WorldWideScience

Sample records for inhalation exposure methodology

  1. Exposure levels and determinants of inhalable dust exposure in bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Kennedy, S M

    1997-12-01

    The study's objectives were to measure full-shift exposure to inhalable dust in bakeries and define the determinants of full-shift exposure. Inhalable dust was measured gravimetrically. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. Samples were collected on 18 days selected at random. During the entire sampling period, bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15 min intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day. These task and production variables were used in statistical modelling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean full-shift inhalable dust exposure was 8.2 mg/m3 (range: 0.1-110 mg/m3). A regression model explained 79% of the variability in exposure. The model indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring and operating dough-brakers and reversible sheeters increased the exposure, while packing, catching and decorating decreased the exposure. Bread and bun production lines were associated with increased full-shift inhalable dust exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Production tasks and characteristics are strong predictors of personal full-shift exposures to flour dust among bakers; these can be altered to reduce exposure levels.

  2. Age dependent systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jespersen, Jakob Jessing; Bisgaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effect of age on systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol in children. METHODS: Fifty-eight asthmatic children, aged 3-16 years, inhaled 400 microg of salbutamol from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with spacer. The 20 min serum profile was analyzed. RESULTS: Prescribing...

  3. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  4. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Susan; Kromhout, Hans; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud

    2009-01-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  5. Criteria for inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Yeh, H.C.

    1974-01-01

    Principles are given for the design and operation of a new class of inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry (CFS), a simple method for providing realtime measurement of respiratory volumes and rates during inhalation exposure by mouth or nose of individual experimental animals or man to aerosols or gases. This technique is especially useful for inhalation exposure of larger experimental animals, such as horses, where whole-body plethysmography is usually impractical. Difficulties encountered with conventional exposure systems in maintenance of uniform aerosol or gas concentrations and prevention of large pressure excursions in the exposure chamber during breathing are obviated by systems utilizing the principles of concurrent flow spirometry. For illustration, two exposure units with CFS are described, one for exposure of Beagle dogs and one for ponies. (U.S.)

  6. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  7. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-05-07

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling

  8. Particle exposure and inhaled dose during commuting in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sok Huang; Roth, Matthias; Velasco, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Exposure concentration and inhaled dose of particles during door-to-door trips walking and using motorized transport modes (subway, bus, taxi) are evaluated along a selected route in a commercial district of Singapore. Concentrations of particles smaller than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5), black carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, number of particles, active surface area and carbon monoxide have been measured in-situ using portable instruments. Simultaneous measurements were conducted at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. The heart rate of the participants was monitored during the measurements as a proxy of the inhalation rate used to calculate the inhaled dose of particles. All measured metrics were highest and well above background levels during walking. No significant difference was observed in the exposure concentration of PM2.5 for the three motorized transport modes, unlike for the metrics associated with ultrafine particles (UFP). The concentration of these freshly emitted particles was significantly lower on subway trips. The absence of combustion sources, use of air conditioning and screen doors at station platforms are effective measures to protect passengers' health. For other transport modes, sections of trips close to accelerating and idling vehicles, such as bus stops, traffic junctions and taxi stands, represent hotspots of particles. Reducing the waiting time at such locations will lower pollutants exposure and inhaled dose during a commute. After taking into account the effect of inhalation and travel duration when calculating dose, the health benefit of commuting by subway for this particular district of Singapore became even more evident. For example, pedestrians breathe in 2.6 and 3.2 times more PM2.5 and UFP, respectively than subway commuters. Public buses were the second best alternative. Walking emerged as the worst commuting mode in terms of particle exposure and inhaled dose.

  9. Risk Communication in EPA's Controlled Inhalation Exposure Studies and in Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2017-01-01

    On March 28, 2017, the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released a much-anticipated report on the Environmental Protection Agency's controlled human inhalation exposure studies. This essay reviews the ethical controversies that led to the genesis of the report, summarizes its key findings, and comments on its approach to informing human subjects about the risks of inhalation exposure studies. NASEM's report makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the scientific and ethical issues involved in conducting human inhalation exposure studies. Its definition of "reasonably foreseeable risks" provides useful guidance to investigators, research participants, and institutional review board members.

  10. Characteristics of peaks of inhalation exposure to organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Burstyn, I.; Pater, N. de; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine which exposure metrics are sufficient to characterize 'peak' inhalation exposure to organic solvents (OS) during spraying operations. Methods: Personal exposure measurements (n = 27; duration 5-159 min) were collected during application of paints, primers, resins and glues

  11. Inhalation Exposure Method for Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Tada, Yukie; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kaihoko, Fujifumi; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Uemura, Nozomi; Moriyasu, Takako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ishihara, Kei; Usami, Takashi; Kamei, Satoru; Kohno, Yasuaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.

  12. Siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from plutonium inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.A.; Low, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    Siting criteria are established by regulatory authorities to evaluate potential accident scenarios associated with proposed nuclear facilities. The 0.25 Sv (25 rem) siting criteria adopted in the United States has been historically based on the prevention of deterministic effects from acute, whole-body exposures. The Department of Energy has extended the applicability of this criterion to radionuclides that deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation through the specification of a 0.25 Sv (25 rem) committed effective dose equivalent siting criterion. A methodology is developed to determine siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from inhalation intakes of radionuclides which deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation. Revised siting criteria, expressed in terms of committed effective dose equivalent, are proposed for nuclear facilities that handle primarily plutonium compounds. The analysis determined that a siting criterion of 1.2 Sv (120 rem) committed effective dose equivalent for inhalation exposures to weapons-grade plutonium meets the historical goal of preventing deterministic effects during a facility accident scenario. The criterion also meets the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Goals provided that the frequency of the accident is sufficiently low

  13. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  14. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  15. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  16. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This

  17. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-01-01

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the

  18. Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda; Dechsakulthorn, Finance

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the rapid expansion of nanotechnology will bring many potential benefits. However, initial investigations have demonstrated that nanomaterials may adversely affect human health and the environment. By increasing the application of nanoparticles, protection of the human respiratory system from exposure to airborne nanoparticles and ultrafine particulates has become an emerging health concern. Available research has demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient airborne particulates and ultrafine particles and various adverse heath effects including increased morbidity and mortality. Nanomaterial structures are more likely to be toxic than the same materials of conventional sized samples and can be inhaled more deeply into the lungs. While the respiratory tract is considered as the primary target organ for inhaled nanoparticles, recent research has demonstrated that extrapulmonary organs are also affected. The very small size distribution and large surface area of nanoparticles available to undergo reactions may play a significant role in nanotoxicity, yet very little is known about their interactions with biological systems. This review explores the possible underlying toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles following inhalational exposure. Nanoparticles differ from the same conventional material at a larger scale in physical, chemical and biological characteristics; therefore it is critical to recognize the potential risk of nanoparticle exposure using appropriate toxicity test methods. Current advances and limitations of toxicity assessment methods of nanoparticles are discussed highlighting the recent improvements of in vitro screening tools for the safety evaluation of the rapidly expanding area of nanotechnology.

  19. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  20. Trends in wood dust inhalation exposure in the UK, 1985-2005.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galea, K.S.; van Tongeren, M.; Sleeuwenhoek, A.J.; While, D.; Graham, M.; Bolton, A.; Kromhout, H.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Wood dust data held in the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) National Exposure DataBase (NEDB) were reviewed to investigate the long-term changes in inhalation exposure from 1985 to 2005. In addition, follow-up sampling measurements were obtained from selected companies where exposure

  1. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  3. Tumorigenic responses from single or repeated inhalation exposures to relatively insoluble aerosols of Ce-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human occupational or environmental inhalation exposures may involve repeated or chronic exposures, but most laboratory studies of inhaled radionuclides have involved single exposures. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of repeated inhalation exposures of dogs to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce with existing data for singly-exposed dogs that had the same cumulative dose to the lungs two years after exposure. To date, the biological effects observed in these repeatedly-exposed dogs have been substantially different from those seen in singly-exposed dogs, particularly during the first 5 years after the initial exposure. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the prominent biological effect seen in singly-exposed dogs between 2 and 4 years after exposure, no lung tumors were seen during the 5 years after the first of the repeated exposures. This response plus other clinical observations are discussed in relation to the patterns of dose rate and cumulative dose for the different exposure conditions. (H.K.)

  4. Proposed retention model for human inhalation exposure to 241AmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A dosimetry model based on a four-year study in Beagle dogs was developed to predict patterns of absorbed radiation doses for people exposed by inhalation to 241 AmO 2 . Following a single inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse or a polydisperse aerosol of 241 AmO 2 , pairs of dogs were sacrificed at 8, 32, 64 and 256 days, and 2 and 4 years. For about 80% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were 11, 18, 26 and 27 days for the 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μm aerodynamic diameter and the 1.8 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter aerosols, respectively. For the remaining 20% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were between 200 to 300 days with no apparent particle size influence. Additional 241 Am metabolic studies reported in the literature using inhalation exposure or injection of the citrate complex were synthesized in the model as were eleven reported cases of human inhalation exposure. This model is compared to the ICRP II and TGLD lung models, both developed by analogy to Pu metabolism. The proposed model differs from these latter models in two important areas: (a) lung retention of 241 AmO 2 could not be adapted to the classifications used in these models, and (b) the fractional translocation from lung to other organs is 2 to 8 times larger. These factors considerably alter the predicted radiation dose distribution among organs and lead to the conclusion that derived radiation protection standards for 241 AmO 2 inhalation exposure should be modified. (author)

  5. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D'Souza, Stanley E.

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6 h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.

  6. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sithu, Srinivas D [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; O' Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); D' Souza, Stanley E., E-mail: sedsou01@louisville.ed [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6 h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.

  7. Animal Model Selection for Inhalational HCN Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    effects. Following acute inhalation exposure in humans and animals, cyanide is found in the lung, heart, blood , kidneys, and brain (Ballantyne, 1983...Pritchard, 2007). Other direct or secondary effects associated with CN are reacting with the ferric and carbonyl group of enzymes (e.g. catalase...mechanisms occurs before myocardial depression. Clinically, an initial period of bradycardia and hypertension may occur, followed by hypotension with reflex

  8. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  9. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Magnus M.; Conti, Michele; Chanda, Soma; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Amari, Ethery; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Gordon, Richard K.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m 3 sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  10. ASSESSING THE HEALTH EFFECTS AND RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN’S INHALATION EXPOSURES – ASTHMA AND ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults and children may have different reactions to inhalation exposures, which may be the result of differences in inhaled or target tissue doses following similar exposures, and/or due to growth and development of the lung which continues postnatally in distinct stages. Because...

  11. Comparison of modeled estimates of inhalation exposure to aerosols during use of consumer spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihoon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Kiyoung

    2018-05-30

    In the field of exposure science, various exposure assessment models have been developed to complement experimental measurements; however, few studies have been published on their validity. This study compares the estimated inhaled aerosol doses of several inhalation exposure models to experimental measurements of aerosols released from consumer spray products, and then compares deposited doses within different parts of the human respiratory tract according to deposition models. Exposure models, including the European Center for Ecotoxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment (ECETOC TRA), the Consumer Exposure Model (CEM), SprayExpo, ConsExpo Web and ConsExpo Nano, were used to estimate the inhaled dose under various exposure scenarios, and modeled and experimental estimates were compared. The deposited dose in different respiratory regions was estimated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection model and multiple-path particle dosimetry models under the assumption of polydispersed particles. The modeled estimates of the inhaled doses were accurate in the short term, i.e., within 10 min of the initial spraying, with a differences from experimental estimates ranging from 0 to 73% among the models. However, the estimates for long-term exposure, i.e., exposure times of several hours, deviated significantly from the experimental estimates in the absence of ventilation. The differences between the experimental and modeled estimates of particle number and surface area were constant over time under ventilated conditions. ConsExpo Nano, as a nano-scale model, showed stable estimates of short-term exposure, with a difference from the experimental estimates of less than 60% for all metrics. The deposited particle estimates were similar among the deposition models, particularly in the nanoparticle range for the head airway and alveolar regions. In conclusion, the results showed that the inhalation exposure models tested in this study are suitable

  12. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  13. From dust to dose: Effects of forest disturbance on increased inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Pinder, John E; Breshears, David D; Eberhart, Craig F

    2006-09-15

    Ecosystem disturbances that remove vegetation and disturb surface soils are major causes of excessive soil erosion and can result in accelerated transport of soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Accelerated wind erosion in disturbed lands that are contaminated is of particular concern because of potential increased inhalation exposure, yet measurements regarding these relationships are lacking. The importance of this was highlighted when, in May of 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned over roughly 30% of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), mostly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest, and through areas with soils containing contaminants, particularly excess depleted and natural uranium. Additionally, post-fire thinning was performed in burned and unburned forests on about 25% of LANL land. The first goal of this study was to assess the potential for increased inhalation dose from uranium contaminated soils via wind-driven resuspension of soil following the Cerro Grande Fire and subsequent forest thinning. This was done through analysis of post-disturbance measurements of uranium air concentrations and their relationships with wind velocity and seasonal vegetation cover. We found a 14% average increase in uranium air concentrations at LANL perimeter locations after the fire, and the greatest air concentrations occurred during the months of April-June when wind velocities are highest, no snow cover, and low vegetation cover. The second goal was to develop a methodology to assess the relative contribution of each disturbance type towards increasing public and worker exposure to these resuspended soils. Measurements of wind-driven dust flux in severely burned, moderately burned, thinned, and unburned/unthinned forest areas were used to assess horizontal dust flux (HDF) in these areas. Using empirically derived relationships between measurements of HDF and respirible dust, coupled with onsite uranium soil concentrations, we estimate relative increases in

  14. Microprocessor-controlled inhalation system for repeated exposure of animals to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.L.; Barr, F.P.; Leydig, R.L.; Rajala, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled inhalation exposure system (MCIES) has been built to automate aerosol generation and sampling while controlling exposure time for animal toxicity studies. The system has a time resolution of 0.1 s and automatically sequences the exposure events from initiation to temination of the exposure. The operator is required to preset all airflows, read in a paper tape containing the time sequence of events, and initiate the automatic sequence by closing a switch

  15. Calculating radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and procedures used to calculate the radiation exposures and radiation doses to designated employees of the Olympic Dam Project. Each of the three major exposure pathways are examined. These are: gamma irradiation, radon daughter inhalation and radioactive dust inhalation. A further section presents ICRP methodology for combining individual pathway exposures to give a total dose figure. Computer programs used for calculations and data storage are also presented briefly

  16. Modeling The Inhalation Exposure Pathway In Performance Assessment Of Geologic Radioactive Waste Repository At Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2006-01-01

    Inhalation exposure pathway modeling has recently been investigated as one of the tasks of the BIOPROTA Project (BIOPROTA 2005). BIOPROTA was set up to address the key uncertainties in long term assessments of contaminant releases into the environment arising from radioactive waste disposal. Participants of this international Project include national authorities and agencies, both regulators and operators, with responsibility for achieving safe and acceptable radioactive waste management. The objective of the inhalation task was to investigate the calculation of doses arising from inhalation of particles suspended from soils within which long-lived radionuclides, particularly alpha emitters, had accumulated. It was recognized that site-specific conditions influence the choice of conceptual model and input parameter values. Therefore, one of the goals of the task was to identify the circumstances in which different processes included in specific inhalation exposure pathway models were important. This paper discusses evaluation of processes and modeling assumptions specific to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain as compared to the typical approaches and other models developed for different assessments and project specific contexts. Inhalation of suspended particulates that originate from contaminated soil is an important exposure pathway, particularly for exposure to actinides such as uranium, neptunium and plutonium. Radionuclide accumulation in surface soil arises from irrigation of soil with contaminated water over many years. The level of radionuclide concentration in surface soil depends on the assumed duration of irrigation. Irrigation duration is one of the parameters used on biosphere models and it depends on a specific assessment context. It is one of the parameters addressed in this paper from the point of view of assessment context for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The preferred model for the assessment of inhalation exposure uses

  17. From dust to dose: Effects of forest disturbance on increased inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Pinder, John E.; Breshears, David D.; Eberhart, Craig F.

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem disturbances that remove vegetation and disturb surface soils are major causes of excessive soil erosion and can result in accelerated transport of soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Accelerated wind erosion in disturbed lands that are contaminated is of particular concern because of potential increased inhalation exposure, yet measurements regarding these relationships are lacking. The importance of this was highlighted when, in May of 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned over roughly 30% of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), mostly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest, and through areas with soils containing contaminants, particularly excess depleted and natural uranium. Additionally, post-fire thinning was performed in burned and unburned forests on about 25% of LANL land. The first goal of this study was to assess the potential for increased inhalation dose from uranium contaminated soils via wind-driven resuspension of soil following the Cerro Grande Fire and subsequent forest thinning. This was done through analysis of post-disturbance measurements of uranium air concentrations and their relationships with wind velocity and seasonal vegetation cover. We found a 14% average increase in uranium air concentrations at LANL perimeter locations after the fire, and the greatest air concentrations occurred during the months of April-June when wind velocities are highest, no snow cover, and low vegetation cover. The second goal was to develop a methodology to assess the relative contribution of each disturbance type towards increasing public and worker exposure to these resuspended soils. Measurements of wind-driven dust flux in severely burned, moderately burned, thinned, and unburned/unthinned forest areas were used to assess horizontal dust flux (HDF) in these areas. Using empirically derived relationships between measurements of HDF and respirible dust, coupled with onsite uranium soil concentrations, we estimate relative increases in

  18. The modelling of external exposure and inhalation pathways in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, JR.; Ehrhardt, J.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to atmosphere the major direct exposure pathways of concern are: external irradiation from material in the cloud; internal exposure following inhalation of material in the cloud; external irradiation from material deposited on the ground; and external irradiation due to contamination of skin and clothes. In addition material resuspended from the ground can be inhaled and lead to internal exposure. In this paper the way that these exposure pathways are modelled in COSYMA is described. At present in COSYMA external exposure from deposited material is modelled using a dataset of doses per unit deposit of various radionuclides. This dataset, is based on activity deposited on undisturbed soil. The basic data are for doses outdoors and shielding factors are used to estimate doses for people indoors. Various groups of people spending different amounts of time indoors and out can be considered and shielding factors appropriate to three building types can be adopted. A more complex model has also been developed to predict radiation exposure following deposition to different surfaces in the environment. This model called EXPURT is briefly described in this paper. Using EXPURT, doses as a function of time after a single deposit have been calculated for people living in three types of area. These results are described in the paper and compared with those that are currently used in COSYMA. The paper will also discuss what future work is required in this area and the adequacy of existing models

  19. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  20. The acute exposure effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles on murine endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures, such as increases in vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species, altered vasomotor tone and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500 µg/m(3) of nickel nanoparticles for 5 h, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. These data provide new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs and exacerbate cardiovascular disease states.

  1. Early pulmonary response is critical for extra-pulmonary carbon nanoparticle mediated effects: comparison of inhalation versus intra-arterial infusion exposures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Koustav; Ettehadieh, Dariusch; Upadhyay, Swapna; Takenaka, Shinji; Adler, Thure; Karg, Erwin; Krombach, Fritz; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Schmid, Otmar; Stoeger, Tobias

    2017-06-20

    The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM. Equivalent surface area CNP doses in the blood (30mm 2 per animal) were applied by IAI or inhalation (lung-deposited dose 10,000mm 2 ; accounting for 0.3% of lung-to-blood CNP translocation). Mice were analyzed for changes in hematology and molecular markers of endothelial/epithelial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and coagulation in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs after CNP inhalation (4 h and 24 h) and CNP infusion (4 h). For methodological reasons, we used two different CNP types (spark-discharge and Printex90), with very similar physicochemical properties [≥98 and ≥95% elemental carbon; 10 and 14 nm primary particle diameter; and 800 and 300 m 2 /g specific surface area] for inhalation and IAI respectively. Mild pulmonary inflammatory responses and significant systemic effects were observed following 4 h and 24 h CNP inhalation. Increased retention of activated leukocytes, secondary thrombocytosis, and pro-inflammatory responses in secondary organs were detected following 4 h and 24 h of CNP inhalation only. Interestingly, among the investigated extra-pulmonary tissues (i.e. aorta, heart, and liver); aorta revealed as the most susceptible extra-pulmonary target following inhalation exposure. Bypassing the lungs by IAI however did not induce any extra-pulmonary effects at 4 h as compared to inhalation. Our findings indicate that extra-pulmonary effects due to CNP

  2. Modeling accumulations of particles in lung during chronic inhalation exposures that lead to impaired clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of insoluble particles of low toxicity that produce substantial lung burdens of particles, or inhalation of particles that are highly toxic to the lung, can impair clearance. This report describes model calculations of accumulations in lung of inhaled low-toxicity diesel exhaust soot and high-toxicity Ga2O3 particles. Lung burdens of diesel soot were measured periodically during a 24-mo exposure to inhaled diesel exhaust at soot concentrations of 0, 0.35, 3.5, and 7 mg m-3, 7 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y after a 4-wk exposure to 23 mg Ga2O3 m-3, 2 h d-1, 5 d wk-1. Lung burdens of Ga2O3 were measured for 1 y both studies using inhaled radiolabeled tracer particles. Simulation models fit the observed lung burdens of diesel soot in rats exposed to the 3.5- and 7-mg m-3 concentrations of soot only if it was assumed that clearance remained normal for several months, then virtually stopped. Impaired clearance from high-toxicity particles occurred early after accumulations of a low burden, but that from low-toxicity particles was evident only after months of exposure, when high burdens had accumulated in lung. The impairment in clearances of Ga2O3 particles and radiolabeled tracers was similar, but the impairment in clearance of diesel soot and radiolabeled tracers differed in magnitude. This might have been related to differences in particle size and composition between the tracers and diesel soot. Particle clearance impairment should be considered both in the design of chronic exposures of laboratory animals to inhaled particles and in extrapolating the results to people

  3. Modeled exposure assessment via inhalation and dermal pathways to airborne semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shanshan; Zhao, Bin

    2014-05-20

    Exposure to airborne semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor and outdoor environments of humans may lead to adverse health risks. Thus, we established a model to evaluate exposure to airborne SVOCs. In this model, SVOCs phase-specific concentrations were estimated by a kinetic partition model accounting for particle dynamics. The exposure pathways to airborne SVOCs included inhalation exposure to gas- and particle-phases, dermal exposure by direct gas-to-skin pathway and dermal exposure by direct particle deposition. Exposures of defined "reference people" to two typical classifications of SVOCs, one generated from both indoor and outdoor sources, represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the other generated mainly from only indoor sources, represented by di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were analyzed as an example application of the model. For PAHs with higher volatility, inhalation exposure to gas-phase, ranging from 6.03 to 16.4 ng/kg/d, accounted for the most of the exposure to the airborne phases. For PAHs with lower volatility, inhalation exposure to particle-phase, ranging from 1.48 to 1.53 ng/kg/d, was the most important exposure pathway. As for DEHP, dermal exposure via direct gas-to-skin pathway was 460 ng/kg/d, which was the most striking exposure pathway when the barrier effect of clothing was neglected.

  4. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 μg/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions.

  5. Metabolomic Changes in Murine Serum Following Inhalation Exposure to Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Jeremy B.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6 hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 µg/m3) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions. PMID:27017952

  6. Potential inhalation exposure and containment efficiency when using hoods for handling nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung, E-mail: tsai51@purdue.edu [Purdue University, School of Health Science (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Inhalation exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported during manual activities using typical fume hoods. This research studied potential inhalation exposure associated with the manual handling of NPs using two new nanoparticle-handling enclosures and two biological safety cabinets, and discussed the ability to contain NPs in the hoods to reduce environmental release and exposure. Airborne concentrations of 5 nm to 20 {mu}m diameter particles were measured while handling nanoalumina particles in various ventilated enclosures. Tests were conducted using two handling conditions and concentrations were measured using real-time particle counters, and particles were collected on transmission electron microscope grids to determine particle morphology and elemental composition. Airflow patterns were characterized visually using a laser-light sheet and fog. The average number concentration increase at breathing zone outside the enclosure was less than 1,400 particle/cm{sup 3} for each particle size at all tested conditions and the estimated overall mass concentration was about 83 {mu}g/m{sup 3} which was less than the dosage of typical nanoparticle inhalation exposure studies. The typical front-to-back airflow was used in the studied hoods, which could potentially induce reverse turbulence in the wake region. However, containment of NPs using studied hoods was demonstrated with excellent performance. Smoke tests showed that worker's hand motion could potentially cause nanoparticle escape. The challenge of front-to-back airflow can be partially overcome by gentle motion, low face velocity, and front exhaust to reduce nanoparticle escape.

  7. Effect Of Inhalation Exposure To Kerosene And Petrol-Fumes On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in total body weight, some anaemia-diagnostic indices (haematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and total serum protein) were determined in rats (Wistar albino strain) after 2 weeks of 4 hours daily inhalation exposure to ungraded concentrations of kerosene and petrol fumes. The results ...

  8. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  9. Inhalation exposure to jet fuel (JP8) among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, Al; McClean, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    As jet fuel is a common occupational exposure among military and civilian populations, this study was conducted to characterize jet fuel (JP8) exposure among active duty U.S. Air Force personnel. Personnel (n = 24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Questionnaires and personal air samples (breathing zone) were collected from each worker over 3 consecutive days (72 worker-days) and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and naphthalene. Air samples were collected from inside the fuel tank and analyzed for the same analytes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Our results show that the correlation of THC (a measure of overall JP8 inhalation exposure) with all other analytes was moderate to strong in the a priori high and moderate exposure groups combined. Inhalation exposure to all analytes varied significantly by self-reported JP8 exposure (THC levels higher among workers reporting JP8 exposure), a priori exposure group (THC levels in high group > moderate group > low group), and more specific job task groupings (THC levels among workers in fuel systems hangar group > refueling maintenance group > fuel systems office group > fuel handling group > clinic group), with task groupings explaining the most between-worker variability. Among highly exposed workers, statistically significant job task-related predictors of inhalation exposure to THC indicated that increased time in the hangar, working close to the fuel tank (inside > less than 25 ft > greater than 25 ft), primary job (entrant > attendant/runner/fireguard > outside hangar), and performing various tasks near the fuel tank, such as searching for a leak, resulted in higher JP8 exposure. This study shows that while a priori exposure groups were useful in distinguishing JP8 exposure levels, job task-based categories should be considered in epidemiologic study designs to improve exposure classification. Finally

  10. Exposures from external radiation and from inhalation of resuspended material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Roth, P.; Golikov, V.; Balonov, M.; Erkin, V.; Likhtariov, I.; Garger, E.; Kashparov, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the modelling of external exposures due to cesium released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, gamma dose rates in air over open undisturbed sites are considered to be different according to the unsoluble fraction in the deposit. This is taken into account by forming different classes according to the distance from the Chernobyl NPP. The effect of the different migration behavior in these distance classes on the gamma dose rate in air is found to increase with time. Predictions of gamma dose rates in air are based on measurements of the nuclear weapons tests fallout. Various population groups in the CIS countries are defined according to their place of residence (rural or urban), their occupation or age (indoor resp. outdoor workers, pensioners, school-children, or preschool-children), and their kind of residence (wooden, brick, or multi-storey house). Model results for various population groups are compared with the results of TLD-measurements of individual external exposures. For the calculation of inhalation doses, the new ICRP model for the respiratory tract was used. The dose assessments were conducted for measured size resolved activity distributions of resuspended material, obtained at different locations and for several kinds of agricultural operations. Inhalation doses vary considerably with respect to different kinds of work. Tractor drivers receive much higher doses than other agricultural workers, especially when the cabin window of the tractor is open. Effective doses due to the inhalation of resuspended plutonium are assessed to be a few μSv per initial deposit of one kBq/m 2 . Inhalation doses from 137 Cs are usually smaller by an order of magnitude than the doses from Pu, provided a high solubility is assumed for resuspended Cs

  11. Range-finding risk assessment of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds in a laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Palomäki, Jaana E; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M; Koponen, Ismo K; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M; Hämeri, Kaarle J

    2014-05-16

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers' risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m(-3) (0.08 to 0.74 cm(-3)). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m(-3), which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers' calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  12. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  13. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  14. Lung clearance of inhaled particles after exposure to carbon black generated from a resuspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.S.; Gorski, R.A.; Hering, W.E.; Chan, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A system to resuspend carbon black particles for providing submicron aerosols for inhalation exposure studies has been developed. The effect of continuous exposure to carbonaceous material (as a surrogate for the carbonaceous particles in diesel exhaust) on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled diesel tracer particles was studied in male Fischer 344 rats. Submicron carbon black particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 0.22 micron and a size distribution similar to that of exhaust particles from a GM 5.7-liter diesel engine were successfully generated and administered to test animals at a nominal concentration of 6 mg/m3 for 20 hr/day, 7 days/week, for periods lasting 1 to 11 weeks. Immediately after the carbon black exposure, test animals were administered 14 C-tagged diesel particles for 45 min in a nose-only chamber. The pulmonary retention of inhaled radioactive tracer particles was determined at preselected time intervals. Based upon the data collected up to 1 year postexposure, prolonged exposure to carbon black particles exhibits a similar inhibitory effect on pulmonary clearance as does prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust with a comparable particulate dose. This observation indicates that the excessive accumulation of carbonaceous material may be the predominant factor affecting lung clearance

  15. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  16. Individual monitoring program for occupational exposures to radionuclides by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.

    1985-01-01

    Individual monitoring of exposure to radioactive products is carried out when there is a risk of significant internal contamination. In its publications 26 and 35 the International Commission on Radiological Protection has given recommendations on the monitoring programs. Besides, the metabolic models developed in publication 30 have allowed to establish retention and excretion functions for some radionuclides after intake by inhalation in the adult man. These have been published in the report CEA-R--5266. Considering these data and taking into account the practical problems that occur in the course of surveillance of workers, programs of individual monitoring for contamination by inhalation are proposed. These programs for routine and special monitoring have been developed for the most common radionuclides involved in the nuclear industry [fr

  17. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-10

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

  18. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-01-01

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception

  19. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  20. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of the comparison between human and animal excretion data following inhalation exposure to plutonium 238 oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Martinez, G.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bioassay urine samples obtained since 1971 from eight Los Alamos employees, accidentally exposed by inhalation to high-fired plutonium-238 oxide aerosols, were studied and compared with excretion data obtained from Beagle dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols. The early period Pu human excretion data from the inhalation exposure were unexpected and were unlike previously studied occupational exposure urinary data obtained at Los Alamos. The initial urine samples collected on day one were below the detection limits of the analytical method (0.01 pCi). Within thirty days, however, detectible concentrations of Pu were measured in the urine for several of the exposed personnel. The amounts of Pu excreted continued to increase in each of the cases throughout the first year and the individual patterns of Pu excretion were similar. The human urinary excretion data was compared with similar excretion data obtained from an animal study conducted by the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (Me81). In the animal study, Beagle dogs received inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse of polydisperse aerosol of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Periodic sacrifice of pairs of dogs during the 4 years after the inhalation exposure provided data on the retention, translocation and mode of excretion of /sup 238/Pu. The comparison of human and animal /sup 238/Pu excretion data supported the observation that the excretion data were similar between the two species and that the animal excretion models can be applied to predict the human /sup 238/Pu excretion following inhalation exposure to high-fired oxides of /sup 238/Pu

  2. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  3. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    2011-01-01

    cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation...... and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring....

  4. Neuromotor effects of acute ethanol inhalation exposure in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Lamoureux, Daniel; Beuter, Anne; Charbonneau, Michel; Tardif, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) is added to unleaded gasoline to decrease environmental levels of carbon monoxide from automobiles emissions. Therefore, addition of ETOH in reformulated fuel will most likely increase and the involuntarily human exposure to this chemical will also increase. This preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuromotor effects resulting from acute ETOH exposure by inhalation in humans. Five healthy non-smoking adult males, with no history of alcohol abuse, were exposed by inhalation, in a dynamic, controlled-environment exposure chamber, to various concentrations of ETOH (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm in air) for six hours. Reaction time, body sway, hand tremor and rapid alternating movements were measured before and after each exposure session by using the CATSYS 7.0 system and a diadochokinesimeter. The concentrations of ETOH in blood and in alveolar air were also measured. ETOH was not detected in blood nor in alveolar air when volunteers were exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, but at the end of exposure to 1,000 ppm, blood and alveolar air concentrations were 0.443 mg/100ml and 253.1 ppm, respectively. The neuromotor tests did not show conclusively significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that acute exposure to ethanol at 1,000 ppm or lower or to concentrations that could be encountered upon refueling is not likely to cause any significant neuromotor alterations in healthy males.

  5. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  6. Exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Myny, Katrien; Braeckman, Lutgart; van Sprundel, Marc; Kusters, Edouard; Doekes, Gert; Pössel, Kerstin; Droste, Jos; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries. The study included 70 bakeries from the northern part of Belgium. Based on the degree of automation and a clear division of individual job tasks, four bakeries were identified as industrial and the remaining 66 were identified as traditional ones. Personal, as well as stationary, samples of inhalable dust were collected during full shift periods, usually 5-7 h. The portable pumps aspirated 2 l/min through Teflon personal dust samplers (Millipore, pore size 1.0 microm) mounted in PAS-6 sampling heads. In the collected samples the inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens were determined. Wheat flour allergens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition and an antiwheat IgG4 serum pool. The alpha-amylase allergens were measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay with affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. In total, 440 samples (300 personal and 140 stationary) were processed. The highest inhalable dust exposure was observed in traditional bakeries among bread [geometric mean (GM) 2.10 mg/m3] and bread and pastry workers (GM 1.80 mg/m3). In industrial bakeries the highest dust exposure was measured in bread-producing workers (GM 1.06 mg/m3). Similar relations were observed for wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens. Bread baking workers in traditional bakeries had the highest exposure to both allergens (wheat flour GM 22.33 microg/m(3), alpha-amylase GM 0.61 ng/m3). The exposure to wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial bakeries was higher in bread baking workers (wheat flour GM 6.15 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.47 ng/m3) than in bread packing workers (wheat flour GM 2.79 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.15 ng/m3). The data presented suggest that, on average, exposure in the Belgium bakeries studied-industrial as well as traditional-is lower than or similar to

  7. Nanomaterial inhalation exposure from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders: a quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhen Huajun; Han Taewon; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    In this study we quantified exposures to airborne particles ranging from 14 nm to 20 μm due to the use of nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders. Three nanotechnology-based and three regular cosmetic powders were realistically applied to a mannequin’s face while measuring the concentration and size distribution of inhaled aerosol particles. Using these data we calculated that the highest inhaled particle mass was in the coarse aerosol fraction (2.5–10 μm), while particles <100 nm made minimal contribution to the inhaled particle mass. For all powders, 85–93 % of aerosol deposition occurred in the head airways, while <10 % deposited in the alveolar and <5 % in the tracheobronchial regions. Electron microscopy data suggest that nanomaterials were likely distributed as agglomerates across the entire investigated aerosol size range (14 nm–20 μm). Thus, investigation of nanoparticle health effects should consider not only the alveolar region, but also other respiratory system regions where substantial nanomaterial deposition during the actual nanotechnology-based product use would occur.

  8. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekers, Jurgen; De Brouwere, Katleen; Lefebvre, Wouter; Willems, Hanny; Vandenbroele, Marleen; Van Sprang, Patrick; Eliat-Eliat, Maxime; Hicks, Keegan; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2015-07-15

    The paper describes the inhalation nickel (Ni) exposure of humans via the environment for the regional scale in the EU, together with a tiered approach for assessing additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach was designed, in the context of REACH, for the purpose of assessing and controlling emissions and air quality in the neighbourhood of Ni producers and downstream users. Two Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) values for chronic inhalation exposure to total Ni in PM10 (20 and 60ngNi/m(3)) were considered. The value of 20ngNi/m(3) is the current EU air quality guidance value. The value of 60ngNi/m(3) is derived here based on recently published Ni data (Oller et al., 2014). Both values are protective for respiratory toxicity and carcinogenicity but differ in the application of toxicokinetic adjustments and cancer threshold considerations. Estimates of air Ni concentrations at the European regional scale were derived from the database of the European Environment Agency. The 50th and 90th percentile regional exposures were below both DNEL values. To assess REACH compliance at the local scale, measured ambient air data are preferred but are often unavailable. A tiered approach for the use of modelled ambient air concentrations was developed, starting with the application of the default EUSES model and progressing to more sophisticated models. As an example, the tiered approach was applied to 33 EU Ni sulphate producers' and downstream users' sites. Applying the EUSES model demonstrates compliance with a DNEL of 60ngNi/m(3) for the majority of sites, while the value of the refined modelling is demonstrated when a DNEL of 20ngNi/m(3) is considered. The proposed approach, applicable to metals in general, can be used in the context of REACH, for refining the risk characterisation and guiding the selection of risk management measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PBTK modeling demonstrates contribution of dermal and inhalation exposure components to end-exhaled breath concentrations of naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Chao, Yi-Chun E; Egeghy, Peter P; Rappaport, Stephen M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2007-06-01

    Dermal and inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been measured in a few occupational exposure studies. However, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between external exposures and end-exhaled air concentrations has not been described for occupational and environmental exposure scenarios. Our goal was to construct a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model that quantitatively describes the relative contribution of dermal and inhalation exposures to the end-exhaled air concentrations of naphthalene among U.S. Air Force personnel. The PBTK model comprised five compartments representing the stratum corneum, viable epidermis, blood, fat, and other tissues. The parameters were optimized using exclusively human exposure and biological monitoring data. The optimized values of parameters for naphthalene were a) permeability coefficient for the stratum corneum 6.8 x 10(-5) cm/hr, b) permeability coefficient for the viable epidermis 3.0 x 10(-3) cm/hr, c) fat:blood partition coefficient 25.6, and d) other tissue:blood partition coefficient 5.2. The skin permeability coefficient was comparable to the values estimated from in vitro studies. Based on simulations of workers' exposures to JP-8 during aircraft fuel-cell maintenance operations, the median relative contribution of dermal exposure to the end-exhaled breath concentration of naphthalene was 4% (10th percentile 1% and 90th percentile 11%). PBTK modeling allowed contributions of the end-exhaled air concentration of naphthalene to be partitioned between dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. Further study of inter- and intraindividual variations in exposure assessment is required to better characterize the toxicokinetic behavior of JP-8 components after occupational and/or environmental exposures.

  10. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) Conversion from N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) in male Sprague Dawley rats after inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sue; Mader, Brian T.; Lindstrom, Kent R.; Lange, Cleston C.; Hart, Jill A.; Kestner, Thomas A.; Schulz, Jay F.; Ehresman, David J.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) was one of the key building blocks for many of the perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based chemistry and laboratory studies have shown that EtFOSE can metabolically degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Non-occupational contribution sources to PFOS are thought to occur in general population via diets, drinking water, air and dust. For workers, however, the exposure route was mostly airborne and the exposure source was predominantly to precursor compounds such as EtFOSE. We undertook this study to investigate how much EtFOSE was converted to PFOS in the serum for male rats after 6 h of exposure to EtFOSE vapor (whole body) at ambient temperature, which simulated a work place exposure scenario. There were no abnormal clinical observations and all rats gained weight during study. Interim tail-vein blood samples, collected up to 21 days after exposure, were analyzed for Et-FOSE and PFOS concentrations by LC-MS/MS. Upon inhalation exposure, the biotransformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in serum in the male rats was rapid and very little EtFOSE was detected in the serum within 24 h after EtFOSE exposure. The highest conversion to PFOS in serum after exposure to EtFOSE vapor appeared to occur between Day 8−14 post exposure. Considering the potential surface and fur adsorption of test compound in the whole-body exposure system, our data would support that at least 10% of the inhaled EtFOSE was biotransformed to PFOS in the serum based on the range of lower 95% CI (confidence interval) values. This information is valuable because it quantitatively translates EtFOSE exposure into serum PFOS concentration, which serves as a matrix for internal dosimetry (of PFOS exposure) that can be used as an anchor across species as well as between different exposure routes. - Highlights: • First inhalation study reported in rats that investigates the conversion of a major precursor compound (EtFOSE) to form PFOS. • Systemic

  11. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) Conversion from N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) in male Sprague Dawley rats after inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sue, E-mail: s.chang@mmm.com [Medical Department, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Mader, Brian T., E-mail: bmader@mmm.com [Environmental Laboratory, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Lindstrom, Kent R., E-mail: krlindstrom@mmm.com [Environmental Laboratory, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Lange, Cleston C., E-mail: clange@mmm.com [Environmental Laboratory, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Hart, Jill A., E-mail: jahart@mmm.com [Medical Department, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Kestner, Thomas A., E-mail: takestner@mmm.com [Materials Resource Division, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Schulz, Jay F., E-mail: jfschulz@mmm.com [Materials Resource Division, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Ehresman, David J., E-mail: depqehr@gmail.com [Medical Department, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN 55144 (United States); Butenhoff, John L., E-mail: john.butenhoff@gmail.com [SaluTox, LLC, Lake Elmo, MN 55042 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) was one of the key building blocks for many of the perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based chemistry and laboratory studies have shown that EtFOSE can metabolically degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Non-occupational contribution sources to PFOS are thought to occur in general population via diets, drinking water, air and dust. For workers, however, the exposure route was mostly airborne and the exposure source was predominantly to precursor compounds such as EtFOSE. We undertook this study to investigate how much EtFOSE was converted to PFOS in the serum for male rats after 6 h of exposure to EtFOSE vapor (whole body) at ambient temperature, which simulated a work place exposure scenario. There were no abnormal clinical observations and all rats gained weight during study. Interim tail-vein blood samples, collected up to 21 days after exposure, were analyzed for Et-FOSE and PFOS concentrations by LC-MS/MS. Upon inhalation exposure, the biotransformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in serum in the male rats was rapid and very little EtFOSE was detected in the serum within 24 h after EtFOSE exposure. The highest conversion to PFOS in serum after exposure to EtFOSE vapor appeared to occur between Day 8−14 post exposure. Considering the potential surface and fur adsorption of test compound in the whole-body exposure system, our data would support that at least 10% of the inhaled EtFOSE was biotransformed to PFOS in the serum based on the range of lower 95% CI (confidence interval) values. This information is valuable because it quantitatively translates EtFOSE exposure into serum PFOS concentration, which serves as a matrix for internal dosimetry (of PFOS exposure) that can be used as an anchor across species as well as between different exposure routes. - Highlights: • First inhalation study reported in rats that investigates the conversion of a major precursor compound (EtFOSE) to form PFOS. • Systemic

  12. Inhalation exposure of children to fragrances present in scented toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, I; Hutzler, C; Jann, O; Luch, A

    2011-12-01

    When utilized in the perfuming of children's toys, fragrances capable of inducing contact allergy in human skin may also become bioavailable to children via the inhalation route. The aim of this study was to determine the area-specific emission rates of 24 fragrances from a plasticized PVC reference material that was meant to mimic a real plastic toy. This material was introduced into an emission chamber for 28 days at handling conditions or at worst-case conditions. As a result, fragrances can be separated into three categories according to their emission rates ranging from 0.0041 to 16.2 mg/m² × h, i.e., highly volatile, semivolatile, and low-volatile compounds. Compounds of the first and second categories were monitored with decreasing emission rates. Substances of the third category were detected with increasing emission rates over time. Further, higher temperatures led to higher emission rates. The emission concentration of fragrances from four real scented toys varied between 1.10 and 107 μg/m³ at day 1 in the test chamber. Therefore, short-term inhalation exposure to fragrances originating from toys was in the range of 0.53-2700 ng/kg BW/d for the children of age 1 and older. Long-term exposure to these fragrances was calculated in the range of 2.2-220 ng/kg BW/d. Besides household products and cosmetics, fragrances can be found in toys for children. Some fragrances are known contact allergens in the skin, but there is a lack of information on their effects in the human respiratory tract. Here, we analyzed and categorized fragrances present in a plasticized PVC reference material according to their emission profiles and volatility. We also demonstrate that volatile fragrances are being emitted from real toys and thus may get inhaled under consumer conditions to different extents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Tissue distribution of a leukotriene antagonist 14C-LY170680, following inhalation exposure in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohland, R.C.; Beck, J.M.; Carlson, K.H.; Herman, D.R.; Hoppes, J.L.; Vavrek, M.T.; Wolff, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Dissection and whole-body autoradiographic techniques were used to determine the tissue distribution profile of a leukotriene antagonist, 14 C-LY170680, following nose-only inhalation exposure in the rat. Liquid scintillation spectrometry and whole-body autoradiography indicated that highest concentrations of radiocarbon were present in stomach and small intestine at all time points. Radiocarbon reached maximum levels in stomach (2,259 ng-eq/g) and small intestine (2,399 ng-eq/g) 2 to 4 hours postexposure, respectively, and declined with time. In contrast, maximum radiocarbon concentrations in the head (146 ng-eq/g), trachea (408 ng-eq/g), and lung (534 ng-eq/g) occurred at 0 hours postexposure and steadily declined with time. Low concentrations of radiocarbon were detected in the liver ( 14 C-LY170680 were deposited in the head and within the lung following inhalation exposure. However, higher levels of radiocarbon present in the stomach and small intestine suggested significant nasal deposition followed by rapid clearance and ingestion of inhaled radioactive material. Distribution of radiocarbon limited to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts demonstrated minimal systemic absorption and exposure over the time course of this study

  14. Characterization of inhalation exposure to jet fuel among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Rodrigues, Ema G; Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; McClean, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8) is the primary jet fuel used by the US military, collectively consuming ~2.5 billion gallons annually. Previous reports suggest that JP-8 is potentially toxic to the immune, respiratory, and nervous systems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate inhalation exposure to JP-8 constituents among active duty United States Air Force (USAF) personnel while performing job-related tasks, identify significant predictors of inhalation exposure to JP-8, and evaluate the extent to which surrogate exposure classifications were predictive of measured JP-8 exposures. Seventy-three full-time USAF personnel from three different air force bases were monitored during four consecutive workdays where personal air samples were collected and analyzed for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes, total hydrocarbons (THC), and naphthalene. The participants were categorized a priori into high- and low-exposure groups, based on their exposure to JP-8 during their typical workday. Additional JP-8 exposure categories included job title groups and self-reported exposure to JP-8. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate predictors of personal air concentrations. The concentrations of THC in air were significantly different between a priori exposure groups (2.6 mg m(-3) in high group versus 0.5 mg m(-3) in low, P fuel distribution/maintenance, though self-reported exposure to JP-8 was an even stronger predictor of measured exposure in models that explained 72% (THC) and 67% (naphthalene) of between-worker variability. In fact, both self-report JP-8 exposure and a priori exposure groups explained more between-worker variability than job categories. Personal exposure to JP-8 varied by job and was positively associated with the relative humidity. However, self-reported exposure to JP-8 was an even stronger predictor of measured exposure than job title categories, suggesting that self-reported JP-8 exposure is a valid surrogate metric of exposure when

  15. Radiation exposure and risk estimates for inhaled airborne radioactive pollutants including hot particles. Annual report 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-03-01

    Contents: Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication; Generation of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides from dry powders for animal inhalation exposures; Analytical radiochemical determination of U, Pu and Am in biological samples; Physical chemical characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel as samples during animal inhalation exposure; Pilot studies of deposition and retention of industrial mixed-oxide aerosols in the laboratory rat; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides treated at 750C inhaled by Fishcer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of plutonium dioxide, treated at 850C and inhaled by Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys

  16. Pesticide risk assessment: A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Rafee B; Sahid, Ismail B; Noor, Mohamad Azhar B Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Fadzil

    2011-01-01

    A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

  17. Effect of Nano-sized Carbon Black Particles on Lung and Circulatory System by Inhalation Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyu Kim

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: We successfully generated nano-CBPs in the range of 83.3-87.9 nm at a maximum concentration of 4.2 × 106 particles/cm3 in a nose-only inhalation chamber system. This reliable method can be useful to investigate the biological and toxicological effects of inhalation exposure to nano-CBPs on experimental rats.

  18. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. ► Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. ► Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. ► Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose–response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility (∼83.7%) than that of shellfish (∼73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2–3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  19. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-01-01

    This analysis is one of the nine reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003a) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents a set of input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. This report, ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003b). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available at that time. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this analysis report. This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading, which is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Measurements of mass loading are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air surrounding crops and concentrations in air inhaled by a receptor. Concentrations in air to which the

  20. Inhalation exposure to chloramine T induces DNA damage and inflammation in lung of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ilseob; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Oh, Eunha; Lee, Mimi; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Sul, Donggeun; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyun-Mi

    2013-01-01

    Chloramine T has been widely used as a disinfectant in many areas such as kitchens, laboratories and hospitals. It has been also used as a biocide in air fresheners and deodorants which are consumer products; however, little is known about its toxic effects by inhalation route. This study was performed to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of chloramine T under whole-body inhalation exposure conditions. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to chloramine T at concentrations of 0.2, 0.9 and 4.0 mg/m³ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week during 4 weeks. After 28-day repeated inhalation of chloramine T, there were dose-dependently significant DNA damage in the rat tissues evaluated and inflammation was histopathologically noted around the terminal airways of the lung in both genders. As a result of the expression of three types of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-2, GPx-1, PRX-1) in rat's lung after exposure, there was no significant change of all antioxidant enzymes in the male and female rats. The results showed that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 0.2 mg/m³ in male rats and 0.9 mg/m³ in female rats under the present experimental condition.

  1. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  2. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  3. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  4. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241 AmO 2 . Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241 Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241 Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  5. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – A controlled case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ding, Junnan; Shen, Guofeng; Zhong, Junjun; Wang, Chen; Wei, Siye; Chen, Chaoqi; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The dependence of urinary OHPAHs on PAH intake was explored. • Consumption of lamb kabob resulted in large increase of most urinary OHPAHs. • Gender differences in PAH metabolism was observed. • Urinary metabolites of PHE and PYR can be used as biomarkers for dietary PAH intake. • Urinary 3-BaA may serve as the indicator for the inhalation exposure to BaP eq . -- Severe exposure to PAHs via dietary and inhalation pathways indicated by the intake of parent PAHs as well as the urinary excretion of OHPAHs, was observed for students in Beijing

  6. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM 2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m 3 , and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m 3 ) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m 3 ) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  7. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter [AMAD]; sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans

  8. The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govoni, Mirco; Piccinno, Annalisa; Lucci, Germano

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended in combina......BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended......-dipropionate) was evaluated over 8 h from three studies, each performed in a different age and body size group. Children (7-11 years, n = 20), adolescents (12-17 years, n = 29) and adults (≥18 years, n = 24) received a single dose of beclometasone/formoterol (children: 200 μg/24 μg, adolescents and adults: 400 μg/24 μg) via...

  9. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dionne, P.J.; Harrington, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. Lymphopenia occurred at the two highest dosage levels as early as 1 mo following exposure and was associated with neutropenia and reduction in numbers of circulatory monocytes by 4 mo postexposure. Radiation pneumonitis developed in one dog at the highest dosage level at 14 mo postexposure. More rapid translocation to skeleton and liver occurred following inhalation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than after 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 inhalation

  10. Contact and respiratory sensitizers can be identified by cytokine profiles following inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, Wim H.; Arts, Josje H.E.; De Klerk, Arja; Schijf, Marcel A.; Ezendam, Janine; Kuper, C. Frieke; Van Loveren, Henk

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no validated animal models that can identify low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory sensitizers. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is a validated animal model developed to detect contact sensitizers using skin exposure, but all LMW respiratory sensitizers tested so far were also positive in this assay. Discrimination between contact and respiratory sensitizers can be achieved by the assessment of cytokine profiles. In a LLNA using the inhalation route, both contact and respiratory sensitizers enhanced proliferation in the draining lymph nodes. The question was if their cytokine profiles were affected by the route of exposure. Male BALB/c mice were exposed head/nose-only during 3 consecutive days to the respiratory sensitizers trimellitic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and isophorone diisocyanate; the contact sensitizers dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), oxazolone (OXA) and formaldehyde (FA), and the irritant methyl salicylate (MS). Three days after the last exposure the draining lymph nodes were excised and cytokine production was measured after ex vivo stimulation with Concanavalin A. Skin application was used as a positive control. After inhalation exposure the respiratory sensitizers induced more interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin (IL-10) compared to the contact sensitizers, whereas the contact sensitizers, except formaldehyde, induced relatively more interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. When IL-4 and IFN-γ were plotted as a function of the proliferative response, it was shown that IL-4 could be used to identify respiratory sensitizers, except HDI, at concentration levels inducing intermediate stimulation indices. HDI could be distinguished from DNCB and OXA at high SI values. In contrast, contact sensitizers could only be identified when IFN-γ was measured at high stimulation indices. The skin positive control, tested at high concentrations, showed comparable results for IL-4 and IL-10

  11. Effects of current inhalation exposure methods on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lay, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 9% of 84 3-mo-old dogs exposed to inhalation of radioactive aerosols have experienced respiratory failure during exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate effects of exposure on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs. Results indicate that the combination of nose breathing and breathing into the aerosol delivery cone quadrupled breathing effort of 3-mo-old dogs. Excitement exacerbated a failure to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and resulted in CO 2 retention and acidosis. General anesthesia and use of an endotracheal tube alleviated problems due to nasal airflow resistance and behaviorally-related increases in ventilatory requirement

  12. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation; Propositions pour la mise en place et le renforcement d'activites de surveillance des expositions et des risques associes a l'inhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  13. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  14. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-09-24

    This analysis is one of the nine reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003a) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents a set of input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. This report, ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003b). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available at that time. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this analysis report. This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading, which is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Measurements of mass loading are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air surrounding crops and concentrations in air

  15. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF) and potential impact fraction (PIF) of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  16. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  17. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moschandreas, DJ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available methodologies and models are reviewed. Three exposure/measurement methodologies are assessed. Estimation methods focus on source evaluation and attribution, sources include those outdoors and indoors as well as in occupational and in-transit environments. Fate...

  18. Inhalation exposure to three-dimensional printer emissions stimulates acute hypertension and microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; LeBouf, R F; Duling, M G; Yi, J; Abukabda, A B; McBride, C R; Nurkiewicz, T R

    2017-11-15

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. Additionally, we and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle. Endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation were stimulated by local microiontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). At the time of experiments, animals exposed to 3DPE inhalation presented with a mean arterial pressure of 125±4mmHg, and this was significantly higher than that for the sham-control group (94±3mmHg). Consistent with this pressor response in the 3DPE group, was an elevation of ~12% in resting arteriolar tone. Endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly impaired after 3DPE inhalation across all iontophoretic ejection currents (0-27±15%, compared to sham-control: 15-120±21%). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by 3DPE inhalation. These alterations in peripheral microvascular resistance and reactivity are consistent with elevations in arterial pressure that follow 3DPE inhalation. Future studies must identify the specific toxicants generated by FDM™ that drive this acute pressor response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deposition of plutonium in the lung of a worker following an accidental inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Robinson, B.

    The deposition of PuO 2 in the lungs of an occupationally exposed worker is characterized by assay for plutonium in excreta samples and from in vivo measurements of 241 Am in the thoracic region. Chelation therapy by intravenous injection of 1 gm Ca-DTPA was initially performed shortly after the incident and repeated using 0.5 gm of the chelate four additional times in subsequent days post intake. Analysis of the air sampler filter retrieved from the site of the exposure identified the isotopic composition and particle size of the plutonium material inhaled by the worker. Chelation with Ca-DTPA did not significantly reduce the magnitude of the lung or systemic deposition as determined from assay of plutonium in urine samples collected from the worker. In vivo measurements for 241 Am verify the retention of the inhaled material in the lung and also indicate the ingrowth of an amount of 241 Am as a daughter product of the 241 Pu initially inhaled

  20. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Sobala, Wojciech; Wilczynska, Urszula; Kromhout, Hans; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata

    2009-08-01

    Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or external comparisons. Cumulative exposure for all exposures was assigned to cohort members based on estimates from a company-specific JEM. Cancer risks associated with cumulative exposure adjusted for co-exposures, gender and year of birth were calculated. Exposure levels were higher for women than for men. Aromatic amine exposure was significantly associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk (RR=7.32-8.27), depending on exposure level, and prostate cancer at low levels only (RR=5.86). In women, increased risks were found for all cancers (RR=2.50) and of the digestive organs and peritoneum (RR=4.54) at low level only, while an exposure-response association with breast cancer risk was found. Inhalable aerosol exposure was associated with cancers of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in a dose-dependent manner, while dose-dependent reduced risks were found for respiratory cancers (most notably the larynx) and cancer of the colon. Increased risks for specific cancer sites in this rubber plant were similar to Western Europe and the US. However, several cancer risks were gender-specific which could relate to higher exposure levels in women or to differences in exposures to chemicals not assessed in this study.

  1. Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, S

    2009-11-01

    Recent reviews and reports of cancer incidence and mortality in firefighters conclude that they are at an increased risk of a number of cancers. These include leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, male breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, urinary bladder, testes, and thyroid. Firefighters are exposed to a long list of recognized or probable carcinogens in combustion products and the presumed route of exposure to these carcinogens is by inhalation. Curiously, respiratory system cancers and diseases are usually not increased in firefighters as they are in workers exposed to known inhaled carcinogens. The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified.

  2. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: Sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triel, Jos J. van; Bree, Bianca W.J. van; Roberts, David W.; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A.; Kuper, C. Frieke

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18 ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin - besides inhalation - exposure to aldehydes like GA.

  3. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  5. Estimating diesel fuel exposure for a plumber repairing an underground pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mary; Stenzel, Mark; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the diesel fuel exposure of a plumber repairing an underground water line leak at a truck stop. The repair work was performed over three days during which the plumber spent most of his time in a pit filled with a mixture of water and diesel fuel. Thus, the plumber was exposed via both the inhalation and dermal routes. While previously asymptomatic, he was diagnosed with acute renal failure 35 days after working at this site. No measurements were available for estimating either inhalation or dermal exposures or the cumulative dose and, therefore, two different approaches were used that were based on simple models of the exposure scenario. The first approach used the ideal gas law with the vapor pressure of the diesel fuel mixture to estimate a saturation vapor concentration, while the second one used a mass balance of the petroleum hydrocarbon component of diesel fuel in conjunction with the Henry's Law constant for this mixture. These inhalation exposure estimates were then adjusted to account for the limited ventilation in a confined space. The inhalation exposure concentrations predicted when handling the water layer alone is much lower than that expected from the organic layer. This case study illustrates the large differences in inhalation exposure associated with volatile organic layers and aqueous solution containing these chemicals. The estimate of dermal exposure was negligible compared to the inhalation exposure because the skin presents a much smaller surface area of exposure to the contaminant compared to the lungs. The methodology presented here is useful for situations where little information is available for more formal mathematical exposure modeling, but where adjustments to the worst-case exposures, estimated simply, can provide reasonable exposure estimates.

  6. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Triel, Jos J; van Bree, Bianca W J; Roberts, David W; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Kuper, C Frieke

    2011-01-11

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin--besides inhalation-- exposure to aldehydes like GA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccumulation and locomotor effects of manganese phosphate/sulfate mixture in Sprague-Dawley rats following subchronic (90 days) inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, Fariba; Krewski, Daniel; Mergler, Donna; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Philippe, Suzanne; Zayed, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. The primary combustion products of MMT are Mn phosphate, Mn sulfate, and a Mn phosphate/Mn sulfate mixture. Concerns have been raised that the combustion products of MMT containing Mn could be neurotoxic, even at low levels of exposure. The objective of this study is to investigate exposure-response relationships for bioaccumulation and locomotor effects following subchronic inhalation exposure to a mixture of manganese phosphates/sulfate mixture. A control group and three groups of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in inhalation chambers for a period of 13 weeks, 5 days per week, 6 h a day. Exposure concentrations were 3000, 300, and 30 μg/m 3 . At the end of the exposure period, locomotor activity and resting time tests were conducted for 36 h using a computerized autotrack system. Rats were then euthanized by exsanguination and Mn concentrations in different tissues (liver, lung, testis, and kidney) and blood and brain (caudate putamen, globus pallidus, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, and cerebellum) were determined by neutron activation analysis. Increased manganese concentrations were observed in blood, kidney, lung, testis, and in all brain sections in the highest exposure group. Mn in the lung and in the olfactory bulb were dose dependent. Our data indicate that the olfactory bulb accumulated more Mn than other brain regions following inhalation exposure. Locomotor activity was increased at 3000 μg/m 3 , but no difference was observed in resting time among the exposed groups. At the end of the experiment, rats exposed to 300 and 3000 μg/m 3 exhibited significantly decreased body weight in comparison with the control group. Biochemical profiles also revealed some significant differences in certain parameters, specifically alkaline phospatase, urea, and chlorate

  8. Bioaccumulation and locomotor effects of manganese phosphate/sulfate mixture in Sprague-Dawley rats following subchronic (90 days) inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fariba; Krewski, Daniel; Mergler, Donna; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Philippe, Suzanne; Zayed, Joseph

    2003-09-15

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound added to unleaded gasoline in Canada. The primary combustion products of MMT are Mn phosphate, Mn sulfate, and a Mn phosphate/Mn sulfate mixture. Concerns have been raised that the combustion products of MMT containing Mn could be neurotoxic, even at low levels of exposure. The objective of this study is to investigate exposure-response relationships for bioaccumulation and locomotor effects following subchronic inhalation exposure to a mixture of manganese phosphates/sulfate mixture. A control group and three groups of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in inhalation chambers for a period of 13 weeks, 5 days per week, 6 h a day. Exposure concentrations were 3000, 300, and 30 microg/m(3). At the end of the exposure period, locomotor activity and resting time tests were conducted for 36 h using a computerized autotrack system. Rats were then euthanized by exsanguination and Mn concentrations in different tissues (liver, lung, testis, and kidney) and blood and brain (caudate putamen, globus pallidus, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, and cerebellum) were determined by neutron activation analysis. Increased manganese concentrations were observed in blood, kidney, lung, testis, and in all brain sections in the highest exposure group. Mn in the lung and in the olfactory bulb were dose dependent. Our data indicate that the olfactory bulb accumulated more Mn than other brain regions following inhalation exposure. Locomotor activity was increased at 3000 microg/m(3), but no difference was observed in resting time among the exposed groups. At the end of the experiment, rats exposed to 300 and 3000 microg/m(3) exhibited significantly decreased body weight in comparison with the control group. Biochemical profiles also revealed some significant differences in certain parameters, specifically alkaline phospatase, urea, and chlorate.

  9. Improved inhalation technology for setting safe exposure levels for workplace chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Bruce O.

    1993-01-01

    Threshold Limit Values recommended as allowable air concentrations of a chemical in the workplace are often based upon a no-observable-effect-level (NOEL) determined by experimental inhalation studies using rodents. A 'safe level' for human exposure must then be estimated by the use of generalized safety factors in attempts to extrapolate from experimental rodents to man. The recent development of chemical-specific physiologically-based toxicokinetics makes use of measured physiological, biochemical, and metabolic parameters to construct a validated model that is able to 'scale-up' rodent response data to predict the behavior of the chemical in man. This procedure is made possible by recent advances in personal computer software and the emergence of appropriate biological data, and provides an analytical tool for much more reliable risk evaluation and airborne chemical exposure level setting for humans.

  10. Inhalation toxicity of methanol/gasoline in rats: effects of 13-week exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Park, G; Viau, C; Chu, I; Potvin, M; Vincent, R; Valli, V

    1998-01-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of a methanol/gasoline blend (85% methanol, 15% gasoline, v/v) was studied in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (10 animals per group) of both sexes were exposed to vapours of methanol/gasoline at 50/3, 500/30 and 5000/300ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. Control animals inhaled filtered room air only. Control recovery and high dose recovery groups were also included which inhaled room air for an extra 4 weeks following the treatment period. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treatment group and their growth curves were not significantly different from the control. Except for decreased forelimb grip strength in high dose females, no treatment-related neurobehavioural effects (4-6 hours post inhalation) were observed using screening tests which included cage-side observations, righting reflex, open field activities, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength. At necropsy, the organ to body weight ratios for the liver, spleen, testes, thymus and lungs were not significantly different from the control group. There were no treatment-related effects in the hematological endpoints and no elevation in serum formate levels. Minimal serum biochemical changes were observed with the only treatment-related change being the decreased creatinine in the females. A dose-related increase in urinary ascorbic acid was detected in males after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, but not after the 12th week, and in females only at week-2. Increased urinary albumin was observed in treated males starting at the lowest dose and at all exposure periods, but not in females. A treatment-related increase in urinary beta 2-microglobulin was detected in males at week-2 only. Except for mild to moderate mucous cell metaplasia in nasal septum B, which occurred more often and with a slightly higher degree of severity in the low dose groups of both sexes, and presence of a minimal degree of interstitial lymphocyte infiltration in the prostate

  11. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  12. Inhalation of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.; Jackson, P.O.

    1975-01-01

    In previous studies the biological dispositions of individual long-lived alpha members of the uranium chain ( 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th) were determined during and following repeated inhalation exposures of rats to pitchblende (26 percent U 3 O 8 ) ore. Although finely dispersed ore in secular equilibrium was inhaled, 230 Th/ 234 U radioactivity ratios in the lungs rose from 1.0 to 2.5 during 8 weeks of exposures and increased to 9.2 by four months after cessation of exposures. Marked non-equilibrium levels were also found in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, kidneys, liver, and femur. Daily exposures of beagle dogs to high levels of this ore for 8 days resulted in lung 230 Th/ 234 U ratios of >2.0. Daily exposures of dogs to lower levels (0.1 mg/1) for 6 months, with sacrifice 15 months later, resulted in lung and thoracic lymph node 230 Th/ 234 U ratios ranging from 3.6 to 9 and nearly 7, respectively. The lungs of hamsters exposed to carnotite (4 percent U 3 O 8 ) ore in current lifespan studies show 230 Th/ 234 U ratios as high as 2.0 during daily inhalation of this ore in secular equilibrium. Beagle dogs sacrificed after several years of daily inhalations of the same carnotite ore plus radon daughters also showed marked non-equilibrium ratios of 230 Th/ 234 U, ranging from 5.6 to 7.4 in lungs and 6.2 to 9.1 in thoracic lymph nodes. This pattern of higher retention of 230 Th than 234 U in lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, and other tissues is thus consistent for two types of uranium ore among several species and suggests a reevaluation of maximum permissible air concentrations of ore, currently based only on uranium content

  13. Air pollution and inhalation exposure to particulate matter of different sizes in rural households using improved stoves in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Yilong; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Huang-Fu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Wu, Fuyong; Wong, Minghung

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution is considered to be among the top environmental risks in China. To examine the performance of improved stoves for reduction of indoor particulate matter (PM) emission and exposure in rural households, individual inhalation exposure to size-resolved PM was investigated using personal portable samplers carried by residents using wood gasifier stoves or improved coal stoves in a rural county in Central China. Concentrations of PM with different sizes in stationary indoor and outdoor air were also monitored at paired sites. The stationary concentrations of size-resolved PM in indoor air were greater than those in outdoor air, especially finer particles PM 0.25 . The daily averaged exposure concentrations of PM 0.25 , PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and total suspended particle for all the surveyed residents were 74.4±41.1, 159.3±74.3, 176.7±78.1 and 217.9±78.1μg/m 3 , respectively. Even using the improved stoves, the individual exposure to indoor PM far exceeded the air quality guideline by WHO at 25μg/m 3 . Submicron particles PM 1.0 were the dominant PM fraction for personal exposure and indoor and outdoor air. Personal exposure exhibited a closer correlation with indoor PM concentrations than that for outdoor concentrations. Both inhalation exposure and indoor air PM concentrations in the rural households with gasifier firewood stoves were evidently lower than the reported results using traditional firewood stoves. However, local governments in the studied rural areas should exercise caution when widely and hastily promoting gasifier firewood stoves in place of improved coal stoves, due to the higher PM levels in indoor and outdoor air and personal inhaled exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to calculate soil cleanup guidelines. This experience has shown that the computer code is easy to use and very user-friendly. 3 refs., 8 figs

  15. Estimation of chloroform inhalation dose by other routes based on the relationship of area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC)-inhalation dose to chloroform distribution in the blood of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Makoto; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Haresaku, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Michiharu; Nagano, Kasuke; Yamamoto, Seigo; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the time-course changes of concentration of chloroform (CHCl3) in the blood during and after exposure of male rats to CHCl3 by inhalation. Increasing the dose of CHCl3 in the inhalation exposed groups caused a commensurate increase in the concentration of CHCl3 in the blood and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC). There was good correlation (r = 0.988) between the inhalation dose and the AUC/kg body weight. Based on the AUC/kg body weight-inhalation dose curve and the AUC/kg body weight after oral administration, inhalation equivalent doses of orally administered CHCl3 were calculated. Calculation of inhalation equivalent doses allows the body burden due to CHCl3 by inhalation exposure and oral exposure to be directly compared. This type of comparison facilitates risk assessment in humans exposed to CHCl3 by different routes. Our results indicate that when calculating inhalation equivalent doses of CHCl3, it is critical to include the AUC from the exposure period in addition to the AUC after the end of the exposure period. Thus, studies which measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the blood during the inhalation exposure period are crucial. The data reported here makes an important contribution to the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) database of CHCl3 in rodents.

  16. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  17. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  18. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  19. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Duan Xiaoli; Tao Shu; Qiu Weixun; Liu Di; Wang Yilong; Wei Siye; Wang Bin; Jiang Qiujing; Lu Bin; Song Yunxue; Hu Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]P eq ) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m 3 , respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]P eq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10 −6 , with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  20. Fate of inhaled azodicarbonamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Ayres, P.H.; Bechtold, W.E.; Dutcher, J.S.; Cheng, Y.S.; Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is widely used as a blowing agent in the manufacture of expanded foam plastics, as an aging and bleaching agent in flour, and as a bread dough conditioner. Human exposures have been reported during manufacture as well as during use. Groups of male F344/N rats were administered ADA by gavage, by intratracheal instillation, and by inhalation exposure to determine the disposition and modes of excretion of ADA and its metabolites. At 72 hr following gavage, 30% of the administered ADA was absorbed whereas following intratracheal instillation, absorption was 90%. Comparison between groups of rats exposed by inhalation to ADA to achieve body burdens of 24 or 1230 micrograms showed no significant differences in modes or rates of excretion of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents. ADA was readily converted to biurea under physiological conditions and biurea was the only 14 C-labeled compound present in excreta. [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were present in all examined tissues immediately after inhalation exposure, and clearance half-times on the order of 1 day were evident for all tissues investigated. Storage depots for [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were not observed. The rate of buildup of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in blood was linearly related to the lung content as measured from rats withdrawn at selected times during a 6-hr inhalation exposure at an aerosol concentration of 25 micrograms ADA/liter. In a study extending 102 days after exposure, retention of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in tissues was described by a two-component negative exponential function. The results from this study indicate that upon inhalation, ADA is rapidly converted to biurea and that biurea is then eliminated rapidly from all tissues with the majority of the elimination via the urine

  1. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-09-01

    To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC-MS. Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10-fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3-6 pm v 0-8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of approximately 25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose.

  2. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  3. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vocht, F.; Sobala, W.; Wilczynska, U.; Kromhout, H.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Peplonska, B.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or

  4. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  5. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Desvergne, C; Dubosson, M; Mossuz, V; Lacombe, M; Brun, V

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations. (paper)

  6. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239 PuO 2 , during the 13-yr postexposure period. During the 10 1/2 years after exposure to 238 PuO 2 , mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 year after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had initial lung burdens greater than or equal to 80 nCi. 3 figures, 6 tables

  7. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  8. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  9. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Barr, Edward B; White, Richard K; Kracko, Dean; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Grosjean, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Exposure atmospheres for a rodent inhalation toxicology study were generated from the exhaust of a 4.3-L gasoline engine coupled to a dynamometer and operated on an adapted California Unified Driving Cycle. Exposure levels were maintained at three different dilution rates. One chamber at the lowest dilution had particles removed by filtration. Each exposure atmosphere was characterized for particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and detailed chemical speciation. The majority of the mass in the exposure atmospheres was gaseous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organics, with small amounts of particle-bound carbon/ions and metals. The atmospheres varied according to the cycle, with the largest spikes in volatile organic and inorganic species shown during the "cold start" portion of the cycle. Ammonia present from the exhaust and rodents interacted with the gasoline exhaust to form secondary inorganic particles, and an increase in exhaust resulted in higher proportions of secondary inorganics as a portion of the total particle mass. Particle size had a median of 10-20 nm by number and approximately 150 nm by mass. Volatile organics matched the composition of the fuel, with large proportions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to low amounts of oxygenated organics. A new measurement technique revealed organics reacting with nitrogen oxides have likely resulted in measurement bias in previous studies of combustion emissions. Identified and measured particle organic species accounted for about 10% of total organic particle mass and were mostly aliphatic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Survey on the radiation exposure of the respiratory tract by inhalation of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1987-01-01

    During the last twenty years, work carried out on radiation exposure of the respiratory tract due to the inhaled, naturally occurring nuclides radon, thoron and short-lived daughters has become increasingly important, because the doses received in the respiratory tract, due mainly to the effect of α rays, reach values among the general population which are comparable to or even higher than the average exposures per year of a population undergoing X-ray diagnostic examinations. A brief introduction to the physical characteristics of the natural radiation nuclides reaching the bronchi and lungs with the inhaled air (Rn-220 - thoron and short lived daughters), and the deposition and clearance of the nuclides (often linked to aerosols), is followed by a discussion of the anatomical/physiological characteristics of the ''lung models'', thanks to which it is possible to calculate the energy quantities (i.e. doses) deposited by the α rays in the epithelium of the lungs and bronchi. In addition the retention mechanisms of the radionuclides (as free ions or as aerosols) are briefly described, and finally the calculations to determine the quantity of radioactivity remaining on the walls of the respiratory tract are given. The construction of dosimetric models requires relatively precise knowledge of the thickness of the mucus layers and of the distribution of the nuclides in the mucus, the ciliary movement, the depth in the tissue of the radiation-sensitive cells etc. On the basis of local doses it is then possible to calculate approximately the regional doses for bronchi, lungs and other organs (via blood, accessible by the nuclides before excretion) for the short lived daughters of Rn-222 and Rn-220. Determination of the mean effective dose equivalent requires, amongst other things, knowledge of the concentration of the nuclides in the inhaled air and the mean respiratory frequency of the members of a population. (orig./HSI)

  11. Inhaled hyaluronic acid microparticles extended pulmonary retention and suppressed systemic exposure of a short-acting bronchodilator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Han, Meihua; Liu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomucoadhesive carbohydrate polymer to prolong the pulmonary retention and reduce the systemic exposure of inhaled medicine. Salbutamol sulphate (SAS), a model bronchodilator, was co-spray dried with HA...... to spray-dried plain SAS powders, the SAS-loaded HA microparticles possessed enhanced biomucoadhesive property in vitro and had much longer pulmonary retention and reduced systemic exposure in vivo. By incorporation, the pulmonary retention time of SAS was prolonged from 2h to 8h while the maximum...

  12. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or open-quotes dustclose quotes). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or open-quotes resuspension rateclose quotes

  13. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6‐HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Methods Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di‐n‐butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC‐MS. Results Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10‐fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3–6 pm v 0–8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of ∼25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non‐spray painters in car body repair shops. Conclusion Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose. PMID:16728504

  14. Health worker exposure risk during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the (AnaConDa®) anaesthetic conserving device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, R; Muñoz Martínez, A; Galan Serrano, J; Moral García, M V

    2014-03-01

    Occupational exposure to sevoflurane should not exceed 2 ppm. During inhalation sedation with sevoflurane using the anaesthetic conserving device (AnaConDa(®)) in the post-anaesthesia care unit, waste gases can be reduced by gas extraction systems or scavenging devices such as CONTRAfluran™. However, the efficacy of these methods has not been clearly established. To determine the safest scenario for healthcare workers during inhalation sedation with sevoflurane in the post-surgical intensive care unit. An experimental study on occupational exposure was conducted in a post-cardiothoracic care unit during March-August 2009. The measurements were performed in four post-cardiac surgery sedated adults in post-surgical intensive care unit and four nurses at the bedside, and at four points: scenario A, inhalation sedation without gas extraction system or contrafluran as a reference scenario; scenario B, applying a gas extraction system to the ventilator; scenario C, using contrafluran; and scenario 0, performing intravenous isolation sedation. Sevoflurane concentrations were measured in the nurses' breathing area during patient care, and at 1.5 and 8 m from the ventilator using diffusive passive monitor badges. All badges corresponding to the nurses' breathing area were below 2 ppm. Levels of sevoflurane detected using prevention systems were lower than that in the control situation. Only one determination over 2 ppm was found, corresponding to the monitor placed nearest the gas outlet of the ventilator in scenario A. Trace concentrations of sevoflurane were found in scenario 0 during intravenous sedation. Administration of sevoflurane through the AnaConDa(®) system during inhalation sedation in post-surgical intensive care units is safe for healthcare workers, but gas extraction systems or scavenging systems, such as CONTRAfluran™ should be used to reduce occupational exposure as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimaci

  15. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  16. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  17. Effects of Didecyldimethylammonium Chloride (DDAC) on Sprague-Dawley Rats after 13 Weeks of Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Lee, Sung-Bae; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is used in many types of biocidal products including tableware, carpets, humidifiers, and swimming pools, etc. In spite of increased chances of DDAC exposure through inhalation, studies on the inhalation toxicity of DDAC are not common even though the toxicity of DDAC might be significantly higher if it were to be administered through routes other than the respiratory system. DDAC aerosols were exposed to Sprague-Dawley rats in whole body exposure chambers for a duration of 13 weeks. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameters of the DDAC aerosol were 0.63 μm, 0.81 μm, and 1.65 μm, and the geometric standard deviations were 1.62, 1.65, and 1.65 in the low (0.11 ± 0.06 mg/m 3 ), the middle (0.36 ± 0.20 mg/m 3 ) and the high (1.41 ± 0.71 mg/m 3 ) exposure groups, respectively. Body weight was confirmed to be clearly influenced by exposure to DDAC and mean body weight was approximately 35% lower in the high (1.41 ± 0.71 mg/m 3 ) male group and 15% lower in the high (1.41 ± 0.71 mg/m 3 ) female group compared to that of the control group. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid assay, the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase had no effect on DDAC exposure. The lung weight increased for the middle (0.36 ± 0.20 mg/m 3 ) and the high (1.41 ± 0.71 mg/m 3 ) concentrations of the DDAC exposure group, and inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial pneumonia were partially observed in the lungs of the middle (0.36 ± 0.20 mg/m 3 ) and the high (1.41 ± 0.71 mg/m 3 ) exposure groups. However, severe histopathological symptoms, including proteinosis and/or fibrosis, were not found. Based on the results of the changes in the body weight and lung weight, it is considered that the NOAEL (no-observed adverse effect) level for the 13-week exposure duration is 0.11 mg/m 3 .

  18. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural residents in a typical northern city in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Wang, B; Zhao, X; Shen, G; Xia, Z; Huang, N; Jiang, Q; Lu, B; Xu, D; Fang, J; Tao, S

    2014-10-01

    Personal inhalation exposure samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 126 selected volunteers during heating and non-heating seasons in a typical northern Chinese city, Taiyuan. Measured personal PAH exposure levels for the urban residents in the heating and non-heating seasons were 690 (540-1051) and 404 (266-544) ng/m(3) , respectively, while, for the rural residents, they were 770 (504-1071) and 312 (201-412) ng/m(3) , respectively. Thus, rural residents are exposed to lower PAH contamination in comparison with the urban residents in the non-heating seasons. In the heating season, personal PAH inhalation exposure levels were comparable between the urban and rural residents, in part owing to the large rate of residential solid fuel consumption in the rural area for household cooking and heating. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) due to PAH exposure in Taiyuan were 3.36 × 10(-5) and 2.39 × 10(-5) for the rural and urban residents, respectively, significantly higher than the literature-reported national average level, suggesting an urgent need of PAH pollution control to protect human health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2

  20. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahna Sami L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization.

  1. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  2. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of correlation between leucocytes migration reaction and level of inhalation exposure to priority air contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Masnavieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays each forth person suffers from allergic diseases and allergic pathology prevalence is constantly growing. There are compounds in air which are generally toxic, or have sensitizing or allergenic effects on a body. For example, we can name formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. Our research goal was to reveal a correlation between reaction of leucocytes migration inhibition to formaldehyde and level of inhalation exposure to the examined chemicals. We examined 410 teenag-ers who permanently lived in industrial cities in Irkutsk region. We studied individual load as per formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. We estimated eosinophils content in nasal mucus and determined indexes of leucocytes migration inhibition to for-maldehyde. Index of formaldehyde effects danger was detected to exceed 1 in 54% teenagers. The greatest value of danger coefficient in terms of exposure to this substance was equal to 1.76. anger index in terms of exposure to nitrogen dioxide didn't exceed 0.7 in the examined teenagers. The obtained results prove that inhalation formaldehyde load influences teenag-ers from industrial centers as sensitization to this substance evolves in them. We found out that true inhibition reaction of leucocytes migration in a reaction with formaldehyde more frequently occurred in people with danger index in terms of ex-posure to this substance being lower than 1. We obtained models which described correlation between level of sensitization to formaldehyde and a number of eosinophils in nasal mucus and it allowed us to detect that sensitization depended on the examined contaminants content in the air. The sensitization to chemical air contaminants which we revealed in teenagers calls for necessary activities aimed at reducing risks of allergenic pathology evolvement in them.

  4. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-06-14

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  5. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  6. Ototoxic potential of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry

    2010-07-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the ototoxic potential of two jet fuels presented alone and in combination with noise. Rats were exposed via a subacute inhalation paradigm to JP-8 jet fuel, a kerosene-based fuel refined from petroleum, and a synthetic fuel produced by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. Although JP-8 contains small ( approximately 5%) concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons some of which known to be ototoxic, the synthetic fuel does not. The objectives of this study were to identify a lowest observed adverse effect level and a no observed adverse effect level for each jet fuel and to provide some preliminary, but admittedly, indirect evidence concerning the possible role of the aromatic hydrocarbon component of petroleum-based jet fuel on hearing. Rats (n = 5-19) received inhalation exposure to JP-8 or to FT fuel for 4 h/day on five consecutive days at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/m(3). Additional groups were exposed to various fuel concentrations followed by 1 h of an octave band of noise, noise alone, or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant dose-related impairment in the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) was seen in subjects exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of at least 1000 mg/m(3) were presented. No noticeable impairment was observed at JP-8 levels of 500 mg/m(3) + noise. In contrast to the effects of JP-8 on noise-induced hearing loss, FT exposure had no effect by itself or in combination with noise exposure even at the highest exposure level tested. Despite an observed loss in DPOAE amplitude seen only when JP-8 and noise were combined, there was no loss in auditory threshold or increase in hair cell loss in any exposure group.

  7. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide--the effects of co-exposure to toluene or dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Kim, E A; Lee, M Y; Park, I J; Kang, S K

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the exposure and intake dose of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and the correlation between them, according to the type of exposure for the workers in the DMF industry. We monitored 345 workers occupationally exposed to DMF, from 15 workshops in the synthetic fiber, fiber coating, synthetic leather and paint manufacturing industries. Ambient monitoring was carried out with personal samplers to monitor the external exposure. Biological monitoring was done to determine the internal dose by analyzing N-methylformamide (NMF) in end-shift urine. Work procedure and exposure type of each DMF workshop was carefully surveyed, to classify workers by exposure type according to work details. Workers were classified into three groups (Group A: continuous and direct exposure through inhalation and skin; Group B: intermittent and short-term exposure through inhalation and skin; Group C: continuous and indirect exposure mostly through inhalation). Geometric mean of DMF concentration in air was 2.62 (GSD 5.30) ppm and that of NMF in urine was 14.50 (GSD 3.89) mg/l. In the case of continuous absorption through inhalation and dermal exposure (Group A), the value of NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm of DMF was 45.3 mg/l (r = 0.524, n = 178), 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424), while it was 37.7 mg/l (r = 0.788, n = 37), 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743) in the case of absorption mostly through inhalation (Group C). Creatinine correction reduced the correlation between two parameters. The NMF in urine corresponding to 10 ppm DMF, of the dermal and inhalation exposure group was 39.1 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.424, n = 178), while that of the inhalation exposure-only group was 24.2 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.743, n = 37). Co-exposure with toluene reduced the NMF excretion in urine.

  8. Metabolism and dosimetry of 106Ru inhaled as 106RuO4 by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides metabolism and dosimetry data for inhaled ruthenium developed from studies in Beagle dogs that were exposed by inhalation to 106 RuO 4 . Twenty-six dogs were exposed nose-only to 106 RuO 4 and sacrificed at times from 2 hr to 512 days after inhalation exposure. Ninety-nine percent of the initial body burden was retained with an effective half-time of 1.2 days, 0.7% with a half-time of 14 days and 0.3% with a half-time of 170 days. Initial deposition was primarily in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions. Results for deposition and retention of 106 Ru inhaled as 106 RuO 4 in dogs were similar to what has been observed for humans. The data for dogs were used to develop a model to predict potential radiation exposure patterns for humans after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 . The model indicates that for humans the nasopharyngeal region, lower large intestine, and tracheobronchial epithelium would receive approx. 36, 13 and 10 times, respectively, the dose to 500 days after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 that the lung would receive. The nasopharyngeal region should be considered the critical region for inhalation exposures to 106 RuO 4 . (author)

  9. Pentoxifylline does not alter the response to inhaled grain dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielo, P J; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J; Knapp, H R; Schwartz, D A

    1997-05-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been shown to reduce sepsis-induced neutrophil sequestration in the lung and inhibit endotoxin-mediated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Previously, we have shown that endotoxin appears to be the principal agent in grain dust causing airway inflammation and airflow obstruction following grain dust inhalation. To determine whether PTX affects the physiologic and inflammatory events following acute grain dust inhalation, 10 healthy, nonsmoking subjects with normal airway reactivity were treated with PTX or placebo (PL) followed by corn dust extract (CDE) inhalation (0.08 mL/kg), using a single-blinded, crossover design. Subjects received PTX (1,200 mg/d) or PL for 4 days prior to CDE inhalation and 400 mg PTX or PL on the exposure day. Both respiratory symptoms and declines in FEV1 and FVC occurred following CDE exposure in both groups, but there were no significant differences in the frequency of symptoms or percent declines from baseline in the FEV1 and FVC at any of the time points measured in the study. Elevations in peripheral blood leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations and BAL total cell, neutrophil, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-8 concentrations were measured 4 h following exposure to CDE in both the PTX- and PL-treated subjects, but no significant differences were found between treatment groups. These results suggest that pretreatment with PTX prior to inhalation of CDE, in the doses used in this study, does not alter the acute physiologic or inflammatory events following exposure to inhaled CDE.

  10. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Hahn, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239 Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239 Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239 Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239 Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  11. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  12. Suitability of monitoring methods for the optimisation of Radiological Protection in the case of internal exposure through inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.; Basire, D.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological protection system recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) for justified practices relied pn the limitation and optimisation principles. The monitoring of internal exposure is most often based on the periodic assessment of individual exposure in order to essentially insure the simple compliance with the annual dose limits. Optimisation of protection implies a realistic, sensitive and analytical assessment of individual and collective exposures in order to allow the indentification of the main sources of exposure (main sources of contamination, most exposed operators, work activities contributing the most to the exposure) and the selection of the optimal protection options. Therefore the monitoring methods must allow the realistic assessment of individual dose levels far lower than annual limits together with measurements as frequent as possible. The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of various monitoring methods (collective and individual air sampling, in vivo and in vitro bioassays) to fulfil those needs. This discussion is illustrated by the particular case of the internal exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation. Firstly, the sensitivity and the degree to which each monitoring method is realistic are quantified and discussed on the basis of the application of the new ICRP dosimetric model, and their analytical capability for the optimisation of radiological protection is then indicated. Secondly, a case study is presented which shows the capability of individual air sampling techniques to analyse the exposure of the workers and the inadequacy of static air sampling to accurately estimate the exposures when contamination varies significantly over time and space in the workstations. As far as exposure to natural uranium compounds through inhalation is concerned, the study for assessing the sensitivity, analytic ability and accuracy of the different measuring systems shows that

  13. The Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N.

    Introduction. Particulate air pollution, specifically nickel found on or in particulate matter, has been associated with an increased risk of mortality in human population studies and can cause increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiate atherosclerosis in murine exposures. With the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a door has been opened which may explain these observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled air particles and nickel exposure. In order to further quantify the effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles and attempt to elucidate how the observed findings from other studies may occur, several whole body inhalation exposure experiments to nickel nanoparticles were performed. Methods. Following whole body exposure to approximately 500mug/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells, circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the inhalation exposure. Plasma proteins were assessed using the 2D DIGE proteomic approach and commercially available ELISAs. Results and Conclusions. Exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation. CECs were significantly upregulated suggesting that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. This decrease in EPC function

  14. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  15. Granulometric determinations and inhalation dose assessment for atmospheric aerosol contaminated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A.; Oliviero, L.; Donato, R.

    1996-07-01

    During the redevelopment of Brescia freight-yard a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol was carried out: in fact a 137 Cs ground contamination, caused by the permanence of wagons carrying iron materials contaminated by this radionuclide, had been found out. During the redevelopment phases of excavation and can filling the workers were exposed to the danger of radioactive aerosol inhalation. The aim of the measurement campaign was to test the aerosol sampling and granulometric analysis methodologies with their sensitivity related to the inhalation dose assessments. The results of both aerosuspended mass and activity, evaluated by means of a portable cascade impactor, are presented. The granulometries have been interpolated with a log normal distribution using an iterative routine minimizing the square deviation between the calculated and experimental data. The results related to the dose assessments are also presented. These evaluations have been carried out using both the granulometric information obtained and the more recent models (ICRP 66) both the total concentration data and the dose coefficients referring to the standard conditions of ICRP 68 and of the Italian law (D.Lgs. 230/95). Furthermore the significance and the reliability of the dose assessments referring to the different methodologies are discussed, also in relation to the possibility of using this sampling methodologies for other radionuclides and different exposure conditions

  16. A review of the uncertainties in internal radiation dose assessment for inhaled thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Present assessments of internal radiation dose to designated radiation workers in the mineral sands industry, calculated using ICRP 26/30 methodology and data, indicate that some workers approach and exceed statutory radiation dose limits. Such exposures are indicative of the need for a critical assessment of work and operational procedures and also of metabolic and dosimetric models used to estimate internal dose. This paper reviews past occupational exposure experience with inhaled thorium compounds, examines uncertainties in the underlying radiation protection models, and indicates the effect of alternative assumptions on the calculation of committed effective dose equivalent. The extremely low recommended inhalation limits for thorium in air do not appear to be well supported by studies on the health status of former thorium refinery workers who were exposed to thorium well in excess of presently accepted limits. The effect of cautious model assumptions is shown to result in internal dose assessments that could be up to an order of magnitude too high. It is concluded that the effect of such uncertainty constrains the usefulness of internal dose estimates as a reliable indicator of actual health risk. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  18. Breathing rates and daily activities: parameters of exposure to inhaled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Malarbet, J.L.; Courtay, C.

    1993-01-01

    The intake of inhaled toxic substances is based upon the air volumes breathed every day by people under exposure to gases and aerosols. On the occasion of the revision of the respiratory tract model by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), modern standards have been assessed for average inspired air volumes according to age and sex. Recent data of breathing rates as a function of physical activity have been recorded, and economical surveys recently published by the National Institute of Statistics and Economical studies (INSEE) provided time budgets and activities of specific categories of the population. The results were calculated for adults and children, 3 months, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old. These values are slightly different from those formerly published by ICRP and the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Optimizing the Entrainment Geometry of a Dry Powder Inhaler: Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsch, Thomas; Murnane, Darragh; Symons, Digby

    2016-11-01

    For passive dry powder inhalers (DPIs) entrainment and emission of the aerosolized drug dose depends strongly on device geometry and the patient's inhalation manoeuvre. We propose a computational method for optimizing the entrainment part of a DPI. The approach assumes that the pulmonary delivery location of aerosol can be determined by the timing of dose emission into the tidal airstream. An optimization algorithm was used to iteratively perform computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the drug emission of a DPI. The algorithm seeks to improve performance by changing the device geometry. Objectives were to achieve drug emission that was: A) independent of inhalation manoeuvre; B) similar to a target profile. The simulations used complete inhalation flow-rate profiles generated dependent on the device resistance. The CFD solver was OpenFOAM with drug/air flow simulated by the Eulerian-Eulerian method. To demonstrate the method, a 2D geometry was optimized for inhalation independence (comparing two breath profiles) and an early-bolus delivery. Entrainment was both shear-driven and gas-assisted. Optimization for a delay in the bolus delivery was not possible with the chosen geometry. Computational optimization of a DPI geometry for most similar drug delivery has been accomplished for an example entrainment geometry.

  20. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  1. Immunotoxicity and biodistribution analysis of arsenic trioxide in C57Bl/6 mice following a 2-week inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchiel, Scott W.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Lauer, Fredine T.; Sun Xi; McDonald, Jacob D.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian

    2009-01-01

    In these studies the immunotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO, As 2 O 3 ) was evaluated in mice following 14 days of inhalation exposures (nose only, 3 h per day) at concentrations of 50 μg/m 3 and 1 mg/m 3 . A biodistribution analysis performed immediately after inhalation exposures revealed highest levels of arsenic in the kidneys, bladder, liver, and lung. Spleen cell levels were comparable to those found in the blood, with the highest concentration of arsenic detected in the spleen being 150 μg/g tissue following the 1 mg/m 3 exposures. No spleen cell cytotoxicity was observed at either of the two exposure levels. There were no changes in spleen cell surface marker expression for B cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells. There were also no changes detected in the B cell (LPS-stimulated) and T cell (Con A-stimulated) proliferative responses of spleen cells, and no changes were found in the NK-mediated lysis of Yac-1 target cells. The primary T-dependent antibody response was, however, found to be highly susceptible to ATO suppression. Both the 50 μg/m 3 and 1 mg/m 3 exposures produced greater than 70% suppression of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells. Thus, the primary finding of this study is that the T-dependent humoral immune response is extremely sensitive to suppression by ATO and assessment of humoral immune responses should be considered in evaluating the health effects of arsenic containing agents.

  2. Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulla [Swepro Project Management AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report describes methods and data for calculation of doses to man to be used in safety assessments of repositories for nuclear fuel. The methods are based on the latest recommendations from the ICRP; the EU and the national radiation protection authorities. Equations are given for calculation of doses from ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and external exposure from radionuclides in the ground. With the exception of the exposure from food ingestion, the equations are the same used in previous safety assessments. A general equation is suggested for estimation of the exposure from food ingestion, in which the annual demand of carbon is used instead of the annual ingestion of different food-stuffs, which was earlier applied. The report contains tables with recommended values for physiological characteristics such as water intake, food intake and inhalation rates, based on information summarised in an Appendix. Furthermore, tables are given with recommended age dependent dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation for a number of nuclides of interest for safety assessments. The most recently published dose conversion factors for external exposure from contaminated ground are also given. An overview of the implementation of the methodology in Pandora, which is the tool that SKB and Posiva currently use for biosphere modelling, is also provided. The work presented in the report is a result from a joint project commissioned by SKB and Posiva.

  3. Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2006-07-01

    This report describes methods and data for calculation of doses to man to be used in safety assessments of repositories for nuclear fuel. The methods are based on the latest recommendations from the ICRP; the EU and the national radiation protection authorities. Equations are given for calculation of doses from ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and external exposure from radionuclides in the ground. With the exception of the exposure from food ingestion, the equations are the same used in previous safety assessments. A general equation is suggested for estimation of the exposure from food ingestion, in which the annual demand of carbon is used instead of the annual ingestion of different food-stuffs, which was earlier applied. The report contains tables with recommended values for physiological characteristics such as water intake, food intake and inhalation rates, based on information summarised in an Appendix. Furthermore, tables are given with recommended age dependent dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation for a number of nuclides of interest for safety assessments. The most recently published dose conversion factors for external exposure from contaminated ground are also given. An overview of the implementation of the methodology in Pandora, which is the tool that SKB and Posiva currently use for biosphere modelling, is also provided. The work presented in the report is a result from a joint project commissioned by SKB and Posiva

  4. Inhalation exposures during operations in spent fuel bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Maniyan, C.G.; Kotrappa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive aerosols are generated during operations (transfer, cutting, storage and shipment of fuel) in spent fuel bays. A study has been carried out on the airborne concentration, size distribution and dissolution rate of aerosols to evaluate the inhalation exposure of the workers. Personal air samplers were used for the measurement of concentration of airborne radioactivity and an Andersen impactor for the particle size distribution. The dissolution rates of some of the collected samples in lung serum simulant were followed for a period of about 200 days. Analysis of the samples revealed the presence of 239 Pu, U, 90 Sr and 137 Cs. For all the radionuclides measured ( 239 Pu, U, 90 Sr, 137 Cs) 40% of the activity dissolved rapidly (half-time 1.2d), the remainder with a half-time of 155 d. Calculation of effective dose equivalent for this dissolution half-time and for 6.8μm AMAD aerosols was carried out using the method recommended in ICRP 30 and reported in literature. The annual effective dose equivalent of the workers, if no respirators are worn, worked out to be 8.9 mSv (890 mrem), the contribution from alpha emitters being about 91% of the total. (author)

  5. Type I interferon and pattern recognition receptor signaling following particulate matter inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdely Aaron

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Welding, a process that generates an aerosol containing gases and metal-rich particulates, induces adverse physiological effects including inflammation, immunosuppression and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study utilized microarray technology and subsequent pathway analysis as an exploratory search for markers/mechanisms of in vivo systemic effects following inhalation. Mice were exposed by inhalation to gas metal arc – stainless steel (GMA-SS welding fume at 40 mg/m3 for 3 hr/d for 10 d and sacrificed 4 hr, 14 d and 28 d post-exposure. Whole blood cells, aorta and lung were harvested for global gene expression analysis with subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR. Serum was collected for protein profiling. Results The novel finding was a dominant type I interferon signaling network with the transcription factor Irf7 as a central component maintained through 28 d. Remarkably, these effects showed consistency across all tissues indicating a systemic type I interferon response that was complemented by changes in serum proteins (decreased MMP-9, CRP and increased VCAM1, oncostatin M, IP-10. In addition, pulmonary expression of interferon α and β and Irf7 specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR and signaling molecules (Ddx58, Ifih1, Dhx58, ISGF3 were induced, an effect that showed specificity when compared to other inflammatory exposures. Also, a canonical pathway indicated a coordinated response of multiple PRR and associated signaling molecules (Tlr7, Tlr2, Clec7a, Nlrp3, Myd88 to inhalation of GMA-SS. Conclusion This methodological approach has the potential to identify consistent, prominent and/or novel pathways and provides insight into mechanisms that contribute to pulmonary and systemic effects following toxicant exposure.

  6. Evaluation of a new irradiation left breast method in the inhalation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Gullo, Rafael G.; Ferreira, Diogo A.V.; Silva, Leonardo P. da

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is the primary therapeutic approach to breast cancer and involves significant exposure of heart and lungs, especially in cases of left breast. The implementation of a methodology to reduce the dose in these sites is important to ensure better quality of life to the patient. This work aims reduced heart and lung dose when performing the radiotherapy planning considering only the inhalation phase. Three patients with breast left present were scanning with CT during free breathing and respiratory monitoring and the planning has done on both images series. The results showed a reduction in mean heart dose of 53% on average. As for lung volumes, was obtained a mean reduction of 44.6% and 51% of the left lung which received 10 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. This study showed that the use of the respiratory gating radiotherapy in the left breast in inhalation phase can reduce heart and lung doses. (author)

  7. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  8. Inhalation exposure to ethylene induces eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Christina; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Krieger, Shannon M; Pottenger, Lynn H; Harkema, Jack R

    2015-11-05

    This study investigated the time- and concentration-dependent effects of inhaled ethylene on eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fisher 344 rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 4 weeks. Morphometric quantitation of eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) and nasal mucosal gene expression were evaluated at anatomic sites previously shown to undergo ethylene-induced epithelial remodeling. Serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured to determine if ethylene exposure increased the expression of Th2-associated (IgE and IgG1) relative to Th1-associated (IgG2a) antibody isotypes. Rats exposed to 0 or 10,000 ppm for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 days were analyzed to assess the temporal pattern of ethylene-induced alterations in nasal epithelial cell proliferation, morphology and gene expression. Rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, and 10,000 ppm ethylene for 20 days were analyzed to assess concentration-dependent effects on lesion development. Additional rats exposed 4 weeks to 0, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene were held for 13 weeks post-exposure to examine the persistence of ethylene-induced mucosal alterations. The data indicate that cell death and reparative cell proliferation were not a part of the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions. Enhanced gene expression of Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-5, IL-13) and chitinase (YM1/2) in the nasal mucosa was much greater than that of Th1 cytokines (e.g., IFNγ) after ethylene exposure. A significant increase in MCM was measured after 5 days of exposure to 10,000 ppm ethylene and after 20 days of exposure 10 ppm ethylene. Ethylene-induced MCM was reversible after cessation of exposure. No increase in total serum IgE, IgG1 or IgG2a was measured in any ethylene-exposed group. These data do not support involvement of an immune-mediated allergic mechanism in the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions in rats. Repeated

  9. Nano-Evaluris: an inhalation and explosion risk evaluation method for nanoparticle use. Part I: description of the methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Jacques X.; Vignes, Alexis

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an inhalation health and explosion safety risk assessment methodology for nanopowders is described. Since toxicological threshold limit values are still unknown for nanosized substances, detailed risk assessment on specific plants may not be carried out. A simple approach based on occupational hazard/exposure band expressed in mass concentrations is proposed for nanopowders. This approach is consolidated with an iso surface toxicological scaling method, which has the merit, although incomplete, to provide concentration threshold levels for which new metrological instruments should be developed for proper air monitoring in order to ensure safety. Whenever the processing or use of nanomaterials is introducing a risk to the worker, a specific nano pictogram is proposed to inform the worker. Examples of risk assessment of process equipment (i.e., containment valves) processing various nanomaterials are provided. Explosion risks related to very reactive nanomaterials such as aluminum nanopowders can be assessed using this new analysis methodology adapted to nanopowders. It is nevertheless found that to formalize and extend this approach, it is absolutely necessary to develop new relevant standard apparatuses and to qualify individual and collective safety barriers with respect to health and explosion risks. In spite of these uncertainties, it appears, as shown in the second paper (Part II) that health and explosion risks, evaluated for given MWCNTs and aluminum nanoparticles, remain manageable in their continuous fabrication mode, considering current individual and collective safety barriers that can be put in place. The authors would, however, underline that peculiar attention must be paid to non-continuous modes of operations, such as process equipment cleaning steps, that are often under-analyzed and are too often forgotten critical steps needing vigilance in order to minimize potential toxic and explosion risks.

  10. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Bains, M.E.D.; Fraser, D.C.

    1969-06-01

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  11. Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Stouffer, David G; Parsons, Loren H; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most human Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use is via inhalation, and yet few animal studies of inhalation exposure are available. Popularization of non-combusted methods for the inhalation of psychoactive drugs (Volcano(®), e-cigarettes) further stimulates a need for rodent models of this route of administration. This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. The in vivo efficacy of inhaled THC was validated using radiotelemetry to assess body temperature and locomotor responses, a tail-flick assay for nociception and plasma analysis to verify exposure levels. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle. The temperature nadir was reached after ∼40 min of exposure, was of comparable magnitude (∼3 °Celsius) to that produced by 20 mg/kg THC, i.p. and resolved within 3 h (compared with a 6 h time course following i.p. THC). Female rats were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of 30 min of lower-dose THC inhalation. Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR141716 pretreatment. The plasma THC concentration after 30 min of inhalation was similar to that produced by 10 mg/kg THC i.p. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicological perspectives of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Amanda J; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2014-07-01

    The human respiratory system is an important route for the entry of inhaled therapeutics into the body to treat diseases. Inhaled materials may consist of gases, vapours, aerosols and particulates. In all cases, assessing the toxicological effect of inhaled therapeutics has many challenges. This article provides an overview of in vivo and in vitro models for testing the toxicity of inhaled therapeutics and nanoparticles implemented in drug delivery. Traditionally, inhalation toxicity has been performed on test animals to identify the median lethal concentration of airborne materials. Later maximum tolerable concentration denoted by LC0 has been introduced as a more ethically acceptable end point. More recently, in vitro methods have been developed, allowing the direct exposure of airborne material to cultured human target cells on permeable porous membranes at the air-liquid interface. Modifications of current inhalation therapies, new pulmonary medications for respiratory diseases and implementation of the respiratory tract for systemic drug delivery are providing new challenges when conducting well-designed inhalation toxicology studies. In particular, the area of nanoparticles and nanocarriers is of critical toxicological concern. There is a need to develop toxicological test models, which characterise the toxic response and cellular interaction between inhaled particles and the respiratory system.

  13. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Yu, F.; Vlaanderen, J.; Tielemans, E.; Preller, L.; Bobeldijk, I.; Deddens, J.A.; Latza, U.; Baur, X.; Heederik, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

  14. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  15. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity of inhaled Ca-DTPA in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Ragan, H.A.; Lund, J.E.; Hackett, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    There are several advantages to the administration of Ca- DTPA by inhalation rather than intravenous drip for the decorporation of certain radionuclides. Among these are the possibility of treating very promptly following an accidental incorporation to achieve maximum treatment effectiveness and convenince for medical management, even to the extent that treatment can be self-administered. The present investigational New Drug permit allows treatment of humans only by the intravenous route and animal studies are required to justify the new route. Earlier work in rats and hamsters showed five successive daily inhalations of Ca-DTPA aerosols (dose 1 to 4 times human i.v. dose) produced a transitory emphysema in 17/40 rats serially sacrificed up to 3 weeks following the last exposure and in 10/20 hamsters up to 1 week after exposure. No emphysema was seen in rats sacrificed after 3 weeks and in hamsters after 1 week following the exposures. Results of tests in dogs administered DTPA by inhalation showed hyperplasia of the gastric submucosal lymphoid follicles observed 1 week following the last exposure may be treatment-related, but other observed changes were considered unrelated. (U.S.)

  17. Inhalation exposures during operations in spent fuel bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, S.K.; Maniyan, C.G.; Kotrappa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive aerosols are generated during operations (transfer, cutting, storage and shipment of fuel) in spent fuel bays. A study has been carried out on the airborne concentration, size distribution and solubility of the aerosol, to evaluate the inhalation exposure of the workers. Personal air samplers were used for the measurement of concentration of airborne radioactivity and Andersen impactor for particle size distribution. Some of the collected sampels were followed for their solubility in lung serum simulant for a period of about 200 days. The observed concentrations of the aerosols and their activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) were 418 ± 443 Bq m -3 (βγ), 1.28 ± 1.478 Bq m -3 (∞) and 6.79 ± 0.4μm respectively. Analysis of the samples revealed the presence of 239 Pu, U, 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The clearance half-life of the aerosols was the same (155 days) for all the isotopes (U, 239 Pu, 90 Sr; 137 Cs). Calculation of effective dose equivalent for the clearance half-life and for 6.79 μm AMAD aerosols was carried out using the method recommended in ICRP-30. Annual effective dose equivalent of the workers, if no respirators were worn, worked out to be 3.2 mSv (320 mrem), the contribution from alpha emitters being about 63 per cent of the total. (author). 5 refs., 2 tables

  18. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monleau, M.

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  19. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  20. Methodology for calculation of doses to man and implementation in Pandora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.; Bergstroem, U.

    2006-07-01

    This report describes methods and data for calculation of doses to man to be used in safety assessments of repositories for nuclear fuel. The methods are based on the latest recommendations from the ICRP, the EU and the national radiation protection authorities. Equations are given for calculation of doses from ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and external exposure from radionuclides in the ground. With the exception of the exposure from food ingestion, the equations are the same used in previous safety assessments. A general equation is suggested for estimation of the exposure from food ingestion, in which the annual demand of carbon is used instead of the annual ingestion of different foodstuffs, which was earlier applied. The report contains tables with recommended values for physiological characteristics such as water intake, food intake and inhalation rates, based on information summarised in an Appendix. Furthermore, tables are given with recommended age dependent dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation for a number of nuclides of interest for safety assessments. The most recently published dose conversion factors for external exposure from contaminated ground are also given. An overview of the implementation of the methodology in Pandora, which is the tool that Posiva and SKB currently use for biosphere modelling, is also provided. The work presented in the report is a result from a joint project commissioned by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) and Posiva. The report will be printed also as a SKB report R-06-68. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of Inhalation Risk to Public Health in the Southern Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, D. V.; Ivanova, S. V.; Riabchikova, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    A large number of iron and steel companies in the Southern Ural cause severe air pollution in the towns of Karabash (Chelyabinsk region), Sibay (Republic of Bashkortostan), Gai (Orenburg region). The article aims to assess the inhalation effects of hazardous substances on the Southern Ural population. The analysis focused on cancer and non-cancer risks to public health that arise from the surface air pollution caused by the metallurgical industry emissions. The assessment was carried out on the basis of methodological guidelines R 2.1.10.1920-04 using modern sanitary and hygienic standards. We analysed the level of ambient air pollution in the impact area of the metallurgical industry of Karabash, Sibay and Gai over the past eleven years. We established that the ambient air of all the studied towns contain carcinogenic substances that cause unacceptable cancer risks. Formaldehyde has the main share in this risk. We calculated the hazard quotients HQ for the identified priority pollutants and the total hazard indices HI. It is shown that the non-cancer inhalation risk to the Southern Ural population exceeds the safe level manyfold. Sulfur dioxide has the main share in this risk. The conducted assessment showed that in 2006-2016, there was a continuous inhalation exposure of the population to hazardous substances. Sanitary and technological solutions that will allow a reduction of risk to acceptable values are required.

  2. Measurement methods and optimization of radiation protection: the case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of different measurement methods (air sampling and biological examinations) to answer to demands in the particular case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds. The realism and the sensitivity of each method are studied, on the base of new dosimetric models of the ICRP. The ability of analysis of these methods in order to optimize radiation protection are then discussed. (N.C.)

  3. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Diel, J.H.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, or 244 Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  4. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Carlson, G.P.; Christian, J.E.; Born, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride ( 14 CCl 4 ) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14 C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14 CCl 4 in the breath and 14 C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14 C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl 4 . Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14 CCl 4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14 CO 2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14 C activity in the expired air was 14 CCl 4 . The quantities of 14 C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl 4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CO 2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14 CCl 4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14 CO 2 in the breath

  5. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B; Mason, P A; Moffat, A C; King, L J; Marks, V

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  6. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  7. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Setting of Inhaled Toxin Exposure and Chronic Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare lung disorder in which defects in alveolar macrophage maturation or function lead to the accumulation of proteinaceous surfactant in alveolar space, resulting in impaired gas exchange and hypoxemia. PAP is categorized into three types: hereditary, autoimmune, and secondary. We report a case of secondary PAP in a 47-year-old man, whose risk factors include occupational exposure to inhaled toxins, especially aluminum dust, the use of anabolic steroids, and alcohol abuse, which in mice leads to alveolar macrophage dysfunction through a zinc-dependent mechanism that inhibits granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor signalling. Although the rarity and vague clinical presentation of PAP can pose diagnostic challenges, clinician awareness of PAP risk factors may facilitate the diagnostic process and lead to more prompt treatment.

  8. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  9. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased by nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)

  10. Contribution of time-activity pattern and microenvironment to black carbon (BC) inhalation exposure and potential internal dose among elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeran; Park, Donguk

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the contributions of activities or microenvironments (MEs) to daily total exposure to and potential dose of black carbon (BC). Daily BC exposures (24-h) were monitored using a micro-aethalometer micoAeth AE51 with forty school-aged children living in an urban area in Korea from August 2015 to January 2016. The children's time-activity patterns and the MEs they visited were investigated by means of a time-activity diary (TAD) and follow-up interviews with the children and their parents. Potential inhaled dose was estimated by multiplying the airborne BC concentrations (μg/m3) we monitored for the time the children spent in a particular ME by the inhalation rate (IR, m3/h) for the time-activity performed. The contribution of activities and MEs to overall daily exposure to and potential dose of BC was quantified. Overall mean daily potential dose was equal to 24.1 ± 10.6 μg/day (range: 6.6-46.3 μg/day). The largest contribution to BC exposure and potential dose (51.9% and 41.7% respectively) occurred in the home thanks to the large amount of time spent there. Transportation was where children received the most intense exposure to (14.8%) and potential dose (20.2%) of BC, while it accounted for 7.6% of daily time. School on weekdays during the semester was responsible for 20.3% of exposure and 22.5% of potential dose. Contribution to BC exposure and potential dose was altered by several time-activity parameters, such as type of day (weekdays vs. weekends; school days vs. holidays), season, and gender. Traveling by motor vehicle and subway showed more elevated exposure or potential dose intensity on weekdays or school days, probably influenced by the increased surrounding traffic volumes on these days compared to on weekends or holidays. This study may be used to prioritize targets for minimizing children's exposure to BC and to indicate outcomes of BC control strategies.

  11. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B A; Mewhinney, J A; Guilmette, R A; Gillett, N A; Diel, J H; Lundgren, D L; Hahn, F F; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 244}Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  12. Basic study on positive effects of radon inhalation on pet's health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kawabe, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Tokunaga, Rikizo

    2012-01-01

    Radon inhalation using our radon exposure device activated anti-oxidative function in some organs of mouse. To assess the possibility of its application to veterinary care, healthy dogs and cats with chronic renal failure were inhaled radon at a concentration of 5500 Bq/m 3 for 30 minutes every 2 days for 30 days. In result, radon inhalation within a relatively long time period significantly decreased the triglyceride level of dogs. On the other hand, some cats increased the volume of drinking water by radon inhalation and the creatinine level in blood of these cats was decreased to normal level. These findings suggest that radon inhalation may have curative properties against chronic renal failure. (author)

  13. Inhalation Exposure to Dioxins and dl-PCBs Depending on the Season in Upper Silesia, Poland: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Marchwińska, Ewa; Hajok, Ilona; Piekut, Agata

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs levels in the ambient air of Upper Silesia in the aspect of human inhalation exposure as well as the estimation of health risk attributed to this exposure pathway to dioxins and dl-PCBs. In the study air samples were taken in five urban districts of Upper Silesia, Poland, where the houses are heated with coal. The same sampling points in summer and winter were analyzed for dioxins/furans and dl-PCBs. In addition, information was collected on awareness of the residents about the co-incineration of plastic waste and effects of this activity on human health. The results show that the average daily exposure of residents of Upper Silesia to TCDD and DLCs in the heating season was about 6.5.-fold higher than in summer. The risk assessment showed that expected excess of cancer cases per 1,000,000 people ranged from 4.5 to 13.2 in winter and from 0.9 to 2.1 in summer. The practice of mixing waste with coal for houses heating has been confirmed by investigated families, who do not associate it with the possibility of negative health effects. Air pollution can be a significant source of dioxin and dl-PCB for people during the winter season, as a result of co-burning coal and waste containing plastics. The dose of dioxins inhaled through the respiratory pathway in winter can be associated with the higher cancer risk in the population of Upper Silesia. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  14. Depletion of liver glutathione levels in rats: a potential confound of nose-only inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Gearhart, Caroline

    2008-07-01

    Nose-only inhalation exposure chambers offer key advantages to whole-body systems, particularly when aerosol or mixed aerosol-vapor exposures are used. Specifically, nose-only chambers provide enhanced control over the route of exposure and dose by minimizing the deposition of particles either on the subjects skin/fur or on surfaces of a whole-body exposure system. In the current series of experiments, liver, brain, and lung total glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed following either nose-only or whole-body exposures to either jet fuel or to clean, filtered air. The data were compared to untreated control subjects. Acute nose-only inhalation exposures of rats resulted in a significant depletion of liver GSH levels both in subjects that were exposed to clean, filtered air as well as those exposed to JP-8 jet fuel and to a synthetic jet fuel. Glutathione levels were not altered in lung or brain tissue. Whole-body inhalation exposure had no effect on GSH levels in any tissue for any of the treatment groups. A second experiment demonstrated that the loss of GSH did not occur if rats were anaesthetized prior to and during nose-only exposure to clean, filtered air or to mixed hydrocarbons. These data appear to be consistent with studies demonstrating depletion in liver GSH levels among rats subjected to restraint stress. Finally, the depletion of GSH that was observed in liver following a single acute exposure was reduced following five daily exposures to clean, filtered air, suggesting the possibility of habituation to restraint in the nose-only exposure chamber. The finding that placement in a nose-only exposure chamber per se yields liver GSH depletion raises the possibility of an interaction between this mode of toxicant exposure and the toxicological effects of certain inhaled test substances.

  15. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  16. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1984-05-01

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U 3 O 8 mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U 3 O 8 . The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables

  17. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of Inhaled Versus Deposited Dose Using the Exponential Dose-Response Model for Inhalational Anthrax in Nonhuman Primate, Rabbit, and Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutting, Bradford W; Rukhin, Andrey; Mackie, Ryan S; Marchette, David; Thran, Brandolyn

    2015-05-01

    The application of the exponential model is extended by the inclusion of new nonhuman primate (NHP), rabbit, and guinea pig dose-lethality data for inhalation anthrax. Because deposition is a critical step in the initiation of inhalation anthrax, inhaled doses may not provide the most accurate cross-species comparison. For this reason, species-specific deposition factors were derived to translate inhaled dose to deposited dose. Four NHP, three rabbit, and two guinea pig data sets were utilized. Results from species-specific pooling analysis suggested all four NHP data sets could be pooled into a single NHP data set, which was also true for the rabbit and guinea pig data sets. The three species-specific pooled data sets could not be combined into a single generic mammalian data set. For inhaled dose, NHPs were the most sensitive (relative lowest LD50) species and rabbits the least. Improved inhaled LD50 s proposed for use in risk assessment are 50,600, 102,600, and 70,800 inhaled spores for NHP, rabbit, and guinea pig, respectively. Lung deposition factors were estimated for each species using published deposition data from Bacillus spore exposures, particle deposition studies, and computer modeling. Deposition was estimated at 22%, 9%, and 30% of the inhaled dose for NHP, rabbit, and guinea pig, respectively. When the inhaled dose was adjusted to reflect deposited dose, the rabbit animal model appears the most sensitive with the guinea pig the least sensitive species. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Lung dose and lung cancer risk by inhalation of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1983-01-01

    The inhalation of short-lived radon daughters constitutes the most important occupational radiation exposure in mines, particularly in uranium mines. Among some groups of miners exposed in the past to relatively high radon levels, an excess lung cancer incidence has been observed. In addition to this occupational hazard, the observed radon levels in domestic houses indicate that the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters seems to be the most important component of the radiation exposure of the population from natural sources. For the quantification and judgment of the radiological impact by inhalation of radon daughters in mines as well as in houses, it is necessary to estimate the relationships between the inhaled activity or potential alpha (α) energy of these radionuclides, the dose to target tissues in the lung, and the possible associated lung cancer (LC) risk. It is the purpose of this paper to give a condensed review of our present knowledge in this field and to indicate the main gaps and uncertainties where future research seems necessary

  20. Thinner inhalation effects on oxidative stress and DNA repair in a rat model of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Gallegos-Corona, Marco-Antonio; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Hernández-Chan, Nancy Georgina; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2010-04-01

    Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Numerous studies of workers for genotoxic effects of thinner exposure have yielded conflicting results, perhaps because co-exposure to variable other compounds cannot be avoided in workplace exposure studies. In contrast, there is no data concerning the genotoxic effects of intentional inhalation abuse. The aim of this project was to examine the genotoxic effects of thinner inhalation in an animal model of thinner abuse (rats exposed to 3000 ppm toluene, a high solvent concentration over a very short, 15 min time period, twice a day for 6 weeks). The data presented here provides evidence that thinner inhalation in our experimental conditions is able to induce weight loss, lung abnormalities and oxidative stress. This oxidative stress induces oxidative DNA damage that is not a characteristic feature of genotoxic damage. No significant difference in DNA damage and DNA repair (biomarkers of genotoxicity) in lymphocytes from thinner-treated and control rats was found. Lead treatment was used as a positive control in these assays. Finally, bone marrow was evaluated as a biomarker of cellular alteration associated with thinner inhalation. The observed absence of hemopoietic and genetic toxicity could be explained in part by the absence of benzene, the only carcinogenic component of thinner; however, benzene is no longer a common component of thinner. In conclusion, thinner did not cause genotoxic effects in an experimental model of intentional abuse despite the fact that thinner inhalation induces oxidative stress. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fungi spores dimension matters in health effects: a methodology for more detail fungi exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Health effects resulting from dust inhalation in occupational environments may be more strongly associated with specific microbial components, such as fungi, than to the particles. The aim of the present study is to characterize the occupational exposure to the fungal burden in four different occupational settings (two feed industries, one poultry and one waste sorting industry), presenting results from two air sampling methods – the impinger collector and the use of filters. In addition, ...

  2. Binding of ethylene oxide in spermiogenic germ cell stages of the mouse after low-level inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mice received inhalation exposures of 3 H-labeled ethylene oxide (EtO) gas at levels from 0.65 to 3.2 parts per million-hours (ppm-hr), which are below the exposure limits currently allowed for humans. Subsequently, spermatozoa were recovered from the reproductive tracts of the animals over a two-week period and assayed for the amount of bound EtO. A strong increase in the level of EtO binding occurred in late spermatid stages; these stages are also genetically sensitive to the action of EtO. Alkylation of the DNA within the sperm accounted for a very small fraction of the total sperm head alkylation, averaging about 20 DNA alkylations per sperm per ppm-hr of exposure over the two-week period. However, alkylation of protamine, a protein unique to sperm cells, was found to be correlated with total sperm head alkylation and accounted for nearly all of the EtO binding. Protamine alkylation appears to be a significant cause of EtO-induced genetic damage in spermiogenic cells of the mammal

  3. Methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning - 59138

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondra, Frantisek; Vasko, Marek; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The article presents methodology of external exposure calculation for reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. Production of rails has been used as an example application of proposed methodology within the CONRELMAT project. The article presents a methodology for determination of radiological, material, organizational and other conditions for conditionally released materials reuse to ensure that workers and public exposure does not breach the exposure limits during scenario's life cycle (preparation, construction and operation of scenario). The methodology comprises a proposal of following conditions in the view of workers and public exposure: - radionuclide limit concentration of conditionally released materials for specific scenarios and nuclide vectors, - specific deployment of conditionally released materials eventually shielding materials, workers and public during the scenario's life cycle, - organizational measures concerning time of workers or public stay in the vicinity on conditionally released materials for individual performed scenarios and nuclide vectors. The above mentioned steps of proposed methodology have been applied within the CONRELMAT project. Exposure evaluation of workers for rail production is introduced in the article as an example of this application. Exposure calculation using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool was done within several models. The most exposed profession for scenario was identified. On the basis of this result, an increase of radionuclide concentration in conditional released material was proposed more than two times to 681 Bq/kg without no additional safety or organizational measures being applied. After application of proposed safety and organizational measures (additional shielding, geometry changes and limitation of work duration) it is possible to increase concentration of radionuclide in conditional released material more than ten times to 3092 Bq/kg. Storage

  4. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  5. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  6. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  7. Inhalation toxicology of diesel fuel obscurant aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Final report, Phase 3, subchronic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, S.; Dalbey, W.; Schmoyer, R.; Griesemer, R.

    1984-12-01

    Inhalation exposures were performed twice per week, for 13 weeks, to determine whether there was any potential toxicity to rats of comparatively low concentrations of a condensation aerosol from diesel fuel. Changes in breathing frequency and the response of animals to a loud sharp sound (startle response) were measured in selected animals prior to the start of the exposures, at various time points during the thirteen week exposure period, and at monthly intervals during the recovery period. Assays were performed on selected animals at the end of the exposure period, and again after the two month recovery period. Endpoints included pulmonary function tests, numbers of alveolar free cells, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. No mortalities were recorded during the exposure or recovery periods. Slight toxicity occurred at these low aerosol concentrations with the loss in body weight of all treated animals during the exposure period. During the exposure period there were also some slight changes in startle reflex, however, these were apparently acute effects, and there appeared to be no permanent CNS involvement as measured by this endpoint. Immediately post-exposure, the numbers of lavaged alveolar macrophages were slightly elevated in all aerosol exposed animals. Pulmonary function tests, pulmonary gas exchange and dynamic lung tests were all apparently unaffected by these low diesel fuel aerosol exposures. Changes in tissue weights in aerosol exposed animals were minor and the few histopathological lesions were randomly scattered amongst all groups included in this study and were more attributable to the age of the animals than any specific treatment group. No significant cumulative toxicity may be attributed to these diesel fuel aerosol exposures. 14 references, 1 figure, 42 tables.

  8. Effects of a single inhalative exposure to formaldehyde on the open field behavior of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Fathi A; Möritz, Klaus-Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen

    2004-02-01

    The effects of formaldehyde on the explorative behavior and locomotor activity of mice after a single inhalative exposure were examined in an open field. Adult male mice were exposed to approximately 1.1 ppm, 2.3 ppm, or 5.2 ppm formaldehyde vapour for 2 hours and the open field test was carried out two hours after the end of exposure (trial 1) and repeated 24 hours thereafter (trial 2). The following behavioral parameters were quantitatively examined: numbers of crossed floor squares (inner, peripheral, total), sniffing, grooming, rearing, climbing, and incidence of fecal boli. The results of the first trial revealed that the motion activity was significantly reduced in all exposed groups. In the 1.1 ppm group, the frequency of rearing was reduced and that of floor sniffing increased. The exposure to the two higher formaldehyde concentrations caused a significant decrease in total numbers of floor squares crossed by the subjects, air sniffing, and rearing. The open field test on the next day (trial 2) showed that the frequencies of floor sniffing, grooming, and rearing in all formaldehyde groups were significantly altered. In the 2.5 ppm group, an increased incidence of fecal boli was observed. From the results obtained, we conclude that the exposure of male mice to formaldehyde vapour affects their locomotor and explorative activity in the open field, and that some open field parameters are still altered in the exposed animals even after 24 hours.

  9. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by 222 Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  10. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  11. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  12. Comparative toxicity in rats vs hamsters of inhaled radon daughters with and without uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaven, J.C.; Palmer, R.F.; McDonald, K.E.; Lund, J.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous exposures of rats and hamsters to inhaled radon daughters, with and without uranium ore dust, were performed daily for five months. Pulmonary pathology developing in 6 to 13 mo after cessation of daily exposures included interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, epithelial hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and malignant neoplasia. Rats showed a greater variety and more severe response to these uranium mine inhalation exposures than did hamsters. Inhalation of radon daughters with uranium ore dust displayed the site of greatest damage, including squamous carcinoma, from the nasopharynx to the lungs. Sixty percent of the rats exposed to radon daughters with ore dust developed primary pulmonary carcinomas, providing an appropriate short-term experimental animal model for investigation of respiratory tract carcinogenesis in uranium miners

  13. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  14. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO 2 -NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO 2 -NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m 2 /g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive 48 V labelling of the TiO 2 NP. The kinetics of solubility of 48 V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO 2 -NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO 2 -NP is approximately 2% of TiO 2 -NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO 2 -NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO 2 -NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO 2 -NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO 2 -NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic exposure to insoluble NP the translocated fraction of NP will

  15. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Lungenbiologie und Erkrankungen, Netzwerk Nanopartikel und Gesundheit

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO{sub 2}-NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2}-NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m{sup 2}/g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive {sup 48}V labelling of the TiO{sub 2} NP. The kinetics of solubility of {sup 48}V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO{sub 2}-NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP is approximately 2% of TiO{sub 2}-NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO{sub 2}-NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO{sub 2}-NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO{sub 2}-NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic

  16. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, D.H.; Havill, K.; Thompson, M.M.; Rittano, A.B.; Chu, J.; Glanville, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p 99m Tc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99m Tc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99m Tc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  17. Inhalation toxicity of indoor air pollutants in Drosophila melanogaster using integrated transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Liu, Yuedan; Kwak, Gyu-Suk; Heo, Muyoung; Song, Kyung Seuk; Chung, Yun Doo; Chon, Tae-Soo; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-06-01

    We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules. We conducted a toxicity test using mutants of the representative genes in these pathways to explore the toxicological consequences of alterations of these pathways. Furthermore, extensive computational behavior analysis showed that exposure to either toluene or formaldehyde reduced most of the behavioral parameters of both wild-type and mutants. Interestingly, behavioral alteration caused by toluene or formaldehyde exposure was most severe in the p38b mutant, suggesting that the defects in the p38 pathway underlie behavioral alteration. Overall, the results indicate that exposure to toluene and formaldehyde via inhalation causes severe toxicity in Drosophila, by inducing significant alterations in gene expression and behavior, suggesting that Drosophila can be used as a potential alternative model in inhalation toxicity screening.

  18. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Konde, Lassana; Wolf, Ruth E.; Otto, Richard D.; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan–Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 – 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara–Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  19. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy exposure: analysis of 197 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, A; Rezaian, G R

    1997-09-01

    To find out the late pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard gas inhalation in 197 veterans, 10 years after their exposure. Cross-sectional clinical study. University hospital. One hundred ninety-seven veterans with a single, heavy exposure to sulfur mustard gas in 1986 and 86 nonexposed veterans as their control group. Pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, bronchoscopy, and high-resolution CT of the chest were performed in all patients. Transbronchial lung biopsy was done in 24 suspected cases of pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma was diagnosed in 21 (10.65%), chronic bronchitis in 116 (58.88%), bronchiectasis in 17 (8.62%), airway narrowing due to searing or granulation tissue in 19 (9.64%), and pulmonary fibrosis in 24 (12.18%) cases. None of these were found among the control group except for a single case of chronic bronchitis. Although the respiratory symptoms of an acute sulfur mustard gas inhalation are usually transient and nonspecific, it can lead to the development of a series of chronic destructive pulmonary sequelae in such cases.

  20. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Nine 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  1. Hematological responses after inhaling 238PuO2: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to 238 PuO 2 have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of 238 Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled 238 PuO 2 on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting 238 PuO 2 particles and to extrapolate results to humans

  2. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete

    2000-01-01

    Long-lasting central nervous system (CNS) neurotoxicity of 4-tert-butyltoluene (TBT) has been investigated using electrophysiology, behaviour, and neurochemistry in Long Evans rats exposed by inhalation to 0, 20, or 40 p.p.m. TBT 6 hr/day, 7 days/week for 4 weeks. Flash evoked potentials...... and somatosensory evoked potentials were not affected by TBT In Auditory Brain Stem Response there was no shift in hearing threshold, but the amplitude of the first wave was increased in both exposed groups at high stimulus levels. Three to four months after the end of exposure, behavioural studies in Morris water...... maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum...

  3. Comparative electrophysiological evaluation of hippocampal function following repeated inhalation exposures to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and the synthetic Fischer Tropsch fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Joyce G; McInturf, Shawn M; Miklasevich, Molly K; Gut, Chester P; Grimm, Michael D; Reboulet, James E; Howard, William R; Mumy, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fuels continues to be a concern in both military and general populations. The aim of this study was to examine effects of in vivo rat repeated exposures to different types of jet fuel utilizing microelectrode arrays for comparative electrophysiological (EP) measurements in hippocampal slices. Animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of four jet fuels, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, Jet A, JP-5, or synthetic Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel via whole-body inhalation for 20 d (6 hr/d, 5 d/week for 28 d) and synaptic transmission as well as behavioral performance were assessed. Our behavioral studies indicated no significant changes in behavioral performance in animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, or JP-5. A significant deviation in learning pattern during the Morris water maze task was observed in rats exposed to the highest concentration of FT (2000 mg/m 3 ). There were also significant differences in the EP profile of hippocampal neurons from animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, or FT compared to control air. However, these differences were not consistent across fuels or dose dependent. As expected, patterns of EP alterations in brain slices from JP-8 and Jet A exposures were more similar compared to those from JP-5 and FT. Further longitudinal investigations are needed to determine if these EP effects are transient or persistent. Such studies may dictate if and how one may use EP measurements to indicate potential susceptibility to neurological impairments, particularly those that result from inhalation exposure to chemicals or mixtures.

  4. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  5. Species and gender differences in the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female rats and mice after inhalation exposure or gavage administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Parkinson, Horace D; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce emissions. Understanding the metabolism and distribution of TAME is needed to assess potential human health issues. The effect of dose level, duration of exposure and route of administration on the metabolism and distribution of TAME were investigated in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice following inhalation or gavage administration. By 48 h after exposure, >96% of the administered radioactivity was expired in air (16-71%) or eliminated in urine and feces (28-72%). Following inhalation exposure, mice had a two- to threefold greater relative uptake of [14C]TAME compared with rats. Metabolites were excreted in urine of rats and mice that are formed by glucuronide conjugation of tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA), oxidation of TAA to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and glucuronide conjugation of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane. A saturation in the uptake and metabolism of TAME with increased exposure concentration was indicated by a decreased relative uptake of total [14C]TAME equivalents and an increase in the percentage expired as volatiles. A saturation of P-450 oxidation of TAA was indicated by a disproportional decrease of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and its glucuronide conjugate with increased exposure concentration. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenburg, Dustin R.; Scardina, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between efficacy and toxicity. The use of inhaled antibiotics allows for maximization of target site concentrations and optimization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. This review is a comprehensive discussion of formulation and drug delivery aspects, in vitro and microbiological considerations, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcomes with inhaled antibiotics as they apply to disease states other than cystic fibrosis. In reviewing the literature surrounding the use of inhaled antibiotics, we also highlight the complexities related to this route of administration and the shortcomings in the available evidence. The lack of novel anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the developmental pipeline will encourage the innovative use of our existing agents, and the inhaled route is one that deserves to be further studied and adopted in the clinical arena. PMID:27226088

  7. Inhalation exposure during spray application and subsequent sanding of a wood sealant containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael R; West, Gavin H; Burrelli, Leonard G; Dresser, Daniel; Griffin, Kelsey N; Segrave, Alan M; Perrenoud, Jon; Lippy, Bruce E

    2017-07-01

    Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber. Dust control methods during sanding were compared. Filter-based sampling, electron microscopy, and real-time particle counters provided measures of exposure. Airborne nanoparticles above background levels were detected by particle counters for all exposure scenarios. Nanoparticle number concentrations and particle size distributions were similar for sanding of treated versus untreated wood. Very few unbound nanoparticles were detected in aerosol samples via electron microscopy, rather nano-sized ZnO was contained within, or on the surface of larger airborne particles. Whether the presence of nanoscale ZnO in these aerosols affects toxicity merits further investigation. Mass-based exposure measurements were below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for Zn, although there are no established exposure limits for nanoscale ZnO. Local exhaust ventilation was effective, reducing airborne nanoparticle number concentrations by up to 92% and reducing personal exposure to total dust by at least 80% in terms of mass. Given the discrepancies between the particle count data and electron microscopy observations, the chemical identity of the airborne nanoparticles detected by the particle counters remains uncertain. Prior studies attributed the main source of nanoparticle emissions during sanding to copper nanoparticles generated from electric sander motors. Potentially contrary results are presented suggesting the sander motor may not have been

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus viability drives allergic responses to inhaled conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Croston, Tara L; Lemons, Angela R; Goldsmith, W T; Marshall, Nikki B; Kashon, Michael L; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2018-04-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures). Control mice inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The influence of A. fumigatus conidial germination on the pulmonary immunopathological outcomes was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis of cellular infiltration in the airways, assessment of lung mRNA expression, and quantitative proteomics and histopathology of whole lung tissue. Repeated inhalation of viable conidia, but not HIC, resulted in allergic inflammation marked by vascular remodeling, extensive eosinophilia, and accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in the murine airways. More specifically, mice that inhaled viable conidia resulted in a mixed TH1 and TH2 (IL-13) cytokine response. Recruitment of eosinophils corresponded with increased Ccl11 transcripts. Furthermore, genes associated with M2 or alternatively activated macrophage polarization (e.g. Arg1, Chil3 and Retnla) were significantly upregulated in viable A. fumigatus exposed mice. In mice inhaling HIC, CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ (TH1) dominated the lymphocytic infiltration. Quantitative proteomics of the lung revealed metabolic reprogramming accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulated by oxidative stress from repetitive microbial insult. Our studies demonstrate that A. fumigatus conidial viability in vivo is critical to the immunopathological presentation of chronic fungal allergic disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Bellmann, B; Ernst, H; Creutzenberg, O; Phillips, J I

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Clinical effectiveness of the Respimat® inhaler device in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: evidence when compared with other handheld inhaler devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Felix SF Ram1, Celso R Carvallho2, John White31School of Health and Social Services, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Physical Therapy, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 3York Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, York Hospital, York, UKObjectives: Medication for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD may be delivered by a number of different inhaler devices. This study was undertaken to determine the clinical effectiveness of the Respimat® handheld inhaler device compared with other handheld inhaler devices for the delivery of medication in stable COPD.Methodology: A systematic review of high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials comparing Respimat with other inhaler devices using the same medication was performed. Studies were searched for in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as well as other relevant electronic databases. Manufacturers of inhaled COPD medication were also contacted for potential trials.Results: Seven studies of high methodological quality with 3813 participants were included in the review. Three trials used Handihaler® as the comparator inhaler, three used a chlorofluorocarbon metered-dose inhaler (CFC-MDI, and one trial used a hydroflouroalkane (HFA-MDI. When Respimat was compared with Handihaler, the following reported outcomes were not significantly different: trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.01 L; P = 0.14, trough forced vital capacity (FVC (WMD 0.001 L: P = 0.88, peak FEV1 (WMD 0.01 L: P = 0.08, peak FVC (WMD 0.01 L: P = 0.55, morning peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR (WMD 5.06 L/min: P = 0.08, and evening PEFR (WMD 4.39 L/min: P = 0.15. Furthermore, there were no differences when Respimat was compared with Handihaler for risk of exacerbations (relative risk [RR] 0.94: P = 0.81, dry mouth (RR 1.57: P = 0.34, or nasopharyngitis (RR 1.42: P = 0.22. For Respimat compared with CFC-MDI, the

  11. Toxicity of 91Y inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the radiation hazards due to inhalation of 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles have been undertaken in Beagle dogs to assess the biological consequences of inhaling a relatively insoluble, energetic beta emitter with an intermediate effective half-life in the lung. A radiation-dose pattern study in which 30 dogs were serially sacrificed from 0 to 320 days after inhalation exposure to 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles has been completed. A longevity study is in progress in which 96 dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 300 μCi 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles/kg body weight and 12 dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 56 dogs have died in the longevity study between 113 and 2841 days after exposure. Forty of these dogs, with cumulative radiation doses to lung between 8,300 and 60,000 rads, died with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis at 113 to 1011 days after exposure. Fifteen dogs that died between 1115 and 2841 days after exposure with cumulative doses to lung ranging from 16,000 to 25,000 rads had pulmonary carcinomas. One dog that died at 1847 days after exposure with a cumulative dose to lung of 9,700 rads had a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen. Forty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 2,400 to 18,000 rads and 12 control dogs remain alive from 2563 to 3116 days after inhalation exposure and will continue to be studied throughout the remainder of their life span to determine the relationship between radiation dose, dose rate and biologic effects

  12. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, S.S.; Lyerly, D.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with (35S)methionine and (3H)fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure.

  13. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, S.S.; Lyerly, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with [35S]methionine and [3H]fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure

  14. Inhaled ciclesonide versus inhaled budesonide or inhaled beclomethasone or inhaled fluticasone for chronic asthma in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin David MG

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciclesonide is a new inhaled corticosteroids licensed for the prophylactic treatment of persistent asthma in adults. Currently beclomethasone dipropionate, budesonide and fluticasone propionate are the most commonly prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of asthma but there has been no systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety ciclesonide to these agents. We therefore aimed to systematically review published randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness and safety of ciclesonide compared to alternative inhaled corticosteroids in people with asthma. Methods We performed literature searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED, the COCHRANE LIBRARY and various Internet evidence sources for randomised controlled trials or systematic reviews comparing ciclesonide to beclomethasone or budesonide or fluticasone in adult humans with persistent asthma. Data was extracted by one reviewer. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was variable. There were no trials comparing ciclesonide to beclomethasone. There was no significant difference between ciclesonide and budesonide or fluticasone on the following outcomes: lung function, symptoms, quality of life, airway responsiveness to a provoking agent or inflammatory markers. However, the trials were very small in size, increasing the possibility of a type II error. One trial demonstrated that the combined deposition of ciclesonide (and its active metabolite in the oropharynx was 47% of that of budesonide while another trial demonstrated that the combined deposition of ciclesonide (and its active metabolite in the oropharynx was 53% of that of fluticasone. One trial demonstrated less suppression of cortisol in overnight urine collection after ciclesonide compared to fluticasone (geometric mean fold difference = 1.5, P Conclusion There is very little evidence comparing CIC to other ICS, restricted to very small, phase II studies of low

  15. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.; Rezk, Peter E.; Katos, Alexander M.; Wajda, Nikolai A.; Moran, Theodore S.; Steele, Keith E.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Sciuto, Alfred M.

    2007-01-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m 3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  16. Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna William A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Results Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1. The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious virus particles per ferret. Conclusions Aerosolized Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1 is highly infectious and lethal in ferrets. Clinical signs appeared earlier in animals infected through inhalation of aerosolized virus compared to those infected through intranasal instillation.

  17. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalin Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01 and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value. The calculated cancer risks (CRs at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  19. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  20. Repeated episodes of ozone inhalation amplifies the effects of allergen sensitization and inhalation on airway immune and structural development in Rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Miller, Lisa A; Gershwin, Laurel J; Fanucchi, Michelle V; Van Winkle, Laura S; Gerriets, Joan E; Walby, William F; Mitchell, Valerie; Tarkington, Brian K; Wong, Viviana J; Baker, Gregory L; Pantle, Lorraine M; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Wu, Reen; Evans, Michael J; Hyde, Dallas M; Plopper, Charles G

    2003-08-15

    Twenty-four infant rhesus monkeys (30 days old) were exposed to 11 episodes of filtered air (FA), house dust mite allergen aerosol (HDMA), ozone (O3), or HDMA + O3 (5 days each followed by 9 days of FA). Ozone was delivered for 8 h/day at 0.5 ppm. Twelve of the monkeys were sensitized to house dust mite allergen (Dermatophagoides farinae) at ages 14 and 28 days by subcutaneous inoculation (SQ) of HDMA in alum and intraperitoneal injection of heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells. Sensitized monkeys were exposed to HDMA aerosol for 2 h/day on days 3-5 of either FA (n = 6) or O3 (n = 6) exposure. Nonsensitized monkeys were exposed to either FA (n = 6) or O3 (n = 6). During the exposure regimen, parameters of allergy (i.e., serum IgE, histamine, and eosinophilia), airways resistance, reactivity, and structural remodeling were evaluated. Eleven repeated 5-day cycles of inhaling 0.5 ppm ozone over a 6-month period had only mild effects on the airways of nonsensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Similarly, the repeated inhalation of HDMA by HDMA-sensitized infant monkeys resulted in only mild airway effects, with the exception of a marked increase in proximal airway and terminal bronchiole content of eosinophils. In contrast, the combined cyclic inhalation of ozone and HDMA by HDMA sensitized infants monkeys resulted in a marked increase in serum IgE, serum histamine, and airways eosinophilia. Furthermore, combined cyclic inhalation of ozone and HDMA resulted in even greater alterations in airway structure and content that were associated with a significant elevation in baseline airways resistance and reactivity. These results suggest that ozone can amplify the allergic and structural remodeling effects of HDMA sensitization and inhalation.

  1. Combustion-derived nanoparticles: A review of their toxicology following inhalation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Nicholas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review considers the molecular toxicology of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNP following inhalation exposure. CDNP originate from a number of sources and in this review we consider diesel soot, welding fume, carbon black and coal fly ash. A substantial literature demonstrates that these pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer; they also have the potential to redistribute to other organs following pulmonary deposition. These different CDNP show considerable heterogeneity in composition and solubility, meaning that oxidative stress may originate from different components depending on the particle under consideration. Key CDNP-associated properties of large surface area and the presence of metals and organics all have the potential to produce oxidative stress. CDNP may also exert genotoxic effects, depending on their composition. CDNP and their components also have the potential to translocate to the brain and also the blood, and thereby reach other targets such as the cardiovascular system, spleen and liver. CDNP therefore can be seen as a group of particulate toxins unified by a common mechanism of injury and properties of translocation which have the potential to mediate a range of adverse effects in the lungs and other organs and warrant further research.

  2. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  3. Pharmacoeconomics of inhaled anesthetic agents: considerations for the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, Eric L

    2004-10-15

    Types of economic analyses used for inhaled anesthetic agents, factors to consider in calculating the cost of inhaled anesthetics, limitations of pharmacoeconomic studies of these agents, and strategies for controlling inhaled anesthetic costs are discussed. Inhaled anesthetic agents comprise a substantial component of drug budgets. Calculation of the cost of administering an inhaled anesthetic should take into consideration the cost per mL, potency, waste, concentration and duration of gas delivery, fresh gas flow rate, molecular weight, and density. The use of newer inhaled anesthetic agents with low solubility in blood and tissue provides a more rapid recovery from anesthesia than older, more soluble agents, and also provides the same level of control of depth of anesthesia at a lower fresh gas flow rate and possibly a lower cost than older agents at a higher fresh gas flow rate. A more rapid recovery may facilitate fast-track recovery and yield cost savings if it allows the completion of additional surgical cases or allows a reduction in personnel overtime expenses. Interpretation of pharmacoeconomic studies of inhaled anesthetics requires an appreciation of the limitations in methodology and ability to extrapolate results from one setting to another. Pharmacists' efforts to reduce anesthetic waste and collaborate with anesthesiologists to improve the use of these agents can help contain costs, but improving scheduling and efficiency in the operating room has a greater potential to reduce operating room costs. Much can be done to control costs of anesthetic agents without compromising availability of these agents and patient care.

  4. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  5. The toxicity of inhaled particles of 238PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled 238 PuO 2 in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5μm and 72 inhaled 3.0 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of 238 PuO 2 . Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of 238 Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 μm and 3.0 μ, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10 4 Gy, 800 liver cancers/10 4 Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10 4 Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from 238 Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  7. Deposition, translocation, and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO 2 --UO 2 fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  8. Actinides behaviour after inhalation exposure of rats to industrial NpO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramounet, B.; Abram, M.C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; Fritsch, P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results on 237 Np biological behaviour after inhalation exposure of rats to industrial NpO 2 have shown a skeletal retention of the actinides corresponding to about 1% of the Initial Lung Deposit (ILD). The powder contained both 237 Np and 238 Pu+ 239 Pu. The retention was measured by total alpha-counting in animals killed from 7 to 100 days post exposure (Lizon C. et al, IRPA 9, Avril 96, Vienne. 2, 451-453). The aim of this study was to provide dissolution parameters, fr and ss, of Np and Pu using a calculation method we have recently developed (Ramounet B. et al, Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 76(2), 215-222). A group of 30 male Sprague Dawley rats was exposed to NpO 2 aerosol (AMAD 2.6 μm, σg=2.2). The powder contained 77% of 237 Np, 2% of 239 Pu and 21% of 238 Pu in terms of alpha activity. The mean ILD of all rats, 0.5 kBq (σ=0.1), was measured 7 days post-exposure by in vivo X-ray measurement. Groups of 4 rats were sacrificed at 7, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 365 days post-exposure. Liver, kidneys and femora were removed, heat mineralised and alpha sources were prepared after extractive chromatography. Alpha activities were measured by alpha-spectrometry. Up to 365 days, 80% of the ILD was cleared with a half time of about 60 days and the remaining with a half time of about 200 days. The dissolution parameters were estimated from the evolution of the skeletal and lung retention. f r values were about 1.10 -3 and s s about 1.10 -5 for the two actinides. From these results it appears that industrial NpO 2 look like a type S compound. However, the s s value we measured is about 10 times less than the default value described for type S. Experiments are in progress to confirm these dissolution parameter values in the case of high NpO 2 ILD altering lung clearance. (author)

  9. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism Involved in Kidney Damage After Subchronic Exposure to Vanadium Inhalation and Oral Sweetened Beverages in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Zurutuza, Maribel; González-Villalva, Adriana; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; López-Valdéz, Nelly; Fortoul, Teresa I

    Kidney diseases have notably increased in the last few years. This is partially explained by the increase in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic blood hypertension. However, there is a segment of the population that has neither of the previous risk factors, yet suffers kidney damage. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants has been suggested as a possible risk factor. Air-suspended particles carry on their surface a variety of fuel combustion-related residues such as metals, and vanadium is one of these. Vanadium might produce oxidative stress resulting in the damage of some organs such as the kidney. Additionally, in countries like Mexico, the ingestion of sweetened beverages is a major issue; whether these beverages alone are responsible for direct kidney damage or whether their ingestion promotes the progression of an existing renal damage generates controversy. In this study, we report the combined effect of vanadium inhalation and sweetened beverages ingestion in a mouse model. Forty CD-1 male mice were distributed in 4 groups: control, vanadium inhalation, 30% sucrose in drinking water, and vanadium inhalation plus sucrose 30% in drinking water. Our results support that vanadium inhalation and the ingestion of 30% sucrose induce functional and histological kidney damage and an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, which were higher in the combined effect of vanadium plus 30% sucrose. The results also support that the ingestion of 30% sucrose alone without hyperglycemia also produces kidney damage.

  10. Disposition and biological effect of inhaled 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, D.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    Half-lives of approximately 5, 30, and 100 min were obtained for whole-body clearance of inhaled 85 Kr in beagle dogs. Analysis showed the highest partition coefficients in lungs, bone marrow, and fat. Circulating blood elements were not lowered permanently after 85 Kr exposures

  11. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, David M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Powell, Karen S. [Research Resource Facilities, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Roberts, Andrew M. [Department of Physiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure–volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • A novel rabbit model of chlorine-induced lung disease was developed.

  12. Radiation dose estimates and hazard evaluations for inhaled airborne radionuclides: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The project objective was to conduct confirmatory research on physical chemical characteristics of aerosols produced during manufacture of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide nuclear fuel, to determine the radiation dose distribution in tissues of animals after inhalation exposure to representative aerosols of these materials, and to provide estimates of the relationship of radiation dose and biological response in animals after such inhalation exposure. The first chapter summarizes the physical chemical characterization of samples of aerosols collected from gloveboxes at industrial facilities during normal operations. This chapter provides insights into key aerosol characteristics which are of potential importance in determining the biological fate of specific radionuclides contained in the particulates that would be inhaled by humans following accidental release. The second chapter describes the spatial and temporal distribution of radiation dose in tissues of three species of animals exposed to representative aerosols collected from the industrial facilities. These inhalation studies provide a basis for comparison of the influence of physical chemical form of the inhaled particulates and the variability among species of animal in the radiation dose to tissue. The third chapter details to relationship between radiation dose and biological response in rats exposed to two aerosol forms each at three levels of initial pulmonary burden. This study, conducted over the lifespan of the rats and assuming results to be applicable to humans, indicates that the hazard to health due to inhalation of these industrial aerosols is not different than previously determined for laboratory produced aerosol of PuO 2 . Each chapter is processed separately for the data base

  13. A combined experimental and numerical study on upper airway dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles from an electrical discharge machine shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Shang, Yidan; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-07-12

    Exposure to nanoparticles in the workplace is a health concern to occupational workers with increased risk of developing respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. Based on animal inhalation study and human lung tumor risk extrapolation, current authoritative recommendations on exposure limits are either on total mass or number concentrations. Effects of particle size distribution and the implication to regional airway dosages are not elaborated. Real time production of particle concentration and size distribution in the range from 5.52 to 98.2 nm were recorded in a wire-cut electrical discharge machine shop (WEDM) during a typical working day. Under the realistic exposure condition, human inhalation simulations were performed in a physiologically realistic nasal and upper airway replica. The combined experimental and numerical study is the first to establish a realistic exposure condition, and under which, detailed dose metric studies can be performed. In addition to mass concentration guided exposure limit, inhalation risks to nano-pollutant were reexamined accounting for the actual particle size distribution and deposition statistics. Detailed dosimetries of the inhaled nano-pollutants in human nasal and upper airways with respect to particle number, mass and surface area were discussed, and empirical equations were developed. An astonishing enhancement of human airway dosages were detected by current combined experimental and numerical study in the WEDM machine shop. Up to 33 folds in mass, 27 folds in surface area and 8 folds in number dosages were detected during working hours in comparison to the background dosimetry measured at midnight. The real time particle concentration measurement showed substantial emission of nano-pollutants by WEDM machining activity, and the combined experimental and numerical study provided extraordinary details on human inhalation dosimetry. It was found out that human inhalation dosimetry was extremely sensitive

  14. Lung Deposition And Biological Effects Of Inhaled Radon Progenies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Farkas, A.; Szoke, I.; Moustafa, M.; Kudela, G.

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled radon progenies provide more than the half of natural radiation exposure. There is increasing evidence that the cellular distribution of radiation burden is an important factor regarding the biological response to ionisation radiation, thus, one of our tasks was the characterisation of the distribution of cellular exposure. Histological studies of former uranium miners presented strong correlation between primer deposition hot spots and neoplastic lesions. Most of these lesions were located along the carinal regions of the large bronchial airways. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches have been applied to simulate the deposition distribution of inhaled radon progenies along central human airways. The geometry and the cellular structure of epithelial lung tissue were numerically reconstructed based on anatomical and histological data. Single and multiple ha-hit and cellular dose distributions have been computed applying Monte Carlo modelling techniques at different breathing conditions. Figure 1. Deposition enhancement factor (EF) of inhaled radon progenies on a central airway bifurcation in airway generations 4-5 during light physical activity breathing condition. Size of scanning surface element is a 45μm side triangle. Left panel: EF max=1400,Dp=200 nm (attached). Right panel: EF max1290, Dp= 1 nm (unattached). Values of local per average deposition densities, that is, enhancement factors (Figure 1), hit probabilities and doses may be up to two-three orders of magnitude higher in the deposition hot spots than the average values. Dose calculations revealed that some cell clusters may receive high doses even at low exposure conditions. Applying the model to different radiation exposure conditions useful relations can be received regarding the linear-non threshold hypothesis

  15. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  16. Inhalation of Simulated Smog Affects Cardiac Function in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The health effects of individual criteria air pollutants have been well investigated. Little is known about health effects of inhaled multi-pollutant mixtures that more realistically represent environmental exposures. The present study was designed to evaluate the card...

  17. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  18. The effect of ozone exposure on the airway response to inhaled allergens; Die Wirkung der Einatmung von Ozon auf die allergische Reaktion des Bronchialsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerres, R. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Nowak, D. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Magnussen, H. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie

    1995-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether a short-term exposure to ozone enhances the bronchial response to allergens in subjects with allergic asthma, or facilitates a bronchial response in subjects with allergic rhinitis. In the first part of the study we investigated 57 subjects with mild stable asthma, 29 subjects with allergic rhinitis only and 32 healthy subjects. They were exposed to 250 ppb ozone for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. The effects of ozone on symptoms, lung function parameters and methacholine responsiveness were no markedly different between groups. Twenty-four subjects with asthma and a proven bronchial response to an inhaled allergen, 12 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 10 healthy subjects participated in the second part of the study. In randomized order, subjects breathed 250 ppb ozone or filtered air (FA) for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. Lung function and airway responsiveness to methacholine were determined before and after exposures, and allergen inhalation challenges were performed 3 hrs after exposures. The 5 subjects with asthma showed increased airway responsiveness to the inhaled allergen after ozone. The subjects with rhinitis showed a slight bronchial response when a high dose of allergen was inhalated after ozone exposure. The changes in lung function, methacholine and allergen responsiveness induced by ozone did not correlate with each other. Our data suggest that a short-term exposure to ozone can increase bronchial allergen responsiveness in subjects with asymptomatic to mild asthma and that this effect is not directly related to other functional changes induced by ozone. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Unsere Untersuchung widmete sich der Frage, ob die Einatmung von Ozon das Auftreten oder die Auspraegung einer allergischen Reaktion der Atemwege beeinflussen kann. Zunaechst prueften wir 57 Probanden mit allergischem Asthma bronchiale, 29 mit allergischer Rhinitis ohne Asthma und 32 gesunde Kontrollpersonen auf die

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING OPTIMAL EXPOSURE PARAMETERS OF A HYPERSPECTRAL SCANNING SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Walczykowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research was to establish a methodology that would allow the registration of hyperspectral images with a defined spatial resolution on a horizontal plane. The results obtained within this research could then be used to establish the optimum sensor and flight parameters for collecting aerial imagery data using an UAV or other aerial system. The methodology is based on an user-selected optimal camera exposure parameters (i.e. time, gain value and flight parameters (i.e. altitude, velocity. A push-broom hyperspectral imager- the Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR was used to conduct this research. The measurement station consisted of the following equipment: a hyperspectral camera MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR, a personal computer with HyperSpec III software, a slider system which guaranteed the stable motion of the sensor system, a white reference panel and a Siemens star, which was used to evaluate the spatial resolution. Hyperspectral images were recorded at different distances between the sensor and the target- from 5m to 100m. During the registration process of each acquired image, many exposure parameters were changed, such as: the aperture value, exposure time and speed of the camera’s movement on the slider. Based on all of the registered hyperspectral images, some dependencies between chosen parameters had been developed: - the Ground Sampling Distance – GSD and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the speed of the camera and the distance between the sensor and the target, - the exposure time and the gain value, - the Density Number and the gain value. The developed methodology allowed us to determine the speed and the altitude of an unmanned aerial vehicle on which the sensor would be mounted, ensuring that the registered hyperspectral images have the required spatial resolution.

  20. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  1. Biological effects of nano-nickel in rat lungs after administration by inhalation and by intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogami, A; Morimoto, Y; Murakami, M; Myojo, T; Oyabu, T; Tanaka, I

    2009-01-01

    We examined the biological effects of the nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles by inhalation and instillation study. Wistar male rats were exposed to NiO nanoparticles (nNiOs) for 4 weeks (6 hrs/day). The nNiOs was black-colored NiO (99.8%) and average particle size (APS) was 20 nm. The geometric mean diameter of the particles in the chamber and the daily average exposure concentration were 139 ± 12 nm and 1.0 ± 0.5 x 105 particles/cc, respectively. The deposited amount of nNiOs in the rat lungs at 4 days after the inhalation exposure ended was 29 ± 4 μg. Although nNiOs exposure group showed temporal significant increase in the number of total cells in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 4 days after the exposure end, the difference were not seen at one month after an exposure end compared with control group. The histopathological change was not severe just after the inhalation nor throughout the observation time. Elemental mappings of nickel showed that nickel particles were located in agglomeration at the pulmonary macrophages.

  2. Neurobehavioural evaluation and kinetics of inhalation of constant or fluctuating toluene concentrations in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Muijser, H.; Freidig, A.P.; Bessems, J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The health risks of inhalation exposure to volatile organic solvents may not only depend on the total external dose, but also on the pattern of exposure. It has been suggested that exposure to regularly occurring peak concentrations may have a stronger impact on the brain than constant exposure at

  3. Effect of physical exertion on the biological monitoring of exposure of various solvents following exposure by inhalation in human volunteers: I. Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Truchon, Ginette; Brochu, Martin; Tardif, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Physical exertion (work load) has been recognized as one of several factors that can influence the kinetics of xenobiotics within the human body. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of physical exertion on two exposure indicators of toluene (TOL) in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (one woman, three men) were exposed to TOL (50 ppm) according to the following scenarios involving several periods during which volunteers were asked to perform either aerobic (AERO), muscular (MUSC), or both (AERO/MUSC) types of physical exercise (exercise bicycle, treadmills, pulleys). The target intensities (W) for each exercising period of 30 min--interspaced with 15 min at rest--were the following: REST, 50 W AERO (time-weighted average intensity [TWAI]: 46 watts); 50 W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 38 watts) and 100 W AERO (TWAI: 71 watts) for 7 hours and 50 W MUSC for 3 hours (TWAI: 29 watts). Alveolar air and urine samples were collected at different time intervals before, during, and after exposure for the measurement of unchanged TOL in expired air (TOL-A) and urinary o-cresol (o-CR). Overall, the results showed that TOL-A measured during and after all scenarios involving physical activities were higher (approximately 1.4-2.0 fold) compared with exposures at rest. All scenarios involving physical exertion also resulted in increased end-of-exposure urinary o-CR (mean +/- SD): 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/L (REST) vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1 mg/L (TWAI 46 watts). However, exposure at a TWAI of 71 watts did not further increase o-CR excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 mg/L). This study confirms the significant effect of work load on TOL kinetics and showed that o-CR excretion increased proportionally with work load expressed as TWAI or with the estimated mean pulmonary ventilation during the period of exposure. This study also shows that exposure to TOL (50 ppm) involving a work load of around 50 W (light intensity) or lower is likely to produce

  4. Prevalidation of in vitro continuous flow exposure systems as alternatives to in vivo inhalation safety evaluation experimentations: outcome from MAAPHRI-PCRD5 research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Paul; Hasson, Virginie; Fall, Mamadou; Papaioanou, Eleni; Preterre, David; Gouriou, Frantz; Keravec, Veronika; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios; Dionnet, Frédéric

    2008-06-01

    Diesel engine emission aerosol-induced toxicity patterns were compared using both in vitro (organotypic cultures of lung tissue) and in vivo experimentations mimicking the inhalation situation with continuous aerosol flow exposure designs. Using liquid media resuspended diesel particles, we show that toxic response pattern is influenced by the presence of tensioactive agent in the medium which alter particle-borne pollutant bioavailability. Using continuous aerosol exposure in vitro, we show that with high sulfur fuel (300ppm) in the absence of oxidation catalysis, particulate matter was the main toxic component triggering DNA damage and systemic inflammation, while a very limited oxidant stress was evidenced. In contrast, with ultra-low sulfur fuel in the presence of strong diesel oxidation catalysis, the specific role of particulate matter is no longer evidenced and the gas phase then becomes the major component triggering strong oxidant stress, increased NO(2) being the most probable trigger. In vivo, plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), lung superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity levels varied in agreement with in vitro observations. Diesel emission treatment with oxycat provokes a marked systemic oxidant stress. Again NO(2) proved to account for a major part of these impacts. In conclusion, similar anti-oxidant responses were observed in in vitro and in vivo experiments after diesel emission aerosol continuous flow exposures. The lung slice organotypic culture model-exposed complex aerosol appears to be a very valuable alternative to in vivo inhalation toxicology experimentations in rodents.

  5. The Natural History of Pneumonic Tularemia in Female Fischer 344 Rats after Inhalational Exposure to Aerosolized Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis Strain SCHU S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Dekonenko, Alexander; Hahn, Andrew C; Wu, Terry H

    2017-02-01

    The inbred Fischer 344 rat is being evaluated for testing novel vaccines and therapeutics against pneumonic tularemia. Although primary pneumonic tularemia in humans typically occurs by inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, the rat model has relied on intratracheal inoculation of organisms because of safety and equipment issues. We now report the natural history of pneumonic tularemia in female Fischer 344 rats after nose-only inhalational exposure to lethal doses of aerosolized Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, strain SCHU S4. Our results are consistent with initial uptake of aerosolized SCHU S4 from the nasal cavity, lungs, and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteremia with hematogenous dissemination was first detected 2 days after exposure. Shortly thereafter, the infected rats exhibited fever, tachypnea, and hypertension that persisted for 24 to 36 hours and then rapidly decreased as animals succumbed to infection between days 5 and 8 after exposure. Tachycardia was observed briefly, but only after the core body temperature and blood pressure began to decrease as the animals were near death. Initial neutrophilic and histiocytic inflammation in affected tissues became progressively more fibrinous and necrotizing over time. At death, as many as 10 10 colony-forming units were found in the lungs, spleen, and liver. Death was attributed to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Overall, the pathogenesis of pneumonic tularemia in the female F344 rat model appears to replicate the disease in humans. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological effects like cancer formation due to inhalational exposure to plutonium. What are evident in animal experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Literatures on the title subject are reviewed and problems to be solved are given. There are 2 reports of dog experiments of inhaled Pu by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which have given results incompatible/compatible with risk assessments hitherto: one with the micro-particle of Pu-nitrate, 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in which the dog lung is compared with human's by histology and autoradiography, presenting findings that differ from the previous ICRP assumption of the homogeneous distribution in the lung; and the other with 239 PuO 2 , indicating that non-tumorous diseases are agreeable with the determinative effect defined by ICRP. Other literatures have shown that effects of Pu inhalation differ dependently on the solubility of its chemical form and on its isotope ( 239 Pu and 238 Pu). Size of the inhaled Pu particle affects its deposition and thereby its influence on the air tract and other tissues. Rats are also used in Pu inhalation experiments. The significant increase of malignant lung tumor incidence is shown with 239 PuO 2 inhalation at >1 Gy lung absorbed dose by PNL and Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), at >0.7 Gy and not at 239 PuO 2 inhalation in dogs involves the long-term decrease of peripheral lymphocytes, acute radiation pneumonia and chronic fibroid lung at 10-20 Gy, which can be a cause of death. There are many studies of the lung tumor formation at various carcinogenic steps in rats. Problems to be solved for the inhaled Pu compound are the elucidation of accuracy and validity concerning the metabolic parameters, alpha-ray dose assessment, dose rate effects of particle size; the biological factors modifying the metabolism and effect; and the relationship of cancer formation with non-tumorous diseases. (T.T)

  7. Effect of physical exertion on the biological monitoring of exposure to various solvents following exposure by inhalation in human volunteers: II. n-Hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Robert; Nadeau, Véronique; Truchon, Ginette; Brochu, Martin

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated the impact of physical exertion on two n-hexane (HEX) exposure indicators in human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions in an inhalation chamber. A group of four volunteers (two women, two men) were exposed to HEX (50 ppm; 176 mg/m(3)) according to several scenarios involving several periods when volunteers performed either aerobic (AERO), muscular (MUSC), or both AERO/MUSC types of exercise. The target intensities for 30-min exercise periods separated by 15-min rest periods were the following: REST, 50W AERO [time-weighted average intensity including resting period (TWAI): 38W], 50W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 34W), 100W AERO/MUSC (TWAI: 63W), and 100W AERO (TWAI: 71W) for 7 hr (two 3-hr exposure periods separated by 1 hr without exposure) and 50W MUSC for 3 hr (TWAI: 31W). Alveolar air and urine samples were collected at different time intervals before, during, and after exposure to measure unchanged HEX in expired air (HEX-A) and urinary 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD). HEX-A levels during exposures involving AERO activities (TWAI: 38W and 71W) were significantly enhanced (approximately +14%) compared with exposure at rest. MUSC or AERO/MUSC exercises were also associated with higher HEX-A levels but only at some sampling times. In contrast, end-of-exposure (7 hr) urinary 2,5-HD (mean +/- SD) was not modified by physical exertion: 4.14 +/- 1.51 micromol/L (REST), 4.02 +/- 1.52 micromol/L (TWAI 34W), 4.25 +/- 1.53 micromol/L (TWAI 38W), 3.73 +/- 2.09 micromol/L (TWAI 63W), 3.6 +/- 1.34 micromol/L (TWAI 71W) even though a downward trend was observed. Overall, this study showed that HEX kinetics is practically insensitive to moderate variations in workload intensity; only HEX-A levels increased slightly, and urinary 2,5-HD levels remained unchanged despite the fact that all types of physical exercise increased the pulmonary ventilation rate.

  8. Quantitative plasma biomarker analysis in HDI exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Steve; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of amines in biological samples is important for evaluating occupational exposure to diisocyanates. In this study, we describe the quantification of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in hydrolyzed plasma of 46 spray painters applying 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-containing paint in vehicle repair shops collected during repeated visits to their workplace and their relationship with dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI monomer. HDA was detected in 76% of plasma samples, as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives, and the range of HDA concentrations was HDA levels and HDI inhalation exposure measured on the same workday was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.026) compared with the correlation between plasma HDA levels and inhalation exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection (N = 29, r = 0.57, P = 0.0014). The correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI dermal exposure measured on the same workday, although statistically significant, was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.040) while the correlation between HDA and dermal exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection was slightly improved (N = 29, r = 0.36, P = 0.053). We evaluated various workplace factors and controls (i.e. location, personal protective equipment use and paint booth type) as modifiers of plasma HDA levels. Workers using a downdraft-ventilated booth had significantly lower plasma HDA levels relative to semi-downdraft and crossdraft booth types (P = 0.0108); this trend was comparable to HDI inhalation and dermal exposure levels stratified by booth type. These findings indicate that HDA concentration in hydrolyzed plasma may be used as a biomarker of cumulative inhalation and dermal exposure to HDI and for investigating the effectiveness of exposure controls in the workplace.

  9. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  10. Ferrocene: Disposition following nose-only inhalation by the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slauter, R.W.; Tippin, T.K.; Jeffcoat, A.R.; Matthews, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    Ferrocene (FCN) is a volatile solid organometallic proposed for use as an anti-knock additive in gasoline. Such use would provide significant potential for human exposure via inhalation. Nose-only exposure of male F344 rats over 6 h to constant concentrations of 5 and 25 ng of [ 14 C]FCN/mL air was conducted by blending correct proportions of an air stream concentrated with [ 14 C]FCN vapor with one that was FCN free. Fractional pulmonary absorption of FCN was estimated to be ca. 66 and 55% with concentrations of 14 C in blood increasing steadily throughout the exposure period to 80 and 370 ng-eq of FCN/mL, respectively. Disappearance of 14 C from the blood was multiphasic (terminal t 1/2 =∼2 d) following inhalation exposure, resulting in blood concentrations of 10 and 50 ng-eq of FCN/mL 72 h after end of exposure. More than 80% of the recovered 14 C was in the 0-72 h urine, approximately half of which was a single metabolite (radio-HPLC). Unchanged FCN was excreted in only minor amounts ( 14 C were also excreted in feces (ca. 10% of total) and breath (ca. 4% of total). Neither lung nor nasopharynx had tissue to blood ratios of 14 C>3 72 h after exposure. Similar disposition was shown after an iv bolus of 1.0 mg of [ 14 C]FCN/kg body weight

  11. SUDOQU, a new dose-assessment methodology for radiological surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Teun; van Dijk, Arjan

    2018-06-12

    A new methodology has been developed for the assessment of the annual effective dose resulting from removable and fixed radiological surface contamination. It is entitled SUDOQU (SUrface DOse QUantification) and it can for instance be used to derive criteria for surface contamination related to the import of non-food consumer goods, containers and conveyances, e.g., limiting values and operational screening levels. SUDOQU imposes mass (activity)-balance equations based on radioactive decay, removal and deposition processes in indoor and outdoor environments. This leads to time-dependent contamination levels that may be of particular importance in exposure scenarios dealing with one or a few contaminated items only (usually public exposure scenarios, therefore referred to as the 'consumer' model). Exposure scenarios with a continuous flow of freshly contaminated goods also fall within the scope of the methodology (typically occupational exposure scenarios, thus referred to as the 'worker model'). In this paper we describe SUDOQU, its applications, and its current limitations. First, we delineate the contamination issue, present the assumptions and explain the concepts. We describe the relevant removal, transfer, and deposition processes, and derive equations for the time evolution of the radiological surface-, air- and skin-contamination levels. These are then input for the subsequent evaluation of the annual effective dose with possible contributions from external gamma radiation, inhalation, secondary ingestion (indirect, from hand to mouth), skin contamination, direct ingestion and skin-contact exposure. The limiting effective surface dose is introduced for issues involving the conservatism of dose calculations. SUDOQU can be used by radiation-protection scientists/experts and policy makers in the field of e.g. emergency preparedness, trade and transport, exemption and clearance, waste management, and nuclear facilities. Several practical examples are worked

  12. Deposition of inhaled LMFBR-fuel-sodium aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mahlum, D.D.; Briant, J.K.; Catt, D.L.; Peters, L.R.; Clary, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Initial alveolar deposition of LMFBR-fuel aerosols in beagle dogs amounted to 30% of the inhaled activity, but only 5% of the total inhaled activity was deposited in dogs exposed to sodium-fuel aerosols. Aerosol deposition in the gastrointestinal tract amounted to 4% of the initial body burden of fuel-aerosol exposed dogs and 24% of the burden of animals receiving sodium-fuel aerosols. Preliminary analytical data for the dog exposures appear to agree with rodent data for deposition and distribution patterns of aerosols of similar sodium: fuel ratios

  13. Acute Inhalation Toxicity of T-2 Mycotoxin in the Rat and Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    2/kg body weight for the guinea pig . These data show that inhaled T-2 toxin is approximately 20 times more toxic to the rat (0.05 mg T-2/kg body wt...inhaled vs 1.0 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) and at least twice as toxic to the guinea pig (0.4 mg T-2/kg body wt inhaled vs 1-2 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) than ip...administered T-2 toxin. Histopathologic examination of major organs in both the rat and guinea pig after respiratory exposure to T-2 toxin indicated

  14. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Maisha Kelly Freeman; Pilar Z Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders); drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included med...

  15. Estimation of inhalation flow profile using audio-based methods to assess inhaler medication adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle Muls, Helena; Costello, Richard W.; Reilly, Richard B.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are required to inhale forcefully and deeply to receive medication when using a dry powder inhaler (DPI). There is a clinical need to objectively monitor the inhalation flow profile of DPIs in order to remotely monitor patient inhalation technique. Audio-based methods have been previously employed to accurately estimate flow parameters such as the peak inspiratory flow rate of inhalations, however, these methods required multiple calibration inhalation audio recordings. In this study, an audio-based method is presented that accurately estimates inhalation flow profile using only one calibration inhalation audio recording. Twenty healthy participants were asked to perform 15 inhalations through a placebo Ellipta™ DPI at a range of inspiratory flow rates. Inhalation flow signals were recorded using a pneumotachograph spirometer while inhalation audio signals were recorded simultaneously using the Inhaler Compliance Assessment device attached to the inhaler. The acoustic (amplitude) envelope was estimated from each inhalation audio signal. Using only one recording, linear and power law regression models were employed to determine which model best described the relationship between the inhalation acoustic envelope and flow signal. Each model was then employed to estimate the flow signals of the remaining 14 inhalation audio recordings. This process repeated until each of the 15 recordings were employed to calibrate single models while testing on the remaining 14 recordings. It was observed that power law models generated the highest average flow estimation accuracy across all participants (90.89±0.9% for power law models and 76.63±2.38% for linear models). The method also generated sufficient accuracy in estimating inhalation parameters such as peak inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory capacity within the presence of noise. Estimating inhaler inhalation flow profiles using audio based methods may be

  16. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  17. Quantification of inhaled aerosol particles composed of toxic household disinfectant using radioanalytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ha Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Chang Heon; Mushtaq, Sajid; Song, Ha Yeon; Song, Lee; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Jeon, Jongho

    2018-05-25

    To assess the risk posed by a toxic chemical to human health, it is essential to quantify its uptake in a living subject. This study aims to investigate the biological distribution of inhaled polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) aerosol particle, which is known to cause severe pulmonary damage. By labeling with indium-111 ( 111 In), we quantified the uptake of PHMG for up to 7 days after inhalation exposure in rats. The data demonstrate that PHMG is only slowly cleared, with approximately 74% of inhaled particles persisting in the lungs after 168 h. Approximately 5.3% of inhaled particles were also translocated to the liver after 168 h, although the level of redistribution to other tissues, including the kidneys and spleen, was minimal. These observations suggest that large uptake and slow clearance may underlie the fatal inhalation toxicity of PHMG in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately 1 yr after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Five 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure and one control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  20. Indoor occupational exposure to radiation at the Silmet plant in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Markkanen, M; Oksanen, E.; Rajamaee, R.

    2000-01-01

    The main pathways of indoor occupational exposure to radiation at Silmet plant are inhaled thoron daughters, external radiation, and inhaled particulate radioactivity. The exposure time to receive 1 mSv effective dose from inhaled long-lived particulate radioactivity and from external gamma radiation is estimated at about 700 hours at Workplace 1 and about 160 hours at Workplace 2. The results for Workplace 2 represent radiologically the most extreme conditions found in the workplaces. The results show that the exposure of workers due inhalation of long-lived radionuclides and to external gamma radiation may well exceed 1 mSv per year and, therefore, continuous monitoring of doses of workers seems to be justified

  1. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Brian A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is

  2. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  3. Intake of radioactivity by inhalation, in buildings after nuclear incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenk, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Risk studies so far assumed that in case of a nuclear incident, the exposure of persons through inhalation proceeds in free air by direct intake of contaminated ambient air. In reality, however, about 80 p.c. of the population is indoors, and there is a considerable delay of room air contamination in comparison with free air contamination. The radionuclides are deposited on indoor surfaces (such as walls, windows, furniture, etc.), and in air-conditioning systems on the filters. This contamination is somewhat regularly removed through cleaning or filter exchange, which reduces the contamination of room air, and then also the radiation exposure by inhalation. The reducing effect can be enhanced by such simple measures as closing doors and windows in time, and switching the air-conditioning system to recirculating regime, followed by enhanced fresh air supply at a later time. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Potential consequences of yellowcake inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Damon, E.G.; Hahn, F.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The uranium ore milling process includes dusty operations and workers can be exposed to aerosols of highly concentrated uranium. Measurements made during uranium milling operations were used to predict that, if a worker was not wearing respiratory protection, 0.14-50 μg U/min might be deposited in the respiratory tract, predominantly in the nesopharyngeal compartment. Yellowcake was shown by infrared and solubility measurements to be a highly variable mixture of ammonium diuranate and U 3 O 8 . Biokinetic studies of inhaled yellowcake in beagle dogs showed that the more soluble fraction caused kidney damage. After inhalation of 0.5 mg U/kg body wt of soluble uranium, kidney concentration was 0.3 to 3.5 μg U/g kidney within 4-8 days; and was accompanied by kidney damage. Kidney damage was neither severe nor widespread, and was repaired within 64 days after exposure. The damage seen is due to heavy metal nephrotoxicity of uranium, and not to radiation damage

  5. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro; Christopoulou, Maria; Nikita, Konstantina S; Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  6. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, Zeughausstr. 43, 8004, Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria; Nikita, Konstantina S [Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Achermann, Peter, E-mail: crespo@speag.com [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-21

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  7. Pulmonary and cardiovascular responses of rats to inhalation of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny R; McKinney, Walter; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Frazer, David G; Thomas, Treye A; Waugh, Stacey; Kenyon, Allison; MacCuspie, Robert I; Hackley, Vincent A; Castranova, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to wet aerosols generated during use of spray products containing silver (Ag) has not been evaluated. The goal was to assess the potential for cardiopulmonary toxicity following an acute inhalation of wet silver colloid. Rats were exposed by inhalation to a low concentration (100 μg/m(3) ) using an undiluted commercial antimicrobial product (20 mg/L total silver; approximately 33 nm mean aerodynamic diameter [MAD]) or to a higher concentration (1000 μg/m(3)) using a suspension (200 mg/L total silver; approximately 39 nm MAD) synthesized to possess a similar size distribution of Ag nanoparticles for 5 h. Estimated lung burdens from deposition models were 0, 1.4, or 14 μg Ag/rat after exposure to control aerosol, low, and high doses, respectively. At 1 and 7 d postexposure, the following parameters were monitored: pulmonary inflammation, lung cell toxicity, alveolar air/blood barrier damage, alveolar macrophage activity, blood cell differentials, responsiveness of tail artery to vasoconstrictor or vasodilatory agents, and heart rate and blood pressure in response to isoproterenol or norepinephrine, respectively. Changes in pulmonary or cardiovascular parameters were absent or nonsignificant at 1 or 7 d postexposure with the exceptions of increased blood monocytes 1 d after high-dose Ag exposure and decreased dilation of tail artery after stimulation, as well as elevated heart rate in response to isoproterenol 1 d after low-dose Ag exposure, possibly due to bioavailable ionic Ag in the commercial product. In summary, short-term inhalation of nano-Ag did not produce apparent marked acute toxicity in this animal model.

  8. Inhalation of uranium nanoparticles: respiratory tract deposition and translocation to secondary target organs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitot, Fabrice; Lestaevel, Philippe; Tourlonias, Elie; Mazzucco, Charline; Jacquinot, Sébastien; Dhieux, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Tournier, Benjamin B; Gensdarmes, François; Beaunier, Patricia; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2013-03-13

    Uranium nanoparticles (fuel cycle and during remediation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Explosions and fires in nuclear reactors and the use of ammunition containing depleted uranium can also produce such aerosols. The risk of accidental inhalation of uranium nanoparticles by nuclear workers, military personnel or civilian populations must therefore be taken into account. In order to address this issue, the absorption rate of inhaled uranium nanoparticles needs to be characterised experimentally. For this purpose, rats were exposed to an aerosol containing 10⁷ particles of uranium per cm³ (CMD=38 nm) for 1h in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Uranium concentrations deposited in the respiratory tract, blood, brain, skeleton and kidneys were determined by ICP-MS. Twenty-seven percent of the inhaled mass of uranium nanoparticles was deposited in the respiratory tract. One-fifth of UO₂ nanoparticles were rapidly cleared from lung (T(½)=2.4 h) and translocated to extrathoracic organs. However, the majority of the particles were cleared slowly (T(½)=141.5 d). Future long-term experimental studies concerning uranium nanoparticles should focus on the potential lung toxicity of the large fraction of particles cleared slowly from the respiratory tract after inhalation exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposal of a methodology to be applied for the characterization of external exposure risk of employees in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Rafael Figueiredo Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedure requires the administration of radioactive material by injection, ingestion or inhalation. After incorporation, the patient becomes a mobile source of radiation and, after their examination; they can irradiate everyone on their way out of the Nuclear Medicine Service (NMS). A group of workers in this path is considered a critical group, but there are no conviction on this classification, because there are not measurements available. Thus, workers claiming for occupationally exposed individual's (OEI) rights are common. Employers are always in a complex situation, because if they decided to undertake the individual external monitoring of the critical working groups, the Court considers all as OEI and employers are taxed. On the other hand, if they do not provide monitoring, it is impossible to prove that these workers were not exposed to effective doses higher than individual annual public's limit and they lose the actions, too. This work proposes a methodology to evaluate, using TLD environmental monitors, air kerma rate at critical staff points in a NMS. This method provides relevant information about critical groups' exposure. From these results, the clinic or hospital may prove technically, without individual monitoring of employees, the classification of areas and can estimate the maximum flow of patients in the free areas which guarantees exposures below the public individual dose limit. This methodology has been applied successfully to a private clinic in Rio de Janeiro, which operates a NMS. The only critical group that received exposure statistically different from clinic background radiation was that on the antechamber of the NMS. This is a site that should be characterized as a supervised area and the group of workers in this environment as OEI, as the estimated extrapolated annual effective dose in this position was 1.2 +- 0.7 mSv/year, above the public annual limit (1,0 mSv/year). Normalizing by the number of patients, it can

  10. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Case, A.C.; Madison, R.M.; McShane, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (four of five at the highest dosage level, in 14 to 25 mo postexposure; 1 of 20 at the medium-high dosage level, at 34 mo postexposure). There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. One dog, at 39 mo postexposure, has radiographic evidence of an osteosarcoma. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported (Annual Report, 1978). Twelve dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 showed a more rapid translocation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to bone and liver than was observed for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , but at 1 yr postexposure the percentage of the final body burden in bone and liver were similar for the two isotopes

  11. Pharmacological Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus of Inhaled 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the involvement of the GABAA, N-methy-d-aspartate (NMDA), nicotinic acetylcholine, and μ-opioid receptor systems in the transduction of the discriminative stimulus effects of the abused inhalant 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE). Sixteen B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 12,000-ppm inhaled TCE vapor from air. Substitution and antagonism tests and TCE blood concentration analysis were subsequently conducted. TCE blood concentrations decrease...

  12. Discovery of unique and ENM— specific pathophysiologic pathways: Comparison of the translocation of inhaled iridium nanoparticles from nasal epithelium versus alveolar epithelium towards the brain of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G., E-mail: kreyling@helmholtz-muenchen.de

    2016-05-15

    The biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles (NP) is more complex than that of larger particles since NP may NP deposited on the nasal mucosa of the upper respiratory tract (URT) may translocate to the olfactory bulb of the brain and also via the trigeminus (URT neuronal route); and (b) NP deposited in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) may cross the ABB into blood and enter the brain across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) or take a neuronal route from enervated tracheo-bronchial epithelia via the vagus nerve. Translocation from both - the URT and the LRT - are quantified during the first 24 h after a 1-hour aerosol inhalation of 20 nm-sized, {sup 192}Ir radiolabeled iridium NP by healthy adult rats using differential exposures: (I) nose-only exposure of the entire respiratory tract or (II) intratracheal (IT) inhalation of intubated and ventilated rats, thereby bypassing the URT and extrathoracic nasal passages. After nose-only exposure brain accumulation (BrAcc) is significantly nine-fold higher than after IT inhalation since the former results from both pathways (a + b) while the latter exposure comes only from pathway (b). Interestingly, there are significantly more circulating NP in blood 24 h after nose-only inhalation than after IT inhalation. Distinguishing translocation from URT versus LRT estimated from the differential inhalation exposures, the former is significantly higher (8-fold) than from the LRT. Although the BrAcc fraction is rather low compared to total NP deposition after this short-term exposure, this study proofs that inhaled insoluble NP can accumulate in the brain from both – URT and LRT which may trigger and/or modulate adverse health effects in the central nervous system (CNS) during chronic exposure. - Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) translocation from nose versus lungs to brain is differentiated. • Differential exposure of 20 nm radio-NP:nose-only versus intratracheal inhalation • The nose-brain path precedes via nerves, the lungs

  13. AGE-DEPENDENT INHALATION DOSE DUE TO EXPOSURE OF SHORT LIVED PROGENY OF RADON AND THORON FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN JAMMU & KASHMIR, HIMALAYAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Mehra, Rohit

    2018-05-16

    Dosimetric approach is used in this study for the assessment of doses due to inhalation of short lived radon/thoron progeny to the inhabitants of Udhampur district of Jammu & Kashmir. This paper also presents the activity concentrations and unattached fraction of radon and thoron progeny. The observed annual concentration of attached and unattached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny has been found to vary from 8 to 32 and 0.09 to 14 Bq/m3, 0.75 to 3.16 and 0.01 to 1.13 Bq/m3, respectively. The inhalation doses from radon progeny to different body organs of different age groups have been calculated by using the age dependent biokinetic model. The attachment rate of 222Rn and indoor aerosol concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn have been estimated and their relation between them has also been studied. The dose conversion factor for mouth and nasal breathing to different exposure conditions has been obtained from Porstendorfer model.

  14. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of inhalational exposure to ethanol fuel on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine as in vivo probe drugs for CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juciane Lauren Cavalcanti; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Pereira, Maria Paula Marques; Capela, Jorge Manuel Vieira; de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lepera, José Salvador

    2015-10-01

    Occupational toxicology and clinical pharmacology integration will be useful to understand potential exposure-drug interaction and to shape risk assessment strategies in order to improve occupational health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to ethanol fuel on in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D by the oral administration of the probe drugs verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine. Male Wistar rats exposed to filtered air or to 2000 ppm ethanol in a nose-only inhalation chamber during (6 h/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks) received single oral doses of 10 mg/kg verapamil or 25 mg/kg ibuprofen or 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. The enantiomers of verapamil, norverapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The area under the curve plasma concentration versus time extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) was calculated using the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature. Inhalation exposure to ethanol reduces the AUC of both verapamil (approximately 2.7 fold) and norverapamil enantiomers (>2.5 fold), reduces the AUC(0-∞) of (+)-(S)-IBU (approximately 2 fold) and inhibits preferentially the metabolism of (-)-(R)-FLU. In conclusion, inhalation exposure of ethanol at a concentration of 2 TLV-STEL (6 h/day for 6 weeks) induces CYP3A and CYP2C but inhibits CYP2D in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Lung Cells of Sprague Dawley Rats after 12 Weeks of Inhalation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widespread use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products, the toxicity of silver nanoparticles has also been studied in relation to their application. However, most genotoxicity studies of silver nanoparticles have been performed in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated the DNA damage to lung cells caused by repeated inhalation of silver nanoparticles. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles for 12 weeks in a whole-body inhalation chamber. The animals were divided into one control group and three dose groups that were exposed to silver nanoparticles (14–15 nm diameter at concentrations of 0.66 × 106 particles/cm3 (49 μg/m3, low dose, 1.41 × 106 particles/cm3 (117 μg/m3, middle dose, and 3.24 × 106 particles /cm3 (381 μg/m3, high dose, respectively, for six hours/day over 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed after the 12-week exposure period and the DNA damage assessed using a Comet assay of cells obtained from the right lungs. The olive tail moment values were 2.93 ± 0.19, 3.81 ± 0.23, 3.40 ± 0.22, and 5.16 ± 0.32 for the control, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups, respectively. Although no dose-dependent results were observed, a significant increase in the level of DNA damage was noted for the high-dose group.

  17. The sedative effects and mechanism of action of cedrol inhalation with behavioral pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Daiji; Jokura, Hiroko; Ochiai, Ryuji; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that cedarwood oil has sedative effects when inhaled. In this study, we evaluated sedative effects of inhaled cedrol, which is a major component of cedarwood oil. Accumulative spontaneous motor activity was significantly decreased in the cedrol-exposed Wistar rats. Similar results were confirmed in caffeine-treated Wistar rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and ddY mice. In addition, exposure to cedrol prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in Wistar rats. To investigate whether cedrol, which has a very faint aroma, affects the olfactory system, the nasal cavities of Wistar rats were treated with zinc sulfate to reduce olfactory function. Two days later, the pentobarbital-induced sleep time was measured as described above. Compared to intact rats, the sleep prolongation effect was decreased in a lavender-roman chamomile mixed oil exposure positive control group, indicating that olfactory function was impaired. In contrast, prolongation of the sleeping time did not change in the cedrol exposure group. The above findings indicate that cedrol inhalation had marked sedative effects regardless of the animal species or the functional state of the autonomic nerves, suggesting that the mechanism of action is via a pathway other than the olfactory system.

  18. Carcinogenesis of inhaled radio daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters and to uranium ore dust for 4-1/2 to 6 yr have produced respiratory tract carcinomas, at similar cumulative working level months (WLM) of exposures to those which induced carcinomas in uranium miners. Biological data from the beagle-dog experiments can therefore be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk under changing exposure conditions in future uranium miners

  19. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  20. Evaluation of personal inhalable aerosol samplers with different filters for use during anthrax responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Weber, Angela M; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Elmashae, Yousef; Reponen, Tiina; Rose, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B. anthracis spores. The study was designed to (1) evaluate the performance of four filter types (one mixed cellulose ester, MCE (pore size = 3 µm), two polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE (1 and 3 µm), and one polycarbonate, PC (3 µm)); and (2) evaluate the best performing filters in two commercially available inhalable aerosol samplers (IOM and Button). Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki [Bt(k)], a simulant for B. anthracis, served as the aerosol challenge. The filters were assessed based on criteria such as ability to maintain low pressure drop over an extended sampling period, filter integrity under various environmental conditions, spore collection and extraction efficiencies, ease of loading and unloading the filters into the samplers, cost, and availability. Three of the four tested collection filters-except MCE-were found suitable for efficient collection and recovery of Bt(k) spores sampled from dry and humid as well as dusty and clean air environments for up to 8 hr. The PC (3 µm) filter was identified as the best performing filter in this study. The PTFE (3 µm) demonstrated a comparable performance, but it is more expensive. Slightly higher concentrations were measured with the IOM inhalable sampler which is the preferred sampler's performance criterion when detecting a highly pathogenic agent with no established "safe" inhalation exposure level. Additional studies are needed to address the effects of

  1. Toxicity of 144Ce fused clay particles inhaled by immature beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 144 Ce fused clay particles inhaled by immature Beagle dogs (approximately 3 months of age at exposure) are being investigated for comparison with studies of dogs exposed at 12 to 14 months of age and 8 to 10.5 years of age. These studies will assess possible age-related differences in the biological behavior and effects of inhaled radionuclides, differences that may be of significance in predicting the response of accidentally-exposed human populations that include individuals of different ages. Eighteen immature dogs have been entered into a radiation dose pattern study to be serially sacrificed at different intervals after inhalation exposure. During the first 2 months post-exposure, lung clearance and uptake by the tracheobronchial lymph nodes appeared to be greater in the immature dogs than in young adult dogs. Also, skeletal uptake was greater than hepatic uptake in the immature dogs. Three blocks of longevity animals, 10 per block, with graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and 1 control, are currently on experiment. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. Another dog with an initial lung burden of 70 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 26 144 Ce-exposed and 3 control dogs. (U.S.)

  2. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition, retention, translocation and microscopic distribution of inhaled 238 PuO 2 particles were studied to better define the organs at risk and uniformity of dose and cell types or structures at risk in the lung. Beagle dogs were exposed once by inhalation to an aerosol of 238 PuO 2 with particle aerodynamic diameters of 0.7, 1.4, or 2.7 μm (+-10%). Initial burdens averaged about 700 nCi, a level not expected to induce life-shortening effects in Beagle dogs. Animals were sacrificed at times from 4 hours to 2 years after exposure. Whole body retention of plutonium and its distribution among organs in the sacrificed animals was determined by radiochemical analysis for plutonium content of excreta and tissue samples. The distribution of particles in lung was determined using autoradiographs of lung tissue sections and computer-assisted data collection and analysis. Soon after exposure, PuO 2 was relatively insoluble in lung with individual particles being randomly distributed throughout the lung. A distinct change in the rate of dissolution from lung occurred at about 100 days after exposure resulting in decreased pulmonary retention and increased uptake by liver and skeleton. Particle breakup was observed in autoradiographs for time periods in excess of 128 days after exposure. Broken up particles dissolved rapidly leaving little residue in the lung. The remaining particles were randomly distributed in the lung. These results are discussed in relation to current radiation protection guides for plutonium radionuclides. (author)

  3. Methodology of personnel exposure calculation and optimisation within the decommissioning planning code OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Rehak, Ivan; Necas, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Calculation of personnel exposure is a one of the main parameters being evaluated within the pre-decommissioning plans together with other decommissioning drivers such as costs, manpower, amounts of RAW and conventional waste and amount of discharged gaseous and liquid effluents. Alongside with manpower, the exposure is an indicator of the decommissioning process for need of staff, and quantifies impact of decommissioning on personnel from the radio hygienic point of view. At the same time it indicates suitability of individual work procedures use for decommissioning activities. For this reason it is important to estimate as precise as possible demands on personnel exposure even during preparatory decommissioning phase to quantify impact of decommissioning on personnel and eventually optimize the decommissioning process, if needed. The most appropriate way of staff exposure estimation during decommissioning preparatory phases is its calculation based on radiological and physical characteristics of equipment to be decommissioned and also quantitative and qualitative characterisation of typical decommissioning activities. On one hand, the methodology of exposure calculation should allow as much as possible realistic description and algorithmisation of exposure ways during decommissioning activities. On the other hand the calculation have to be systematic, well-arranged and clearly definable by appropriate mathematic relations. Calculation can be made by various approaches using more or less sophisticated software solutions from classic MS Excel sheets up to the complex calculation codes. In this paper, a methodology used for personnel exposure calculation and optimization implemented within the complex computer code OMEGA developed at DECOM, a.s. is described. (author)

  4. Blood pharmacokinetics of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice after nose-only inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Bobbitt, Carol M; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Interest in understanding the biological behavior of aliphatic ethers has increased owing to their use as gasoline additives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood pharmacokinetics of the oxygenate tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), its major metabolite tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) and acetone in rats and mice following inhalation exposure to TAME. Species differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for TAME were significant at each exposure concentration. For rats, the blood TAME AUC increased in proportion with an increase in exposure concentration. For mice, an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm) resulted in a disproportional increase in the TAME AUC. Mice had greater (two- to threefold) blood concentrations of TAA compared with rats following exposure to 2500 or 500 ppm TAME. Mice had a disproportional increase in the TAA AUC with an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm). This difference could result from saturation of a process (e.g. oxidation, glucuronide conjugation) that is involved in the further metabolism of TAA. For each species, gender and exposure concentration, acetone increased during exposure and returned to control values by 16 h following exposure. The source of acetone could be both as a metabolite of TAA or an effect on endogenous metabolism produced by exposure to TAME. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for inhaled ethylene and ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Klein, Dominik

    2018-04-01

    Ethylene (ET) is the largest volume organic chemical. Mammals metabolize the olefin to ethylene oxide (EO), another important industrial chemical. The epoxide alkylates macromolecules and has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In order to estimate the EO burden in mice, rats, and humans resulting from inhalation exposure to gaseous ET or EO, a physiological toxicokinetic model was developed. It consists of the compartments lung, richly perfused tissues, kidneys, muscle, fat, arterial blood, venous blood, and liver containing the sub-compartment endoplasmic reticulum. Modeled ET metabolism is mediated by hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1, EO metabolism by hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase or cytosolic glutathione S-transferase in various tissues. EO is also spontaneously hydrolyzed or conjugated with glutathione. The model was validated on experimental data collected in mice, rats, and humans. Modeled were uptake by inhalation, wash-in-wash-out effect in the upper respiratory airways, distribution into tissues and organs, elimination via exhalation and metabolism, and formation of 2-hydroxyethyl adducts with hemoglobin and DNA. Simulated concentration-time courses of ET or EO in inhaled (gas uptake studies) or exhaled air, and of EO in blood during exposures to ET or EO agreed excellently with measured data. Predicted levels of adducts with DNA and hemoglobin, induced by ET or EO, agreed with reported levels. Exposures to 10000 ppm ET were predicted to induce the same adduct levels as EO exposures to 3.95 (mice), 5.67 (rats), or 0.313 ppm (humans). The model is concluded to be applicable for assessing health risks from inhalation exposure to ET or EO. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET γ-irradiation or α-irradiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled 239 PuO 2 or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + 239 PuO 2 study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning

  7. Similar Results in Children with Asthma for Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Ciclesonide Inhaled with or without Spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid administered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI to treat bronchial asthma. After inhalation, the inactive ciclesonide is converted by esterases in the airways to active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC. Aim To compare the pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of des-CIC in children after administration of therapeutic dose of ciclesonide with and without spacer (AeroChamber Plus™. Methods Open-label, 3 period, cross over, repeated dose, PK study in 37 children with mild to moderate stable asthma (age: 6–11 y; body weight: 20–53 kg. During each 7-day treatment period, ciclesonide was inhaled once in the morning: A 160 μg MDI with spacer, B 80 μg MDI with spacer, and C 160 μg MDI without spacer. Serum PK parameters of ciclesonide and des-CIC were determined on Day 7 of each period. The primary PK parameters were the AUC τ and C max for des-CIC. Results Inhaling ciclesonide with spacer led to a dose proportional systemic exposure (AUC τ of des-CIC (0.316 μg*h/L for 80 μg and 0.663 μg*h/L for 160 μg. The dose-normalized systemic exposure for des-CIC (based on AUC τ was 27% higher after inhalation of ciclesonide 80 μg or 160 μg with spacer than without spacer; the corresponding C max values for des-CIC were, respectively, 63% and 55% higher with spacer. No clinically relevant abnormalities or adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions Inhalation of therapeutic ciclesonide dose with spacer led to a slight increase in the systemic exposure of des-CIC, which does not warrant dose adjustment.

  8. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Park, J.F.; Olson, R.J.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239 PuO 2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239 Pu

  9. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats. PMID:19930677

  10. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinawy, Amal A

    2009-11-24

    This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel). The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

  11. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinawy Amal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel. The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE and serotonin (5-HT in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

  12. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO 2 and UO 2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  13. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    exposure to inhalation gasoline, which generally saturate the ambient air of their workplaces. In this study, we challenged male and female albino rats with gasoline vapour and monitored the endocrine disruptive effects as part of a comprehensive study of the health risks faced by refinery workers in Nigeria. The ultimate.

  14. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  15. Prediction of the health effects of inhaled transuranium elements from experimental animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Thomas, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although animal experiments are conducted to obtain data that can be used to predict the consequences of exposure to alpha-emitting elements on human health, scientists have been hesitant to project the results of animal experiments to man. However, since a human data base does not exist for inhaled transuranics, the animal data cannot be overlooked. The paper describes the derivation of linear non-threshold response relationships for lung cancer in rats after inhalation of alpha-emitting transuranium elements. These relationships were used to calculate risk estimates, which were then compared with a value calculated from the incidence of lung cancer in humans who had been exposed to sources of radiation other than the transuranics. Both estimates were compared with the estimated cancer risk associated with the annual whole-body dose limit of 5 rems for occupational exposure. The rat data suggest that the risk from a working lifetime exposure of 15 rem/a to the lungs from transuranium elements may be 5 times the risk incurred with a whole-body exposure of 5 rem/a, while the human data suggest the risk may be less. Since the histological type of plutonium-induced lung cancer that occurs in experimental animals is rare in man, the use of animal data to estimate risks may be conservative. Risk estimates calculated directly from the results of experiments in which animals actually inhaled transuranic particles circumvent such controversial issues as 'hot particles'. (author)

  16. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Sun, J.D.; Coons, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second

  17. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Mewhinney, J A; Bechtold, W E; Sun, J D; Coons, T A [eds.

    1988-12-01

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second

  18. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  19. CONDOS methodology for evaluation of radiation exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The CONDOS methodology is a tool for estimating radiation doses to man from exposures to radionuclides incorporated in consumer products. It consists of two parts: (1) an outline, checklist, and selected data for modeling the life span of a product or the material from which it is made; and (2) a computer code that uses the life-span model to calculate radiation doses to exposed individuals and population groups

  20. Efficacy and safety of inhaled carbon monoxide during pulmonary inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary inflammation is a major contributor to morbidity in a variety of respiratory disorders, but treatment options are limited. Here we investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of low dose inhaled carbon monoxide (CO using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation.Mice were exposed to 0-500 ppm inhaled CO for periods of up to 24 hours prior to and following intratracheal instillation of 10 ng LPS. Animals were sacrificed and assessed for intraalveolar neutrophil influx and cytokine levels, flow cytometric determination of neutrophil number and activation in blood, lung and lavage fluid samples, or neutrophil mobilisation from bone marrow.When administered for 24 hours both before and after LPS, inhaled CO of 100 ppm or more reduced intraalveolar neutrophil infiltration by 40-50%, although doses above 100 ppm were associated with either high carboxyhemoglobin, weight loss or reduced physical activity. This anti-inflammatory effect of CO did not require pre-exposure before induction of injury. 100 ppm CO exposure attenuated neutrophil sequestration within the pulmonary vasculature as well as LPS-induced neutrophilia at 6 hours after LPS, likely due to abrogation of neutrophil mobilisation from bone marrow. In contrast to such apparently beneficial effects, 100 ppm inhaled CO induced an increase in pulmonary barrier permeability as determined by lavage fluid protein content and translocation of labelled albumin from blood to the alveolar space.Overall, these data confirm some protective role for inhaled CO during pulmonary inflammation, although this required a dose that produced carboxyhemoglobin values close to potentially toxic levels for humans, and increased lung permeability.

  1. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Chmiel, James F; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Morgan, Wayne J; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Sheehan, William J; Cabana, Michael D; Holguin, Fernando; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Covar, Ronina; Gentile, Deborah A; Israel, Elliot; Krishnan, Jerry A; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Long, Dayna; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Moy, James N; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Lemanske, Robert F

    2018-03-08

    Asthma exacerbations occur frequently despite the regular use of asthma-controller therapies, such as inhaled glucocorticoids. Clinicians commonly increase the doses of inhaled glucocorticoids at early signs of loss of asthma control. However, data on the safety and efficacy of this strategy in children are limited. We studied 254 children, 5 to 11 years of age, who had mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and had had at least one asthma exacerbation treated with systemic glucocorticoids in the previous year. Children were treated for 48 weeks with maintenance low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids (fluticasone propionate at a dose of 44 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) and were randomly assigned to either continue the same dose (low-dose group) or use a quintupled dose (high-dose group; fluticasone at a dose of 220 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) for 7 days at the early signs of loss of asthma control ("yellow zone"). Treatment was provided in a double-blind fashion. The primary outcome was the rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids. The rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids did not differ significantly between groups (0.48 exacerbations per year in the high-dose group and 0.37 exacerbations per year in the low-dose group; relative rate, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.1; P=0.30). The time to the first exacerbation, the rate of treatment failure, symptom scores, and albuterol use during yellow-zone episodes did not differ significantly between groups. The total glucocorticoid exposure was 16% higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. The difference in linear growth between the high-dose group and the low-dose group was -0.23 cm per year (P=0.06). In children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma treated with daily inhaled glucocorticoids, quintupling the dose at the early signs of loss of asthma control did not reduce the rate of severe asthma

  2. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  3. Model for deposition and long-term disposition of 134Cs-labeled fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled by guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    When considering which laboratory animal species to use in inhalation studies, it is important to evaluate the similarities and differences in deposition and fate of the inhaled materials in various laboratory animals compared with humans. Beagle dogs have deposition and clearance patterns of inhaled particles similar to humans. However, some studies require smaller laboratory animals to be cost effective or to allow an adequate number of animals to address the scientific questions. This study evaluated the deposition and clearance of a relatively insoluble aerosol inhaled by guinea pigs. The test aerosol was monodisperse 134 Cs-labeled fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled during 75 minute inhalation exposure. The guinea pigs had deposition similar to rats but respiratory tract retention and clearance patterns were similar to dogs and humans. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  4. Use of biocidal products (insect sprays and electro-vaporizer) in indoor areas--exposure scenarios and exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Appel, Klaus E

    2009-09-01

    Five commercially available insect sprays were applied in a model room. Spraying was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and in an overdosed manner in order to simulate worst-case conditions or an unforeseeable misuse. In addition, we examined electro-vaporizers. The Respicon aerosol monitoring system was applied to determine inhalation exposure. During normal spraying (10 seconds) and during the following 2-3 minutes, exposure concentrations ranged from 70 to 590 microg/m3 for the pyrethroids tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, and the pyrethrins. Calculated inhalable doses were 2-16 microg. A concentration of approximately 850 microg chlorpyrifos/m(3) (inhalable dose: approximately 20 microg) was determined when the "Contra insect fly spray" was applied. Highest exposure concentrations (1100-2100 microg/m3) were measured for piperonyl butoxide (PBO), corresponding to an inhalation intake of 30-60microg. When simulating worst-case conditions, exposure concentrations of 200-3400microg/m3 and inhalable doses of 10-210microg were determined for the various active substances. Highest concentrations (4800-8000 microg/m3) were measured for PBO (inhalable: 290-480 microg). By applying the electro-vaporizer "Nexa Lotte" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations for d-allethrin were in the range of 5-12microg/m3 and 0.5-2 microg/m3 for PBO while with the "Paral" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations of 0.4-5microg/m3 for pyrethrins and 1-7 microg/m3 for PBO were measured. Potential dermal exposures were determined using exposure pads. Between 80 and 1000microg active substance (tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, pyrethrins, chlorpyrifos) were deposited on the clothing of the total body surface area of the spray user. Highest levels (up to 3000 microg) were determined for PBO. Worst-case uses of the sprays led to 5-9 times higher concentrations. Also a 2-hour stay nearby an operating electro-vaporizer led to a

  5. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management.

  6. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  7. Effect of exercise on deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.D.; Messina, M.S.; Smaldone, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exercise and its associated increase in ventilation on the deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles, we measured the fractional and regional lung deposition of a radioactively tagged (/sup 99m/Tc) monodisperse aerosol (2.6 microns mass median aerodynamic diam) in normal human subjects at rest and while exercising on a bicycle ergometer. Breath-by-breath deposition fraction (DF) was measured throughout the aerosol exposures by Tyndallometry. Following each exposure gamma camera analysis was used to 1) determine the regional distribution of deposited particles and 2) monitor lung retention for 2.5 h and again at 24 h. We found that DF was unchanged between ventilation at rest (6-10 l/min) and exercise (32-46 l/min). Even though mouth deposition was enhanced with exercise, it was not large enough to produce a significant difference in the deposition fraction of the lung (DFL) between resting and exercise exposures. The central-to-peripheral distribution of deposited aerosol was larger for the exercise vs. resting exposure, reflecting a shift of particle deposition to more central bronchial airways. Apical-to-basal distribution was not different for the two exposures. Retention at 2.5 h and 24 h (R24) was reduced following the exercise vs. the resting exposure, consistent with greater bronchial deposition during exercise. The product of DFL and R24 gave a measure of fractional burden at 24 h (B24), i.e., the fraction of inhaled aerosol residing in the lungs 24 h after exposure. B24 was not significantly different between rest and exercise exposures

  8. Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Kanapilly, G.M.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine, insoluble, carrier particles on the lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled PAHs was investigated with a radiolabeled model PAH, [ 3 H]benzo(a)pyrene ( 3 H-BaP). Fischer-344 rats were exposed (30 min) by nose-only inhalation to 3 H-BaP adsorbed (approximately 0.1% by mass) onto diesel engine exhaust particles. The total mass concentration of these aerosols was 4-6 micrograms/liter of air with a mass median diameter of 0.14 micron. Lung clearance of the inhaled particle-associated 3 H radioactivity occurred in two phases. The initially rapid clearance of this inhaled radiolabel had a half-time of less than 1 hr. The second, long-term component of lung clearance had a half-time of 18 +/- 2 days and represented 50 +/- 2% of the 3 H radioactivity that had initially deposited in lungs. In contrast, previous inhalation studies with a pure 3 H-BaP aerosol showed that greater than 99% of the 3 H radioactivity deposited in lungs was cleared within 2 hr after exposure. By HPLC analysis, the majority of diesel soot-associated 3 H radioactivity retained in lungs was BaP (65-76%) with smaller amounts of BaP-phenol (13-17%) and BaP-quinone (5-18%) metabolites also being detected. No other metabolites of BaP were detected in lungs of exposed rats. Tissue distribution and excretion patterns of 3 H radioactivity were qualitatively similar to previous inhalation studies with 3 H-BaP coated Ga2O3 aerosols. These findings suggest that inhaled PAHs may be retained in lungs for a greater period of time when these compounds are associated with diesel engine exhaust particles. These results may have significant implications for the health risks that may be involved with human exposure to particle-associated organic pollutants

  9. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun to gain an understanding of long-term health effects resulting from respiratory tract intakes of plutonium and to derive risk estimates that might be applied to plutonium and other transuranic elements. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. The objective of this paper is to give you a progress report on the current life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. I will describe the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium in dogs and the resulting health effects. I will also mention some studies directed towards understanding the mechanism leading to these effects. Finally, I will discuss the current risk estimates derived from these studies and how they might relate to plutonium exposures in humans. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Influence of radiation-dose pattern from inhaled beta--gamma-emitting radionuclides on canine peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Boecker, B.B.; Pickrell, J.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    As part of studies assess the biological hazards associated with inhaled radionuclides, periodic hematologic evaluations were performed on beagle dogs given a single nose-only exposure to aerosols of beta--gamma-emitting isotopes. The physical form and specific radionuclides selected produced radiation-dose patterns representative of those which might be encountered in the event of human accidental exposures. Dogs received graded lung burdens of either 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr, each in fused clay. Differences in the effective half-lives of these radionuclides resulted in a spectrum of cumulative radiation doses to lung delivered at a variety of dose rates. Since the form in which the radionuclides were inhaled was relatively insoluble, the lung and intrathoracic tissues represented the primary recipient of the dose. Regardless of the effective half-life of radionuclide retention, a dose-related depression of peripheral lymphocytes was observed at various times after inhalation exposure. The time at which maximum depression and subsequent recovery occurred, however, was most directly related to the effective half-life of the radionuclide. Of special interest was the persistence of lymphopenia through 2 1 / 2 years after exposure to 144 Ce and 90 Sr in fused clay where, other than tracheobronchial lymph nodes, the lymphoid tissue received very little radiation dose. The possible mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte depression from these various radiation-dose patterns are discussed

  11. Biological effects of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Data on biological effects in humans exposed briefly to high levels of external X or gamma irradiation provide the foundation of protection guidelines for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Unfortunately, the extrapolation of the risk of these biological effects to humans exposed to internally deposited radionuclides is complicated by the protracted exposure and differences in local doses to organs and tissues that result from internal irradiation. Therefore, data from humans exposed to external radiation may not provide all of the information necessary to understand the long-term health effects of internally deposited, beta-particle-emitting radionuclides. Because of these uncertainties, it is important to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides such as radiocerium in the body and the relationship of their distribution to biological effects that result from acute inhalation exposure. The radiation effects of inhaled cerium 144 were studied in beagles

  12. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-one of the exposed dogs have died and two of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Seven 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one, a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma and one with a malignant lymphoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure, one control dog died of empyema and another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  13. Assessment of the mode of action for hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer following inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Campleman, Sharan L.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No published or well recognized MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. • MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer was conducted to inform risk assessment. • Cr(VI) epidemiologic, toxicokinetic, toxicological, mechanistic data were evaluated. • Weight of evidence does not support a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer. • Non-linear approaches should be considered for evaluating Cr(VI) lung cancer risk. - Abstract: Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m 3 ), for which clear exposure–response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancer risk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose–response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. Toxicokinetic data support that extracellular reduction of Cr(VI), which limits intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(VI)-induced toxicity, can be overwhelmed at high exposure levels. In vivo genotoxicity and mutagenicity data are mostly negative and do not support a mutagenic MOA. Further, both chronic bioassays and the epidemiologic literature support that lung cancer occurs at exposures that cause tissue damage. Based on this MOA analysis, the overall weight of evidence supports a MOA involving deposition and accumulation

  14. The relative effectiveness of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in producing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmetter, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Proper assessment of a long-term human health risks associated with inhaled radionuclides requires knowledge of dose to critical cells and tissues and relationships between dose and effect for different biological end points. Results from epidemiological studies of exposed human populations provided important information for such assessments. However, because the types of exposures are limited, these results need to be supplemented with more detailed information on dosimetry and biological effects available through studies in laboratory animals and in vitro systems. To provide health risk information for inhaled fission product and actinide aerosols, life-span studies are being conducted using beagle dogs and other species at the Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). Results of two life-span studies in dogs involving inhalation of the beta emitter 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles or the alpha emitter 239 PuO 2 are reported here

  15. Atmospheric thorium pollution and inhalation exposure in the largest rare earth mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqing; Zhong, Buqing; Liang, Tao; Xing, Baoshan; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to radionuclide thorium (Th) has generated widespread public concerns, mainly because of its radiological effects on human health. Activity levels of airborne 232 Th in total suspended particulate (TSP) were measured in the vicinity of the largest rare earth mine in China in August 2012 and March 2013. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th in TSP ranged from 820μBqm -3 in a mining area in August 2012 to 39,720μBqm -3 in a smelting area in March 2013, much higher than the world reference of 0.5μBqm -3 . Multistatistical analysis and Kohonen's self-organizing maps suggested that 232 Th in TSP was mainly derived from rare earth mining and smelting practices. In addition, personal inhalation exposures to 232 Th associated with respirable particulate (PM 10 ) were also measured among local dwellers via personal monitoring. The mean dose values for different age groups in the smelting and mining areas ranged from 97.86 to 417μSvyear - 1 and from 101.03 to 430.83μSvyear -1 , respectively. These results indicate that people living in the study areas are exposed to high levels of widespread 232 Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239 Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . (author)

  17. Inhalant abuse: monitoring trends by using poison control data, 1993-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolek, Melinda R; White, Nicole C; Litovitz, Toby L

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the value of poison control data as an adjunct to national drug abuse surveys and a source of data to inform and focus prevention efforts. National Poison Data System (NPDS) data are collected and compiled in real time by the 60 US poison centers as callers seek guidance for poison exposures. Demographic, geographic, product, outcome, and treatment-site data for the 35453 inhalant cases reported between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of inhalant cases reported to US poison control centers decreased 33% from 1993 to 2008. Prevalence was highest among children aged 12 to 17 years and peaked in 14-year-olds. In contrast to national survey data showing nearly equal use of inhalants by both genders, 73.5% of NPDS inhalant cases occurred in boys, which suggests that boys may pursue riskier usage behaviors. Most cases (67.8%) were managed in health care facilities. More than 3400 different products were reported. Propellants, gasoline, and paint were the most frequent product categories. Propellants were the only product category that substantially increased over time. Butane, propane, and air fresheners had the highest fatality rates. Prevalence for all inhalants was highest in western mountain states and West Virginia, but geographic distribution varied according to product type. Gasoline was a proportionately greater problem for younger children; propellants were an issue for older children. NPDS should be used to monitor inhalant abuse because it provides unique, timely, and clinically useful information on medical outcomes experienced by users, includes detailed product information (brand and formulation), and can potentially be used to identify real-time demographic, geographic, and product trends. Focusing inhalant prevention efforts on the most hazardous products and most seriously affected users may improve and facilitate strategic prevention, enabling interventions such as targeted education, product reformulation, repackaging

  18. Inhalation of a dry powder ciprofloxacin formulation in healthy subjects: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, Heino; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Willmann, Stefan; Delesen, Heinz; Gupta, Abhishek; Baumann, Sybille

    2013-06-01

    Oral and intravenous formulations of ciprofloxacin have established efficacy and safety profiles in respiratory infections. A dry powder for inhalation (DPI) that uses Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology has been developed to deliver high concentrations of ciprofloxacin to the lung with low systemic exposure using a portable and convenient passive dry powder inhaler (Novartis' T-326 inhaler). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of ciprofloxacin DPI in healthy male subjects, with a secondary objective to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin after ciprofloxacin DPI administration. This was a phase I, single-dose, single-site, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in the hospital setting. Subjects were followed up for safety for approximately 2 weeks. Six healthy male subjects, aged 27-42 years with no history of pulmonary disease, repeated bronchitis or respiratory allergies were enrolled. In randomized order and separated by a 1-week washout period, subjects inhaled a single dose of ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo from the T-326 inhaler. Primary safety parameters included vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, adverse events and lung function (total specific resistance, thoracic gas volume and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Plasma concentration-time data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated with no clinically relevant adverse effects on lung function. Estimates of lung deposition derived from physiology-based pharmacokinetic modelling suggest that approximately 40 % of the total dose of ciprofloxacin DPI reached the trachea/bronchi and alveolar space. Systemic ciprofloxacin was detected soon after inhalation [peak concentration in plasma (C(max)) 56.42 μg/L, median time to C max 0.625 h], but total systemic exposure was minimal (area under the plasma concentration-time curve 354.4 μg·h/L). Terminal elimination half

  19. In vitro responses of canine alveolar lymphocytes to BeSO4 after inhalation exposure to BeO: comparisons with human chronic berylliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Bice, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar lymphocytes obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 20 dogs exposed once by inhalation to achieve low or high initial lung burdens (ILB) of beryllium oxide (BeO) calcined at one of two different temperatures, 500 deg. C or 1000 deg. C, were cultured in vitro with BeSO 4 . Positive BAL lymphocyte responses were observed at 6 and 7 mo after exposure, with peak responses occurring at 7 mo followed by a rapid decline. Peak BAL SI values ranged from a high of 64 at 6 mo to a low of 6 at 7 mo. Positive blood SI were observed at 7, 15, 18, and 22 mo after exposure in some, but not all, dogs with high or low ILBs of 500 deg. C or 1000 deg. C BeO. Lymphocytes from lung and blood of control dogs did not respond in vitro to BeSO 4 . These data indicate that a single exposure of dogs to an aerosol of BeO can result in beryllium-specific immune responses by alveolar lymphocytes. (author)

  20. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144 Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144 Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  1. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  2. The development of a methodology to assess population doses from multiple sources and exposure pathways of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, J.; Stansby, S.; Thorne, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency (EA) has new duties in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards Directive under which it is required to ensure that doses to individuals received from exposure to anthropogenic sources of radioactivity are within defined limits. In order to assess compliance with these requirements, the EA needs to assess the doses to members of the most highly exposed population groups ('critical' groups) from all relevant potential sources of anthropogenic radioactivity and all relevant potential exposure pathways to such radioactivity. The EA has identified a need to develop a methodology for the retrospective assessment of effective doses from multiple sources of radioactive materials and exposure pathways associated with those sources. Under contract to the EA, AEA Technology has undertaken the development of a suitable methodology as part of EA R and D Project P3-070. The methodology developed under this research project has been designed to support the EA in meeting its obligations under the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive and is consistent with UK and international approaches to radiation dosimetry and radiological protection. The development and trial application of the methodology is described in this report

  3. Evaluation of a new irradiation left breast method in the inhalation phase; Avaliacao de uma nova metodologia de irradiacao de mama esquerda na fase de inspiracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Gullo, Rafael G.; Ferreira, Diogo A.V.; Silva, Leonardo P. da, E-mail: aura.emilia.fm@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation therapy is the primary therapeutic approach to breast cancer and involves significant exposure of heart and lungs, especially in cases of left breast. The implementation of a methodology to reduce the dose in these sites is important to ensure better quality of life to the patient. This work aims reduced heart and lung dose when performing the radiotherapy planning considering only the inhalation phase. Three patients with breast left present were scanning with CT during free breathing and respiratory monitoring and the planning has done on both images series. The results showed a reduction in mean heart dose of 53% on average. As for lung volumes, was obtained a mean reduction of 44.6% and 51% of the left lung which received 10 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. This study showed that the use of the respiratory gating radiotherapy in the left breast in inhalation phase can reduce heart and lung doses. (author)

  4. Maternal inhalation of surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) in C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Halappanavar, Sabina; Hougaard, Karin Sorig

    2013-01-01

    We investigated effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) on prenatally exposed offspring. Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were inhalation exposed (1 h/day to 42 mg UV-Titan/m(3) aerosolised powder or filtered air) during gestation days (GDs) 8-18. We evaluated DNA...... strand breaks using the comet assay in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and livers of the time-mated mice (5 and 26-27 days after inhalation exposure), and in livers of the offspring (post-natal days (PND) 2 and 22). We also analysed hepatic gene expression in newborns using DNA microarrays. UV-Titan...

  5. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  6. Effect of 144Ce inhaled in fused-clay particles on the tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Hobbs, C.H.; Jones, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph node changes and lymphopenia are sequelae of inhalation of relatively insoluble radioactive aerosols by beagle dogs. The tracheobronchial lymph nodes from dogs that inhaled 144 Ce in fused-clay particles were examined at intervals from 2 to 730 days after exposure to assess the development of these lesions. Initial lung burdens in the dogs studied ranged from 33 to 63 μCi/kg of body weight. The concentration of radioisotope in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes increased during the first year after exposure and exceeded that in the lung about 100 days after exposure. Autoradiographs of the lymph nodes showed that 144 Ce particles were present in macrophages in the paracortical zone two days after exposure and that concentrations continued to increase in the paracortical zone and medullary cords. Histologic changes in the nodes included atrophy of the germinal centers and lymphocytic follicles, loss of lymphocytes and accumulation of macrophages in the paracortical zone, accumulation of pigment and isotope-laden macrophages in the medullary cords, occasional infiltrates of neutrophils in the medullary cords, and at later time periods focal fibrosis of the medullary cords. Tracheobronchial lymph node weights of the dogs exposed to 144 Ce in fused clay were not decreased until 512 days after exposure. These findings indicate that tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate relatively high burdens of 144 Ce after 144 Ce is inhaled in a relatively insoluble form and that the pathologic changes resulting from these burdens are basically atrophy of the nodes. Primary neoplasms in lymph nodes were not observed in dogs with initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to more than 30 μCi/kg of body weight followed for up to 2000 days after exposure. At the higher levels, however, a high incidence of primary pulmonary neoplasia was observed

  7. Persistence of a hyperthermic sign-reversal during nitrous oxide inhalation despite cue-exposure treatment with and without a drug-onset cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Woods, Stephen C; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    We asked whether chronic tolerance and the hyperthermic sign-reversal induced by repeated 60% N 2 O exposures could be extinguished using a cue-exposure paradigm. Rats received 18 N 2 O administrations in a total calorimetry system that simultaneously measures core temperature (Tc), metabolic heat production (HP), and body heat loss (HL). Each exposure entailed a 2-h baseline period followed by a 1.5-h N 2 O exposure. The 18 drug exposures induced a robust intra-administration hyperthermia in which the initial hypothermic effect of N 2 O inverted to a significant hyperthermic sign-reversal during N 2 O inhalation due primarily to an acquired robust increase in HP. The rats were then randomized to one of three extinction procedures (n=8/procedure) over a 20-d interval: 1) a N 2 O-abstinent home-cage group (HC) that received only the usual animal care; 2) a cue-exposure group (CEXP) in which the animals were placed in the calorimeter 8 times but received no N 2 O; and 3) a drug-onset-cue group (DOC) in which animals received a brief N 2 O exposure in the calorimeter that mimicked the first 3 min of an actual 60% N 2 O trial. Following the extinction sessions, all rats received a 60% N 2 O test trial and Tc, HP and HL were assessed. The hyperthermic sign-reversal remained fully intact during the test trial, with no significant differences observed among groups in any post-baseline change in any thermal outcome. These data suggest that cue exposure may not be an efficacious strategy to reduce sign-reversals that develop with chronic drug use.

  8. De Minimis waste impacts analysis methodology. IMPACTS - BRC user's guide and methodology for radioactive wastes below regulatory concern. Draft report for comment. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstom, J.M.; Goode, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes the methodology and computer program used by NRC to evaluate radiological impacts associated with petitions to have specific slightly contaminated radioactive waste streams designated as ''below regulatory concern.'' These wastes could be treated and disposed of at facilities which are not licensed for low-level radioactive waste management. The IMPACTS-BRC computer program is implemented on IBM-PC microcomputers using the FORTRAN programming language. Radiological impacts (doses) are estimated for several pathways including direct gamma radiation exposure, worker inhalation and exposure, offsite atmospheric and water releases, and intruder exposures. Annual impacts are calculated for the maximum individual, critical groups, and general population. The treatment and disposal options include onsite incineration, incineration at municipal and hazardous waste facilities, and disposal at sanitary landfills and hazardous waste landfills. Modifications to the program (from Volume 1) are primarily for microcomputer compatibility and to provide information needed to evaluate the petitions. Default environmental and facility parameters are developed representing conservative assumptions about site selection and operational procedures. In particular, the parameters of the groundwater pathway model are modified to represent more conservative assumptions than the original model (Volume 1)

  9. Toxicity of inhaled 90Y in fused clay particles in beagle dogs. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Jones, R.K.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 90 Y in fused clay in the Beagle dog are being continued to assess the consequences of inhalation of an energetic beta emitter that has a short effective half-life in the lung. A radiation dose pattern study in which 12 dogs were sacrificed in pairs at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 days post-inhalation exposure has been completed. A longevity study in which 89 dogs have been exposed to 90 Y fused clay with initial lung burdens ranging from 80 to 5200 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused clay is in progress. The 90 Y was retained in lung with a half-life similar to its physical half-life (64 hours) and with only small quantities translocated to tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver. The infinite radiation doses to lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, skeleton, and liver for an initial lung burden of 100 μCi 90 Y/kg of body weight were estimated to be 1600, 170, 0.54, and 0.38 rads, respectively. Thirty-eight of 39 dogs with doses to lung from 9300 to 70,000 rads have died at 7.5 to 903 days post-exposure. The one surviving dog in this dose range has radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis at 1316 days post-exposure. All the dogs that died had radiation pneumonitis. The dog that died at 903 days post-exposure with a dose to lung of 11,000 rads also had 2 small pulmonary adenomas. Fifty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 1300 to 7900 rads are surviving with no significant abnormalities at 1278 to 1834 days post-exposure and will be studied for the remainder of their lifespan. (U.S.)

  10. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Isocyanate and total inhalable particulate air measurements in the European wood panel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangronsveld, E; Berckmans, S; Verbinnen, K; Van Leeuw, C; Bormans, C

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that the use of MDI (methylene diphenyldiisocyanate) as an alternative for formaldehyde-based resins is seen as a responsible option to reduce formaldehyde emissions for CWP (Composite Wood Products) in buildings. However, there are concerns raised regarding the exposure risk of workers. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with factual information to demonstrate that the use of MDI compared to other agents used in CWP production processes does not pose increased inhalation exposure risks for workers. Personal and area air measurements were carried out at nine Composite Wood Panel plants throughout Europe to assess potential inhalation exposures to MDI and wood dust as Total Inhalable Particulates (TIP). In total, 446 pairs of samples were collected for MDI and TIP of which 283 pairs were personal samples and the remaining 163 pairs were area samples collected at key locations along the production line. This data together with published formaldehyde exposure data has been used to evaluate the exposure safety margin opposite what are considered relevant occupational exposure limits. The methods used for sampling and analysing MDI and TIP are based on internationally accepted methods, i.e. MDHS 25/3 (or ISO 16702) for MDI, and MDHS 14/3 for TIP. The job functions with an increased exposure profile for TIP were the cleaners, drying operators and quality control staff, and for MDI, the cleaners and quality control staff. The areas with an increased exposure profile for TIP are the conveyor area from OSB blender to former area and the OSB press infeed, and for MDI the OSB weigh belt and OSB former bin area. The exposure safety margin opposite the selected exposure limits can be ranked as MDI>TIP>formaldehyde (high margin of safety to low margin of safety), indicating that the use of MDI also reduces the exposure risks to workers during production of CWP compared to formaldehyde. By reducing the airborne TIP concentrations, a respiratory

  12. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielsch, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  13. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  14. Comparison of the DOE and the EPA risk assessment methodologies and default parameters for the air exposure pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Z.; Eckart, R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) each publish radiological health effects risk assessment methodologies. Those methodologies are in the form of computer program models or extensive documentation. This research paper compares the significant differences between the DOE and EPA methodologies and default parameters for the important air exposure pathway. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the fundamental differences in methodology and parameter values between the DOE and the EPA. This study reviewed the parameter values and default values that are utilized in the air exposure pathway and revealed the significant differences in risk assessment results when default values are used in the analysis of an actual site. The study details the sources and the magnitude of the parameter departures between the DOE and the EPA methodologies and their impact on dose or risk

  15. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented for all dogs employed in current life-span dose effect studies with inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 239 Pu nitrate. Information is presented on the estimated initial alveolar deposition, based on external thorax counts and on estimated lung weights at time of exposure. Information is also provided on the current interpretation of the most prominent clinical-pathological features associated with the death of animals

  16. THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY. William F. McDonnell Human Studies Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC 27711. Short-term exposure to ozone results in a neurally-mediated decrease in the ab...

  17. Towards an optimal adaptation of exposure to NOAA assessment methodology in Multi-Source Industrial Scenarios (MSIS): the challenges and the decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, JM; Vaquero, C.; Gutierrez-Cañas, C.

    2017-06-01

    It is expected a progressive increase of the industrial processes that manufacture of intermediate (iNEPs) and end products incorporating ENMs (eNEPs) to bring about improved properties. Therefore, the assessment of occupational exposure to airborne NOAA will migrate, from the simple and well-controlled exposure scenarios in research laboratories and ENMs production plants using innovative production technologies, to much more complex exposure scenarios located around processes of manufacture of eNEPs that, in many cases, will be modified conventional production processes. Here will be discussed some of the typical challenging situations in the process of risk assessment of inhalation exposure to NOAA in Multi-Source Industrial Scenarios (MSIS), from the basis of the lessons learned when confronted to those scenarios in the frame of some European and Spanish research projects.

  18. Sensitivity of the assessment of public exposure originating from radioactive discharges as a subject of the methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Peteh, D.; Vokal Nemec, B.; Cindro, M.

    2007-01-01

    Operational control of nuclear and radiation facilities is partly carried out by continuous monitoring of radioactive discharges into the environment and by direct radioactivity measurements of the environmental samples. The impact of a nuclear or radiation facility is then evaluated in terms of exposure to the public living nearby and in terms of levels of environmental contamination. The dose assessment for the public depends very much on the propositions and scenarios selected by the expert(s), who perform(s) the exposure calculation and on the methodology used. Essential changes of population doses occur when the methodology is changed. The aim of this paper is to present some cases of public exposure based on the data from the environmental radioactivity monitoring programmes, currently performed in Slovenia: for control of global radioactive contamination (atmospheric nuclear tests and Chernobyl) and for control of the Slovenian nuclear and radiation facilities such as the Krsko NPP, the research reactor TRIGA and the radioactive waste storage at Brinje, and the Zirovski vrh uranium mine. There have been significant changes in a dose assessment methodology in the recent years and the resulting dose levels have been changed for one order of magnitude lower or higher values. Public exposure values for five particular sources of contamination versus time of operation are presented as well as the reasons for methodology changes. These changes had to be made due to several reasons, described in the paper. (author)

  19. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75, and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated paycytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Four 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 2560 days after exposure. Two dogs had squamous cell carcinomas involving the maxillary and nasal regions, one a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs. (U.S.)

  20. Granulometric determinations and inhalation dose assessment for atmospheric aerosol contaminated by {sup 137}Cs; Determinazioni granulometriche e valutazioni di dose da inalazione per aerosol atmosferico contaminato da {sup 137}CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Luciani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `E. Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Oliviero, L.; Donato, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    During the redevelopment of Brescia freight-yard a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol was carried out: in fact a {sup 137}Cs ground contamination, caused by the permanence of wagons carrying iron materials contaminated by this radionuclide, had been found out. During the redevelopment phases of excavation and can filling the workers were exposed to the danger of radioactive aerosol inhalation. The aim of the measurement campaign was to test the aerosol sampling and granulometric analysis methodologies with their sensitivity related to the inhalation dose assessments. The results of both aerosuspended mass and activity, evaluated by means of a portable cascade impactor, are presented. The granulometries have been interpolated with a log normal distribution using an iterative routine minimizing the square deviation between the calculated and experimental data. The results related to the dose assessments are also presented. These evaluations have been carried out using both the granulometric information obtained and the more recent models (ICRP 66) both the total concentration data and the dose coefficients referring to the standard conditions of ICRP 68 and of the Italian law (D.Lgs. 230/95). Furthermore the significance and the reliability of the dose assessments referring to the different methodologies are discussed, also in relation to the possibility of using this sampling methodologies for other radionuclides and different exposure conditions.

  1. Aspects of inhaled DTPA toxicity in the rat, hamster and beagle dog and treatment effectiveness for excorporation of plutonium from the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Lund, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Busch, R.H.; Hackett, P.L.; Willard, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    After inhaling 1 to 4 HD (human dose equivalents, i.e. 1g of calcium trisodium N,N-bis(2-bis (carboxymethyl) amino ethyl)glycinate per 70kg of body weight) of Ca-DTPA, rats and hamsters developed a transitory vesicular emphysema. This was not found in animals sacrified later than 3 weeks after the last exposure. Dogs were anesthetized and administered Ca-DTPA aerosols via an intratracheal catheter for 30min/day for 5 days. The average dose/exposure was 4 HD. One week after the last exposure, 3/4 treated dogs and 0/2 dogs exposed to saline aerosols showed enlargement and submucosal lymphoid follicles in the pyloric region of the stomach; this was not present in dogs sacrificed at 4, 8 or 18 weeks post-exposure. Ephitheleal atypia in the alveolar lining was noted in 5/16 dogs inhaling Ca-DTPA and in 1/8 dogs exposed to saline aerosols, and may or may not be treatment-related. In long-term studies, rats were administered a lung burden of about 78 nCi 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 by inhalation and 20 days later were given six inhalation treatments of about 1 HD Ca-DTPA. Over their lifetime these animals showed no difference in survival or bone or lung tumour incidence from rats receiving Pu alone. Rats receiving 1.2 μCi 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 intramuscularly were treated promptly with 1.2 HD inhaled or intraperitoneally injected Ca-DTPA. The two methods of Ca-DTPA administration gave statistically identical Pu excorporation. Similar treatments initiated 8 months after the Pu injection also showed no effect of administration route. These experiments and implications for the safety and efficacy of inhaled Ca-DTPA as treatment for transuranic incorporations in man are discussed. (author)

  2. A method for determining an indicator of effective dose calculation due to inhalation of Radon and its progeny from in vivo measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Julio Jose da Silva

    1994-01-01

    Direct measurement of the absolved dose to lung tissue from inhalation of radon and its progeny is not possible and must be calculated using dosimetric models, taking into consideration the several parameters upon which the dose calculation depends. To asses the dose due to inhalation of radon and its progeny, it is necessary to estimate the cumulative exposure. Historically, this has been done using WLM values estimated with measurements of radon concentration in air. The radon concentration in air varies significantly, however, in space with time, and the exposed individual is also constantly moving around. This makes it almost impossible to obtain a precise estimate of an individual's inhalation exposure. This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of 210 Pb, in subjects exposed to above-average radon and its progeny concentrations in their home environments. The measurements were performed in a whole body counter. With this technique, the exposed individuals become, in affect, their own samplers and dosimeters and the estimate of cumulative exposure is not affected by the variation of the atmospheric concentration of radon and its progeny in time and space. Forty individuals identified as living in homes with radon levels ranging from about 740 Bq/m 3 to 150.000 Bq/m 3 were measured. Also, additional 34 measurements were made on personnel from NYUMC/NIEM who live in a residential area surrounding the laboratory in which the levels of radon have been shown to be at below average values. To realize these measurements a methodology was developed to determine the subject's background, using a head phantom made with a cubic plastic container containing known amounts of potassium and calcium dissolved in four liters of water. The effective doses calculated from the in vivo measurements are compared to effective doses estimated, for the same

  3. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, J L; Kracko, D; Brower, J; Doyle-Eisele, M; McDonald, J D; Lund, A K; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition-concentration-response database of mice exposed by inhalation to the exhausts and other complex mixtures. The five gases were the predictors most important to MART models best fitting the vascular responses. Mice on high-fat diet were exposed 6 h/d, 7 d/week for 50 d to clean air or a mixture containing 30.6 ppm CO, 20.5 ppm NO, 1.4 ppm NO₂, 0.5 ppm SO₂, and 2.0 ppm NH₃ in air. The gas concentrations were below the maxima in the preceding studies but in the range of those in exhaust exposure levels that caused significant effects. Five indicators of stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses were measured in aortic tissue. The exposure increased all five response indicators, with the magnitude of effect and statistical significance varying among the indicators and depending on inclusion or exclusion of an apparent outlying control. With the outlier excluded, three responses approximated predicted values and two fell below predictions. The results generally supported evidence that the five gases drove the effects of exhaust, and thus supported the potential of the MART approach for identifying putative causal components of complex mixtures.

  4. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  5. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ("biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NO(x) concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister

  6. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use ciclesonide inhalation.Ciclesonide inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Do not use ciclesonide ...

  7. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use flunisolide inhalation.Flunisolide inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Do not use flunisolide ...

  8. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3–0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01–0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1–10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. - Highlights: • Size-dependent aerosol number was measured along the path of subway user. • Particles less than 0.4 μm were inhaled in outdoor but less so as deeper underground. • Coarse particles were inhaled significantly as users moved deeper underground. - We estimated the inhaled aerosol number concentration depending on particle size along the path of subway users.

  10. Distribution, retention and early cytogenetic damage in Cynomolgus monkeys following inhalation of 239Pu(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Redman, H.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen Cynomolgus monkeys were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 which resulted in calculated initial lung burdens of 1.0, 0.3 and 0.1 μCi. Four animals were exposed to the carrier aerosol and served as controls. Animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 45 days after exposure to determine the distribution and retention of the aerosol. The amount of plutonium in the liver, skeleton and testes increased as a function of time after exposure. Two monkeys died 155 and 188 days after inhalation exposure from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. There was a doubling of the total chromosome aberration frequency in the blood lymphocytes and a significant increase in dicentric chromosomes in the animals exposed for 6 months to initial lung burdens of 1.0 μCi

  11. Using smartphone as a motion detector to collect time-microenvironment data for estimating the inhalation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoi, Tran Xuan; Phuong, Huynh Truc; Van Hung, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    During the production of iodine-131 from neutron irradiated tellurium dioxide by the dry distillation, a considerable amount of "1"3"1I vapor is dispersed to the indoor air. People who routinely work at the production area may result in a significant risk of exposure to chronic intake by inhaled "1"3"1I. This study aims to estimate the inhalation dose for individuals manipulating the "1"3"1I at a radioisotope production. By using an application installed on smartphones, we collected the time-microenvironment data spent by a radiation group during work days in 2015. Simultaneously, we used a portable air sampler combined with radioiodine cartridges for grabbing the indoor air samples and then the daily averaged "1"3"1I concentration was calculated. Finally, the time-microenvironment data jointed with the concentration to estimate the inhalation dose for the workers. The result showed that most of the workers had the annual internal dose in 1÷6 mSv. We concluded that using smartphone as a motion detector is a possible and reliable way instead of the questionnaires, diary or GPS-based method. It is, however, only suitable for monitoring on fixed indoor environments and limited the targeted people. - Highlights: • We constructed the time-microenvironment patterns with 1-min resolution by using a smartphone application. • Exposure to "1"3"1I at the dry distillation areas may lead to an acute inhalation dose significantly. • Using smartphone as a motion detector in indoor exposure monitoring is a reliable method.

  12. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  13. A decision tree approach to screen drinking water contaminants for multiroute exposure potential in developing guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard

    2017-07-03

    The consideration of inhalation and dermal routes of exposures in developing guideline values for drinking water contaminants is important. However, there is no guidance for determining the eligibility of a drinking water contaminant for its multiroute exposure potential. The objective of the present study was to develop a 4-step framework to screen chemicals for their dermal and inhalation exposure potential in the process of developing guideline values. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of considering basic physicochemical properties prior to detailed assessment of dermal and inhalation routes of exposure to drinking water contaminants in setting guideline values.

  14. Electronic cigarette inhalation alters innate immunity and airway cytokines while increasing the virulence of colonizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, John H; Lyes, Matthew; Sladewski, Katherine; Enany, Shymaa; McEachern, Elisa; Mathew, Denzil P; Das, Soumita; Moshensky, Alexander; Bapat, Sagar; Pride, David T; Ongkeko, Weg M; Crotty Alexander, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Electronic (e)-cigarette use is rapidly rising, with 20 % of Americans ages 25-44 now using these drug delivery devices. E-cigarette users expose their airways, cells of host defense, and colonizing bacteria to e-cigarette vapor (EV). Here, we report that exposure of human epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface to fresh EV (vaped from an e-cigarette device) resulted in dose-dependent cell death. After exposure to EV, cells of host defense-epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils-had reduced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Mouse inhalation of EV for 1 h daily for 4 weeks led to alterations in inflammatory markers within the airways and elevation of an acute phase reactant in serum. Upon exposure to e-cigarette vapor extract (EVE), airway colonizer SA had increased biofilm formation, adherence and invasion of epithelial cells, resistance to human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and up-regulation of virulence genes. EVE-exposed SA were more virulent in a mouse model of pneumonia. These data suggest that e-cigarettes may be toxic to airway cells, suppress host defenses, and promote inflammation over time, while also promoting virulence of colonizing bacteria. Acute exposure to e-cigarette vapor (EV) is cytotoxic to airway cells in vitro. Acute exposure to EV decreases macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial function. Inhalation of EV alters immunomodulating cytokines in the airways of mice. Inhalation of EV leads to increased markers of inflammation in BAL and serum. Staphylococcus aureus become more virulent when exposed to EV.

  15. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R. I.; Traub, R. J.; Pryor, K. H.

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y -1 for the whole body and 100 mSv y -1 for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons were

  16. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in spray polyurethane foam applicators: Role of dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anila; Carignan, Courtney C; Xue, Yalong; Stapleton, Heather M; Bello, Dhimiter

    2018-04-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is a highly effective thermal insulation material that has seen considerable market growth in the past decade. Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are added to SPF formulations to meet fire code requirements. A common flame retardant used in SPF formulations is tris 1-chloro 2-propyl phosphate (TCIPP), a suspected endocrine disruptor. Exposure monitoring efforts during SPF applications have focused primarily on the isocyanate component, a potent respiratory and dermal sensitizer. However, to our knowledge, there is no monitoring data for TCIPP. To characterize occupational exposures to TCIPP and other flame retardants during SPF insulation. Workers at four SPF insulation sites and one foam removal site (total n = 14) were recruited as part of this pilot study. Personal inhalation exposure to TCIPP was monitored with a CIP-10MI inhalable sampler and potential dermal exposure was assessed through the use of a glove dosimeter. Biomarkers of TCIPP and three other PFRs were measured in urine collected from workers pre-and post-shift. Linear mixed effect models were used to analyze associations of urinary biomarkers with inhalation and dermal exposures and paired t-tests were used to examine the difference on the means of urinary biomarkers pre-and post-shift. Chemical analysis of all species was performed with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of TCIPP in personal air monitors and glove dosimeters collected from SPF applicators, 294.7 μg/m 3 and 18.8 mg/pair respectively. Overall, GM concentrations of the two TCIPP urinary biomarkers BCIPP and BCIPHIPP and (6.2 and 88.8 μg/mL) were 26-35 times higher than reported in the general population. Post-shift levels of TCIPP biomarkers were higher than pre-shift even though workers at insulation sites wore supplied air respirators, gloves and coveralls. The urinary biomarkers for the other PFRs were not

  18. Polymer degradation and ultrafine particles - Potential inhalation hazards for astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, J.; Oberdoerster, G.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to ultrafine particles results in an increased interstiatilization of the particles which is accompanied by an acute pathological inflammation, rats were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles by intratracheal instillation and by inhalation. Both acute intratracheal instillation and subchronic inhalation studies on rats show that ultrafine TiO2 particles access the pulmonary interstitium to a larger extent than fine particles and that they elicit an inflammatory response as indicated by PMN increase in lavaged cells. The release of ultrafine particles into the air of an enclosed environment from a thermodegradation event or from other sources is a potential hazard for astronauts. Knowing the mechanisms of action is a prerequisite for technical or medical countermeasures.

  19. Animal study on biological responses by radon inhalation making use of waste rock which contains feeble activity of uranium (2) (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo

    2016-03-01

    Okayama University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have carried out the collaborative study of physiological effects of inhaled radon for the low-dose range. Main assignments were as follows. Based on the clinical knowledge, Misasa Medical Center (Okayama University Hospital) clarified the issues that should be addressed. Graduate School of Health Sciences (Okayama University) supervised the research and studied the biological responses. The JAEA made the development and control of a facility for radon inhalation experiments and the investigation of biokinetics and exposure doses of radon. From 2009 to 2013, the following results were obtained. (1) Literature on drinking effects of radon hot spring water was surveyed to determine the present tasks. (2) Under the present experimental conditions, drinking of hot spring water into which radon was intentionally introduced using the equipment in the facility did not have significant effects on mice. (3) Inhibitory effects of antioxidant pre-supplements (Vitamins C and E) and radon pre-inhalation on hepatic or renal oxidative damage were examined to make the comparison. (4) In order to discuss biological responses quantitatively following radon inhalation, the biokinetics of inhaled radon were studied. (5) Some exposure routes due to inhalation of radon or its progeny were modeled to calculate organ doses in mice. (author)

  20. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  1. Inhalational Gentamicin Treatment Is Effective Against Pneumonic Plague in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis, is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific “flu-like” symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy. Inhalation is an attractive route for treating lung infections. The advantages include directly dosing the main infection site, the relative accessibility for administration and the lack of extensive enzymatic drug degradation machinery. In this study, we show that inhalational gentamicin treatment administered 24 h post-infection, prior to the appearance of symptoms, protected against lethal intranasal challenge with the fully virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain (Kim53. Similarly, a high survival rate was demonstrated in mice treated by inhalation with another aminoglycoside, tobramycin, for which an FDA-approved inhaled formulation is clinically available for cystic fibrosis patients. Inhalational treatment with gentamicin 48 h post-infection (to symptomatic mice was also successful against a Y. pestis challenge dose of 10 i.n.LD50. Whole-body imaging using IVIS technology demonstrated that adding inhalational gentamicin to parenteral therapy accelerated the clearance of Y. pestis from the lungs of infected animals. This may reduce disease severity and the risk of secondary infections. In conclusion, our data suggest that inhalational therapy with aerosolized gentamicin may be an effective prophylactic treatment against pneumonic plague. We also demonstrate the benefit of combining this treatment with a conventional parenteral

  2. Experimental study of the effect of wearing dust-proof mask on inhaled aerosol particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shunguang; Mei Chongsheng; Wu Yuangqing; Ren Liuan.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring particle size of inhaled aerosol with a phantom of human head wearing dust-proof mask and a cascade impactor. The results showed that AMAD of inhaled aerosol was degraded and the size distribution of particles changed when the dust-proof mask was wearing. The leak rate of mask increased as the size of dust particles decreased. The results are applicable to estimate internal exposure dose and to evaluate the dust-proof capacity of mask

  3. Toxicity of {sup 144}Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeker, B B; Muggenburg, B A; Hahn, F F; Mauderly, J L; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to {sup 144}Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of {sup 144}Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 {mu}Ci/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  4. Minimizing variability of cascade impaction measurements in inhalers and nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonam, Matthew; Christopher, David; Cipolla, David; Donovan, Brent; Goodwin, David; Holmes, Susan; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Mitchell, Jolyon; Nichols, Steve; Pettersson, Gunilla; Quale, Chris; Rao, Nagaraja; Singh, Dilraj; Tougas, Terrence; Van Oort, Mike; Walther, Bernd; Wyka, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to suggest ways to minimize the influence of such factors. To accomplish this task, the authors constructed a cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagram for a CI measurement and considered the influence of each root cause based on industry experience and thorough literature review. The results illustrate the intricate network of underlying causes of CI variability, with the potential for several multi-way statistical interactions. It was also found that significantly more quantitative information exists about impactor-related causes than about operator-derived influences, the contribution of drug assay methodology and product-related causes, suggesting a need for further research in those areas. The understanding and awareness of all these factors should aid in the development of optimized CI methods and appropriate quality control measures for aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of pharmaceutical aerosols, in line with the current regulatory initiatives involving quality-by-design (QbD).

  5. RSAC, Gamma Doses, Inhalation and Ingestion Doses, Fission Products Inventory after Fission Products Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, L.C.

    1967-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RSAC generates a fission product inventory from a given set of reactor operating conditions and then computes the external gamma dose, the deposition gamma dose, and the inhalation-ingestion dose to critical body organs as a result of exposure to these fission products. Program output includes reactor operating history, fission product inventory, dosages, and ingestion parameters. 2 - Method of solution: The fission product inventory generated by the reactor operating conditions and the inventory remaining at various times after release are computed using the equations of W. Rubinson in Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, pages 542-547, June 1949. The external gamma dose and the deposition gamma dose are calculated by determining disintegration rates as a function of space and time, then integrating using Hermite's numerical techniques for the spatial dependence. The inhalation-ingestion dose is determined by the type and quantity of activity inhaled and the biological rate of decay following inhalation. These quantities are integrated with respect to time to obtain the dosage. The ingestion dose is related to the inhalation dose by an input constant

  6. Pollution level and inhalation exposure of ambient aerosol fluoride as affected by polymetallic rare earth mining and smelting in Baotou, north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Buqing; Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-10-01

    Airborne fluoride associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and respirable particulate (PM10) in the rare earth mining and smelting areas were analyzed during August 2012 and March 2013. In March, average concentrations of fluoride bound to TSP in the mining and smelting areas were 0.598 ± 0.626 μg/m3 and 3.615 ± 4.267 μg/m3, respectively, whereas that in August were 0.699 ± 0.801 μg/m3 and 1.917 ± 2.233 μg/m3, respectively. TSP samples were classified into four categories by different sampling periods and locations using Kohonen's self-organizing map, which demonstrates that high airborne fluoride concentrations in March in the smelting area were probably attributed to industrial emissions from smelting activities and wind-blown dust from tailings pond, influenced by meteorologic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed. The mean daily amount of fluoride inhaled in the mining and smelting areas were estimated to be in the range of 2.77-57.61 μg/day and 3.39-64.32 μg/day, respectively. These results indicate the high potential exposure level of fluoride inhaled for local residents in the polymetallic mining and smelting areas.

  7. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year old Beagle dogs is being investigated to provide possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 39 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure and neoplastic disease in nine of the 16 dogs that died beyond 943 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. Observations are continuing on the three surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  8. Dosimetry of 239Pu in dogs that inhaled monodisperse aerosols of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Existing data from human exposure cases and experimental animal studies on the fate and dosimetry of inhaled insoluble Pu particles are inadequate to provide a comprehensive description and evaluation of the tissues at risk from the alpha radiations of Pu. To improve our knowledge of the dosimetry of inhaled insoluble 239 PuO 2 , this paper describes the uptake and retention of 239 Pu in the tissues of dogs that received single inhalation exposures to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 . These data include times through 3 years after exposure. Using analytical functions fitted to each tissue data set, 1100-day radiation doses were calculated for lung, liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, and tracheobronchial, mediastinal, sternal, hepatic, mandibular, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. The dosimetry results suggest that the lung and lymph nodes associated with lymphatic drainage of the respiratory tract are the principal sites of alpha irradiation. However, the doses for the different respiratory tract lymph nodes vary by a factor of 2000, suggesting that assuming equivalent doses to respiratory tract lymph nodes is not appropriate. Other tissues receive radiation doses also but at levels one to three orders of magnitude less than the lung. Particle size dependence on uptake and retention was noted for the skeleton, mediastinal lymph nodes, hepatic lymph nodes, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and mandibular lymph nodes

  9. The exposure of relatives to patients of a nuclear medical ward after radio iodine therapy by inhalation of 131I in their home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, U.; Eschner, W.; Hillger, H.W.; Schicha, H.

    1998-01-01

    From a model of iodine metabolism exhalation coefficients shall become derived to calculate 131 I exhalation by patients after a radioiodine treatment. The validity of these exhalation coefficients shall be reviewed by whole body activity measurements of relatives of patients, who inhaled the radioiodine exhaled by the patients in their homes. The exposure of relatives to patients of a nuclear medical ward after release by exhalation of iodine-131 is investigated. Methods: Iodine 131 I-activity of 17 relatives to patients who had to undergo a radioiodine therapy became measured in a whole body counter only a few days after release of the patient form the nuclear medical ward. The results of the measurements have been compared with the results of calculations according to the model of iodine metabolism. Results: The calculated values of incorporated radioiodine in the relatives of the patient at time of measurement (A model ) correlate with the measured whole body activity (A GK ) according to the regression: A model = A GK -47.3 (r 2 =0.959). This relation holds if 2.1 μg of iodine become exhaled per day of the 60 μg of iodine which are the daily intake of iodine by food. The exposure of all relatives did never exceed 100 μSv eff . Using the same model parameters the effective dose equivalent of the relatives to our patients rises up to 6.5 mSv under ambulant radio therapy conditions. Conclusion: the daily exhalation of 131 I is able to be calculated by a mathematical model of iodine metabolism. After staying of patients at least 3 days in a nuclearmedical ward the exposure of relatives to patients in their home does not exceed the value of 100 μSv eff by inhalation of iodine-131. This are 10% of the limit of 1 mSv eff according to the Recommendations of the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60). Radioiodine therapy outside of a hospital and 'iodine therapy tourisme' of German patients to other countries cannot be accepted. (orig.) [de

  10. The uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet M; Tibbetts, Brad M; Barr, Edward B

    2003-06-13

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the tissue uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in rats and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on these parameters. Male F344 rats were exposed nose-only once for 4 h to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE and to 20 and 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 and 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on the fate of inhaled MTBE, rats were exposed for 7 consecutive days to 20 and 200 ppm LFG followed on d 8 by exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Three subgroups of rats were included for evaluation of respiratory parameters, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. MTBE and its chief metabolite, tertiary-butyl alcohol, were quantitated in blood and kidney (immediately after exposure), and the major urinary metabolites, 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid and 2-methyl-1,2- propanediol, were identified and quantified in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens (IBBs) of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 h of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. Between 40 and 400 ppm, there was a significant reduction in percentage of the IBB present in the major organs examined, both immediately and 72 h after exposure. At 400 ppm, the elimination rates of MTBE equivalents from tissues changed significantly. Furthermore, at 400 ppm there was a significant decrease in the elimination half-time of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath and a significant increase in the percentage of the IBB of MTBE equivalents eliminated as VOCs in breath. LFG coexposure significantly decreased the percentage of the

  11. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Merickel, B.S.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine dose-response relationships for inhaled 238 PuO 2 . Beagle dogs were given a single, brief, nose-only inhalation exposure to aerosols of monodisperse particles of 238 PuO 2 . Aerosols of two sizes were used, 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) and 3.0 μm AD. Dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens of 0.56, 0.28, 0.14, 0.07, 0.03 or 0.01 μCi 238 PuO 2 /kg body weight. Twelve dogs were exposed at each activity level to each aerosol particle size. The local dose around each 3.0 μm AD particle was 10 times higher than the local dose around 1.5 μm AD particles, but the dose averaged over the whole lung was the same at each activity level for both particle sizes. The lung retention of 238 Pu was divided into two phases of clearance. During the first 100 days after exposure, the average retention half-time for 238 Pu in the lung was 310 days. When the solubility changed due to particle breakup, the retention half-time decreased to 180 days during the period from 1OO to 1,500 days after exposure. The first biological effects observed were lymphopenia and neutropenia in peripheral blood. To date, 28 Beagle dogs have died at times from 536 to 1683 days after exposure. Initial lung burdens for the dead dogs ranged from 0.18 to 2.2 μCi 238 Pu/kg body weight. Nine died with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 10 died with lung tumors and 19 dogs died with bone tumors. There are 116 exposed and 22 control dogs surviving and under observation. Current patterns of dose versus response are discussed. (author)

  12. Inhalant allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhaled Drug Delivery: A Practical Guide to Prescribing Inhaler Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct delivery of medication to the target organ results in a high ratio of local to systemic bioavailability and has made aerosol delivery of respiratory medication the route of choice for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. The most commonly prescribed device is the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; its major drawback is the requirement that inspiration and actuation of the device be well coordinated. Other requirements for effective drug delivery include an optimal inspiratory flow, a full inspiration from functional residual capacity and a breath hold of at least 6 s. Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs as propellants. Newer pMDI devices using non-CFC propellants are available; preliminary experience suggests these devices greatly increase systemic bioavailability of inhaled corticosteroids. The newer multidose dry powder inhalation devices (DPIs are breath actuated, thus facilitating coordination with inspiration, and contain fewer ingredients. Furthermore, drug delivery is adequate even at low inspired flows, making their use appropriate in almost all situations. Equivalence of dosing among different devices for inhaled corticosteroids will remain imprecise, requiring the physician to adjust the dose of medication to the lowest dose that provides adequate control of asthma. Asthma education will be needed to instruct patients on the effective use of the numerous inhalation devices available.

  15. A two-generation inhalation reproductive toxicity study upon the exposure to manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Doreen; Jardine, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    A number of published studies have suggested that high levels of exposure to manganese, especially those found in occupational settings, can adversely affect the reproductive system. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate if these findings can be replicated using the Sprague Dawley rat and, if so, to identify those parts of the reproductive system are more susceptible. Male and female rats were exposed to manganese dichloride (MnCl 2 ) via inhalation at concentrations of 0 (air-control); 5, 10 and 20μg/L air over 10 weeks (F0) and over 11 weeks (F1) prior to mating, and then throughout mating, gestation and lactation until termination after the F1 and F2 generation had reached Day 21 of lactation respectively. Animals were monitored for clinical signs of toxicity and for effects on body weight, food consumption, effects on the entire reproductive system including maternal care. The offspring were monitored for survival and growth up to weaning. Blood samples were taken from all adult animals for bioanalytical of manganese analysis prior to dosing, prior to mating and prior to weaning/necropsy. There were no deaths related to treatment, though respiratory tract effects were observed in F0 animals in the mid and high dose animals. Body weight and food consumption were affected at high dose in both generation. There were no treatment-related effects on the oestrous cycles, mating performance, sexual maturity, fertility or duration of gestation or litter size, the sperm motility, count of morphology (sperm) or the ovary follicle scoring in either generation. The No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) for reproductive performance was considered to be the target dose level of 20μg/L. Based on these findings, manganese chloride could not be considered a reprotoxicant under these conditions of exposure. Therefore, soluble and insoluble forms of inorganic manganese compounds by extrapolation cannot be considered as reprotoxicants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. Toxic metals in cigarettes and human health risk assessment associated with inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nsikak U; Anake, Winifred U; Adedapo, Adebusayo E; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O

    2017-11-08

    This study evaluated the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 10 branded cigarettes commonly consumed in Nigeria. Chemical sequential extraction method and pseudo-total metal digestion procedure were used for extraction of metals from filler tobacco and filter samples. Samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The filler tobacco of cigarettes had Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the ranges of 5.90-7.94, 18.26-34.94, 192.61-3494.05, 44.67-297.69, 17.21-74.78, and 47.02-167.31 μg/cigarette, respectively. The minimum and maximum concentrations in the filter samples were 8.67-12.34 μg/g of Cd, 1.77-36.48 μg/g of Cu, 1.83-15.27 μg/g of Fe, 3.82-7.44 μg/g of Mn, 4.09-13.78 μg/g of Pb, and 30.07-46.70 μg/g of Zn. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the filler tobacco samples were consistently higher than those obtained for the cigarette filters except for Cd. Toxic metals were largely found in the most labile chemical fractions. Moderate to very high risks are found associated with potential exposure to Cd and Pb. The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd and Pb ranged between 1.87E-02 and 2.52E-02, 1.05E-03 and 4.76E-03, respectively, while the non-carcinogenic risk estimates for Cd and Pb were greater than 1.0 (HI > 1). Toxic metals in cigarette may have significant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects associated with inhalation exposure. Continuous monitoring and regulations of the ingredients of imported and locally produced tobacco products are advocated.

  17. Disposal of coal and hematite dusts inhaled successively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppleston, A G

    1958-01-01

    Rabbits and rats were exposed in a chamber to coal (20,000 and 10,000 particles/ml) and hematite (20,000 and 37,000 particles/ml) in succession to follow deposition and clearance by color. Exposures were 5 days/wk, 20 hr/day. Generally, there was dust widely but not uniformly distributed in peripheral alveoli, tending to aggregate and clump in more proximal alveoli with time. There was initial nonuniform distribution more uniform with exposure time. Aggregation mostly through phagocyte activities and more evident in rabbits than rats was observed. There was eventual mixing of two dusts inhaled up to 7 months apart. Dust deposited last is cleared first because of less tortuous route.

  18. Poppers and PrEP: Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Inhaled Nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Schneider, John A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carrico, Adam W; Sherman, Scott E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-05-09

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use inhaled nitrites, or poppers, though their use is a risk factor HIV seroconversion. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is effective for HIV prevention, but is not widely used, and little is known regarding PrEP use and acceptability among MSM who use inhaled nitrites. We surveyed 580 MSM in Paris, France in 2016 about popper use, sexual behaviors including condomless anal intercourse (CAI), serosorting, and sexual positioning, PrEP use, PrEP candidacy, and interest in alternate PrEP delivery modalities. We included 444 HIV negative participants for the current study. 46.2% reported popper use in the prior 3 months. Using multivariate adjusted logistic regression, we found that popper users were more likely than non-users to consider themselves candidates for PrEP [adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.73; 95% CI 1.54-4.83], but they were not more likely to be current (aRRR = 1.54; 95% CI 0.71-3.33) or past (aRRR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.44-4.28) PrEP users. Mediation analyses indicated that increased CAI and serosorting partly explained the relationship between popper use and PrEP candidacy. There was considerable interest in alternate proposed PrEP delivery modalities, particularly long-acting injectable PrEP [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.15-1.79].

  19. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  20. Assessing internal exposure in the absence of an appropriate model: two cases involving an incidental inhalation of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchin, N.; Grappin, L.; Guillermin, A.M.; Lafon, P.; Miele, A.; Berard, P.; Blanchardon, E.; Fottorino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. The results of the measurements of urinary and faecal excretions of the two individuals involved do not concur with the values predicted by the ICRP models that should be applied by default, according to the circumstances of the incidents and the chemical form of the products involved: oxide in the first case and nitrate in the second. These cases are remarkable in the similarity of their biokinetic behaviour even though they occurred in different situations and involved different chemical compounds. Both situations provide an illustration of the management of internal contamination events. The precautions to be taken and the questions that the physician should ask himself in the estimation of the internal dose are listed as follows: What type of examinations should be prescribed and at what frequency? What analysis results should be used in assessing the dose? How can the effect of the Ca-DTPA treatment be assessed? How long is it necessary to perform radio toxicological exams before assessing the dose? What should be done if the ICRP model corresponding to the initial circumstances does not fit the measurement data? Finally, our selected hypotheses, used to explain specific biokinetic behaviour and to estimate its intake in both cases, are detailed. These incidental contaminations suggest that further studies should be carried out to develop a new model for inhalation of transuranic compounds that would follow neither the S nor the M absorption type of the respiratory tract model of ICRP publication 66. (authors)

  1. Assessing internal exposure in the absence of an appropriate model: two cases involving an incidental inhalation of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchin, Nicolas; Fottorino, Robert; Grappin, Louise; Guillermin, Anne-Marie; Lafon, Philippe; Miele, Alain; Berard, Philippe; Blanchardon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. The results of the measurements of urinary and faecal excretions of the two individuals involved do not concur with the values predicted by the ICRP models that should be applied by default, according to the circumstances of the incidents and the chemical form of the products involved: oxide in the first case and nitrate in the second. These cases are remarkable in the similarity of their biokinetic behaviour even though they occurred in different situations and involved different chemical compounds. Both situations provide an illustration of the management of internal contamination events. The precautions to be taken and the questions that the physician should ask himself in the estimation of the internal dose are listed as follows: a) What type of examinations should be prescribed and at what frequency?; b) What analysis results should be used in assessing the dose?; c) How can the effect of the Ca-DTPA treatment be assessed?; d) How long is it necessary to perform radio toxicological exams before assessing the dose?; e) What should be done if the ICRP model corresponding to the initial circumstances does not fit the measurement data? Finally, our selected hypotheses, used to explain specific biokinetic behaviour and to estimate its intake in both cases, are detailed. These incidental contaminations suggest that further studies should be carried out to develop a new model for inhalation of transuranic compounds that would follow neither the S nor the M absorption type of the respiratory tract model of ICRP publication 66. (author)

  2. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, Matthew D.; Herbert, Ronald A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Suarez, Fernando; Roycroft, Joseph H.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.; Bucher, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol. Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to MIBK at concentrations of 0, 450, 900, or 1800 ppm by inhalation, 6 h/day, 5 days per week for 2 years. Survival was decreased in male rats at 1800 ppm. Body weight gains were decreased in male rats at 900 and 1800 ppm and in female mice at 1800 ppm. The primary targets of MIBK toxicity and carcinogenicity were the kidney in rats and the liver in mice. In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was increased at 1800 ppm and the severity was increased in all exposed groups. There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800 ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium. These increases may have resulted from the increased severity of CPN, either through α2μ-globulin-dependent or -independent mechanisms. An increase in mononuclear cell leukemia at 1800 ppm was an uncertain finding. Adrenal medulla hyperplasia was increased at 1800 ppm, and there was a positive trend for increases in benign or malignant pheochromocytomas (combined). In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800 ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to α2μ-globulin. There were renal mesenchymal tumors, which have not been observed in historical control animals, in two female rats at 1800 ppm. The

  3. Study of a plutonium oxide fuel inhalation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Lung retention, urine excretion and faecal excretion levels of plutonium fuel have been measured for an employee following a known inhalation. The employee has had no subsequent contact with the fuel material. The retention and excretion patterns are, however, complicated by a long previous history of suspected small exposures. The monitoring data are presented together with an interpretation of the data which can be compared directly with single intake retention and excretion function as given in ICRP 54. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a novel educational strategy, including inhaler-based reminder labels, to improve asthma inhaler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.

  5. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-body-exposure systems, water only may be provided. When the exposure generation system is not operating... system or by exposure system operating personnel. (i) The flow-metering device used for the exposure... System for Animal Studies. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 4: 270-277. (14) Moore, W.; et al. (1978...

  6. Decreased Hippocampal Neuroplasticity and Behavioral Impairment in an Animal Model of Inhalant Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Malloul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thinners are highly toxic chemicals widely employed as organic solvents in industrial and domestic use. They have psychoactive properties when inhaled, and their chronic abuse as inhalants is associated with severe long-term health effects, including brain damage and cognitive-behavioral alterations. Yet, the sites and mechanisms of action of these compounds on the brain are far from being fully understood. Here, we investigated the consequences of paint thinner inhalation in adult male mice. Depression-like behaviors and an anxiolytic effect were found following repeated exposure in chronic treatments lasting 12 weeks. Both subchronic (6 weeks and chronic treatments impaired learning and memory functions, while no changes were observed after acute treatment. To investigate possible molecular/structural alterations underlying such behavioral changes, we focused on the hippocampus. Notably, prolonged, but not acute thinner inhalation strongly affected adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG, reducing progenitor cell proliferation after chronic treatments and impairing the survival of newborn neurons following both chronic and subchronic treatments. Furthermore, a down-regulation in the expression of BDNF and NMDA receptor subunits as well as a reduction in CREB expression/phosphorylation were found in the hippocampi of chronically treated mice. Our findings demonstrate for the first time significant structural and molecular changes in the adult hippocampus after prolonged paint thinner inhalation, indicating reduced hippocampal neuroplasticity and strongly supporting its implication in the behavioral dysfunctions associated to inhalant abuse.

  7. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  8. Lung cancer and inhaled uranium ore dust in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Jackson, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Using a nose only inhalation system, 187 nine week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two different concentrations of natural uranium ore dust aerosol (44% U) without significant radon content. Inhalation exposures averaged about 4.2 h/day, 5 days/week for 65 weeks at which point lung uranium burdens in the two groups averaged 0.9 and 1.9 mg/g dry weight. Animals (63) exposed to the air stream without dust served as controls. After inhalation exposure ceased, the rats were allowed to live for their natural lifetime, a maximum of about 900 days after the start of dust inhalation. Lung uranium burdens were measured at the time of death of each animal. Lung burdens were found to decline exponentially after dust inhalation ceased, and the rate of decline was independent of the initial lung burden. All lungs were examined at necropsy and histologically for lung tumors. Lung tumors of lung origin were observed in both exposed groups and in the control group. The frequency of primary malignant lung tumors was 0.016, 0.175 and 0.328 and primary non-malignant lung tumors 0.016, 0.135 and 0.131 in the control low and high aerosol exposed groups respectively. Absorbed dose to the lung was calculated for each animal in the study. The average maximum doses for all the animals exposed to the low or high concentration of dust aerosol were 0.87 Gy and 1.64 Gy respectively. The average risk of malignant lung tumors from inhaled natural uranium ore dust was therefore about 0.20 tumors/animal/Gy. For animals with lung tumors, the average doses were 0.98 and 1.90 in the exposed groups. In both exposed groups, the frequency of primary malignant or non-malignant lung tumors was significantly greater than in the control group (p < 0.02) and the frequency of primary malignant lung tumors in the two exposed group were significantly different from each other (p = 0.05). The frequency of primary lung tumors (malignant and non-malignant) was calculated as a function of dose

  9. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Küttler, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Hofmann, Thomas; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-06-17

    Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in order to avoid unsafe applications or select

  10. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. Methods In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Results No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. Conclusions The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in

  11. Disposition of 238Pu(NO3)4 following inhalation by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Schirmer, R.E.; Stevens, D.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to study deposition and translocation up to 1 yr. Preliminary data suggest a greater and more rapid translocation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to bone and liver than was observed for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  12. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  13. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  14. Modeling lung cancer risks in laboratory dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1990-06-01

    These analyses are based on data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An important goal of this study is to increase understanding of health risk resulting from this exposure, with particular attention to lung cancer risks. Data on humans exposed to plutonium are inadequate for achieving this goal

  15. Spiromax, a New Dry Powder Inhaler: Dose Consistency under Simulated Real-World Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Arp, Jan; Keegstra, Johan René; Chrystyn, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Spiromax(®) is a novel dry powder inhaler for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The studies presented here provide further data on attributes (in vitro dosing consistency with budesonide-formoterol (DuoResp) Spiromax; flow rates through empty versions of the Spiromax and Turbuhaler inhaler) of importance to patients with asthma or COPD. Dose-delivery studies were performed using low-, middle-, and high-strength DuoResp Spiromax. Dose consistency was assessed over inhaler life. Total emitted doses (TEDs) were measured at various flow rates, after exposure to high and low temperature or humidity, at different inhaler orientations, and after dropping the inhaler. The criterion for evaluating dose uniformity was whether mean TEDs were within the product specification limits. In separate studies, flow rates were measured after training, using the patient information leaflets, and again after enhanced training as part of a randomized, open-label, cross-over study. Mean values for both budesonide and formoterol were within 85%-115% of the label claim for each strength of DuoResp Spiromax for initial dose uniformity and for the other investigated conditions (temperature, humidity, orientation, dropping, knocking), with the exception of approximately an 80% increase in first dose after dropping the inhaler (subsequent doses not affected). In the flow rate patient study, two patients' inhalations with Spiromax and six with Turbuhaler were 60 L/min. DuoResp Spiromax consistently meets dose uniformity criteria, under controlled laboratory conditions and with variations intended to mimic real-world use. Following enhanced training, all patients in the flow study were able to achieve the minimal inspiratory flow rate of >30 L/min, which is required for effective treatment.

  16. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of 239PuO2 and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats

  17. Orange-Pigmented Sputum as a Manifestation of Smoke Grenade Inhalation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Katsenos, Stamatis; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with scanty hemoptysis, orange-colored expectoration, and mild dyspnea. He was in an enclosed building taking part in a military training exercise inhaling an orange-colored smoke from a smoke grenade ignition. His symptoms developed immediately after the initial exposure but he sought medical assistance 20 hours later because of their persistence. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed revealing diffuse inflammatory tracheobronchial tree with streaky orange-pigmented secretions in the trachea and both main-stem bronchi. Acute tracheobronchitis was diagnosed and the patient was treated with nebulized bronchodilators and intravenous corticosteroids showing complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of inhalation injury induced by a smoke bomb explosion including potassium chlorate oxidizer and Sudan I and presenting with orange-pigmented sputum production. Smoke inhalation injury is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The heterogeneity of the smoke and the large variety of the resulting symptoms may be the reason why a definition, specific diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic guidelines are still lacking.

  18. A changing climate: impacts on human exposures to O3 using an integrated modeling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting the impacts of changing climate on human exposure to air pollution requires future scenarios that account for changes in ambient pollutant concentrations, population sizes and distributions, and housing stocks. An integrated methodology to model changes in human exposu...

  19. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazed, Farzad; Burnham, Ellen L; Vandivier, R William; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Shyamsundar, Murali; Hamid, Umar; Abbott, Jason; Thickett, David R; Matthay, Michael A; McAuley, Daniel F; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown. To assess pathways of lung injury and inflammation in smokers and non-smokers with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation using established biomarkers. We measured plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury in smokers and non-smokers in two distinct cohorts of healthy volunteers, one unstimulated (n=20) and one undergoing 50 μg LPS inhalation (n=30). After LPS inhalation, cigarette smokers had increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability as measured by BAL total protein, compared with non-smokers (median 274 vs 208 μg/mL, p=0.04). Smokers had exaggerated inflammation compared with non-smokers, with increased BAL interleukin-1β (p=0.002), neutrophils (p=0.02), plasma interleukin-8 (p=0.003), and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-8 (p=0.006). Alveolar epithelial injury after LPS was more severe in smokers than non-smokers, with increased plasma (p=0.04) and decreased BAL (p=0.02) surfactant protein D. Finally, smokers had decreased BAL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p<0.0001) with increased soluble VEGF receptor-1 (p=0.0001). Cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to ARDS through an abnormal response to a 'second hit,' with increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, exaggerated inflammation, increased epithelial injury and endothelial dysfunction. LPS inhalation may serve as a useful experimental model for evaluation of the acute pulmonary effects of existing and new tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Inflammogenic effect of well-characterized fullerenes in inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions were directly injected as a solution in the intratracheal instillation study. The reference material was nickel oxide in distilled water. Wistar male rats intratracheally received a dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, or 1 mg of fullerenes and were sacrificed after 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. In the inhalation study, Wistar rats were exposed to fullerene agglomerates (diameter: 96 ± 5 nm; 0.12 ± 0.03 mg/m3; 6 hours/days for 5 days/week for 4 weeks and were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after the end of exposure. The inflammatory responses and gene expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs were examined in rat lungs in both studies. Results In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg fullerene groups did not show a significant increase of the total cell and neutrophil count in BALF or in the expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the lung, while the high-dose, 1 mg group only showed a transient significant increase of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and -3. In the inhalation study, there were no increases of total cell and neutrophil count in BALF, CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the fullerene group. Conclusion These data in intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies suggested that well-dispersed fullerenes do not have strong potential of neutrophil inflammation.

  1. The effect of oxidation state on the absorption of ingested or inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Ryan, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats received plutonium nitrate (as 239 Pu(IV) or 239 Pu(VI) by gavage or nose-only exposure. Some of the animals were deprived of food before and/or after exposure. Results obtained indicate that there was increased retention of plutonium after exposure to 239 Pu(VI) in comparison with 239 Pu(IV). The absence of food either before and/or after inhalation exposure had no effect on the amount of 239 Pu retained by the liver and carcass. It was concluded that plutonium in its hexavalent state may under certain conditions be more readily absorbed from the GI tract, but that these conditions are unlikely to occur in human exposure. (H.K.)

  2. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase α subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

  3. Organ dose from inhaled radionuclides taking lull period into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.

    1982-01-01

    The dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides is generally carried out in accordance with the lung model recommended by the ICRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics. The relevant expressions are integrated over a given period, assuming continuous inhalation in an atmosphere of constant aerosol concentration. Though for the same amount of intake the dose commitment is found to be independent of variations in the rate of intake, the dose determined over specific intervals of time, is influenced by it or by lull intervals therein. Formulae are developed to arrive at doses to different organs when the subject's intake is constant and continuous for 8 hours, followed by a lull period of 16 hours each day. Results are given for a number of radionuclides and are compared with values characteristic of continuous inhalation. It is observed that when exposure is assumed to be continuous the dose for the same intake of activity is underestimated as compared to the dose when lull period is taken into account. For working periods of 6 days and 30 days the underestimate ranges from 5%-20% and 0.6% to 4.5% respectively. (author)

  4. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137 CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  6. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects...... in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited...

  7. Potential exposure to clothianidin and risk assessment of manual users of treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, JingXia; Tao, ChuanJiang; Zhang, LiYing; Ning, Jun; Mei, XiangDong; She, DongMei

    2017-09-01

    Treated soil is the second most prevalent application technique for all registered pesticides in China. Some developing countries also adopt this method. However, the safety of this scenario has not been reported in the literature. Experiments were therefore conducted to assess exposure using standard whole-body dosimetry and air sampling methodologies. Dermal deposition was the main route of exposure in this scenario. The total dermal unit exposure (UE) of operators to clothianidin-treated soil was 51.7 mg kg -1 AI handled (SD = 20.59, n = 16), and hands accounted for 36%. Inhalation UE was 0.04 mg kg -1 AI handled (SD = 0.02, n = 4), negligible compared with dermal exposure. Using an NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 10 mg kg -1 day -1 , the margin of exposure was 773, i.e. greater than 100. For the first time, the scenario of treated soil exposure was assessed and was found to pose less risk than conventional pesticide application. These results can be used as a reference in pesticide management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  9. Chlorpyrifos PBPK/PD model for multiple routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Timchalk, Charles; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Bartels, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    1. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an important pesticide used to control crop insects. Human Exposures to CPF will occur primarily through oral exposure to residues on foods. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed that describes the relationship between oral, dermal and inhalation doses of CPF and key events in the pathway for cholinergic effects. The model was built on a prior oral model that addressed age-related changes in metabolism and physiology. This multi-route model was developed in rats and humans to validate all scenarios in a parallelogram design. 2. Critical biological effects from CPF exposure require metabolic activation to CPF oxon, and small amounts of metabolism in tissues will potentially have a great effect on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic outcomes. Metabolism (bioactivation and detoxification) was therefore added in diaphragm, brain, lung and skin compartments. Pharmacokinetic data are available for controlled human exposures via the oral and dermal routes and from oral and inhalation studies in rats. The validated model was then used to determine relative dermal versus inhalation uptake from human volunteers exposed to CPF in an indoor scenario.

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KB] Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) Your browser does not support iframes Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) [PDF – 370 KB] Your browser does not support ...

  11. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas

  12. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8 to 10.5 year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg (81-2800 kBq/kg) body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas. 1 figure, 1 table

  13. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to

  14. Adverse effects and Drug Interactions Associated with Inhaled Recreational and Medical Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisha Kelly Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide an overview of the addiction potential; adverse effects (e.g., cardiovascular, immune dysfunction, respiratory system, mental health disorders; drug interactions; effects of accidental exposure; crime statistics; and pharmacist’s considerations for the use of inhaled medical marijuana. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted from 1966 to March 2016 to identify articles in which the safety of inhaled medical marijuana was assessed. Key MeSH search terms included medical marijuana with a subheading for adverse effect. Only articles in adult patients were considered. In addition, medical marijuana or cannabis plus one of the following search terms were searched: drug interactions, herb-drug interactions, drug-related side effects and adverse drug reactions, substance-related disorders, addiction, and abuse. A free-text search was also conducted to identify articles not included in the MeSH term search. A bibliographic search was also conducted. Articles were included if they addressed adverse effects of medical marijuana for the treatment of a condition. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled clinical trials, and case reports were included in the review if the primary focus of the article related to the adverse effect profile of inhaled medical marijuana. Medical marijuana efficacy studies were not assessed. In the absence of this information, case reports or reports of inhaled recreational marijuana use was used. Studies were excluded if published in languages other than English. In addition, studies highlighting mechanisms of action, studies of pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic effects were excluded, unless these effects were due to drug-drug interactions. Prescription products containing marijuana or derivatives were excluded from evaluation. An Internet search was conducted to locate the most up-to-date information on the laws concerning medical marijuana. Key findings: A PubMed search revealed 58 articles and 28 of

  15. Studies in biological excretion of inhaled plutonium in the case of a few occupational workers in a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, A.G.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Bhat, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    A power reactor fuel reprocessing plant is in operation at Tarapur. The various processes involved in the plant are: fuel rod cutting, dissolution in nitric acid, separation of plutonium, and handling of separated plutonium. The chemical form of plutonium could be nitrate, TBP complex, or oxide depending upon the nature of the process involved. Possible internal exposure to plant personnel occurs mainly by inhalation and occasionally through a contaminated wound. Occupational workers are regularly monitored for internal contamination by urinary excretion analysis as well as by in-vivo lung counting. This paper presents a follow-up study of plutonium elimination in four inhalation exposure cases. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Electrostatic Properties of Particles for Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) aredevices used to deliver therapeutic agents to the lungs. Typically, inhaled activepharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are electrically resistive materials and are prone toaccumulating electrostatic charge. The build-up of charge on inhaled therapeutics hastraditionally been viewed as a nuisance as it may result in problems such as weighingerrors, agglomeration, adhesion to surfaces and poor flow. Energetic processing st...

  17. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  18. Dietary exposure to trace elements and radionuclides: the methodology of the Italian total diet study 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena D'Amato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014 aimed at assessing the dietary exposure of the general Italian population to selected non-essential trace elements (Al, inorganic As, Cd, Pb, methyl-Hg, inorganic Hg, U and radionuclides (40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr. The establishment of the TDS food list, the design of the sampling plan, and details about the collection of food samples, their standardized culinary treatment, pooling into analytical samples and subsequent sample treatment are described. Analytical techniques and quality assurance are discussed, with emphasis on the need for speciation data and for minimizing the percentage of left-censored data so as to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessment. Finally the methodology for estimating the exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age (children, teenagers, adults, and the elderly and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy, is presented.

  19. Inflammatory and Vasoactive Effects of Serum Following Inhalation of Varied Complex Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Mario J; Chrobak, Izabela; Brower, Jeremy; Roldan, Luis; Fredenburgh, Laura E; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cardiovascular disease is associated with air pollution exposure in epidemiology and toxicology studies. Inhaled toxicants can induce changes in serum bioactivity that impact endothelial inflammatory gene expression in vitro and impair vasorelaxation ex vivo, which are common precursors to atherosclerosis. Comparisons between single pollutants and common combustion mixtures, in terms of driving such serum inflammatory and vasoactive effects, have not been characterized. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-h period of contrasting pollutant atmospheres: road dust, mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; a combination of gasoline and diesel engine emissions) particulate matter, mixed vehicle emissions gases, road dust plus ozone, road dust plus MVE, and hardwood smoke. Serum obtained from mice 24 h after these exposures was used as a stimulus to assess inflammatory potential in two assays: incubated with primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells for 4 h to measure inflammatory gene expression or applied to naïve aortic rings in an ex vivo myographic preparation. Road dust and wood smoke exposures were most potent at inducing inflammatory gene expression, while MVE atmospheres and wood smoke were most potent at impairing vasorelaxation to acetylcholine. Responses are consistent with recent reports on MVE toxicity, but reveal novel serum bioactivity related to wood smoke and road dust. These studies suggest that the compositional changes in serum and resultant bioactivity following inhalation exposure to pollutants may be highly dependent on the composition of mixtures.

  20. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Killand, B.W.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cannon, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239 PuO 2 , which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169 Yb- 239 PuO 2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169 Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239 Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169 Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239 Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239 Pu. The 239 Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239 Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Exposure Assessments: An Analysis of 14 Site Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Matthew M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Evans, Douglas E.; Birch, M. Eileen; Fernback, Joseph E.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects that could result from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). In response, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for CNT and CNF: 1 µg m−3 as an 8-h time weighted average (TWA) of elemental carbon (EC) for the respirable size fraction. The purpose of this study was to conduct an industrywide exposure assessment among US CNT and CNF manufacturers and users. Fourteen total sites were visited to assess exposures to CNT (13 sites) and CNF (1 site). Personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area samples were collected for both the inhalable and respirable mass concentration of EC, using NIOSH Method 5040. Inhalable PBZ samples were collected at nine sites while at the remaining five sites both respirable and inhalable PBZ samples were collected side-by-side. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) PBZ and area samples were also collected at the inhalable size fraction and analyzed to quantify and size CNT and CNF agglomerate and fibrous exposures. Respirable EC PBZ concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 2.94 µg m−3 with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.34 µg m−3 and an 8-h TWA of 0.16 µg m−3. PBZ samples at the inhalable size fraction for EC ranged from 0.01 to 79.57 µg m−3 with a GM of 1.21 µg m−3. PBZ samples analyzed by TEM showed concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1.613 CNT or CNF-structures per cm3 with a GM of 0.008 and an 8-h TWA concentration of 0.003. The most common CNT structure sizes were found to be larger agglomerates in the 2–5 µm range as well as agglomerates >5 µm. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the inhalable samples for the mass of EC and structure counts by TEM (Spearman ρ = 0.39, P 1 μg m−3. Until more information is known about health effects associated with larger agglomerates, it seems prudent to assess worker exposure to airborne CNT and CNF

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