTOR effectors (e.g., Akt), and induced apoptosis in human tumor cell lines with elevated PI3K/mTOR signaling. MDA-MB-361 [breast; HER2(+), PIK3CA mutant (E545K)] was particularly sensitive to this effect, with cleaved PARP, an apoptosis marker, induced by 30 nmol/L PKI-587 at 4 hours. In vivo, PKI-587 inhibited tumor growth in breast (MDA-MB-361, BT474), colon (HCT116), lung (H1975), and glioma (U87MG) xenograft models. In MDA-MB-361 tumors, PKI-587 (25 mg/kg, single dose i.v.) suppressed Akt phosphorylation [at threonine(T)308 and serine(S)473] for up to 36 hours, with cleaved PARP (cPARP) evident up to 18 hours. PKI-587 at 25 mg/kg (once weekly) shrank large (∼1,000 mm(3)) MDA-MB-361 tumors and suppressed tumor regrowth. Tumor regression correlated with suppression of phosphorylated Akt in the MDA-MB-361 model. PKI-587 also caused regression in other tumor models, and efficacy was enhanced when given in combination with PD0325901 (MEK 1/2 inhibitor), irinotecan (topoisomerase I inhibitor), or HKI-272 (neratinib, HER2 inhibitor). Significant antitumor efficacy and a favorable pharmacokinetic/safety profile justified phase 1 clinical evaluation of PKI-587. ©2011 AACR.

  9. The ATM and ATR inhibitors CGK733 and caffeine suppress cyclin D1 levels and inhibit cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alao, John P; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM- related (ATR) kinases play a central role in facilitating the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic treatment regimens. The components of the ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways thus provide attractive pharmacological targets, since their inhibition enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. Caffeine as well as more specific inhibitors of ATM (KU55933) or ATM and ATR (CGK733) have recently been shown to induce cell death in drug-induced senescent tumor cells. Addition of these agents to cancer cells previously rendered senescent by exposure to genotoxins suppressed the ATM mediated p21 expression required for the survival of these cells. The precise molecular pharmacology of these agents however, is not well characterized. Herein, we report that caffeine, CGK733, and to a lesser extent KU55933, inhibit the proliferation of otherwise untreated human cancer and non-transformed mouse fibroblast cell lines. Exposure of human cancer cell lines to caffeine and CGK733 was associated with a rapid decline in cyclin D1 protein levels and a reduction in the levels of both phosphorylated and total retinoblastoma protein (RB). Our studies suggest that observations based on the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation and survival must be interpreted with caution. The differential effects of caffeine/CGK733 and KU55933 on cyclin D1 protein levels suggest that these agents will exhibit dissimilar molecular pharmacological profiles

  10. Activation of lysosomal function in the course of autophagy via mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Tan, Shi-Hao; Nicolas, Valérie; Bauvy, Chantal; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhang, Jianbin; Xue, Yuan; Codogno, Patrice; Shen, Han-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Lysosome is a key subcellular organelle in the execution of the autophagic process and at present little is known whether lysosomal function is controlled in the process of autophagy. In this study, we first found that suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity by starvation or two mTOR catalytic inhibitors (PP242 and Torin1), but not by an allosteric inhibitor (rapamycin), leads to activation of lysosomal function. Second, we provided evidence that activation of lysosomal function is associated with the suppression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but not mTORC2, and the mTORC1 localization to lysosomes is not directly correlated to its regulatory role in lysosomal function. Third, we examined the involvement of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and demonstrated that TFEB activation following mTORC1 suppression is necessary but not sufficient for lysosomal activation. Finally, Atg5 or Atg7 deletion or blockage of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion process effectively diminished lysosomal activation, suggesting that lysosomal activation occurring in the course of autophagy is dependent on autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Taken together, this study demonstrates that in the course of autophagy, lysosomal function is upregulated via a dual mechanism involving mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  11. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, J.A.; Mallolas, J.; Podzamczer, D.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.; Cahn, P.; Fatkenheuer, G.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Casiro, A.; Reiss, P.; Burger, D.M.; Stek Jr, M.; Gatell, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). DESIGN: Multicentre, international,

  12. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, Juan A.; Mallolas, Josep; Podzamczer, Daniel; Gerstoft, Jan; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cahn, Pedro; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Casiró, Arnaldo; Reiss, Peter; Burger, David M.; Stek, Michael; Gatell, José M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Design: Multicentre, international,

  13. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling pathway by β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG-001 ameliorates liver fibrosis in vivo through suppression of stromal CXCL12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcora, Büsra Öztürk; Storm, Gert; Bansal, Ruchi

    2018-03-01

    Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in response to liver injury, undergo characteristic morphological transformation into proliferative, contractile and ECM-producing myofibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the implication of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway activation and inhibition using β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG001 was examined in-vitro in TGFβ-activated 3T3, LX2, primary human HSCs, and in-vivo in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury mouse model. Fibroblasts-conditioned medium studies were performed to assess the Wnt-regulated paracrine factors involved in crosstalk between HSCs-macrophages and HSCs-endothelial cells. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway components were significantly up-regulated in-vitro and in-vivo. In-vitro, ICG-001 significantly inhibited fibrotic parameters, 3D-collagen contractility and wound healing. Conditioned medium induced fibroblasts-mediated macrophage and endothelial cells activation was significantly inhibited by ICG-001. In-vivo, ICG-001 significantly attenuated collagen accumulation and HSC activation. Interestingly, ICG-001 drastically inhibited macrophage infiltration, intrahepatic inflammation and angiogenesis. We further analyzed the paracrine factors involved in Wnt-mediated effects and found CXCL12 was significantly suppressed both in-vitro and in-vivo following Wnt inhibition. Wnt-regulated CXCL12 secretion from activated HSCs potentiated macrophage infiltration and activation, and angiogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling pathway via suppression of stromal CXCL12 suggests a potential therapeutic approach targeting activated HSCs in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Molecular Modeling to Urokinase Inhibitors Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sulimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA plays an important role in the regulation of diverse physiologic and pathologic processes. Experimental research has shown that elevated uPA expression is associated with cancer progression, metastasis, and shortened survival in patients, whereas suppression of proteolytic activity of uPA leads to evident decrease of metastasis. Therefore, uPA has been considered as a promising molecular target for development of anticancer drugs. The present study sets out to develop the new selective uPA inhibitors using computer-aided structural based drug design methods. Investigation involves the following stages: computer modeling of the protein active site, development and validation of computer molecular modeling methods: docking (SOL program, postprocessing (DISCORE program, direct generalized docking (FLM program, and the application of the quantum chemical calculations (MOPAC package, search of uPA inhibitors among molecules from databases of ready-made compounds to find new uPA inhibitors, and design of new chemical structures and their optimization and experimental examination. On the basis of known uPA inhibitors and modeling results, 18 new compounds have been designed, calculated using programs mentioned above, synthesized, and tested in vitro. Eight of them display inhibitory activity and two of them display activity about 10 μM.

  15. Serotonin suppresses β-casein expression via PTP1B activation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-04-22

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) has an important role in milk volume homeostasis within the mammary gland during lactation. We have previously shown that the expression of β-casein, a differentiation marker in mammary epithelial cells, is suppressed via 5-HT-mediated inhibition of signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in the human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell line. In addition, the reduction of β-casein in turn was associated with 5-HT7 receptor expression in the cells. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the 5-HT-mediated suppression of β-casein and STAT5 phosphorylation. The β-casein level and phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5)/STAT5 ratio in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720) were significantly higher than those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Exposure to 100 μM db-cAMP for 6 h significantly decreased the protein levels of β-casein and pSTAT5 and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio, and significantly increased PTP1B protein levels. In the cells co-treated with 5-HT and an extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK) inhibitor (FR180294) or Akt inhibitor (124005), the β-casein level and pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio were equal to those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Treatment with 5-HT significantly induced PTP1B protein levels, whereas its increase was inhibited by KT5720. In addition, the PTP1B inhibitor sc-222227 increased the expression levels of β-casein and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio. Our observations indicate that PTP1B directly regulates STAT5 phosphorylation and that its activation via the cAMP/PKA pathway downstream of the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in the suppression of β-casein expression in MCF-12A cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-cancer effect of novel PAK1 inhibitor via induction of PUMA-mediated cell death and p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Tae-Gyun; Yoon, Min-Ho; Hong, Shin-Deok; Choi, Jiyun; Ha, Nam-Chul; Sun, Hokeun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2017-04-04

    Hyper-activation of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is frequently observed in human cancer and speculated as a target of novel anti-tumor drug. In previous, we also showed that PAK1 is highly activated in the Smad4-deficient condition and suppresses PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) through direct binding and phosphorylation. On the basis of this result, we have tried to find novel PAK1-PUMA binding inhibitors. Through ELISA-based blind chemical library screening, we isolated single compound, IPP-14 (IPP; Inhibitor of PAK1-PUMA), which selectively blocks the PAK1-PUMA binding and also suppresses cell proliferation via PUMA-dependent manner. Indeed, in PUMA-deficient cells, this chemical did not show anti-proliferating effect. This chemical possessed very strong PAK1 inhibition activity that it suppressed BAD (Bcl-2-asoociated death promoter) phosphorylation and meta-phase arrest via Aurora kinase inactivation in lower concentration than that of previous PAK1 kinase, FRAX486 and AG879. Moreover, our chemical obviously induced p21/WAF1/CIP1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) expression by releasing from Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and by inhibition of AKT-mediated p21 suppression. Considering our result, IPP-14 and its derivatives would be possible candidates for PAK1 and p21 induction targeted anti-cancer drug.

  17. Blockade of TRPM7 channel activity and cell death by inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chin Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TRPM7 is a ubiquitous divalent-selective ion channel with its own kinase domain. Recent studies have shown that suppression of TRPM7 protein expression by RNA interference increases resistance to ischemia-induced neuronal cell death in vivo and in vitro, making the channel a potentially attractive pharmacological target for molecular intervention. Here, we report the identification of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, NDGA, AA861, and MK886, as potent blockers of the TRPM7 channel. Using a cell-based assay, application of these compounds prevented cell rounding caused by overexpression of TRPM7 in HEK-293 cells, whereas inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase did not prevent the change in cell morphology. Application of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors blocked heterologously expressed TRPM7 whole-cell currents without affecting the protein's expression level or its cell surface concentration. All three inhibitors were also effective in blocking the native TRPM7 current in HEK-293 cells. However, two other 5-lipoxygenase specific inhibitors, 5,6-dehydro-arachidonic acid and zileuton, were ineffective in suppressing TRPM7 channel activity. Targeted knockdown of 5-lipoxygenase did not reduce TRPM7 whole-cell currents. In addition, application of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE, the product of 5-lipoxygenase, or 5-HPETE's downstream metabolites, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene D4, did not stimulate TRPM7 channel activity. These data suggested that NDGA, AA861, and MK886 reduced the TRPM7 channel activity independent of their effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. Application of AA861 and NDGA reduced cell death for cells overexpressing TRPM7 cultured in low extracellular divalent cations. Moreover, treatment of HEK-293 cells with AA861 increased cell resistance to apoptotic stimuli to a level similar to that obtained for cells in which TRPM7 was knocked down by RNA interference. In conclusion, NDGA, AA861, and MK886 are potent blockers of

  18. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  19. Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie; Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and β-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

  20. MELATONIN-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF PC12 CELL GROWTH IS MEDIATED BY ITS GI COUPLED TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS. (R826248)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pertussis toxin, an uncoupler of Gi protein from adenylate cyclase, and luzindole, a competitive inhibitor of melatonin receptor binding, were examined for their ability to inhibit melatonin-induced suppression of PC12 cell growth. Both agents inhibited the mela...

  1. Onbaekwon Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Invasion by Inhibiting Expression of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Buyun; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yoon, Seong Woo; Park, Byoungduck

    2017-06-01

    Cysteine X cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) were originally identified as chemoattractants between immune cells and sites of inflammation. Since studies have validated an increased level of CXCL12 and its receptor in patients with colorectal cancers, CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been considered as a valuable marker of cancer metastasis. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. Onbaekwon (OBW) is a complex herbal formula that is derived from the literature of traditional Korean medicine Dongeuibogam. In this study, we demonstrated that OBW suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the OBW-induced suppression of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of OBW was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that OBW could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of CXCR4 in colon cancer cells. Consistent with the aforementioned molecular basis, OBW abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in colon cancer cells. Together, our results suggest that OBW, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributing to cancer treatment.

  2. Combination therapy for hepatitis C virus with heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-AAG and proteasome inhibitor MG132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Yamaguchi, Saori; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2010-03-09

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Here, we report a new and effective strategy for inhibiting HCV replication using an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17demethoxygeldanamycin), and a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. To explore the virological basis of combination therapy, we analysed the effects of 17-AAG and MG132, singly and in combination on HCV replication in an HCV replicon cell system. In HCV replicon cells, HCV RNA replication was suppressed by 17-AAG in a dose-dependent manner. As shown in the present study, the 50% inhibitory concentration values were 0.82 nM for 17-AAG and 0.21 nM for MG132. Low concentrations of MG132 had strong synergistic inhibitory effects with low toxicity on HCV replicon cells. The results of this study suggest that the different effects and synergistic actions of 17-AAG and MG132 could provide a new therapeutic approach to HCV infection.

  3. Lipid profiling demonstrates that suppressing Arabidopsis phospholipase Dδ retards ABA-promoted leaf senescence by attenuating lipid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Jia

    Full Text Available Senescence is the last phase of the plant life cycle and has an important role in plant development. Degradation of membrane lipids is an essential process during leaf senescence. Several studies have reported fundamental changes in membrane lipids and phospholipase D (PLD activity as leaves senesce. Suppression of phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1 retards abscisic acid (ABA-promoted senescence. However, given the absence of studies that have profiled changes in the compositions of membrane lipid molecules during leaf senescence, there is no direct evidence that PLD affects lipid composition during the process. Here, we show that application of n-butanol, an inhibitor of PLD, and N-Acylethanolamine (NAE 12∶0, a specific inhibitor of PLDα1, retarded ABA-promoted senescence to different extents. Furthermore, phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ was induced in leaves treated with ABA, and suppression of PLDδ retarded ABA-promoted senescence in Arabidopsis. Lipid profiling revealed that detachment-induced senescence had different effects on plastidic and extraplastidic lipids. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ABA-induced senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO plants. Dramatic increases in phosphatidic acid (PA and decreases in phosphatidylcholine (PC during ABA-induced senescence were also suppressed in PLDδ-KO plants. Our results suggest that PLDδ-mediated hydrolysis of PC to PA plays a positive role in ABA-promoted senescence. The attenuation of PA formation resulting from suppression of PLDδ blocks the degradation of membrane lipids, which retards ABA-promoted senescence.

  4. Anti-lymphangiogenic properties of mTOR inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekshyyan, Oleksandr; Moore-Medlin, Tara N; Raley, Matthew C; Sonavane, Kunal; Rong, Xiaohua; Brodt, Michael A; Abreo, Fleurette; Alexander, Jonathan Steven; Nathan, Cherie-Ann O

    2013-01-01

    Tumor dissemination to cervical lymph nodes via lymphatics represents the first step in the metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is the most significant predictor of tumor recurrence decreasing survival by 50%. The lymphatic suppressing properties of mTOR inhibitors are not yet well understood. Lymphatic inhibiting effects of rapamycin were evaluated in vitro using two lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) lines. An orthotopic mouse model of HNSCC (OSC-19 cells) was used to evaluate anti-lymphangiogenic effects of rapamycin in vivo. The incidence of cervical lymph node metastases, numbers of tumor-free lymphatic vessels and those invaded by tumor cells in mouse lingual tissue, and expression of pro-lymphangiogenic markers were assessed. Rapamycin significantly decreased lymphatic vascular density (p = 0.027), reduced the fraction of lymphatic vessels invaded by tumor cells in tongue tissue (p = 0.013) and decreased metastasis-positive lymph nodes (p = 0.04). Rapamycin also significantly attenuated the extent of metastatic tumor cell spread within lymph nodes (p < 0.0001). We found that rapamycin significantly reduced LEC proliferation and was correlated with decreased VEGFR-3 expression in both LEC, and in some HNSCC cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate anti-lymphangiogenic properties of mTOR inhibitors in HNSCC. mTOR inhibitors suppress autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of tumor and lymphatic endothelial cells by impairing VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 axis and release of soluble VEGFR-2. In a murine HNSCC orthotopic model rapamycin significantly suppressed lymphovascular invasion, decreased cervical lymph node metastasis and delayed the spread of metastatic tumor cells within the lymph nodes

  5. Suppression of the cutaneous immune response following topical application of the prostaglandin PGE2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheins, L.A.; Barnes, L.; Amornsiripanitch, S.; Collins, C.E.; Nordlund, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) and topical applications of arachidonic acid (AA) in mice decrease the number of identifiable Langerhans cells and alter the cutaneous immune response. Application of contact allergens such as dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) to irradiated or AA-treated skin induces antigen-specific tolerance. Indomethacin (IM), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administered orally to mice prior to UVB irradiation or prior to the topical application of arachidonic acid, abrogates suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to DNFB. This suggests a byproduct of arachidonic acid generated through the cyclooxygenase pathway may be involved in the immune suppression. Topical application of various prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2, PGF2 alpha, and CTXA2) did not cause alterations in the population density of the identifiable Ia+ dendritic Langerhans cells. PGE2, but no other tested agent, produced a suppression of the CHS response to DNFB. These observations suggests that of the various prostaglandins, PGE2 might be one of several biochemical signals which mediate the suppression of contact hypersensitivity reactions following ultraviolet radiation exposure. However, the mechanisms by which PGE2 produces its suppressive effects have not been identified

  6. HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Megan; Soares, Dinesh C; Vacca, Francesco; Cohen, E Suzanne; Scott, Ian C; Gregory, William F; Smyth, Danielle J; Toivakka, Matilda; Kemter, Andrea M; le Bihan, Thierry; Wear, Martin; Hoving, Dennis; Filbey, Kara J; Hewitson, James P; Henderson, Holly; Gonzàlez-Cìscar, Andrea; Errington, Claire; Vermeren, Sonja; Astier, Anne L; Wallace, William A; Schwarze, Jürgen; Ivens, Alasdair C; Maizels, Rick M; McSorley, Henry J

    2017-10-17

    Infection by helminth parasites is associated with amelioration of allergic reactivity, but mechanistic insights into this association are lacking. Products secreted by the mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress type 2 (allergic) immune responses through interference in the interleukin-33 (IL-33) pathway. Here, we identified H. polygyrus Alarmin Release Inhibitor (HpARI), an IL-33-suppressive 26-kDa protein, containing three predicted complement control protein (CCP) modules. In vivo, recombinant HpARI abrogated IL-33, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and eosinophilic responses to Alternaria allergen administration, and diminished eosinophilic responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, increasing parasite burden. HpARI bound directly to both mouse and human IL-33 (in the cytokine's activated state) and also to nuclear DNA via its N-terminal CCP module pair (CCP1/2), tethering active IL-33 within necrotic cells, preventing its release, and forestalling initiation of type 2 allergic responses. Thus, HpARI employs a novel molecular strategy to suppress type 2 immunity in both infection and allergy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthetic triterpenoid induces 15-PGDH expression and suppresses inflammation-driven colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Robinson, Janet; Fink, Steve; Yan, Min; Sporn, Michael B; Markowitz, Sanford D; Letterio, John J

    2014-06-01

    Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) develops as a result of inflammation-induced epithelial transformation, which occurs in response to inflammatory cytokine-dependent downregulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and subsequent suppression of prostaglandin metabolism. Agents that both enhance 15-PGDH expression and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production may more effectively prevent CAC. Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of small molecules that suppress COX-2 as well as inflammatory cytokine signaling. Here, we found that administration of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) suppresses CAC in mice. In a spontaneous, inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasia model, deletion of Smad4 specifically in T cells led to progressive production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β; as well as activation of STAT1 and STAT3; along with suppression of 15-PGDH expression. Oral administration of CDDO-Me to mice with SMAD4-deficient T cells increased survival and suppressed intestinal epithelial neoplasia by decreasing production of inflammatory mediators and increasing expression of 15-PGDH. Induction of 15-PGDH by CDDO-Me was dose dependent in epithelial cells and was abrogated following treatment with TGF-β signaling inhibitors in vitro. Furthermore, CDDO-Me-dependent 15-PGDH induction was not observed in Smad3-/- mice. Similarly, CDDO-Me suppressed azoxymethane plus dextran sodium sulfate-induced carcinogenesis in wild-type animals, highlighting the potential of small molecules of the triterpenoid family as effective agents for the chemoprevention of CAC in humans.

  8. SGLT2 inhibitors: a novel choice for the combination therapy in diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Honghong; Zhou, Baoqin; Xu, Gaosi

    2017-05-16

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end stage renal disease. The comprehensive management of DKD depends on combined target-therapies for hyperglycemia, hypertension, albuminuria, and hyperlipaemia, etc. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the most recently developed oral hypoglycemic agents acted on renal proximal tubules, suppress glucose reabsorption and increase urinary glucose excretion. Besides improvements in glycemic control, they presented excellent performances in direct renoprotective effects and the cardiovascular (CV) safety by decreasing albuminuria and the independent CV risk factors such as body weight and blood pressure, etc. Simultaneous use of SGLT-2 inhibitors and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers are novel strategies to slow the progression of DKD via reducing inflammatory and fibrotic markers induced by hyperglycaemia more than either drug alone. The available population and animal based studies have described SGLT2 inhibitors plus RAAS blockers. The present review was to systematically review the potential renal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors combined with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and especially the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers.

  9. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Isokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels.

  10. Suppression of adenosine-activated chloride transport by ethanol in airway epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V Raju

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (I(SC in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A(2B adenosine receptor (A(2BAR, largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A(2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A(2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections.

  11. Autophagy suppresses RIP kinase-dependent necrosis enabling survival to mTOR inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bray

    Full Text Available mTOR inhibitors are used clinically to treat renal cancer but are not curative. Here we show that autophagy is a resistance mechanism of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC cell lines to mTOR inhibitors. RCC cell lines have high basal autophagy that is required for survival to mTOR inhibition. In RCC4 cells, inhibition of mTOR with CCI-779 stimulates autophagy and eliminates RIP kinases (RIPKs and this is blocked by autophagy inhibition, which induces RIPK- and ROS-dependent necroptosis in vitro and suppresses xenograft growth. Autophagy of mitochondria is required for cell survival since mTOR inhibition turns off Nrf2 antioxidant defense. Thus, coordinate mTOR and autophagy inhibition leads to an imbalance between ROS production and defense, causing necroptosis that may enhance cancer treatment efficacy.

  12. Performance investigation of low-toxic organic corrosion inhibitors in amine treating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veawab, A.; Tanthapanichakoon, W.

    2003-01-01

    Amine treating unit is constantly subject to severe corrosion problems leading to extra expenditure and operational limitations. Heavy-metal vanadium compounds are extensively used as corrosion inhibitors to suppress the severe corrosion to an acceptable level. In recent years, the fact that these vanadium compounds are inherently toxic and can potentially pose adverse impacts on the human health and the environment has brought about environmental awareness that causes their uses costly due to the difficulty in waste disposal. To respond to the environmental concern and reduce cost of waste disposal as well as prepare for more stringent regulations for chemical uses, the development of low-toxic corrosion inhibitors is necessary. This work therefore focuses on an investigation of inhibition performance of a number of organic and inorganic compounds that have relatively low toxicity in comparison with conventional inhibitors. The performance evaluation was carried out through corrosion experiments using carbon steel specimens. The experiments were done in 3 and 5 kmol/m 3 monoethanolamine (MEA) solution saturated with CO 2 at 80 o C. It was found that several tested compounds have potential to be effective low-toxic corrosion inhibitors. The promising compounds provide reasonable and in some cases comparable protection performance to the conventional inhibitor. (author)

  13. A Specific Inhibitor of TGF-β Receptor Kinase, SB-431542, as a Potent Antitumor Agent for Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Halder

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of signaling pathways have proven to be extremely useful for the development of therapeutic strategies for human cancers. Blocking the tumor-promoting effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in advanced stage carcinogenesis provides a potentially interesting drug target for therapeutic intervention. Although very few TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors (TRKI are now emerging in preclinical studies, nothing is known about how these inhibitors might regulate the tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β, or when these inhibitors might be useful for treatment during cancer progression. We have investigated the potential of TRKI in new therapeutic approaches in preclinical models. Here, we demonstrate that the TRKI, SB-431542, inhibits TGF-β-induced transcription, gene expression, apoptosis, and growth suppression. We have observed that SB-431542 attenuates the tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β, including TGF-β-induced EMT, cell motility, migration and invasion, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, SB-431542 induces anchorage independent growth of cells that are growth-inhibited by TGF-β, whereas it reduces colony formation by cells that are growth-promoted by TGF-β. However, SB-431542 has no effect on a cell line that failed to respond to TGF-β. This represents a novel potential application of these inhibitors as therapeutic agents for human cancers with the goal of blocking tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, when tumors are refractory to TGF-β-induced tumor-suppressor functions but responsive to tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β.

  14. In vitro differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages: change of PDE profile and its relationship to suppression of tumour necrosis factor-α release by PDE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Florian; Kupferschmidt, Rochus; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1997-01-01

    During in vitro culture in 10% human AB serum, human peripheral blood monocytes acquire a macrophage-like phenotype. The underlying differentiation was characterized by increased activities of the macrophage marker enzymes unspecific esterase (NaF-insensitive form) and acid phosphatase, as well as by a down-regulation in surface CD14 expression. In parallel, a dramatic change in the phosphodiesterase (PDE) profile became evident within a few days that strongly resembled that previously described for human alveolar macrophages. Whereas PDE1 and PDE3 activities were augmented, PDE4 activity, which represented the major cyclic AMP-hydrolysing activity of peripheral blood monocytes, rapidly declined. Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages responded to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). In line with the change in CD14 expression, the EC50 value of LPS for induction of TNF release increased from approximately 0.1 ng ml−1 in peripheral blood monocytes to about 2 ng ml−1 in macrophages. Both populations of cells were equally susceptible towards inhibition of TNF release by cyclic AMP elevating agents such as dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin, which all led to a complete abrogation of TNF production in a concentration-dependent manner and which were more efficient than the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In monocytes, PDE4 selective inhibitors (rolipram, RP73401) suppressed TNF formation by 80%, whereas motapizone, a PDE3 selective compound, exerted a comparatively weak effect (10–15% inhibition). Combined use of PDE3 plus PDE4 inhibitors resulted in an additive effect and fully abrogated LPS-induced TNF release as did the mixed PDE3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine. In monocyte-derived macrophages, neither PDE3- nor PDE4-selective drugs markedly affected TNF generation when used alone (<15% inhibition), whereas in combination, they led to a maximal inhibition of TNF formation by about 40–50

  15. CXCR7 maintains osteosarcoma invasion after CXCR4 suppression in bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Na

    2017-05-01

    The major cause of death in osteosarcoma is the invasion and metastasis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of osteosarcoma invasion is essential in developing effective tumor-suppressive therapies. Interaction between chemokine receptors plays a crucial role in regulating osteosarcoma invasion. Here, we investigated the relationship between CXCR7 and CXCR4 in osteosarcoma invasion induced by bone marrow microenvironment. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with osteosarcoma cells to mimic actual bone marrow microenvironment. Osteosarcoma cell invasion and CXCL12/CXCR4 activation were observed within this co-culture model. Interestingly, in this co-culture model, osteosarcoma cell invasion was not inhibited by suppressing CXCR4 expression with neutralizing antibody or specific inhibitor AMD3100. Downstream signaling extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were not significantly affected by CXCR4 inhibition. However, suppressing CXCR4 led to CXCR7 upregulation. Constitutive expression of CXCR7 could maintain osteosarcoma cell invasion when CXCR4 was suppressed. Simultaneously, inhibiting CXCR4 and CXCR7 compromised osteosarcoma invasion in co-culture system and suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signals. Moreover, bone marrow microenvironment, not CXCL12 alone, is required for CXCR7 activation after CXCR4 suppression. Taken together, suppressing CXCR4 is not enough to impede osteosarcoma invasion in bone marrow microenvironment since CXCR7 is activated to sustain invasion. Therefore, inhibiting both CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be a promising strategy in controlling osteosarcoma invasion.

  16. Epigenetic Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists Increases the Anticancer Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassera Aouali

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications play a major role in the development of multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO enhances, in-vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, valproic acid (VPA, on multiple myeloma cells. Here, we described the development of a new multiple myeloma mouse model using MOLP8 cells, in order to evaluate the effect of VPA/PIO combination on the progression of myeloma cells, by analyzing the proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. We showed that VPA/PIO delays the progression of the disease and the invasion of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that VPA/PIO increases the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and induces the acetylation of Histone 3 (H3. Furthermore, we provided evidence that PPARγ agonist is able to enhance the action of other HDACi such as Vorinostat or Mocetinostat. Using PPARγ antagonist or siPPARγ, we strongly suggest that, as described during adipogenesis, PIO behaves as an epigenetic regulator by improving the activity of HDACi. This study highlights the therapeutic benefit of PIO/VPA combination, compared to VPA treatment as a single-arm therapy on multiple myeloma and further highlights that such combination may constitute a new promising treatment strategy which should be supported by clinical trials.

  17. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  18. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a metabolo-epigenetic inhibitor of cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Cufí, Sílvia; Verdura, Sara; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin, Ángel G; Lupu, Ruth; Nonell-Canals, Alfons; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menendez, Javier A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target subpopulations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24−/low CSC. DOA could potently block the formation of multicellular tumorspheres generated from single-founder stem-like cells in a panel of genetically diverse BC models. Pretreatment of BC populations with noncytotoxic doses of DOA dramatically reduced subsequent tumor-forming capacity in vivo. Mice orthotopically injected with CSC-enriched BC-cell populations pretreated with DOA remained tumor-free for several months. Phenotype microarray-based screening pointed to a synergistic interaction of DOA with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine. In silico computational studies indicated that DOA binds and inhibits the ATP-binding kinase domain site of mTOR and the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) cofactor-binding pocket of DNMTs. FRET-based Z-LYTE™ and AlphaScreen-based in vitro assays confirmed the ability of DOA to function as an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor and to block the SAM-dependent methylation activity of DNMTs. Our systematic in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches establish the phenol-conjugated oleoside DOA as a dual mTOR/DNMT inhibitor naturally occurring in EVOO that functionally suppresses CSC-like states responsible for maintaining tumor-initiating cell properties within BC populations. PMID:29452350

  19. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 in the malignant tissue and possible applicability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible prostaglandin (PG) synthase, is elevated in many types of malignant and pre-malignant tissues. This enzyme is localized in neoplastic (epithelial) cells, microvascular endothelial cells, and stromal fibroblasts. Through the released PG it enhances carcinogenesis with increasing angiogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis, activating matrix metalloproteinases, suppressing of cell mediated antitumor immune response and protection against damage by cytotoxic agents. Evidences from in vitro studies, studies on animal models as well as first clinical outcomes suggest that the inhibition of COX-2 may suppress carcinogenesis by affecting a number of pathways: inhibiting angiogenesis, invasiveness of tumors and promoting apoptosis. References forecast that COX-2 inhibitors, mostly COX-2 selective inhibitors, may get a role in the therapy of cancer as an adjuvant therapy or as an co-chemotherapeutic agent. The purpose of the present article is to summarize the most important facts about the role of COX-2 in the malignant tissue and discuss possible ways for potential therapeutic place of COX-2 inhibitors in clinical practice. (author)

  20. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 and -2 in Interleukin-13-Suppressed Elastin in Airway Fibroblasts in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jennifer L; Slade, David; Church, Tony D; Francisco, Dave; Heck, Karissa; Sigmon, R Wesley; Ghio, Michael; Murillo, Anays; Firszt, Rafael; Lugogo, Njira L; Que, Loretta; Sunday, Mary E; Kraft, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Elastin synthesis and degradation in the airway and lung parenchyma contribute to airway mechanics, including airway patency and elastic recoil. IL-13 mediates many features of asthma pathobiology, including airway remodeling, but the effects of IL-13 on elastin architecture in the airway wall are not known. We hypothesized that IL-13 modulates elastin expression in airway fibroblasts from subjects with allergic asthma. Twenty-five subjects with mild asthma (FEV1, 89 ± 3% predicted) and 30 normal control subjects (FEV1, 102 ± 2% predicted) underwent bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy. Elastic fibers were visualized in airway biopsy specimens using Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin elastic stain. Airway fibroblasts were exposed to IL-13; a pan-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001); specific inhibitors to MMP-1, -2, -3, and -8; and combinations of IL-13 with MMP inhibitors in separate conditions in serum-free media for 48 hours. Elastin (ELN) expression as well as MMP secretion and activity were quantified. Results of this study show that elastic fiber staining of airway biopsy tissue was significantly associated with methacholine PC20 (i.e., the provocative concentration of methacholine resulting in a 20% fall in FEV1 levels) in patients with asthma. IL-13 significantly suppressed ELN expression in asthmatic airway fibroblasts as compared with normal control fibroblasts. The effect of IL-13 on ELN expression was significantly correlated with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC in patients with asthma. MMP inhibition significantly stimulated ELN expression in patients with asthma as compared with normal control subjects. Specific inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-2, but not MMP-3 or MMP-8, reversed the IL-13-induced suppression of ELN expression. In asthma, MMP-1 and MMP-2 mediate IL-13-induced suppression of ELN expression in airway fibroblasts.

  1. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Gulley, James L. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Schlom, Jeffrey, E-mail: js141c@nih.gov; Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies.

  2. Immunotherapy: Shifting the Balance of Cell-Mediated Immunity and Suppression in Human Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Jo A.; Jochems, Caroline; Gulley, James L.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y.

    2012-01-01

    Active immunotherapy is dependent on the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors. Despite overwhelming evidence to support a cell-mediated immune response to prostate cancer, it is insufficient to eradicate the disease. This is likely due to a high level of suppression at the tumor site from a variety of sources, including immunosuppressive cells. Immune cells entering the tumor microenvironment may be inhibited directly by the tumor, stromal cells or other immune cells that have been induced to adopt a suppressive phenotype. The resurgence of interest in immunotherapy following the approval of sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab by the Food and Drug Administration has brought about new strategies for overcoming tumor-mediated suppression and bolstering anti-tumor responses. Improved understanding of the immune response to prostate cancer can lead to new combination therapies, such as the use of vaccine with small molecule and checkpoint inhibitors or other immunotherapies

  3. Atorvastatin Protects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From TGF-β1-Stimulated Calcification by Inducing Autophagy via Suppression of the β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial calcification is a major event in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is reported that statins exhibit various protective effects against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC inflammation and proliferation in cardiovascular remodeling. Although statins counteract atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanisms of statins on the calcium release from VSMCs have not been clearly elucidated. Methods: Calcium content of VSMCs was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression of proteins involved in cellular transdifferentiation was analyzed by western blot. Cell autophagy was measured by fluorescence microscopic analysis for acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The autophagic inhibitors (3-MA, chloroquine, NH4Cl and bafilomycin A1 and β-catenin inhibitor JW74 were used to assess the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy and the involvement of β-catenin on cell calcification respectively. Furthermore, cell transfection was performed to overexpress β-catenin. Results: In VSMCs, atorvastatin significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-stimulated calcification, accompanied by the induction of autophagy. Downregulation of autophagy with autophagic inhibitors significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on cell calcification. Moreover, the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on calcification and autophagy was reversed by β-catenin overexpression. Conversely, JW74 supplement enhanced this effect. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that atorvastatin protect VSMC from TGF-β1-stimulated calcification by inducing autophagy through suppression of the β-catenin pathway, identifying autophagy induction might be a therapeutic strategy for use in vascular calcification.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and a Novel Mammary Derived Growth Inhibitor Fatty Acid Binding Protein MRG in Suppression of Mammary Tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yiliang

    2001-01-01

    We have previously identified and characterized a novel tumor growth inhibitor and a fatty acid binding protein in human mammary gland and named it as Mammary derived growth inhibitor Related Gene MRG...

  5. PRACTICE OF USING VIRAL PROTEASE INHIBITORS IN CHILDREN WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Denisenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the most effective and safest high-active antiretroviral therapies is a critical issue faced by modern HIV medicine. Authors studied 28 children with HIV infection aged from 3 to 7 divided into two groups administered a combination of two HIV reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors with viral protease nelfinavir inhibitors (n = 13 and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 15. The subjects in both groups demonstrated a decreased frequency of HIV-associated symptoms and opportunistic infections, positive dynamics of immunological indicators, suppression of HIV replication. When lopinavir/ritonavir was administered, there was more even better dynamics in clinical, immunological and virologic parameters, which allows this medication to be recommended as a antiretroviral therapy for children. Key words: HIV infection, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:62-67

  6. Anti-adipogenic effects of KD025 (SLx-2119), a ROCK2-specific inhibitor, in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Duy Trong Vien; Hong, Kyungki; Khun, Triyeng; Zheng, Mei; Ul-Haq, Asad; Jun, Hee-Sook; Kim, Young-Bum; Chun, Kwang-Hoon

    2018-02-06

    Adipose tissue is a specialized organ that synthesizes and stores fat. During adipogenesis, Rho and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) 2 are inactivated, which enhances the expression of pro-adipogenic genes and induces the loss of actin stress fibers. Furthermore, pan ROCK inhibitors enhance adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we show that KD025 (formerly known as SLx-2119), a ROCK2-specific inhibitor, suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells partially through a ROCK2-independent mechanism. KD025 downregulated the expression of key adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis in addition to lipogenic factors FABP4 and Glut4. Interestingly, adipogenesis was blocked by KD025 during days 1~3 of differentiation; after differentiation terminated, lipid accumulation was unaffected. Clonal expansion occurred normally in KD025-treated cells. These results suggest that KD025 could function during the intermediate stage after clonal expansion. Data from depletion of ROCKs showed that KD025 suppressed cell differentiation partially independent of ROCK's activity. Furthermore, no further loss of actin stress fibers emerged in KD025-treated cells during and after differentiation compared to control cells. These results indicate that in contrast to the pro-adipogenic effect of pan-inhibitors, KD025 suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by regulating key pro-adipogenic factors. This outcome further implies that KD025 could be a potential anti-adipogenic/obesity agent.

  7. [X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and Survivin suppression on human pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1 proliferation and chemosensitivety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Hong-yan; Yi, Xiao-ping; Li, Yi-xiong; You, Xue-ying; Cao, Li-ping; Liu, Hui

    2013-04-18

    To investigate the effect on cell proliferation and chemosensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1 after X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and Survivin are inhibited simultaneously, and to compare it with the separate gene suppression strategy by which expression of XIAP or Survivin is inhibited respectively. Panc-1 (Panc-1-X, Panc-1-S and Panc-1-XS) in which expression of XIAP and/or Survivin was inhibited, was established by using XIAP-shRNA lentiviral and Survivin-shRNA lentiviral we had built. The expressions of XIAP and Survivin mRNA and protein were evaluated by Real-time PCR and Semi-quantitatively Western blot analysis; cell proliferation was investigated by cell counting and colony formation assay; cell apoptosis was investigated by Caspase-3/7 activity assay kit and flow cytometry; gemcitabine (Gem) chemosensitivity was investigated by MTT assay. The pancreatic cell line Panc-1 in which the expression of XIAP and/or Survivin was stablely inhibited was successfully established. The cell proliferation of Panc-1-XS cells decreased significantly. The colony formation rate of Panc-1-XS cells (10.12%± 1.33%), was significantly lower than that of Panc-1-XncSnc cells (96.61% ± 7.89%) and Panc-1 cells (100.28% ± 8.97%) respectively (PPanc-1-XS cells (15.02 ± 0.57) was significantly higher than that of Panc-1 cells and Panc-1-XncSnc cells (8.87 ± 0.19 and 9.05 ± 0.23, respectively; PPanc-1-XS cells (24.09% ± 2.75%) was significantly higher than that of Panc-1-XncSnc cells and Panc-1 cells (12.09% ± 1.97% and 12.06% ± 1.22%, respectively; PPanc-1-XS cells [(0.47 ± 0.04) mg/L] was significantly lower than that of Panc-1-XncSnc cells [(2.18 ± 0.13) mg/L] and Panc-1 cells [(2.13 ± 0.18) mg/L, PPanc-1-XS cells [(0.47 ± 0.04) mg/L] was significantly lower than that of Panc-1-X cells [(0.76 ± 0.07) mg/L] and Panc-1-S cells [(0.87 ± 0.09) mg/L, PPanc-1 cells was significantly suppressed and the Gem chemosensitivity was significantly

  8. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat).

  9. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bundela

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine.

  10. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine. PMID:26536350

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies, which include the GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, use the antidiabetic properties of potentiating the GLP-1 receptor signalling via the regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion, inhibition of gastric emptying and suppression of appetite. Most physicians...... will start antidiabetic treatment with metformin, but adding a GLP-1 receptor agonist as the second drug seems to be optimal since more patients will reach an HbA1c below 7% than with a DPP-4 inhibitor or another oral antidiabetic agents and with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia. The GLP-1 receptor agonists...

  12. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  13. Studies on the mechanism of fibrate-inhibited expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured hepatocytes from cynomolgus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fibrates are widely used drugs in hyperlipidemic disorders. In addition to lowering serum triglyceride levels, fibrates have also been shown to reduce elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in vivo. We demonstrate that fibrates suppress PAI-1 synthesis in cultured

  14. Indirubin-3′-monoxime suppresses amyloid-beta-induced apoptosis by inhibiting tau hyperphosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-gang Zhang; Xiao-shan Wang; Ying-dong Zhang; Qing Di; Jing-ping Shi; Min Qian; Li-gang Xu; Xing-jian Lin; Jie Lu

    2016-01-01

    Indirubin-3′-monoxime is an effective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, and may play an obligate role in neuronal apopto-sis in Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we found that indirubin-3′-monoxime improved the morphology and increased the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to amyloid-beta 25–35 (Aβ25–35), and also suppressed apoptosis by reducing tau phosphorylation at Ser199 and Thr205. Furthermore, indirubin-3′-monoxime inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Our results suggest that in-dirubin-3′-monoxime reduced Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis by suppressing tau hyperphosphorylationvia a GSK-3β-mediated mechanism. Indirubin-3′-monoxime is a promising drug candidate for Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sanling; Dong, Jianmei; Mei, Guoqiang; Liu, Guiyun; Xu, Wei; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant cysteine protease inhibitor from the human nematode parasite A. lumbricoides has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. The cysteine protease inhibitor from Ascaris lumbricoides, a roundworm that lives in the human intestine, may be involved in the suppression of human immune responses. Here, the molecular cloning, protein expression and purification, preliminary crystallization and crystallographic characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor from A. lumbricoides are reported. The rod-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 99.40, b = 37.52, c = 62.92 Å, β = 118.26°. The crystal diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  16. Exogenous regucalcin suppresses the growth of human liver cancer HepG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2018-04-05

    Regucalcin, which its gene is localized on the X chromosome, plays a pivotal role as a suppressor protein in signal transduction in various types of cells and tissues. Regucalcin gene expression has been demonstrated to be suppressed in various tumor tissues of animal and human subjects, suggesting a potential role of regucalcin in carcinogenesis. Regucalcin, which is produced from the tissues including liver, is found to be present in the serum of human subjects and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of exogenous regucalcin on the proliferation in cloned human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro. Proliferation of HepG2 cells was suppressed after culture with addition of regucalcin (0.01 – 10 nM) into culture medium. Exogenous regucalcin did not reveal apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells in vitro. Suppressive effects of regucalcin on cell proliferation were not enhanced in the presence of various signaling inhibitors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Bay K 8644, PD98059, staurosporine, worthomannin, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) or gemcitabine, which were found to suppress the proliferation. In addition, exogenous regucalcin suppressed the formation of colonies of cultured hepatoma cells in vitro. These findings demonstrated that exogenous regucalcin exhibits a suppressive effect on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells, proposing a strategy with the gene therapy for cancer treatment.

  17. Suppression of autoimmune retinal inflammation by an antiangiogenic drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent uveitis account for approximately 10% of legal blindness in the western world. Autoimmune uveitis is driven by activated CD4(+ T cells that differentiate into effector T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17 which release proinflammatory cytokines that damage the retina. In this study we investigated the effect of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2 inhibitor, Lodamin, on T cell activation and differentiation. MetAp2 is an enzyme which regulates cellular protein synthesis and is highly expressed in T cells. Lodamin was found to suppress T cell receptor (TCR mediated T cell proliferation and reduced the production of Th1 and Th17 cells. Further, Lodamin suppressed overall inflammation in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU by a six fold. This effect was attributed in part to a reduction in retinal proinflammatory cytokines, down regulation of MetAP2 expression in purified lymph node CD4(+ T cells, and a general normalization of the systemic immune reaction.

  18. Suppression of Autoimmune Retinal Inflammation by an Antiangiogenic Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Lauren; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent uveitis account for approximately 10% of legal blindness in the western world. Autoimmune uveitis is driven by activated CD4+ T cells that differentiate into effector T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17) which release proinflammatory cytokines that damage the retina. In this study we investigated the effect of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitor, Lodamin, on T cell activation and differentiation. MetAp2 is an enzyme which regulates cellular protein synthesis and is highly expressed in T cells. Lodamin was found to suppress T cell receptor (TCR) mediated T cell proliferation and reduced the production of Th1 and Th17 cells. Further, Lodamin suppressed overall inflammation in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) by a six fold. This effect was attributed in part to a reduction in retinal proinflammatory cytokines, down regulation of MetAP2 expression in purified lymph node CD4+ T cells, and a general normalization of the systemic immune reaction. PMID:23785488

  19. R-268712, an orally active transforming growth factor-β type I receptor inhibitor, prevents glomerular sclerosis in a Thy1 nephritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Hideki; Kato, Mikio; Ebisawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Kanae; Nezu, Yoshikazu; Sada, Toshio

    2014-07-05

    R-268712 is a novel and specific inhibitor of activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type I receptor. Evaluation of in vitro inhibition indicated that R-268712 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ALK5 with an IC50 of 2.5nM, an approximately 5000-fold more selectivity for ALK5 than p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Oral administration of R-268712 at doses of 1, 3 and 10mg/kg also inhibited the development of renal fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. Additionally, we evaluated the efficacy of R-268712 in a heminephrectomized anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis model at doses of 0.3 and 1mg/kg. R-268712 reduced proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis significantly with improvement of renal function. Collectively, these results suggested that R-268712 and other ALK5 inhibitors could suppress glomerulonephritis as well as glomerulosclerosis by an inhibitory mechanism that involves suppression of TGF-β signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blockade of PI3Kgamma suppresses joint inflammation and damage in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Montserrat; Rückle, Thomas; Ji, Hong; Ardissone, Vittoria; Rintelen, Felix; Shaw, Jeffrey; Ferrandi, Chiara; Chabert, Christian; Gillieron, Corine; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Gretener, Denise; Perrin, Dominique; Leroy, Didier; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias P; Cirillo, Rocco; Schwarz, Matthias K; Rommel, Christian

    2005-09-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have long been considered promising drug targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. But the lack of specificity, isoform selectivity and poor biopharmaceutical profile of PI3K inhibitors have so far hampered rigorous disease-relevant target validation. Here we describe the identification and development of specific, selective and orally active small-molecule inhibitors of PI3Kgamma (encoded by Pik3cg). We show that Pik3cg(-/-) mice are largely protected in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis; this protection correlates with defective neutrophil migration, further validating PI3Kgamma as a therapeutic target. We also describe that oral treatment with a PI3Kgamma inhibitor suppresses the progression of joint inflammation and damage in two distinct mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, reproducing the protective effects shown by Pik3cg(-/-) mice. Our results identify selective PI3Kgamma inhibitors as potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Design, synthesis and optimization of bis-amide derivatives as CSF1R inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sreekanth A; Jadhavar, Pradeep S; Miglani, Sandeep K; Singh, Manvendra P; Kalane, Deepak P; Agarwal, Anil K; Sathe, Balaji D; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Gupta, Ashu; Haldar, Srijan; Raja, Mohd; Singh, Siddhartha; Pham, Son M; Chakravarty, Sarvajit; Quinn, Kevin; Belmar, Sebastian; Alfaro, Ivan E; Higgs, Christopher; Bernales, Sebastian; Herrera, Francisco J; Rai, Roopa

    2017-05-15

    Signaling via the receptor tyrosine kinase CSF1R is thought to play an important role in recruitment and differentiation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs play pro-tumorigenic roles, including the suppression of anti-tumor immune response, promotion of angiogenesis and tumor cell metastasis. Because of the role of this signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment, several small molecule CSF1R kinase inhibitors are undergoing clinical evaluation for cancer therapy, either as a single agent or in combination with other cancer therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Herein we describe our lead optimization effort that resulted in the identification of a potent, cellular active and orally bioavailable bis-amide CSF1R inhibitor. Docking and biochemical analysis allowed the removal of a metabolically labile and poorly permeable methyl piperazine group from an early lead compound. Optimization led to improved metabolic stability and Caco2 permeability, which in turn resulted in good oral bioavailability in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-indu...

  3. Targeting the sugar metabolism of tumors with a first-in-class 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB4) inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Jason; Clark, Jennifer; Lanceta, Lilibeth; Trent, John O; Telang, Sucheta

    2015-07-20

    Human tumors exhibit increased glucose uptake and metabolism as a result of high demand for ATP and anabolic substrates and this metabolotype is a negative prognostic indicator for survival. Recent studies have demonstrated that cancer cells from several tissue origins and genetic backgrounds require the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4), a regulatory enzyme that synthesizes an allosteric activator of glycolysis, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. We report the discovery of a first-in-class PFKFB4 inhibitor, 5-(n-(8-methoxy-4-quinolyl)amino)pentyl nitrate (5MPN), using structure-based virtual computational screening. We find that 5MPN is a selective inhibitor of PFKFB4 that suppresses the glycolysis and proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines but not non-transformed epithelial cells in vitro. Importantly, 5MPN has high oral bioavailability and per os administration of a non-toxic dose of 5MPN suppresses the glucose metabolism and growth of tumors in mice.

  4. Adult-type myogenesis of the frog Xenopus laevis specifically suppressed by notochord cells but promoted by spinal cord cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hitomi; Ihara, Setsunosuke; Kuroda, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Akio

    2011-08-01

    Larval-to-adult myogenic conversion occurs in the dorsal muscle but not in the tail muscle during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. To know the mechanism for tail-specific suppression of adult myogenesis, response character was compared between adult myogenic cells (Ad-cells) and larval tail myogenic cells (La-cells) to a Sonic hedgehog (Shh) inhibitor, notochord (Nc) cells, and spinal cord (SC) cells in vitro. Cyclopamine, an Shh inhibitor, suppressed the differentiation of cultured Ad (but not La) cells, suggesting the significance of Shh signaling in promoting adult myogenesis. To test the possibility that Shh-producing axial elements (notochord and spinal cord) regulate adult myogenesis, Ad-cells or La-cells were co-cultured with Nc or SC cells. The results showed that differentiation of Ad-cells were strongly inhibited by Nc cells but promoted by SC cells. If Ad-cells were "separately" co-cultured with Nc cells without direct cell-cell interactions, adult differentiation was not inhibited but rather promoted, suggesting that Nc cells have two roles, one is a short-range suppression and another is a long-range promotion for adult myogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed both notochord and spinal cord express the N-terminal Shh fragment throughout metamorphosis. The "spinal cord-promotion" and long-range effect by Nc cells on adult myogenesis is thus involved in Shh signaling, while the signaling concerning the short-range "Nc suppression" will be determined by future studies. Interestingly, these effects, "Nc suppression" and "SC promotion" were not observed for La-cells. Situation where the spinal cord/notochord cross-sectional ratio is quite larger in tadpole trunk than in the tail seems to contribute to trunk-specific promotion and tail-specific suppression of adult myogenesis during Xenopus metamorphosis.

  5. Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with γ-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNFα; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20  h). In human membranes, the IKKβ inhibitor TPCA-1 (7  μM) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20  μM) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10  mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10  μM) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB.

  6. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 and -2 in Interleukin-13–Suppressed Elastin in Airway Fibroblasts in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, David; Church, Tony D.; Francisco, Dave; Heck, Karissa; Sigmon, R. Wesley; Ghio, Michael; Murillo, Anays; Firszt, Rafael; Lugogo, Njira L.; Que, Loretta; Sunday, Mary E.; Kraft, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Elastin synthesis and degradation in the airway and lung parenchyma contribute to airway mechanics, including airway patency and elastic recoil. IL-13 mediates many features of asthma pathobiology, including airway remodeling, but the effects of IL-13 on elastin architecture in the airway wall are not known. We hypothesized that IL-13 modulates elastin expression in airway fibroblasts from subjects with allergic asthma. Twenty-five subjects with mild asthma (FEV1, 89 ± 3% predicted) and 30 normal control subjects (FEV1, 102 ± 2% predicted) underwent bronchoscopy with endobronchial biopsy. Elastic fibers were visualized in airway biopsy specimens using Weigert’s resorcin-fuchsin elastic stain. Airway fibroblasts were exposed to IL-13; a pan-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001); specific inhibitors to MMP-1, -2, -3, and -8; and combinations of IL-13 with MMP inhibitors in separate conditions in serum-free media for 48 hours. Elastin (ELN) expression as well as MMP secretion and activity were quantified. Results of this study show that elastic fiber staining of airway biopsy tissue was significantly associated with methacholine PC20 (i.e., the provocative concentration of methacholine resulting in a 20% fall in FEV1 levels) in patients with asthma. IL-13 significantly suppressed ELN expression in asthmatic airway fibroblasts as compared with normal control fibroblasts. The effect of IL-13 on ELN expression was significantly correlated with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC in patients with asthma. MMP inhibition significantly stimulated ELN expression in patients with asthma as compared with normal control subjects. Specific inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-2, but not MMP-3 or MMP-8, reversed the IL-13–induced suppression of ELN expression. In asthma, MMP-1 and MMP-2 mediate IL-13–induced suppression of ELN expression in airway fibroblasts. PMID:26074138

  7. Analysis of the genomic response of human prostate cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Wissing, Michel D; Rodríguez, Ronald; Kachhap, Sushant K; Jans, Judith J M; Van der Groep, Petra; Verheul, Henk M W; Gupta, Anuj; Aiyetan, Paul O; van der Wall, Elsken; Carducci, Michael A; Van Diest, Paul J; Marchionni, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as important targets for cancer treatment. HDAC-inhibitors (HDACis) are well tolerated in patients and have been approved for the treatment of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To improve the clinical benefit of HDACis in solid tumors, combination strategies with HDACis could be employed. In this study, we applied Analysis of Functional Annotation (AFA) to provide a comprehensive list of genes and pathways affected upon HDACi-treatment in prostate cancer cells. This approach provides an unbiased and objective approach to high throughput data mining. By performing AFA on gene expression data from prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 (an HDACi-sensitive cell line) and PC3 (a relatively HDACi-resistant cell line) treated with HDACis valproic acid or vorinostat, we identified biological processes that are affected by HDACis and are therefore potential treatment targets for combination therapy. Our analysis revealed that HDAC-inhibition resulted among others in upregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and deregulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint by downregulation of genes involved in mitosis. These findings were confirmed by AFA on publicly available data sets from HDACi-treated prostate cancer cells. In total, we analyzed 375 microarrays with HDACi treated and non-treated (control) prostate cancer cells. All results from this extensive analysis are provided as an online research source (available at the journal's website and at http://luigimarchionni.org/HDACIs.html). By publishing this data, we aim to enhance our understanding of the cellular changes after HDAC-inhibition, and to identify novel potential combination strategies with HDACis for the treatment of prostate cancer patients.

  8. Selinexor (KPT-330) Induces Tumor Suppression through Nuclear Sequestration of IκB and Downregulation of Survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jayasree S; Musi, Elgilda; Schwartz, Gary K

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Selinexor, a small molecule that inhibits nuclear export protein XPO1, has demonstrated efficacy in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies with the evidence of clinical activity in sarcoma as a single agent. Treatment options available are very few, and hence the need to identify novel targets and strategic therapies is of utmost importance. Experimental Design: The mechanistic effects of selinexor in sarcomas as a monotherapy and in combination with proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, across a panel of cell lines in vitro and few in xenograft mouse models were investigated. Results: Selinexor induced IκB nuclear localization as a single agent, and the effect was enhanced by stabilization of IκB when pretreated with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. This stabilization and retention of IκB in the nucleus resulted in inhibition of NFκB and transcriptional suppression of the critical antiapoptotic protein, survivin. Treatment of carfilzomib followed by selinexor caused selinexor-sensitive and selinexor-resistant cell lines to be more sensitive to selinexor as determined by an increase in apoptosis. This was successfully demonstrated in the MPNST xenograft model with enhanced tumor suppression. Conclusions: The subcellular distributions of IκB and NFκB are indicative of carcinogenesis. Inhibition of XPO1 results in intranuclear retention of IκB, which inhibits NFκB and thereby provides a novel mechanism for drug therapy in sarcoma. This effect can be further enhanced in relatively selinexor-resistant sarcoma cell lines by pretreatment with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Because of these results, a human clinical trial with selinexor in combination with a proteasome inhibitor is planned for the treatment of sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4301-11. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 suppresses apoptosis of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L-J; Luo, X-H; Xie, H; Zhou, H-D; Yuan, L-Q; Wang, M; Liao, E-Y

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the action of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) on apoptosis and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1. TIMP-1 did not affect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, suggesting that it is not involved in osteoblastic differentiation in MBA-1 cells. However, TIMP-1 inhibited MBA-1 apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased Bax protein expression with TIMP-1 treatment. TIMP-1 decreased cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in MBA-1 cells. TIMP-1 activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished its antiapoptotic activity. To investigate whether antiapoptotic action of TIMP-1 was mediated through its inhibition on MMP activities, we constructed mutant TIMP-1 by side-directed mutagenesis, which abolished the inhibitory activity of MMPs by deletion of Cys1 to Ala4. Wild-type TIMP-1 and mutant TIMP-1 expression plasmids were transfected in MBA-1 cells, and results showed that mutant TIMP-1 still protected the induced MBA-1 cell against apoptosis. These data suggest that TIMP-1 antiapoptotic actions are mediated via the PI3-kinase and JNK signaling pathways and independent of TIMP-1 inhibition of MMP activities.

  10. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  11. Potential role of enzastaurin in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deborah A Katz, Janet MD Plate, Sunita Nathan, Lydia UshaDivision of Hematology and Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs are rare extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by neoplastic T-lymphocyte accumulation in the skin. The two most common types of CTCLs are mycosis fungoides and the leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome. Prognosis of CTCLs depends on the stage, with a poor prognosis in advanced-stage disease. A number of agents have recently been developed for the treatment of CTCLs: chemotherapeutic agents such as pralatrexate, interferon-alpha, retinoids such as bexarotene, monoclonal antibodies such as alemtuzumab, and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as vorinostat and romidepsin. Nevertheless, there is no cure for CTCLs except for allogeneic stem cell transplant. A promising new drug is enzastaurin. Enzastaurin is a novel serine/threonine kinase inhibitor that binds to protein kinase C-β (PKC-β and inhibits the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/AKT/phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN signaling pathway. Enzastaurin induces apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis; it was also shown to suppress growth of CTCL cell lines in vitro. Given its low toxicity, enzastaurin has been tested against both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. This article is focused on the potential role of enzastaurin in the treatment of CTCLs. A phase II multicenter trial evaluated enzastaurin monotherapy in patients with CTCLs. However, the results from this study were disappointing, demonstrating that enzastaurin had only modest clinical activity. Hence, enzastaurin is not currently developed for treating CTCLs. Potential strategies to improve enzastaurin efficacy against CTCLs are discussed: validation of enzastaurin targets such as PKC-β expression in CTCL lesions and or/blood; measurement of serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels; dose optimization; combining enzastaurin with

  12. Inhibition of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by resveratrol, a potent proteasome inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Asaf A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Results The present results indicate that resveratrol, pterostilbene, and morin hydrate caused significant inhibition (>70% to 90%; P 40%; P 60%; P 40%; P P  Conclusions The present results clearly demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are particularly potent proteasome inhibitors that suppress expression of genes, and production of inflammatory products in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Resveratrol and pterostilbene which are present in grapes, blueberries, and red wine, have been implicated as contributing factors to the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in the French population, despite their relatively high dietary fat intake. Consequently, it appears likely that the beneficial nutritional effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene are due at least in part, to their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation by the proteasome, thereby suppressing activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS genes, resulting in decreased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO levels, in response to inflammatory stimuli

  13. Repigmentation in vitiligo using the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib may require concomitant light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucy Y; Strassner, James P; Refat, Maggi A; Harris, John E; King, Brett A

    2017-10-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which cutaneous depigmentation occurs. Existing therapies are often inadequate. Prior reports have shown benefit of the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. To evaluate the efficacy of the JAK 1/3 inhibitor tofacitinib in the treatment of vitiligo. This is a retrospective case series of 10 consecutive patients with vitiligo treated with tofacitinib. Severity of disease was assessed by body surface area of depigmentation. Ten consecutive patients were treated with tofacitinib. Five patients achieved some repigmentation at sites of either sunlight exposure or low-dose narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. Suction blister sampling revealed that the autoimmune response was inhibited during treatment in both responding and nonresponding lesions, suggesting that light rather than immunosuppression was primarily required for melanocyte regeneration. Limitations include the small size of the study population, retrospective nature of the study, and lack of a control group. Treatment of vitiligo with JAK inhibitors appears to require light exposure. In contrast to treatment with phototherapy alone, repigmentation during treatment with JAK inhibitors may require only low-level light. Maintenance of repigmentation may be achieved with JAK inhibitor monotherapy. These results support a model wherein JAK inhibitors suppress T cell mediators of vitiligo and light exposure is necessary for stimulation of melanocyte regeneration. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heme-containing enzymes and inhibitors for tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Daojing; Lin, Ying-Wu; Tan, Xiangshi

    2017-09-20

    Iron-containing enzymes such as heme enzymes play crucial roles in biological systems. Three distinct heme-containing dioxygenase enzymes, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step of l-tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway in mammals. Overexpression of these enzymes causes depletion of tryptophan and the accumulation of metabolic products, which contributes to tumor immune tolerance and immune dysregulation in a variety of disease pathologies. In the past few decades, IDO1 has garnered the most attention as a therapeutic target with great potential in cancer immunotherapy. Many potential inhibitors of IDO1 have been designed, synthesized and evaluated, among which indoximod (d-1-MT), INCB024360, GDC-0919 (formerly NLG-919), and an IDO1 peptide-based vaccine have advanced to the clinical trial stage. However, recently, the roles of TDO and IDO2 have been elucidated in immune suppression. In this review, the current drug discovery landscape for targeting TDO, IDO1 and IDO2 is highlighted, with particular attention to the recent use of drugs in clinical trials. Moreover, the crystal structures of these enzymes, in complex with inhibitors, and the mechanisms of Trp catabolism in the first step, are summarized to provide information for facilitating the discovery of new enzyme inhibitors.

  15. Corrosion inhibition by inorganic cationic inhibitors on the high strength alumunium alloy, 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Anusha

    The toxicity and carcinogenic nature of chromates has led to the investigation of environmentally friendly compounds that offer good corrosion resistance to AA 2024-T3. Among the candidate inhibitors are rare earth metal cationic (REM) and zinc compounds, which have received much of attention over the past two decades. A comparative study on the corrosion inhibition caused by rare earth metal cations, Ce3+, Pr3+, La3+ and Zn2+ cations on the alloy was done. Cathodic polarization showed that these inhibitor ions suppress the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to varying extents with Zn2+ providing the best inhibition. Pr3+ exhibited windows of concentration (100-300 ppm) in which the corrosion rate is minimum; similar to the Ce3+ cation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the mechanism of inhibition of the Pr3+ ion is also similar to that of the Ce3+ ion. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time showed greatest suppression of oxygen reduction reaction in neutral chloride solutions (pH 7), which reached a maximum at a Zn2+ ion concentration of 5 mM. Anodic polarization experiments after 30 min immersion time, showed no anodic inhibition by the inhibitor in any concentration (0.1 mM - 10 mM) and at any pH. However, anodic polarization of samples immersed after longer immersion times (upto 4 days) in mildly acidic Zn2+ (pH 4) solutions showed significant reduction in anodic kinetics indicating that zinc also acts as a “slow anodic inhibitor”. In contrast to the polarization experiments, coupons exposed to inhibited acidic solutions at pH 4 showed complete suppression of dissolution of Al2CuMg particles compared to zinc-free solutions in the SEM studies. Samples exposed in pH 4 Zn2+-bearing solution exhibited highest polarization resistance which was also observed to increase with time. In deaerated solutions, the inhibition by Zn2+ at pH 4 is not observed as strongly. The ability to make the interfacial electrolyte

  16. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (Price cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation.

  17. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Andrew R; Long, Patrick M; Driscoll, Heather E; Davies, Matthew T; Teasdale, Benjamin A; Penar, Paul L; Pendlebury, William W; Spees, Jeffrey L; Lawler, Sean E; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2014-03-15

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA-induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. © 2013 UICC.

  18. Human alpha-fetoprotein and prostaglandins suppress human lymphocyte transformation by different mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yachnin, S.; Lester, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The capacity of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) to suppress human lymphocyte transformation is well established, although some investigators have reported negative results in their efforts to demonstrate this phenomenon. This discrepancy may reside in the fact that not all isolates of HAFP are potent inhibitors of lymphocyte transformation and that the immunosuppressive potency of various HAFP isolates may be correlated with the proportion of certain negatively charged HAFP isomers which they contain. The possibility was considered that noncovalent binding of low-molecular-weight, negatively charged molecules might be partially responsible. Since fatty acids, including certain prostaglandins (PG), are capable of binding to a partly related serum protei